Kuthina

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Kingdom of Kuthina

君主國闔西
Cuncū̂kạ̀w Khæs̄rī
Flag of Kuthina
Flag
of Kuthina
Coat of arms
CapitalChaoban
Largest cityMahakhram
Official languagesKasine
Ethnic groups
Religion
Demonym(s)Kuthine
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary Semi-constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Sivaraksa
• Premier
Kanok Devakula
Malisa Muangman
LegislatureNational Convention
Chaosaan
People's Congress
Area
• Total
1,482,952 km2 (572,571 sq mi)[a]
Population
• 2020 census
109,653,237 [b] 118,047,983 [c]
Internet TLD.ku
  1. ^ Data not including Heijiang.
  2. ^ Data including Heijiang.

Kuthina, officially the Kingdom of Kuthina (Kasine 君主國闔西 Cuncū̂kạ̀w Khæs̄rī), is a nation in South Coius. It shares borders with Xiaodong, Usiha, Berlian, Phet, Namkwon, and Siamat. Its southwestern region, Hameung, is occupied by Xiaodong which considers it the republic of Heijiang, a nation unrecognised by the majority of the Community of Nations.

Kuthina has a growing population of over 109 million.[d] Zohism is the state religion, with it being the largest religion followed by over 60% of the population, with followers of Badi at 5%, with the rest split between traditional religions such as Brena, Thang, and Tön, as well as Sotirianity and Irreligion. The Kasi make up a slim majority, while significant minority groups include Tavans, Nieh, Chanwan, Svai, and 57 other minority groups. There was formerly a substantial Xiaodongese minority, until the occupation of Hameung and post-2007 flight of much of the community. The capital is Chaoban, while the largest city is Mahakhram, while other important historical capitals include Khonbaun, and Sippom. Kuthina is a semi-constitional monarchy headed by the Monarch, currently Sivaraksa since 2006, while the Premier, currently Kanok Devakula since 2017, heads the government.

Etymology

Expected: *k(ə)ri: 'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA (Proto-Southwestern Tai) > tʰaj

Instead: *kədi:/*kədaj borrowed into Xiaodongese 咖偲 (MC: *krat͡sʰʌi; Mandarin: Kācāi) and then borrowed back into Kasi as ขะศรี Khæs̄rī ([kʰàʔ sǐː]. Written distinction between usage for people (咖偲) and the country (闔西), though both can be modified with 人 (หยิน H̄yin) and 國 (กึ๊ก Kụ́k) to

君主國 (Cuncū̂kạ̀w) comes from the Xiaodongese jūnzhǔguó, meaning monarchy; monarchical state

向字 (Xiaodongese: Xiàngzì Kasi: ชางจี Chāngcī, meaning Xiang characters)

History

Classical

Until the 9th century the Kasi peoples largely lived in eastern Shangea, on the x peninsula, while the Lueng and Moei river valleys were largely populated by Svai and Raman peoples and their early polities. From the 1st century this area came under the control of the Xiang dynasty and Sun dynasty Chinese dynasties. These dynasties also loosely governed the various Kasi polities through a vassal-suzerain relationship. After the 4th century control over the river valleys was largely lost as native Svai and Raman polities established themselves, and by the 6th century the Svai Empire gained control of the region.

The Svai Empire expanded its territory dramatically during the 7th and 8th centuries, extending its rule to various Kasi polities bound to a dual tributary status under Shangea and the Svai. The first recorded migrations of the Kasi people eastwards began during these centuries, being utilised by the Svai as mercenaries and to establish buffer states on the frontier. Some of these groups continued eastwards and became the Kachai, eventually becoming the majority in modern-day Lavana, and north-east into modern-day Zomia.

During the 9th and 10th centuries the Svai Empire began to wane as its imperial centre retreated from governance. In their place the local Oknya took control and undermined the Sengshui system and the power of the Zohist monks. The Oknya became embroiled in internal disputes and utilised the Kasi heavily as mercenaries and to garrison cities. As the empire’s borders became undefended the migrations increased, and the first Kasi polities, initially subject to the empire, were established within. The 11th century saw the collapse of the empire into a rump state in the central Lueng, as Kasi polities became the dominant force in the river valleys.

Medieval and Early Modern

The 12th and 13th centuries saw the entrenchment of Kasi power in the river valleys as the states of Sippom and Lapai came to dominate the Lueng and Moei respectively. Both states were heavily Shangeanised and espoused Zohism as the state religion. Initially both held to the Tsandau school, though their populations were largely Busothaq and by the 14th century rulers of both states had largely switched their patronage. Both were tributaries of the Tan dynasty, as were most polities in the area, and largely kept good relations.

The Svai Empire continued to shrink in power and influence, eventually being reduced to a vassal of Sippom and its rulers lacking control out of the city of Chensae. The rulers of Sippom styled themselves as the heirs of the Svai Empire, and internally considered themselves equals of the Shangean Emperors. They would spend most of the 14th and 15th centuries consolidating their power and establishing Sippom as the pre-eminent power in the area, while Lapai would decline and eventually split into a northern and southern court. Sippom would control the northern court from 1521 to 1581 when they were reunited under king x. X would temporarily take Sippom in 1586, though his conquests were short-lived and Sippom would soon recover.

The 17th century would see the greatest upheaval to the area, and South Coius in general. The new king of Khaunban, a city traditionally subject to Sippom, Intharatcha, rebelled and conquered his overlord. After consolidating his new state he embarked on a rapid and ambitious series of conquests, bringing much of modern-day Kuthina, Siamat, Nainan, Zomia, and !Malayica under his control. Concurrently the Jiao dynasty was undergoing a collapse after decades of decline and a ruinous war with Senria. Intharatcha launched a Jiao to Toki transition into Shangea. Officially he declared his intentions to aid the ailing Jiao, though in reality he intended to supplant them and add Shangea to his empire. For the next decade and a half he campaigned in Shangea, initially seeing great success but failing to counter the growing Toki dynasty which would replace the Jiao and force Intharatcha east, where he died in 16xx. The Khaunban Empire would endure for another decade under his son, Bhorommoratchirat, before collapsing in 1683 under a Toki invasion, a reprisal for Intharatcha’s campaign.

Toki control of the area would slowly loosen, allowing Sippom under Intharatcha’s brother’s descendants to return as the predominant power in the Lueng, and due to Intharatcha’s conquests it also controlled the Moei river valley. Sippom would decline in the mid 18th and early 19th centuries, losing control of the state to the Tung lords as regents, while the Noeng lords took control of the Moei river valley. With Euclean and Shangean aid the Sippomese monarchs were able to end the regency and defeat the Noeng, though they were forced to cede parts of the west to Shangea, and much of the coastline and suzerainty over the Raman to Werania, and suzerainty over the Svai Chensae kingdom to Gaullica.

Modern

From the late 19th century to the mid 20th century Sippom modernised, renaming itself Kuthina, establishing a flag, civil service, modernising its army and navy, and beginning the slow process of industrialisation. It maintained strong ties with both Shangea and Werania, remaining nominally a tributary of the former, though during the 1910s and 20s it increasingly began to favour Werania and the coalescing Grand Alliance over what is considered an overly aggressive and increasingly dominant neighbour.

Kuthina remained neutral during the Great War, with both Shangea and Werania, now on opposite sides of the war, conducting diplomatic overtures to ensure it would keep its neutrality. It signed a secret pact with Werania in 1933, agreeing to join the war against Shangea in return for Weranian colonies in the area to be returned at an unspecified date. Shangea, suffering in its long war against Senria, surrendered before any Grand Alliance invasion. Kuthina moved its forces west to occupy large tracts of land formerly governed by the Heavenly Shangean Empire, annexing them in 1937 under CoN auspices. It also warred with the unrecognised Chanwan republic until it was annexed by Shangea in 1940, with their border in the north being delineated in 1941, and further border adjustments taking place in 1944 and 1947.

Until 1971 Kuthina was an absolute monarchy, allowing for few political and civil rights. It was largely governed by a series of princes acting as prime ministers, ruling through control of the armed forces and relying upon small cliques of military officers, nobles, and political leaders for power. A fierce campaign by the RLM from the 1920s until the 2000s caused serious violence, and the inability of prince y to deal with it led to the 1971 coup by Marshal z. For the next three decades Kuthina underwent alternating periods of military rule and democratic governance. A military coup in the 2000s brought a right-wing anti-Shangean military junta to power. Crackdowns in Heijiang and elsewhere in the country on Shangeans resulted in the local government of Heijiang unilaterally declaring independence. A harsh military reprisal from Chaoban resulted in Shangean intervention, with Heijiang achieving de facto independence as a de facto client state of Shangea.

The collapse of the military junta in 2007 resulted in the resumption of the democratic system. The general pardon and disarmament of the RLM has seen them enter the democratic process as a political party, becoming the largest part in 2017 though the y party still governs through its x coalition bloc.

Geography

Politics

Culture

Notes

^ If the disputed territory of Heijiang is not included, then, the total land area of Kuthina decreases to 11,043 km2 (4,264 sq mi)
^ Data not including Heijiang.