Motto: Eendracht Maakt Macht
Unity makes strength
Anthem: "Hennehouwe, hout u vroom"
Hennehouwe, stay faithful
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Gaullican|
|Government||Federal parliamentary republic|
|Adriaan Wilhelm Paulus|
|Fabian van Aitzema|
• United Kingdom of Hennehouwe
• Grand Duchy of Hennehouwe
• Annexation by Gaullica
• Second Republic
• Third Republic
• Founded the EC
|1 January 1948|
|75,828 km2 (29,277 sq mi)|
• 2021 estimate
• 2018 census
|203.41/km2 (526.8/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Euclo (EUC (€))|
|Time zone||Euclean Standard Time|
The Hennish Republic (Hennish: Hennse Republiek), commonly known as Hennehouwe, is a sovereign state and federal republic in eastern Euclea. It borders Gaullica to the south, Kesselbourg and Kirenia to the west, and Estmere to the north. It covers an area of 75,828 km² (29,277 sq mi) and has a population of more than 15.4 million. The capital and largest city is s’Holle; other major cities include Zilverzee, Herxen and Emmen.
Weranic peoples have inhabited Hennehouwe since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Hennish and the Hoeltish. The region was a part of the Solarian Empire, making up the majority of the Province of Flamia. When the Solarian Empire collapsed in 418, the Verliquoian Empire retained control over much of Flamia. Northern regions of the province were lost due to lack of control and conquest by Weranic tribes. A number of Hennish kingdoms were established in the north, chiefly the kingdoms of Reek and Stegeren. It was conquered by the Verique and became a part of the Verliquoian Empire.
The modern-day state is descended from the United Kingdom of Reek and Stegeren, a medieval kingdom founded in 1352 in Zilverzee by delegates rebelling against Gaullica from the northern counties. The rebellion was part of the War of the Jeans, which saw the Verliquoian Empire collapse and evolve into the Empire of Gaullica. The northern kingdom were able to successfully secure their independence, establishing the United Kingdom of Hennehouwe in 1401. During the Amendist Reformation, the teachings of Johan Kasper became mainstream, particularly in the northern counties. The growing religious divide between the Amendist north and Catholic south culminated in the Hennish Civil War, after which the country was partitioned by sectarian lines. The Kasperist northern counties were organized into the Estmerish-backed First Hennish Republic while the Catholic southern counties became part of the Gaullican-backed Duchy of Flamia in 1537. In 1647, the First Republic was reformed into the Sotirian Commonwealth, a puritanical Kasperist theocracy.
Both Hennish nations engaged in the sprawling phenomena of colonialism during the 17th century, colonising Nuvania and Satavia in Asteria Inferior. Religious strife in Euclea eventually led to the Gilded Wars which led to the south’s victory over the north and unification of Hennehouwe under the Grand Duchy of Hennehouwe. The Estmerish-Hennish War saw the Grand Duchy’s defeat and the loss of Nuvania and Satavia to Estmere in 1747. Hennish independence would be lost in 1749, when Gaullica annexed the Grand Duchy outright. Hennish revolutionaries would assist the anti-Gaullican alliance during the War of the Triple Alliance, through the Hennish Revolution, which resulted in restored independence under the Second Hennish Republic.
In the lead up to the Great War, Functionalist Gaullica annexed Petois-majority areas in the south, in addition to neighbouring Kesselbourg. The Gaullicans installed a new independent government led by functionalists and Gaullican sympathizers. The legitimate Hennish government fled s'Holle for the northern counties, bringing the country's gold reserves with them. The government went into exile in Ashcombe after fleeing north into Estmere in 1927. Following the war's end Hennehouwe's government was restored under the Third Republic. In 1949, the country became a founding member of the Euclean Community. Economic and political reforms in the post-war era significantly aided Hennish reconstruction and development, seeing it become one of the wealthiest states in Euclea by per capita, with a high level of human development and low inequality.
The country has a tradition of democratic values and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion, prostitution and with maintaining a progressive drug policy. Hennehouwe ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, and quality of life, as well as happiness. Hennehouwe is a founding member of the Euclean Community, a member of the Community of Nations, GIFA, NAC and the ITO.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Government and politics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
Kingdom of Hennehouwe (1452-1537)
Partition era (1537-1719)
Following the death of King Adriaan-Willem I of Hennehouwe in 1537 and the lack of legitimacy and authority around his son, Adriaan-Willem II, the Kingdom fell into outright civil war, with the Kasperist north and Catholic south splitting into two separate camps, along the Zwartwater River. Moving to consolidate the division and establish a buffer zone, the Amendist Kingdom of Estmere assisted in the establishment of the First Hennish Republic in the Kasperist north, while Catholic Gaullica aided King Adriaan-Willem II proclaimed himself as the Duke of Flamia.
Between 1537 and 1600, the two Hennish states remained at peace and relatively prosperous. However, the Kasperist north was gripped by increasing religious fervour and an emergent new identity defined by its Kasperist religion. During the first half of the 17th century, the North would be further gripped by the rise and domination of the Puriteinen (translates into Puritans), a radical Kasperist movement that sought to free the North of real and percieved Catholic traditions, but also to ensure “Godly living”. The north’s States-General would see the infiltration of Puriteins, backed by the Fellowship of Saint Jacob, this culminated in the overthrow of the First Republic in 1642 and the establishment of the Sotirian Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth saw a theocratic regime emerge, which pursued the colonisation of Nuvania with great zeal and resources, while domestically it constructed a ultra-religious society, with numerous laws which banned music, Christmas and Easter celebrations, strict conditions on clothing and pursued often extremely violent repressions against non-conformists and Catholics. The intensity of the Commonwealth eventually led to conflict with the south during the Amendist Wars, which ultimately led to the unification of Hennehouwe by the Gaullican-backed South in 1719, which restored a monarchical government.
Grand Duchy of Flamia (1719-1749)
Gaullican Hennehouwe (1749-1855)
Second Republic era
The Congress of Torrazza which ended the War of the Triple Alliance in December 1855 resulted in the independence and international recognition of the Second Hennish Republic. For the first time since the Hennish Civil War more than three centuries earlier, there existed a united and independent Hennish state. Despite most sharing a common language, albeit with broad dialectal differences, as well as a significant amount of cultural overlap, the religious and sociological divide that existed primarily between the northern and southern parts of the country remained deeply entrenched. The new Hennish state lacked a strong sense of nationalism that had become a common theme elsewhere in Euclea during the mid-19th century as a consequence of the long period of division and subsequent Gaullican rule.
Even though most southern Catholics had actively supported nationhood and the revolutionary movement by the end of the war, they remained widely distrusted by many northern Amendists due to a perceived lingering loyalty to Gaullica and its ascended nobility. Likewise, many Catholics were sceptical of their Amendist neighbours' demographic advantage in the new republic, and were particularly weary of the influence of the more orthodox Amendist denominations, chief among them Kasperists. A large Gaullican-speaking minority also remained in Hennehouwe, including the Petois people native to areas of southern Flamia on the new frontier with Gaullica, as well as the old Gaullican bourgeoisie in s'Holle and other southern cities.
The solution, as promulgated by radical Amendist theologian Kasper Roeterink, and officially by the Second Republic's first Premier, Jan-Pieter Hannes, was that of sphere sovereignty. Under the doctrine of "working together, living apart" (samenwerken, apartwonen), each of Hennehouwe's distinct communities would exercise control over its own way of life within the context of a united state without inter-community interference or connections, overseen by a limited government with respect for each group's internal autonomy. This semi-formalised system came to be more commonly known as segmentation (segmentatie), and was broadly endorsed by Amendist, Catholic and Petois elites alike as it reinforced their hegemony over their respective communities and reduced the likelihood of inter-ethnic conflict, which in turn facilitated cooperation in areas of mutual benefit such as national government and the economy. There were initially three segments: an Amendist segment concentrated in the north and which included Gospelite and orthodox Kasperist subsegments; a Catholic segment that dominated the south; and a Petois segment in the deep south, which itself overlapped with the Catholic segment to a modest extent. A fourth 'secular' or liberal segment would later emerge, largely consisting of urbanites, disaffected religious folk, and sections of the middle class. These segments would remain deeply held over the course of the Second Republic and were reflected across civic, political and economic life.
A formal constitution was not codified until 1859, which largely resolved many of the issues which had sprung up in the aftermath of independence. The post of stadtholder was re-established to serve as the nation's head of state. Land and titular reform was also carried out, which resulted in the formal abolition of nobility in Hennehouwe. Consequentially, this resulted in the recognition of Kesselbourg's reigning nobility as distinct to Hennehouwe's now abolished system, as well as the formal succession of the Dukedom of Breugeldal and the Principality of Witburg as nominally independent entities. Both Breugeldal and Witburg were small territories with populations that remained fiercely loyal to their respective nobilities and both had in fact sympathised with Hennish independence, having provided refuge to revolutionary figures and their families during the later years of the war. Out of respect for this, and as both had overwhelmingly Catholic populations, Hennehouwe's new Amendist-majority government saw little benefit of incorporating them into the new republic against their populaces' wishes. Breugeldal and Witburg would later be incorporated into the Third Republic in 1936. The constitution also enshrined secularism as a core tenant of the cosocietational nature of the state, a first in Euclea, as well as Hennehouwe's status as a neutral country.
For most of the Second Republic's existence, it was dominated politically by confessionalist parties belonging to either one of the country's two main religious groups. Chief among them were the Catholic Sotirian League for Catholics; and the Amendist Party for Amendists. The Liberal Party was also prominent during this time period, whilst left-wing parties and associations began to grow in popularity during the latter years of the 20th century.
The newfound stability brought about by the new state structure and the prevailing global peace contributed to Hennehouwe's rapid industrial growth. Industrialisation had begun in the final years of Gaullican rule and grew exponentially in the wake of independence, with Hennehouwe emerging as a primary centre of Euclea's Industrial Revolution. In particular, coal production in the south and steel production in the north, combined with textile development and infrastructurual progress, contributed to Hennehouwe's industrial success. Railways were vastly expanded; modern canal structures were constructed; and coastal cities like Zilverzee and De Haven became major ports for the exporting of industrial output.
The economic boom coincided with a widespread cultural revival, with the era being collectively referred to as the Heropleving ("revival" or "reinvigoration"). In addition to industrial developments, the Heropleving was characterised by cultural and scientific innovation, social progress, growing liberalism and pacifism. The fourth 'secular' segment saw a massive expansion and a large working class emerged among populations in all three of the country's standard segments, who became emboldened in their push for working and political rights through organisations like the Hennish General Trade Union Association (HAVA) and the Hennish Section of the Workers' International (HSAI). Universal male suffrage was granted in 1902, with limited female suffrage introduced in 1908.
The Great Collapse of 1913 ushered in a new period of socio-economic turmoil. Hennehouwe was affected particularly harshly due to its export-dependent economy suffering the knock-on effect of a region-wide downturn, plunging the country into a sharp economic crisis by the end of 1914. The Collapse had a significant impact not only on the Hennish economy, but on its politics. The HSAI continued to grow in strength, whilst the Socialist Labour Party was formed in 1918. Right-wing extremist parties of various orientations also grew during this period, often grouping around sectarian and ethnic differences. The segmentation system that had sustained Hennehouwe for the preceding sixty-five years come under pressure, with a coalition of the SAP, HSAI, Catholic left and Amendist liberals forming after the election of 1919 held in the wake of Bloody Friday and the riots it preceded, leaving the Catholic and Amendist confessionalist parties out of power for the first time.
Great War (1926-1934)
The 1919 election of the Parti Populaire in Gaullica had a profound effect in Hennish politics as far-right forces sought to emulate the PP's success. The most notable of these was the Hennish Parti Populaire which was powerful in Petois and its sister party the Bond van Nationaal-Solidaristen (League of National Solidarists, BvNS) which was prominent but less powerful in the rest of the country. In 1926 the Petois PP leader Jean-Yves Lemaître announced that Petois was succeeding from the country due to "Hennish repression"; the Hennish government under stadtholder Niels Cornelissen attempted to stop this from occurring by deploying the national guard to Petois. This action led to Gaullican Premier Rafael Duclerque to demand the Petois region be annexed into Gaullica to protect the Petois population, threatening a Euclean war if the Tripartite Agreement nations (Estmere, Werania and Etruria) intervened. A summit was called amongst the Four Powers Agreement nations (Gaullica, Estmere, Werania and Etruria) over the Petois issue; the Tripartite nations agreed to Gaullican demands to annex Petois as long as they refrained from annexing the entire country which would be kept a neutral buffer state per the Congress of Torrazza.
Hennish political leaders such as Cornelissen were dismayed at the decision and attempted to resist the annexation; Gaullican forces quickly overran the country in December 1926 and appointed a client regime under the BvNS in January 1927 which officially came to power after a "popular consultation" widely seen as rigged was organised by Gaullican authorities. This latter action whilst still being within the agreement signed between the four powers as it kept a nominally-independent regime in Hennehouwe outraged Euclea and led to Estmere and Werania to withdraw from the four-powers agreement. A government-in-exile was organised in Ashcombe stating the new BvNS government was illegitimate.
The new functionalist administration soon created a brutal police state with a secret police force being created to root out opposition, particularly that of socialists. The HSAI, the largest socialist organisation in Hennehouwe and which had led governments prior to 1926, was decimated by the repression with its top leadership imprisoned or executed by the BvNS regime. Despite the BvNS attempting to build popular support for the new regime, they were never regarded as anything other then Gaullican collaborators limiting their appeal.
Although Hennehouwe was theoretically neutral this was in reality a legal fiction with Gaullican officials having de facto power. The start of the Great War saw Hennehouwe declare war on Estmere less then an hour after Gaullica allowing Gaullican troops to cross the border, with the BvNS justifying this move by falsely stating Estmere had violated its borders and thus neutrality. During the war Hennehouwe placed itself under the total subordination of Gaullica; Gaullican general Barthélemy Rodier was considered to be viceroy of Henneouwe in all but name. Hennish industry and food was shipped to Gaullica causing many Hennish people to be without their needs during the war. As well as this several increasingly repressive measures came into force that discriminated against the Hennish people and language in favour of Gaullican speakers.
During the war resistance to Gaullicans was common in Hennehouwe. The Free Hennish Army (VHL) was the largest of these organisations having over 60,000 members in 1932. Supported by members of the Grand Alliance the resistance forces nevertheless suffered divisions between liberals and conservatives wishing to revive the pre-war republic and socialists who called for a more radical regime to replace it.
In 1932 as the war turned against them and the collaborationist government seen to be increasingly ineffective the Gaullican high command abolished the collaborationist government and placed Hennehouwe under formal military occupation in order to better utilise the nations industrial resources. The short period of direct Gaullican occupation (1932-1933) was marked by an increase in violence and destitution by Gaullican forces in the nation, with some Hennish commentators referring to the period as the "rape of Hennehouwe".
Hennehouwe became the location of several large battles between Gaullica and predominantly Weranian forces in the latter stages of the war such as the Battle of s'Holle and battle of Zilverzee. It was liberated by Weranian-Estmerish forces in May 1933 when the last Gaullican troops in the country surrendered to Grand Alliance forces. The government-of-exile returned to s'Holle to create a provisional government until elections for a constituent assembly could be held.
Third Republic (1934-present)
In 1934 a constituent assembly was elected. The largest party to be elected was the HSAI which renamed itself the Socialist Labour Party with liberals also emerging as a prominent force. The new constitution was similar to that of the second republic but implemented further reforms such as weakening the power of the stadtholder, enshrining labour rights and giving women the vote. In the immediate post-war period power often alternated between coalitions of socialists, Catholics, Amendists and liberals with the socialists often being dominant thanks primarily to their role leading the wartime resistance. Petois was returned to Hennehouwe and some Hennish politicians promoted the idea of annexing large parts of northern Gaullica, but these plans were dropped after facing opposition from Werania.
Reconstruction efforts dominated the post-war governments. Rationing was introduced to deal with shortages whilst public works programmes saw an expansion of the economy and the gradual decline of the housing crisis that was afflicting the nation, although emigration would remain high throughout the 1930's and 1940's. International cooperation was also heavily emphasised; Hennish leaders saw only through supranational integration would the country avoid being abandoned again. To this end Hennehouwe became one of the strongest supporters of the newly-created Community of Nations with the pre-war stadtholder Niels Cornelissen becoming its first secretary-general. Hennehouwe also became a founding member of the United States of Euclea.
During the 1940's Hennehouwe thanks to sound fiscal policy saw a steady revival of its economy. Following the Solarian War growth started to become very high as rations were gradually scaled back with the last rations (on housing) being repealed in 1950 as the government created a large welfare state based on the doctrine of a social market economy. A post-war boom meant that the loss of income from the war was offset as the country entered its longest period of economic growth in its entire history. The new economy was based on industry emphasising an internationally competitive manufacturing sector of primarily large corporations and strong protections for Hennish workers'.
In 1948 Hennehouwe was one of the six founding members of the Euclean Community. The countries strong economic growth meant that during the 1950's and early 1960's there was strong social stability in Hennehouwe whilst labour shortages meant the government actively encouraged immigration from Etruria and Auratia at first and later from Zorasan and Senria, making Hennehouwe a multicultural country.
From the 1950's onwards Hennehouwe was dominated by predominantly conservative governments with the Catholic Sotirian People's Party and Amendist Party of the Right leading governments, helped by the continued dominance of pillarisation in society. However by the 1960's and 1970's this rigid system began to break down; de-pillarisation was accelerated as young people began to become more interested in women's rights, sexuality, disarmament and environmental issues. This led to a general secularisation and liberalisation in Hennish society. This reached its height during the mid-1970's when a series of social democratic-liberal government spearheaded important reforms in Hennish society such as the introduction of divorce, abortion and drug decriminalisation laws.
During the late 1970's and early 1980's the Hennish economy entered into a decline due to stagflation and deindustrialisation. A series of conservative governments in this period oversaw several economic reforms such as privatisations and public spending cuts as Hennehouwe moved from an industrial to a service-based economy. During the 1990's the two Sotirian parties merged to form the National People's Party (NVP), an expression of the increasingly cordial relations between Catholics and Amendists in Hennish society.
In 2005 the Hennish economy entered its worst recession since the war with the banking and housing system collapsing. Although the government narrowly avoided a bailout agreement with the EC it was forced to draft an austerity plan to be implemented, which was met with public protests. The 2000's and 2010's have seen public debate regarding immigration, secularism and multiculturalism particularly from Coius become far more pronounced. Hennehouwe remains however one of the wealthiest nations in the world with a very high standard of living.
Hennehouwe is located in northern Euclea, it is bordered by Estmere to the north, Kesselbourg and Swetania to the west, Gaullica to the south and the Gulf of Assionaire to the east. It has a total land area of XXXX km2 (XXXX sq mi), making it the Xth largest country in Euclea and the Xth largest in the World.
Hennehouwe is dominated by low-lying flat plains and small rolling hills. While, some stretches of the coastal plain fall below sea-level. The interior is mostly dominated by farmland and forested areas, dissected by waterways and canals, to further aid fertile regions. Further inland lies a smooth, slowly rising landscape irrigated by numerous waterways, with fertile valleys and the northeastern sandy plain of the Tarweland (Wheatland). The thickly forested hills and plains of the Grotevlatke are more rugged and rocky with caves and small gorges. The highest point in Hennehouwe is Wachterspunt at 694 m (2,277 ft). Hennehouwe's only major waterway is the Zwartwater River, which disects the country from west to east.
The country has a maritime temperate climate with significant precipitation throughout all four, like most of northwest Euclea.
Government and politics
Hennehouwe is a constitutional federal parliamentary republic. Stadtholder Adriaan Wilhelm Paulus is the current head of state, whilst Premier Mirjam Schutte serves as the head of the federal government. Hennehouwe's constitutional framework is laid out in the General Law (Algemene Wet), which has been in place since the formal creation of the Third Republic in 1936. Amendments to the General Law require a two-thirds supermajority in both houses of the General Assembly, or via a constitutional referendum. However, the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, republicanism and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
The stadtholder is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. They are elected by the Federal Convention (Federale Conventie), an electoral college consisting of members of the General Assembly and regional legislatures, divided in equal number by regions, who elected one of a candidate to the office. The stadtholder is based on the historical position that emerged during the First Republic when the position was more akin to an elected monarch. However, in a trend that started with the Second Republic and more codified under the Third Republic. the position has become ceremonial in nature akin to the position of president in other Euclean republics. The stadtholder nevertheless continues to appoint ministers, including the Premier, that have the confidence of the General Assembly to form the federal government. The current statdholder is Adriaan Wilhelm Paulus who has been in office since the 19 March 2012 and re-elected in 2018. Stadtholders under the Second Republic held the position for life but since the inception of the Third Republic serve a six-year term that is renewable once. Stadtholders are required to serve in office as an independent but can previously have been a member of a political party.
Socialist Labour Party (17)
National People's Party (14)
Party for the Petois (2)
Progressive Democratic Party (14)
Green Party (6)
Patriot's March (2)
People's Party for Sotirian Democracy (2)
Heart of Hennehouwe (2)
The Left (1)
Socialist Labour Party (46)
National People's Party (39)
Party for the Petois (6)
Progressive Democratic Party (31)
Green Party (19)
Heart of Hennehouwe (16)
Patriot's March (8)
The Left (6)
People's Party for Sotirian Democracy (6)
Agrarian–Farmer's Party (2)
Vox Hennehouwe (1)
The Premier is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet. Premiers have to command the confidence of the General Assembly and often as such lead coalition governments. Premiers tend to be more a first-among-equals in Hennehouwe compared to other Euclean heads of government with collective cabinet responsibility heavily emphasised. The current premier is Mirjam Schutte, who has been premier since 23 November 2022. Schutte leads a coalition of her own Socialist Labour Party, the National People's Party and Redé.
Federal legislative power is vested in the bicameral General Assembly. It consists of the more executively powerful lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, and the upper house, the Senate. The 180 seats of the Chamber of Deputies are directly elected via open-list proportional representation using the ten regions as constituencies. There is no electoral threshold, meaning the effective barrier varies depending on the size of the region (the largest region, Flamia, returns 40 members to the Chamber, whilst Oudkessel-Witburg, the smallest, returns seven). The 60 members of the Senate are indirectly elected by members of the Federal Convention on a region-by-region basis (with the exception of incumbent senators) via single non-transferable vote. Elections for the Chamber take place every four years, but may be dissolved earlier with a two-thirds supermajority in the Chamber. Elections for the Senate take place exactly twelve weeks after elections to the lower house.
Hennehouwe's political culture is noted both for its consensus-based approach as well as social tolerance, being one of the most historically progressive states in Euclea. Hennehouwe also has a culture of widely-encompassing political engagement and a lean towards open, respectful debate, contributing to often high turnout rates in elections and referendums.
During the Second Republic and the early days of the Third Republic, pillarisation played a large role in the development of Hennehouwe's political system. The three political 'pillars' that emerged in the pre-war years; the socialist, liberal and Sotirian pillars, re-emerged. Even after the gradual fall of pillarisation during the 1930's and 1940's, these parties remained dominant. The centre-left Socialist Labour Party, the largest party at present in the General Assembly, originated from the amalgamation of socialist movements in the late 1910's. The centre-right National People's Party, formed in 1960, was created from the merger of the formerly-segregated Amendist and Catholic parties of the former Sotirian pillar. The Progressive Democratic Party is considered to be the modern-day successor of the parties of the former liberal pillar. These three parties remain the largest and most influential parties in Hennish politics, though their combined share of votes and seats has declined steadily in recent decades.
Seven other parties are currently represented in the General Assembly, the largest of which are the far-right Patriot's March and the Green Party. Both parties are relatively new, and follow the trend of similar parties rising in popularity in other Euclean countries. The Left has also emerged in recent decades, borne out of a political alliance of left-wing and far-left parties including the HSAI. The Agrarian–Farmer's Party and the People's Party for Sotirian Democracy are both conservative, rurally-based parties. Also represented are the Petois minority-orientated Party for the Petois and the liberal LIVE. A number of other parties have seats in regional and municipal legislatures, as do local parties and lists.
Hennehouwe is a federal state consisting of ten regions (Hennish: regio's), two of which, s'Holle and Zilverzee, are classified as city regions (stadsregio's). Most states are sub-divided into counties (provincies), which are further divided into municipalities (gemeenten). The city regions are only sub-divided into districts (stadsdelen), which function as both second and third-level divisions.
Every region receives their powers directly from the the federal Basic Law, with each state having its own constitution. The government of each region consists of a regional assembly (regionale vergadering), regional government (regionale overheid) and governor (gouverneur), the latter of which is usually the leader of the regional government. In city regions, the title of mayor (burgermeester) is used for the head of the regional government instead. Municipalities have a smaller degree of autonomy than regions, governed by a municipal council who in turn elect a mayor. Similarly, districts in city regions are governed by a district council and a chairperson. The function of counties has become largely ceremonial since the 20th century, with executive powers vested in regions and municipalities. City regions have an overall greater level of executive power as they assume the role of both a region and a municipality. As such, the powers of a district council and its chairperson are more limited than regular municipalities. The term limits for regional governments vary by state, set at either four or five years. Municipal and district elections are held every four years, and are synchronised nationwide under a long-standing agreement between the regions.
Hennehouwe has one of the oldest standing armies and navies in Euclea; both first established as such by Albertus of Zilverzee in the early 1500s. Following unification under the Grand Duchy of Flamia, the Hennish army was used throughout the Flamian Empire, while the Navy was utilised to expand and trade routes. The failure of the Flamian Army during the Gaullican invasion and annexation in 1749 provoked strong feelings of nationalism and humiliation led to the Hennish Revolution during the War of the Triple Alliance. Following independence, the Second Republic turned to a conscripted army to defend the nation, however the army would be defeated by Gaullica in the Great War despite heavy resistance.
The Hennish saw action in the Solarian War aiding United Nations of Euclea forces against Etruria. In 1949, with the creation of the Euclean Community, the Hennish military became a partner in its defence. In 1999 conscription was suspended, and the Hennish armed forces was once again transformed into a professional force. Since the early 2000s, the Hennish Army has provided soldiers to Community of Nations and EC peacekeeping missions.
As of 2018, the Hennish Armed Forces had 111,583 active military personnel and 58,642 reservists.
The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Republikeins (Republican):
- Republikeins Landmacht (RL), the Republican Hennish Army;
- Republikeins Marine (RM), the Republican Hennish Navy, including the Naval Air Service and Marine Corps;
- Republikeins Luchtmacht (RLu), the Republican Hennish Air Force;
- Republikeins Marechaussee (RMar), the Republican Marechaussee (Military Police), tasks include military police, domestic policing duties and border control.
Hennehouwe has an estimated population of 12,632,000 as of April 2022, according to Central Statistics Office (CSB) estimates. As of the 2018 census, the population was recorded at 12,424,398. Hennehouwe is thus described as a 'medium small' country, and is the sevent most populous of the twelve member states of the Euclean Community. It is among the most densely populated countries in Euclea, with a density of 163.85 per square kilometre (424.40/sq mi). Since the end of the Great War in 1935, the country's population roughly doubled from 6.3 to 12.4 million. Much of the country's population is concentrated in the south and the east of the country, with the Kustland, a region encompassing the area near the Hennish Gulf including eastern Flamia, southern Lower Stegeren, s'Holle and Zilverzee, containing around 6 million people, or around half of Hennehouwe's population.
Hennehouwe does not record official figures relating to ethnicity or race; the CSB is forbidden from collecting such information following a 1996 federal court ruling. The country has five recognised native ethnic groups: Hennish, Petois, Estmerish, Dellish, and Lowland travellers. The distinction made between ethnic Henns, Hennish nationals and Hennish citizens in defining Hennish identity is ambiguous at an administrative level, owing to historical patterns of segmentation, the country's very own history, and the constitutional guarantee of 'self-identification' with relation to ethnicity. Rather, official data distinguishes those who are foreign citizens (i.e. born outside of Hennehouwe and without Hennish citizenship), as well as those who have a foreign or multi-national background (i.e. had at least one parent of non-native origin). As of the 2018 census, there were 1,396,349 (11.2%) foreign citizens in Hennehouwe, whilst 2,950,826 (23.7%) had a foreign or multi-national background.
The total fertility rate in Hennehouwe is 1.78 per woman according to 2020 CSB estimates, which is higher than the Euclean average, though still well below the population replacement rate of 2.1 per woman, and about a third of the rate of 5.38 per woman in 1887. The total fertility rate is higher among foreign citizens and those with a foreign or multi-national background compared with the rest of the population. Life expectancy in Hennehouwe is among the highest in the world, at 84.0 for females and 81.1 for males, with an average life expectancy rate of 82.5 according to CSB esimates in 2020.
Hennehouwe is a religiously diverse nation. Officially, Hennehouwe is a secular state, with freedom of religion and the right to non-affiliation guaranteed by the 1935 constitution.
As of the 2018 census, 65.5% of the population identified as Sotirianity, with the dominant denominations being Amendism at 33.2% and Solarian Catholicism at 31.3%. With regard to the Amendist population, 22.5% belong to the United Hennish Church, an amalgamation of a number of Kasperist and Gospelite churches; a further 5.8% belong to the Reformed Confessional Church, a conservative Kasperist church; with 4.9% belonging to a number of other Amendist churches, including the Embrian Commonwealth, Witterite churches and others. Of the 1.0% who identify as other Sotirian, denominations represented include Episemialism and Amicablism.
The sectarian divide between Amendists and Catholics in Hennehouwe is informally defined by the river Zwarte, splitting the country into the predominantly Amendist north and the Catholic south. The split dates back to the Amendist Reaction in the 16th century, in which Hennehouwe was one of the number of epicentres. It was during this period that the teachings of Stegeren-born Johan Kasper took hold in northern areas of the country, whose theologic doctrine developed into Kasperism. Other Amendist movements from further north also spread, most notably Gospelism. The spread of Amendism to the south of Hennehouwe was largely halted by the power and influence of the Flamish Duchy and its allies, which remained loyal to the Solarian Church and the Gaullican monarchy. The growing divisions and tension between the two sides culminated in the Hennish Civil War, which sealed the split via partition. Once Hennehouwe regained its full independence as a unified state, efforts to maintain peace between the two sides as well as to ensure respective continuity of the churches' dominion resulted in the adoption of sphere sovereignty and segmentation, which lasted until after the Great War. Decades of political, social and economic co-operation, combined wth the global trend of ecumenism, led to the collapse of the segmentation system and closer integration between people of the two faiths in the post-War era.
Whilst the country remains geographically divided on the basis of religious denomination to this today, there is little impact of this on societal interaction or mobility. Historically, Amendism has been the dominant religion by number of adherents, though the number of Amendists is roughly equal to that of Catholics as of the 2018 census, and is expected to be surpassed by the latter in 2030. However, the overall number of adherents to both Sotirian branches has been in decline since the 1960's. Increasing secularism amongst the general public has led to a decline in church attendance across both denominations, as well as a decline in the numbers of those who view religion as an important part of their daily lives. The exception is in the Confessional Belt, a stretch of land reaching from Geeland and Upper Stegeren to Lower Stegeren, where predominantly conservative Kasperist beliefs remain dominant in daily life.
As of 2018, Amendists make up a majority in Geeland, Reekland and Upper Stegeren, and a plurality in Grotevlakte and Lower Stegeren. Catholics are a majority in Flamia, Molenburg and Oudkessel-Witburg, and a plurality in s'Holle. Catholics are also the plurality religion in Zilverzee, though the total number of non-affiliated or irreligious are the plurality in terms of overall affiliation in that region. Catholicism is the dominant religion among the Petois population in the south of the country, as well as among the large Etrurian diaspora.
The numbers of those who classify themselves as non-affiliated, irreligious or atheist stands at 3,356,784 (27.0%) following the 2018 census. This number has seen particular growth over the last century, and is in line with a growing trend of religious disaffiliation across Euclea. Those without an affiliation are expected to make up a plurality of the population by 2035.
Irfan is the third-largest religion in Hennehouwe, and a relatively new religion to the country. 472,131 people (3.8%) identified as Irfan in the 2018 census, a number that has increased exponentially since the 1970's. Most Irfan in Hennehouwe are of a Coian migrant background, particularly from Irvadistan, Tsabara and Yemet. Much of the Irfan population is concentrated in urban cities, particularly Zilverzee and s'Holle. The Noordmazar, located in Zilverzee, is one of the largest mazars in Euclea.
Atudism is the fourth-largest religion in the country, with 160,958 people recorded as adherents as of the 2018 census. Atudism has a long history in Hennehouwe, dating back to the forced migrations of the early second millenium. Initially dispersed in pockets of the country, Atudites came to settle in larger urban areas in the southern half of the country, including in s'Holle which became a sanctuary to those fleeing from the oppression of the Sotirian Commonwealth, and later those from neighbouring countries. The largest Atudite community today is located in s'Holle, where some 57,000 people live.
Other religions with significant populations in Hennehouwe include Badi at 0.9%, and Zohism at 0.7%. The growth of both groups has been as a result of migration from Coius. Another 0.8% identify as 'other' religious, including those who are spiritual but do not express ties to a specific religion or movement.
Hennish is the sole official language of Hennehouwe. It is the working language of the federal government and the domestic lingua franca in most of the country. Hennish is the first language of 76.1% of the population as of the 2018 census, with a further 13.8% having proficiency in the language, ranging from fluency as a second language to basic proficiency. Government statistics include in these numbers Hoeltish, which is considered to be a dialect of Hennish (it is classified as a seperate language in Kesselbourg). The Hennish language is regulated by the Hennish Language Institute (Hennse Taleninstituut).
Gaullican is the second most-spoken language in the country, with 14.4% having it as their first language as of the 2018 census. A further 51.0% have varying proficiency in Gaullican as a second or third language. Gaullican is the native language of the Petois, a group of more than one million people who live in the south of country, along the Gaullican border. Native Gaullican speakers also include immigrants from Gaullica and other Gaullican-speaking countries. It is a co-official language in Molenburg and Oudkessel-Witburg, and is the most-spoken language in the former. It also has regional language status in Flamia. The variety of Gaullican spoken in Petois areas is known as Petois Gaullican, which is the standard used for Gaullican at the national level.
The Gaullican language has a complex history in Hennehouwe, and its status at the national level remains a point of controversy to this day. During the various periods of Gaullican rule, the language was imposed on the native Hennish, whose own language was subject to repression and forced Gaullicanisation. In the post-independence period, the use of Gaullican became largely restricted to the Petois segment of society, who were freely allowed to integrate the language into their own institutions, education and day-to-day lives. Gaullican occupation of southern Hennehouwe, and later of the entire country during the Great War, brought about a renewed attempt at rapid Gaullicanisation and the relegation of the Hennish language, which contributed to the stigma around the official status of Gaullican in the post-War period. In the decades since, there have been numerous attempts to re-introduce Gaullican as a co-working language at the federal level. This is supported by the Party for the Petois, and opposed by Hennish nationalists.
Estmerish is the third most-spoken language in the country, with 4.2% declaring it as their first language in the 2018 census. It is a native language in areas near the Estmerish border in Reekland, where it is a co-official language, and in Lower Stegeren, where it has regional language status. Estmerish is also the first language of many expats from Estmere, Nuvania and Satavia who have settled in Hennehouwe. Dellish is also a co-official or regional language in a number of Reekish and Lower Stegerener municipalities, and is the first language of 0.8% of the population as of 2018. Other languages recognised as native, but without official status at the federal, regional, or local level include Reekish, Nethertall and Hennish sign language.
A further 4.5% of the population speak another language as their first language. These are mostly made up of immigrants and those of a foreign background who continue speak their mother tongue at home. The most common of these are the Etrurian diaspora: Vespasian and Novalian are among the most common 'foreign' languages spoken in Hennehouwe. Other prominent languages spoken by immigrants in Hennehouwe include Rahelian, Luzelese, Ziba and Shangean.
Language education in Hennish schools vary greatly by region. Hennish is a compulsory teaching language in all schools, though seperate curriculums exist for those who speak it as a first language and those who speak it as an additional language. Gaullican is a compulsory language in five regions; in Molenburg it is the basic teaching language for the majority of schools. Estmerish is compulsory in all schools in Reekland, and is the third most-taught language nationally. Other commonly-taught languages in Hennish schools include Weranic, Vespasian, Dellish, Shangean and Soravian.
Largest municipalities in Hennehouwe
|1||s'Holle||s'Holle||1,413,551||11||Ven ann de Zwarte||Flamia||133,545|
|3||Etten||Lower Stegeren||313,274||13||Stavenisse||Lower Stegeren||126,280|
|9||Hessum||Lower Stegeren||140,521||19||Noordland||Lower Stegeren||85,534|
There has been a long history of migration in Hennehouwe, including emigration, immigration and internal migration within the country. The most notable historical periods of immigration were the Plantation of the Platland by Gaullican colonisers in the 15th and 16th century, and the zuivering (purification) undertaken by Puritans in the Sotirian Commonwealth in the second half of the 17th century which displaced most of the non-Amendist population from the northern half of the modern-day state. Most northern Catholics fled southwards, whilst the zuivering also resulted in the emergence of the Lowland traveller group from among unorganised displaced peoples. Some cities in Hennehouwe also became centres of refuge for other displaced or persecuted groups from outside the country, most notably the Atudites, who settled in s'Holle and Aarle among other Flamish cities.
Early emigration in the modern era was characterised by the two imperial pursuits of the two partitioned Hennish states. Settlers from the Sotirian Commonwealth were instrumental in the colonisation of new territories in the Asterias, primarily Nuvania and Satavia. These settlers would develop their own distinct identity and language over the following centuries, today known as Asterianers.
In the years following the end of the Great War and the establishment of the Third Republic, Hennehouwe saw an unprecedented wave of immigration with the implementation of the gastarbeider system in the late 1940's. The first wave of immigration came primarily from southern Euclean countries such as Etruria, Paretia and Piraea. Later waves in the second half of the 20th century included Coian immigrants, including a substantial number of Irvadis fleeing from Zorasan in the late 1970's and early 1980's, as well as a smaller number of immigrants from member states of the Euclean Community like Amathia. The federal government slowly phased out the gastarbeider system in the late 1990's.
Immigration is a particularly sensitive political and socio-economic issue in Hennehouwe today. Concerns over its impact on the welfare state and state resources, as well as the issue of integration have played a significant role in domestic political discourse in recent decades, and has been responsible for the rise of right-wing populist parties including the Patriotic Movement and its sucessor, the Patriot's March.
As the Hennish government does not collect data on the ethnic or national identity of residents, the numbers of specific ethnicities in Hennehouwe is difficult to measure beyond basic descriptions of those with a foreign or multi-national background. The largest diaspora group in Hennehouwe are Etrurians, of whom an estimated 750,000 are believed to live in the country. This figure includes those born in Hennehouwe but of Etrurian descent. Other groups with an estimated population of over 100,000 include Gaullicans, Irvadis, Dezevauni, Satavians and Paretians. Immigrant populations are highly concentrated in urban areas, with Zilverzee having the highest percentage of residents with a foreign or multi-national background at 49.3%.