Tabora

Free Republic of Tabora

Flag of Tabora
Flag
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
Motto: Masisukume sakhe
("Let us rise and build")
Tabora in dark blue, Coius in light blue
Tabora in dark blue, Coius in light blue
CapitalNtendeka
Largest cityVuleka
Official languagesBanu
Sisulu
Njinji
Maswana
Ethnic groups
98.3% Black Bahian (75% Banu, 18% Sisulu, 4% Njinji, 3% Maswana)
0.7% White Bahian
1.0% Others
Demonym(s)Taborian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Dumisani Kumalo
Mafika Gwala
Tembeka Rubusana
LegislatureAssembly of the Republic
Independence from Werania
• Declared
1942
1942-1950
18 April 1950
• People's Republic proclaimed
22 September 1971
2002
• Current constitution
2014
Population
• 2019 estimate
Increase 28,774,304
• 2015 census
25,368,240
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $‭73.95 billion
• Per capita
Increase $2,905
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $‭57.69 billion
• Per capita
Increase $2,005
Gini31.8
medium
HDI0.538
low
CurrencyTaborian denier (TBD)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+27
Internet TLD.tb

Tabora, officially the Free Republic of Tabora, is a country in the eastern portion of the Bahia subcontinent of the Coius continent. It is bordered by Habasha and Garambura to the west, the Coast of Bahia to the north and east and the Banfura Sea to the south. It's capital is Ndenteka, while its largest metropolis is Mbiza. With a population of 28.7 million it is one of the largest in Bahia, however it remains one of the poorest in the world with a GDP per capita of $2,905.

Since the latter half of the 11th century, much of Tabora had fallen under the influence of the veRwizi Empire, while smaller territories in the north of the country remained independent. This would remain stable until the arrival of the Weranians in XXXX, who steadily increased their presence through the construction of trading outposts at XX (modern day Mbiza) and XX (modern day Empembeni). Weranic dominance would culminate in the creation of XX in XXXX. Tabora would become a major source of gold and silver for Werania throughout much of the 19th century, while its vast fertile plains drew the settling of Weranic farmers. The Great War saw Tabora fall under Gaullican occupation throughout much of the war, where the functionalist regime extended its anti-Bahian culture oppression from neighboring Garambura. Following the end of the Great War and the return of Werania, Taborian nationalists led by the Imbube Yenkululeko declared independence, sparking the nine-year Taborian War. Using guerilla warfare and terror tactics against the Weranians, Tabora ultimately secured independence in 1950.

In wake of independence, the various militias and rebel groups began fighting among themselves for post-war control over the country. In 1952, Thamsanqa Nzimande captured Ntendeka and stabilised the country. However, by 1956 intermittent clashes with rebel holdouts destabilised Tabora and Nzimande was overthrown by Butana Mdutyana who would rule Tabora until 1971 through violence and authoritarianism. In 1971, rebels under the Taborian Revolutionary Front overthrew Mdutyana's government and established the People's Republic of Tabora. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the country suffered from a series of low-level insurgencies, while the socialist government further undermined tribal identities, though some economic success was recorded with a modernisation of mines and agriculture. However, corruption, authoritarianism and growing health crises led to the overthrow of the socialist regime in the Taborian Revolution in 2002. The revolution gave way to a democratic presidential republic and a multi-party system. Since 2002, Tabora has experienced its longest period of peace and stability, with free and fair elections at all levels recorded. Since 2002, the Taborian economy has grown on average by 4-5% per year and numerous public health campaigns have aided development. In 2012, the first peaceful transition of power took place when Jonas Nofomela took over from Thulas Nxesi, the second peaceful transition occurred in 2014 when the National Jubilee Party defeated the long-ruling Party 2002 in that year's general election.

Today, Tabora ranks as one of the fastest growing developing economies in the world. In the modern day, Tabora is a founding member of the Congress of Bahian States, and a member of the ICD, CoN, the ITO and GIFA.

History

Pre-history

Pre-colonial

Early colonial

Silberküste

Late colonial

Following the end of the Great War and the return of Weranic colonial control, numerous movements and groups emerged, encouraged the rise of Taborian nationalism within some Askari units who resisted the Gaullican invasion and occupation. Among the most prominent groups was the Taborian Movement for Liberation and Freedom (TMLF), a predominately left-wing group led by Bulelani Magubane, a former captain in the Askari Corps.

In 1937, the TMLF arranged for secret conference of the various nationalist and pro-independence groups, aided by the lack of centralised Weranic authority. The conference saw a majority vote to begin the process of securing independence, though a violent struggle was rejected. Magubane succeeded in establishing the United Taborian Front (UTF) as a means of pressuring for independence through political participation and civil disobedience.

However, the UTF’s plans were swiftly stymied by a new wave of settlers directly from Werania. Thousands, seeking to escape the post-war situation back home and start anew set up residence across rural Tabora. The so-called Third Wave led to increased land clearances, forced evictions and expulsions of noted Askari heroes from prominent security positions. In 1939, the white supremacist and settler dominated Union Party (Gewerkshaftpartei; GsP) won the parliamentary elections with a sizeable majority. Reinhardt von Hauenstein became Minister-President and immediately instigated a series of laws, introducing strict segregation across Silberküste.

In 1940, the UTF denounced the segregationist laws and system of Reinhardt von Hauenstein. This was followed by a series of protests by urban Taborians in the cities of Sigismund, Neu Weisstadt and Walküre Bucht. The government responded harshly, deploying soldiers and police armed with batons, dogs and live ammunition. On 14 May 1940, 13 protesters were shot dead by Weranic soldiers in Neu Weisstadt. A series of crackdowns on the UTF followed, leading to the arrests of over 300 people. On 20 May 1940, the UTF declared a “war of national liberation” against the colonial government, sparking the Taborian War of Independence. However, this decision to take up violent struggle was supported by all constituent groups within the alliance. On 22 May, six groups split from the UTF to form the Taborian Front for Civil Freedom (TFCF), this mostly included Black academic and civil society groups. The TFCF aimed to mobilise citizens into a campaign of civil disobedience through peaceful protest. Despite the schism, the UTF and TCFC would ostensibly compliment one another, as the GsP government was forced to confront armed guerrillas of the UTF in rural regions, while also confronting civil disturbances and protests in the cities.

Initially the UTF restricted itself to sporadic raids on white-only police and colonial army units operating around Sigismund, this enabled the group to transition to an armed force in secret in south-western, northern and north-eastern Silberküste. Magubane for his part, led senior figures of the UTF to various parts of the country to avoid capture.

Civil war and the United Bahian Republic

People's Republic

Following the withdrawal of Tabora from the United Bahian Republic in 1965, due to the pressure from the hard-left faction of the ruling Taborian-Bahian Unity Party, the presidency of Zweli Ndebele entered its death spiral. With many on the right of the TBUP seeing the withdrawal of Tabora as a betrayal of the party's Pan-Bahian foundations, his right-wing opponents began to plot against him. By early 1960, the left-wing of the party led by Sihle Ngubane became aware of the plots and moved to pre-empt any pro-UBR overthrow of Ndebele by doing so themselves. On 2 February 1960, elements of the Taborian military linked to Ngubane's faction entered Ntendeka and seized control of the government through a relatively bloodless coup. Ngubane proclaimed himself interim president and set about consolidating his rule through the violent repression of the right-wing faction of the TBUP.

Over the course of the next few months, Ngubane's government ruthless purged rivals and critics from the government, while also detaining opponents across the country. An estimated 2,500 people were disappeared, while 150 former TBUP officials were subject to show-trials, accused of plotting with UBR officials to suspend the constitution and to re-instate Tabora inside the UBR with lesser freedoms than enjoyed previously. The entire process served Ngubane and the left-wing faction to further distance Tabora from the UBR and to reassert notions of Taborian independence and sovereignty. This criticism of the UBR lay alongside the left-wing's criticism of the UBR as a "neo-imperialist project" that sought to subordinate Bahian states to Rwizikuru.

Ngubane's deputy, Mvume Dandala proved decisive in Tabora's break with pan-Bahianism, claiming that the project led by Rwizikuru was "not beneficial to the Bahian people, but only to the Rwizi ruling class."

Between 1966 and 1968, the Ngubane government refrained from instituting wide-ranging changes to the government or constitution. With the turn of 1968, Ngubane sought to consolidate the left's hold over Tabora with a proposed referendum on a new constitution, flag and national name. As a sign of intent and his new found position, Ngubane authorised the renaming of the TBUP to the Taborian People's Party (iPhathi Yabantu baseTabora, PYT). The PYT then began to reach out to rural communities to ensure support for the major changes planned to be proposed. On the 18 April 1968, a popular referendum was held, which saw support of 80% of the electorate. The referendum's passing saw the formal establishment of a single-party state under the PYT, the renaming of Tabora from the Bahian Republic of Tabora to the Taborian People's Republic and an adoption of socialist agendas and economic positions.

Between 1968 and 1985, the PYT implemented an economic and political system based on the principles of scientific socialism, incorporating central planning and an attempt to institute farming cooperatives. It embarked on an ambitious programme of nationalisation, and the domestic private sector was essentially abolished. Privately owned enterprises were nationalised and incorporated into a single umbrella of state-owned enterprises known as Kuhlangene Kudumile Amabhizinisi (KKAs). Under the PYT, Tabora experienced a significant degree of modern industrialisation, especially in mining and the mechanisation of agriculture. However, corruption and graft also increased and public resources were either allocated inefficiently or simply embezzled by officials for personal enrichment.

In 2002, Hurricane Albert crippled much of southern Tabora and killed an estimated 10,000 people. The failure of the government response directly led to the 2002 Taborian Revolution.

By the 1990s, corruption and graft had become so entrenched and prevelant that popular resentment toward the government began to dramatically rise. President Ndaba Mzamane, who rose to power in 1991 saw the dominant Solarian Catholic Church as the source of popular discontent and began to repress and restrict its freedoms. The attacks on the Church only further fuelled popular opposition to the regime. By the mid-1990s, corruption had led to a complete collapse in the centrally planned economy, in turn fuelling harsher authoritarian policies. In 1997, the Popular Front for the Democratic Restoration (PFDR) was formed and began armed resistance against the government. Despite a crackdown by the government, the chronic shortage of currency reserves saw state finances collapse, leading to mass desertions and defections by 2001.

Over 4 million people are claimed to have protested daily during the height of the 2002 revolution.

In early 2002, Hurricane Albert devastated southern Tabora, killing over 10,000 people and making a further 200,000 homeless. The government's failure to respond swiftly or adequately was blamed on corruption, with international aid funds reportedly being stolen by government officials led to mass nationwide protests. By July 2002, an estimated 4 million people were taking to the streets daily. Between July and August, an estimated 856 people were killed by the government, before ultimately collapsing on August 20. Hundreds of officials fled the country, while numerous PYT members were captured, lynched or arrested, within days, senior figures from the PFDR arrived in Ntendeka, proclaiming a provisional government and its intention to restore democracy.

Modern

Following the Revolution, the provisional government led by the Popular Front for the Democratic Restoration (PFDR), established a constituent assembly and invited constitutional experts from Estmere, Gaullica and Hennehouwe to assist in the development of a new liberal democratic constitution.

Geography

Tabora is located in eastern Bahia, bordering Habasha and Garambura to the west and is bounded by the Coast of Bahia to the east, north and south. It has a total land area of ‭393,505 km² (151,933.13 mile square), making it the Xth largest country in Bahia and the xth largest in Bahia-Coius. Much of Tabora's geography is dominated by two separate geo-regions, the first being the Coastal Strip (Imichilo Yasogwini) and the Heartland (Inhliziyo). The two are separated by the Iphayona Mountains also known as the Great Escarpment, which run north-to-south, parallel to the eastern coastline.

The Iphayona Mountains viewed from Maluti.

West of the Iphayona mountains, much of Tabora is dominated by the Inhliziyo. Its flat terrain and climate has seen the region become host to some of Tabora's vital commerical farming regions and many of its largest urban areas. Agriculture across the region is generally dominated by extensive grain production and the grazing of beef cattle, with more intensive production of maize, wheat, sorghum, citrus fruits, groundnuts, sunflowers, and vegetables, occurring in irrigated areas and farmland closer to urban areas. The peat base of the grassland acts as a natural filter, providing sources of clean water.

Inhliziyo is the focal point of Tabora's commcerical farming and has the highest concentration of urban areas owing to its flat terrain and rich soil.
Vast bush of the northern plains of the Inhliziyo.

The coastal strip, east of the Iphayona, moving clockwise from the north, consists of the iBhande Lasenyakatho, which merges into the iBhande Lasempumalanga. This is hotter, drier and less intensely cultivated than the Inhliziyo. Running south to west of the Iphayona the annual rainfall increases as one enters the southern and western coastal regions, these regions are subtropically hot and humid.

Government and politics

Tabora is a unitary constitutional presidential republic and a multi-party democracy. The current Constitution of Tabora was approved by referendum on 28 September 2012. It greatly strengthened the authority of the executive in relation to parliament. The executive branch itself is concentrated around the President of the Republic; currently Dumisani Kumalo, who is elected by direct-popular election every five years for a maximum of two terms. The President is subordinated by the Deputy President of the Republic; currently Mafika Gwala, and by a Prime Minister; currently Tembeka Rubusana. The Deputy President and Prime Minister are appointed by the President. The Prime Minister is the head of government, though is constitutionally limited in power.

The Assembly of the Republic is the unicameral legislature. The Assembly of the Republic is elected every five years by universal suffrage. The assembly represents local constituencies and has the power to remove the sitting government and president. The Assembly of the Republic has 190 seats, with elections using the D'hondt method. Since the 2002 Revolution, Taborian politics have been dominated by the National Jubilee Party, the Party 2002 and the Party of the Revolution.

Law

Foreign relations

Human rights

Administrative divisions

From independence until 2002, all local governments operated by the Weranic colonial authorities were abolished and governed directly by the central government. While this enabled the leftist regime (1971-2002) the ability to direct resources more effectiently, it denied many regions of Tabora the policy flexibility to meet rising challenges or difficulties. In wake of the 2002 Revolution, local and rural authorities were established. In 2013, the new constitution reorganised Tabora into 18 regions (Isifunda), which in turn were comprised of districts (Isigodi). As of 2013, Tabora is comprised of 18 regions and 180 districts. 27 districts are classified as urban, while the remainder are classified as either rural or rural-urban.

The urban districts have an autonomous city, municipal, or town council and are subdivided into wards. The non-urban units have an autonomous district council but are subdivided into village councils or township authorities (first level) and then into umphakathi (second level).

Military

The military of Tabora is coordinated under the Taborian Armed Forces, which consists of the Taborian Army, Taborian Navy and the Taborian Air Force. As of 2018, the armed forces had a total strength of 105,000 personnel.

Taborian soldiers on patrol in Ezinqeni during the 2018 Ezinqnei Riots.

Since the Taborian Revolution, the armed forces have been steadily modernised with the assistance of several Euclean states, through the Euclean Community Mission in Tabora (ECMT). The armed forces since 2002 have also been engaged in confronting the low-level insurgencies and ethnic clashes centred in the south-west and north-west. Since 2019, 2,500 Taborian soldiers have been provided for Bahian peacekeeping missions, with plans to provided 1,200 soldiers for international peacekeeping by 2028.

Per the 2003 constitution, the President of Tabora is the commander-in-chief and the military command is subject to the oversight and authority of the Minister of Defence. 2013 amendments enforced changes that permit military deployments only as a result of parliamentary votes.

Economy

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1935 4,155,412—    
1945 6,251,671+50.4%
1955 10,001,214+60.0%
1965 13,225,712+32.2%
1975 18,559,803+40.3%
1985 19,666,500+6.0%
1995 21,497,531+9.3%
2005 23,669,874+10.1%
2015 25,368,240+7.2%
Source: Weranian Colonial Register (1935-1945)
Taborian National Census (1955-2015)

Ethnic groups

Tabora has a population of 25,368,240 inhabitants according to the results of its 2015 census, the third consecutive carried out since 1995. It is composed of Banu 75%, Sisulu 18%, Njinji 4%, Maswana 3%, 0.7% white or mixed Bahian-Euclean and other ethnic groups 1%. The Banu form a majority of the population, at 75%. The population is forecast to grow to over 40 million people by 2050, aided by a steady improvement in infant-mortality rates and successfully public health programs. As of 2019, it is estimated that Tabora has a population of 28.7 million.

Banu Taborians in traditional dress during the Reed Dance celebration.

Languages

The languages in Tabora are those originally spoken by the different ethnic groups and Weranian, introduced during the Weranian colonial period. The most widely spoken indigenous languages are isiBanu, Sisulu and Njinji, in that order; these three languages alongside Maswana are the official languages of Tabora.

Following independence from Werania in 1950, the Weranic language was stripped of any official recognition and was actively suppressed by the new government. Efforts to replace Weranic as the primary languge with isiBanu proved deeply divisive. In wake of the Taborian Revolutionary Front's siezure of power in 1971, the collectivist regime instead sought to promote national harmony by elevating the three most widely spoken indigenous languages, while placing a focus on the widespread teaching of isiBanu to aid development. The promotion of all three languages, while focusing on Banu for official businesses and government has been continued under the democratic government. Since 2014, all Taborian schoolchildren are taught the three official languages, as such, Tabora has one of the highest concentrations of multi-lingual speakers in the world.

According to the 2015 census, for first languages isiBanu is spoken by 77% of Taborians, Sisulu by 16%, Njinji by 4%, Maswana by 3% and other languages by 1.7%. For second and third languages, isiBanu is spoken by 89% of Taborians, Sisulu by 80% of Taborians and Njinji by 77%.

Religion

As of the 2015 census, 96.5% of the population, or 23,972,986 are Sotirians. An overwhelming majority of 90.1% of Sotirians, or 21,599,660 Taborians, are Solarian Catholic. 6.6% or 1,582,217 Taborians are Amendist, while 2.3% or 551,378 Taborians belong to Kasperist churches.

Cathedral of Our Holy Lady of Victories is the largest Catholic place of worship in Tabora.

The remaining 3.5% or 887,888 Taborians are listed as "Abantu" or "Folk religions". Traditional religions embody such concepts as monotheism, animism, vitalism, spirit and ancestor worship, witchcraft, and sorcery and vary widely among ethnic groups. The syncretic sects often merge elements of Sotiranity with traditional beliefs and rituals and are not recognized by mainstream churches as part of Sotiranity. Since 2002, tensions between the Catholic majority and those of Traditional faiths have been a long-running issue for government. Sectarian violence has been known, yet sporadic, especially in the north-west and south-west of the country.

Health

Healthcare has been a primary focus and concern of successive governments since the 2002 Revolution. From 1960 to 2004, Tabora had one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world and one of the world's lowest life expectancies, however, succcessful healthcare reforms and major government-led public health programs has seen significant improvements in public health. As of 2016, the infant mortality ratio had fallen from 204 deaths per 1,000 live births to 35.2 per 1,000 live births.

Epidemics of cholera, malaria and hemorrhagic fevers, are common diseases in several parts of the country. Many regions in this country have high incidence rates of tuberculosis and high HIV prevalence rates. Dengue, filariasis, leishmaniasis and onchocerciasis (river blindness) are other diseases carried by insects that also occur in several regions. Epidemics have become the government's principal concern in wake of its success in reducing infant mortality rates. Areas of poor transportation, access and development have been earmarked for major healthcare investments.

In 2016, the Ministry of Health was expanded to include the National Department for Vaccination and Disease Control (NDVDC). The body is widely accepted as one of the most powerful public health bodies in the world, with the power of prosecution and mandatory vaccination. The NDVDC is assisted by the military in implementing mass vaccinations.

A soldier vaccinating a young girl from Measles as part of the 2017 Anti-Measles and Polio Campaign.

In 2017, the NDVDC launched a national campaign of vaccination against measles and polio, extended to every child under ten years old and aiming to go to all 18 regions in the country. The campaign includes a proper dealing with measles and polio cases, strengthening routine immunisation, national media campaigns, introducing a second dose of vaccination in the National Mandatory Vaccination Routine and active epidemiological surveillance for measles and polio.

Education

Children attend nursery school, or kindergarten in the private sector until they are five years old. This lasts one to three years (KG1, KG2 and KG3) and is financed privately, efforts by the Taborian government to establish a formal state-system for the KG stages have been launched as of 2017.

A school classroom in rural Tabora.

Basic formal education starts at age six years and lasts 12 years consisting of eight years in primary school and four years in high school or secondary school. Primary school is free in public schools and those attending can join a vocational youth/village polytechnic or make their own arrangements for an apprenticeship program and learn a trade such as tailoring, carpentry, motor vehicle repair, brick-laying and masonry for about two years.

A medical student at Independence University in Ntendeka.

Those who complete high school can join a polytechnic or other technical college and study for three years, or proceed directly to the university and study for four years. Graduates from the polytechnics and colleges can then join the workforce and later obtain a specialised higher diploma qualification after a further one to two years of training, or join the university—usually in the second or third year of their respective course. The higher diploma is accepted by many employers in place of a bachelor's degree and direct or accelerated admission to post-graduate studies is possible in some universities.

In 2017, the literacy rate in Tabora for persons aged 15 and over was estimated to be 73.8 percent. Education is compulsory until children reach age 15. In 2010, 78.1 percent of children age 5 to 14 years were attending school. The primary school completion rate was 80.8 percent in 2017. In recent years, the Taborian government has worked to expand primary schools across rural regions where completion and literacy rates are at their lowest. The government has sought to use state-services as well as cooperation with the Catholic Church to provide schooling for the poorest families.

Urbanisation

Culture