Autonomous Province of Chanwa
State Anthem of Chanwa]]
|■ – Chanwa ■ – Xiaodong|
■ – Chanwa ■ – Xiaodong
|Annexation into Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire||1875-1880|
|Devolution||24 August 2002|
and largest city
|• Type||Devolved government in a parliamentary republic|
|• Body||Regional Presidium of Chanwa|
|• State Chairman||Yuan Xiannian|
|• Governor of Chanwa||U Mya|
|• Total||$8,375 million|
|• Per capita||$578|
|• Total||$14,715 million|
|• Per capita||$1,016|
|Official languages||Chanwan, Xiaodongese|
The Autonomous Province of Chanwa (Chanwan: ချိုင့်ဝှမ်း၏ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရပြည်နယ်; Hkyao ng wham eat kopine aotehkyaote hkwng r pyinaal; Xiaodongese: 专项自治区域山国, Zìzhì shěng Shānguó) is a devolved autonomous provinces in Xiaodong. Consisting of the four prefecture of Wuxintai, Tongguan, Qingbei and Shihebao, Chanwa has historically been home to the Chanwan people, who are distinct from ethnic Xiaodongese. The regional capital of Chanwa and its largest city is Banyin.
Chanwan people first settled in Chanwa during following the fall of the First Phuli Empire. Over time the Chanwa people were displaced from most parts of the modern territory of Xiaodong by proto-Xiaodongese people, being driven westward into the Huashan mountain range, in the territory that today makes up Chanwa. These Chanwan people would unlike the people of Xiaodong remained primarily nomadic, divided between clans and forming at best loose tribal confederations. The expansion of the Xiang dynasty absorbed many of these peoples into the Xiang Emperor's sphere of influence, although authority over the area always remained shaky at best. The collapse of the Xiang dynasty meant control over the region passed once again to tribal confederations, remaining as such until the 1600's. During that time numerous wars were fought between Xiaodongese dynasties and Chanwan clans.
During the 1600's the Myiang clan conquered several other clans and created the Kingdom of Myiang, the first unified Chanwan state although in practice it remained a confederation of clans. The Chanwan Kingdom nevertheless saw the imposition of the Chanwan alphabet and a more uniform culture. Between 1875-1880 the Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire annexed Chanwa into its territory in the Xiaodongese invasion of Chanwa, defining the modern day borders of Xiaodong. Under Xiaodongese rule, especially during the reign of the Shanrong Emperor Chanwan culture was attacked and its people persecuted.
Chanwa was granted independence following the Great War as the Republic of Chanwa. However it failed to secure widespread international recognition and near the conclusion of the Xiaodongese Civil War it was partitioned between Xiaodong and Tinza where its people suppressed by Xiaodong. Following democratisation in the 1980's Chanwan nationalism became a more prominent force, with devolution being carried out in 1988. However the Xiaodongese government cancelled the results of an election pro-separatist forces won, leading to the start of the Chanwan War which ended in 1997 when an agreement was reached to give Chanwa devolved status which happened in 2002. Since than Chanwa has been ruled as an autonomous region within Xiaodong.
Chanwa is the poorest region in the nation, with poverty and inequality being the highest in Xiaodong. Its economy is driven by coal mining, cotton and livestock farming. Home to 95% of Xiaodong's Chanwan population, with 74% of the province being ethnically Chanwan and 24% ethnic Xiaodongese. Around 20% of its population is still nomadic. It is ruled by a devolved government that has powers over environment, public services, transport, agriculture, housing, aspects of law and order and economic development.
Government and Politics
Chanwa is a devolved autonomous province within the Auspicious Republic of Xiaodong. Xiaodong is an unitary state, with its main administrative divisions, prefectures, having limited authority - however since 2002 Chanwa has been given a large amount of autonomy within Xiaodong. The Chanwan regional government is technically four prefectures (Wuxintai, Tongguan, Qingbei and Shihebao) that are under the control of the Regional Presidium of Chanwa, a body that reports directly to the national Executive Council. The Executive Council is the government of the Chanwan region, and functions as a parliamentary republic with a governor leading the Executive Council and being responsible to the Regional Legislature. Like in the rest of Xiaodong, public officials must be approved by the Examination Secretariat to either hold public office or serve in the civil service.
Since 2002 Chanwan politics have been dominated by the Society for Union, a Xiaodongese nationalist organisation that officially is affiliated with the central government. The current Governor of Chanwa is U Mya who has served as Governor since 2012. The majority of Chanwa's politicians are serving military officers.
Duljun is governed as a parliamentary republic with the executive government of Chanwa known as the Regional Presidium. The Regional Presidium is chaired by the Governor of Chanwa. The Regional Presidium is both responsible to the central Xiaodongese government yet must also command the confidence of the Regional Legislature of Chanwa - however, the central government has the sole right to appoint the Governor. If the Regional Legislature rejects the government's choice for the Governor of Chanwa the central government has the right to dissolve the Regional Legislature and impose direct rule over the region, effectively suspending the regional government - this happened between 1988-2002 after the Xiaodongese government refused to accept the pro-independence Chanwan People's Liberation Front forming a government in Chanwa.
The Governor of Chanwa officially appoints the members of the Regional Presidium and acts as the leader of Chanwa, and has the ability to override the Regional Legislature if he has the consent of the Xiaodongese government. The Regional Presidium has devolved powers over environmental policies, local public services and transport provisions, agricultural policy, housing, aspects of law and order, local government taxation, local infrastructure and economic development.
Chanwa has a unicameral legislature known as the Regional Legislature of Chanwa. The legislature contains 70 members - 35 are appointed by the governor and 35 elected via first-past-the-post. Unlike in the rest of Xiaodong, where an election is declared invalid if it fails to produce a 50% turnout, Chanwan elections have no such restrictions - as such the average turnout in Chanwa is closer to 40%.
The Chanwan Regional Legislature officially nominates and appoints a Governor as well as propose, draft, amend, pass and repeal legalisation that fulls within the authority of the Chanwan government. A majority of votes (36) is needed to pass legalisation, whilst a supermajority (47) is needed to petition to the Xiaodongese government to amend the constitutional status of Chanwa, subject to a vote in the Legislative Council. The Regional Legislature is chaired by a President.
Currently the legislative council is made up of 36 members of the Society for Union, 30 military officers and 4 independents. All are considered loyalists to Governor U Mya.
|#||Prefecture (省)||Xiaodongese name||Chanwan name||Administrative centre||Xiaodongese name||Chanwan name||Population|
Ethnically Chanwa is dominated by the native Chanwan people who make up 74.28% of the Chanwan population identifying as such at the last census. As such Chanwa is home to 95.3% of the total Chanwan population in Xiaodong.
The Chanwan people are a xxx people who are often seen to live as semi-nomadic herders. However there are regional differences with most southern Chanwan tribes having traditionally been sedentary agricultural people although it is accepted that northern tribes are primarily nomadic. In 1957, a study done by the College of Henjintao found around 46% of the Chanwan people lived nomadic lifestyles and a more recent study done in 2003 found this number had declined to around 19-23%.
Around 24.02% of people in Chanwa identify as ethnic Xiaodongese. Xiaodongese people since the days of the Xiang dynasty have inhabited Chanwa and have always led sedentary agricultural lifestyles. However it was under the Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire that the "Xiaodongeseisation" of Chanwa began as the government encouraged large scale immigration to Chanwa by Xiaodongese farmers' and workers', primarily during periods of economic depression in the 1890's and the 1910's. It was only during the 1960's up until the 1980's that the Xiaodongese government however began to encourage much larger scale emigration of Xiaodongese to Chanwa.
There has been controversy over ethnic issues in Chanwa. During the 1920's the Xiaodongese government supported a policy of genocide in Chanwa deporting and murdering Chanwan people, and since the 1960's have pushed through several policies that some Chanwan people accuse of constituting an ethnic cleansing. The Xiaodongese government has consistently denied pursuing a policy of ethnic cleansing although they refuse to institute policies such as positive discrimination that are demanded by many Chanwan civil rights activists.
Healthcare is a devolved matter in Chanwa. Healthcare was a state monopoly in Chanwa until 2007 when to reduce spending the healthcare system was privatised to resemble the rest of Xiaodong, where private hospitals are the norm. The Chanwan government subsequently have created a voluntary insurance system where people sign up to government insurance that subsidises a portion of healthcare costs depending on income. The Chanwan government spends some the highest healthcare costs per capita in Xiaodong due to the average income in Chanwa being a lot smaller than the rest of Xiaodong. However Chanwa is also the region with the largest amount of people uninsured in Xiaodong with over 30% not possessing any form of health insurance. Most people uninsured are nomads.
Chanwa has two official languages - Chanwan and Xiaodongese. Prior to 2002 Xiaodongese was the only official language and prior to 1993 Chanwan was banned in schools and from being publicly broadcasted. Plans for a policy of official bilingualism in public administration was announced in 2005 but as of 2017 has not yet been implemented.