United Bahian Republic
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United Bahian Republic
Anthem: Lève-toi, ô Baïen!
Arise, O Bahian!
Port Fitzhubert (1960-1964)
|Common languages||weRwizi, Sisulu, Njinji, Kulo, Maswana, Makai, Badawiyan, Gaullican, Estmerish, Weranian|
|Historical era||Great Game|
|1 May 1960|
|22 January 1964|
|1960||1,874,449.92 km2 (723,729.16 sq mi)|
|1964||1,467,146.24 km2 (566,468.33 sq mi)|
|Today part of|| Garambura|
The United Bahian Republic was a confederation in Bahia which existed from 1960 to 1964. Comprised of the entirety of present-day Garambura, Rwizikuru, and Maucha, as well as parts of present-day Mabifia, it was intended as a political union between Maucha and Rwizikuru, with the intention of inviting other Bahian states to join.
While it was initially a success, as the institutions of the United Bahian Republic were established, which helped increased cooperation between its member states, the United Bahian Republic was beset with a number of issues, namely foreign policy and whether member states have a right to express their own foreign policy independent of the United Bahian Republic, and what were the official languages of the United Bahian Republic.
These issues only intensified as Rwizikuru renounced its socialist policies, albeit maintaining anti-imperialist policies, which exacerbated the aforementioned issues, all while Rwizikuru sought to further centralise the United Bahian Republic, while Maucha opposed centralisation. After a coup d'etat by the Rwizikuran army in November 1963 which installed Pierre-Ardachir Niyomzima to power, followed by another coup in January 1964 when Niyomzima refused to withdraw Rwizikuru from the United Bahian Republic, Maucha withdrew from the United Bahian Republic the following month, effectively dissolving the organisation, as only Rwizikuru remained a member of the United Bahian Republic.
While the intellectual origins of the United Bahian Republic were based in Pan-Bahianism, the catalyst that led to the establishment of the United Bahian Republic took place in 1951 when Rwizikuru seized control of their section of the Trans-Bahian Railway from (TBD), and nationalised the sections running through their countries.
Overnight, the status of President Samhuri Ngonidzashe of Rwizikuru among Bahians skyrocketed, with calls among many Bahians for a "Bahian federation." Thus, in 1952, under pressure from ordinary citizens, referenda were organised in Maucha and Rwizikuru, where the motion to establish the "Bahian federation" passed with an overwhelming majority.
Thus, over the next two years, negotiations took place between the two leaders, as they hammered out the details of the United Bahian Republic, until by early 1954, the Munzwa Declaration was signed which established the basic framework for the United Bahian Republic. This made the United Bahian Republic a confederation, with the United Bahian Republic only to have jurisdiction over a few key areas, namely foreign affairs, defence, monetary affairs, and over the capital of the new state, with the member states maintaining their authority elsewhere.
The official announcement of its establishment took place on 1 May, 1954, at the opening ceremonies of the first Games of the Red Star, which took place in Sainte-Germaine, when the two leaders opened the games, and the athletes from Maucha and Rwizikuru marched under the flag of the United Bahian Republic, and the leaders of the two nations opened the games on behalf of the United Bahian Republic.
The United Bahian Republic faced challenges upon its creation, such as official languages, as the framers of the United Bahian Republic did not want "colonial languages" to be official, and foreign policy issues as certain organisations like the Association of Emerging Socialist Economies and the Community of Nations still had the member states of the United Bahian Republic as individual members, as opposed to them being succeeded by the United Bahian Republic.
Despite these challenges, Rwizikuru and Maucha cooperated to establish the common institutions of the United Bahian Republic, such as uniting the Rwizikuru Navy and the Maucha Navy into the Bahian Navy, establishing a new capital for the United Bahian Republic in Mukoma (present-day New Mina, Garambura), and implementing freedom of movement between its members, in addition to create a fixed exchange rate of 1:1 between the currencies of the wo member states.
By 1956, the United Bahian Republic was starting to join multinational organisations in its own right as one country, as opposed to two, exemplified by it being a founding nation of the Congress of Bahian States, with the institutions set out under the Munzwa Declaration firmly established.
As Rwizikuru's President Izibongo Ngonidzashe implemented anti-socialist policies within Rwizikuru, tensions started to grow between it and the other two member states, as although Rwizikuru was still committed to anti-imperialism and to the United Bahian Republic, the other member states felt that Rwizikuru was no longer properly socialist. As well, the issues surrounding official languages and foreign policy never disappeared, and in fact only intensified as member states sought to assert their own interests, especially as it was perceived by Maucha that the United Bahian Republic was "not beneficial to the Bahian people, but only to the Rwizi ruling class." This was not helped by the fact that Rwizikuru sought to further centralise the United Bahian Republic, while the other two members did not want to centralise the state.
Thus, by the early 1960s, cracks were appearing within the United Bahian Republic, due to all of these issues. Meetings between the two states became more deadlocked, and states began to refuse to pay their dues to help ensure the normal operation of the institutions. This greatly weakened the ability of the United Bahian Republic to continue operating.
1964 was when the United Bahian Republic entered freefall, with the navy split between Rwizikuru and Maucha in February 1964. While in May of that year, Mukoma (present-day New Mina, Garambura) was officially opened, the tensions between the two members only increased throughout the year, especially after it was announced that Izibongo Ngonidzashe would establish a Rwizikuran monarchy with himself as King. Despite criticism from the Maucha government, who threatened to leave, Izibongo Ngonidzashe crowned himself King on 2 December, 1964.
By January 1965, at what would ultimately be the final conference in the history of the United Bahian Republic, Maucha announced their intention to leave the United Bahian Republic over these issues. Despite Izibongo Ngonidzashe's attempts to prevent the dissolution of the United Bahian Republic, with TBD determined to leave the United Bahian Republic, and Izibongo's unwillingness to "fight against fellow Bahian brethren," by 22 January, the United Bahian Republic effectively ceased to exist.
The United Bahian Republic was headed by a collective leadership, with the Presidents of the United Bahian Republic being designated as such due to their positions as being the country's leaders. This was organised so that no one person had too much power within the United Bahian Republic.
The legislature of the United Bahian Republic was the Bahian Assembly, comprising of 100 members. They had the power to legislate over the issues of foreign affairs, defence, and monetary affairs, as well as pass budgets for the operation of the government of the United Bahian Republic.
The institutions of the United Bahian Republic were located in the capital cities of its member state, albeit there were plans to make Mukoma (present-day New Mina, Garambura) the capital of the United Bahian Republic. While institutions were moving to Mukoma at the time of the United Bahian Republic's dissolution in January 1965, the dissolution meant that Mukoma never properly functioned as its capital.
Politically, the United Bahian Republic was meant to be a confederation, according to the Munzwa Declaration, with the federal government only having jurisdiction over foreign affairs, defence, and monetary affairs, and its member states maintaining sovereignty over all other affairs, with the exception of Mukoma, where it was to be under the direct control of the United Bahian Republic.
While the government of the United Bahian Republic officially had jurisdiction over foreign affairs, during its existence, organisations across the world had varying policies, with some, such as the Association of Emerging Socialist Economies only having member states of the United Bahian Republic as members, while others, such as the Congress of Bahian States had the United Bahian Republic as a member, with no representation from the member states.
The continued participation of member states of the United Bahian Republic in certain organisations, namely the AESE and the Community of Nations would be an issue for the United Bahian Republic, as supporters of the United Bahian Republic believed it was necessary for the United Bahian Republic to speak "with one voice" as oppose to two, while opponents felt that having the United Bahian Republic represent them harmed their own interests.
During its existence, the United Bahian Republic comprised of two member states from May 1954 until its dissolution in January 1965.
|Nation||Capital||Population (1961)||GDP (1961)||GDP per capita (1961)||Membership|
During the existence of the United Bahian Republic, some countries in Bahia expressed their interest in joining the United Bahian Republic. However, due to various reasons, the United Bahian Republic never expanded beyond its two initial members.
Under the leadership of Louis-Philippe Giengs, Mabifia emerged from its civil war as the Mabifian Democratic Republic, a socialist state which leant strongly into the Pan-Bahian movement. The idea of joining the United Bahian Republic was proposed and ascension talks were opened in 1945 once the domestic situation was secured. Giengs was a close friend of , as the two of them had met in several anticolonial circles before independence. Economic correspondance between the Bahian states increased, with Mabifia seeming poised to join. However, in 1950, Giengs passed away suddenly from a heart attack, putting a pause on Mabifia's goals of joining the organisation.
Giengs' successor was Fuad Onika, a colonel in the Mabifian People's Armed Forces who had been radicalised whilst in Euclea as an officer in the colonial militia. Unlike Giengs, who was inspired by the idea of a Pan-Bahian socialism which was at least in part inspired by local traditions of government such as Sare, Onika was highly dogmatic in his support of Swetanian council communism and saw it as being the ultimate goal of society. He was unwilling to adopt the more revisionist elements proposed by the other states. However, there were other background reasons for Onika's unwillingness to join the union. His personal leadership style was highly self-centred, causing opposition to the idea of ceding partial control over the armed forces which he had served in to others. Another issue came from historical precedent. Rwizikuru, as the veRwizi Empire, had been the major rivals to the Mabifian Kingdom of Kambou and while these states had all been dissolved there still existed strongly held attitudes among many in the armed forces that these states constituted rivals. The use of the veRwizi Bird in the United Bahian Republic's coat of arms further encouraged such thoughts. Tensions grew between Mabifia and Rwizikuru, which was the most strongly revisionist state in the union, leading to a rivalry which put a definitive stop to any hopes of joining the United Bahian Republic and which would eventually lead to the Mabifian-Rwizikuran War.