Autonomous Province of Chanwa

Chanwa

ချိုင့်ဝှမ်း၏ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရပြည်နယ်
自治省山国
Autonomous Province
Anthem: ချိုင့်ဝှမ်းပြည်နယ်နိုင်ငံတော်သီချင်း
State Anthem of Chanwa]]
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■ – Chanwa ■ – Xiaodong
– Chanwa Xiaodong
CountryXiaodong
StatusAutonomous Province
Annexation into Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire1875-1880
Devolution24 August 2002
Capital
and largest city
Banyin
Government
 • TypeDevolved government in a parliamentary republic
 • BodyRegional Presidium of Chanwa
 • State ChairmanYuan Xiannian
 • Governor of ChanwaU Mya
Population
(2016)
 • Total15,266,392
Demonym(s)Chanwan
GDP
 • Total$8,375 million
 • Per capita$578
GDP
 (PPP)
 • Total$14,715 million
 • Per capita$1,016
Area code+893
Official languagesChanwan, Xiaodongese

The Autonomous Province of Chanwa (Chanwan: ချိုင့်ဝှမ်း၏ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရပြည်နယ်; Hkyao ng wham eat kopine aotehkyaote hkwng r pyinaal; Xiaodongese: 专项自治区域山国, Zìzhì shěng Shānguó) is a devolved autonomous provinces in Xiaodong. Consisting of the four prefecture of Wuxintai, Tongguan, Qingbei and Shihebao, Chanwa has historically been home to the Chanwan people, who are distinct from ethnic Xiaodongese. The regional capital of Chanwa and its largest city is Banyin.

Chanwan people first settled in Chanwa during following the fall of the First Phuli Empire. Over time the Chanwa people were displaced from most parts of the modern territory of Xiaodong by proto-Xiaodongese people, being driven westward into the Huashan mountain range, in the territory that today makes up Chanwa. These Chanwan people would unlike the people of Xiaodong remained primarily nomadic, divided between clans and forming at best loose tribal confederations. The expansion of the Xiang dynasty absorbed many of these peoples into the Xiang Emperor's sphere of influence, although authority over the area always remained shaky at best. The collapse of the Xiang dynasty meant control over the region passed once again to tribal confederations, remaining as such until the 1600's. During that time numerous wars were fought between Xiaodongese dynasties and Chanwan clans.

During the 1600's the Myiang clan conquered several other clans and created the Kingdom of Myiang, the first unified Chanwan state although in practice it remained a confederation of clans. The Chanwan Kingdom nevertheless saw the imposition of the Chanwan alphabet and a more uniform culture. Between 1875-1880 the Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire annexed Chanwa into its territory in the Xiaodongese invasion of Chanwa, defining the modern day borders of Xiaodong. Under Xiaodongese rule, especially during the reign of the Shanrong Emperor Chanwan culture was attacked and its people persecuted.

Chanwa was granted independence following the Great War as the Republic of Chanwa. However it failed to secure widespread international recognition and near the conclusion of the Xiaodongese Civil War it was partitioned between Xiaodong and Tinza where its people suppressed by Xiaodong. Following democratisation in the 1980's Chanwan nationalism became a more prominent force, with devolution being carried out in 1988. However the Xiaodongese government cancelled the results of an election pro-separatist forces won, leading to the start of the Chanwan War which ended in 1997 when an agreement was reached to give Chanwa devolved status which happened in 2002. Since than Chanwa has been ruled as an autonomous region within Xiaodong.

Chanwa is the poorest region in the nation, with poverty and inequality being the highest in Xiaodong. Its economy is driven by coal mining, cotton and livestock farming. Home to 95% of Xiaodong's Chanwan population, with 74% of the province being ethnically Chanwan and 24% ethnic Xiaodongese. Around 20% of its population is still nomadic. It is ruled by a devolved government that has powers over environment, public services, transport, agriculture, housing, aspects of law and order and economic development.

Etymology

History

Duljun has been inhabited for over a million years, with homo erectus remains found around the Dunguuyi river. The first human inhabitants are thought to have settled in the region around the 5th millennium BCE, although not much is known about these people. The descendants of the Duljunese people came to the region during the Great Monic Migration where the first Tungusic languages started to developed. These early tribes were nomadic and populated much of modern day Xiaodong. These tribes developed a society based on clans, whilst horses played a vital role in hunting and later warfare amongst clans.

Over the next millennium Tungusic tribes were displaced from most of the coastal regions by Xiaodongese speaking people's, driven into the mostly inhospitable Huashan mountain range. It was during this time that the Tungusic tribes began to adopt a more uniform culture with clans becoming much larger.

Much of modern day Duljun was annexed by the Xiang dynasty around 0 CE by the Tianjiao Emperor. The Xiang dynasty referred to the newly conquered territory as "Xinbianjing" (新边境; Xīnbiānjìng) or "New Frontier", although control of the region was patchy at best. Tax collection especially was inadequate, and the frontier regions became notorious for their banditry and general lawlessness. Around 440CE the Jiangqing Emperor declared the territory would be rooted out of banditry, with protracted fighting fought in the region up until the demise of the Xiang dynasty.

Following the collapse of the Xiang dynasty in 500CE Duljun became once again dominated by nomadic tribes. These tribes coalesced into large clans that often struck alliances with each other to fight another clan, and vice-versa. These clan confederations would often break up or devolved into infighting relatively quickly. During this period, conflict with various Xiaodongese dynasties was common, with Xiaodong periodically expanding into Duljun. According to Xiaodongese sources, Duljun was crucial in Borean trade routes with traders often passing through the city of Henjintao, but ran the risk of encountering bandits. During the Tao dynasty there was extensive trade between Duljunese clans and the dynasty, especially in the silk and cotton trade. The region was also known for being a source for Xiaodongese slaves and mercenary fighters, with Duljunese horseback warriors being revered Xiaodong as naturally more powerful. During this time the region started to become known as "Duljun" amongst its peoples, and "Shanguo" in Xiaodongese.

Around the 1640's the Orochu clan through inter-marriages with other tribes, control of trade routes and military prowess had become the largest clan within Duljun. As such, under its patriarch Noborit Orochu the Orochu launched a series of conquests and alliances that gradually saw the unification of Duljun under the Orochu. Noborit crowned himself as King of Duljun, creating the first unified Duljunese state. The new kingdom was more of a tribal confederation than a true centralised state like its Xiaodongese counterpart, with the King being chosen by a clan council and clans retaining autonomy over their territory. During the 1600's a unified Duljunese culture gave rise to the Duljunese scrip and a form of Buddhism became dominant amongst elites, although the majority of the population pracited forms of shamanism.

In the 1700's, the neighbouring Jiao dynasty attempted to conquer Duljun and annex it into Xiaodong. A short war ensured which saw Duljun successfully beat back Xiaodongese forces, thus preserving the independence of Duljun. However, in 1863 the death of the King Gulbajin sparked a crisis as two rival clans back different princes to succeed him. Although the war was short it saw unprecedented violence on both sides, being only resolved in 1868 when Sukabyt was crowned King.

The same year Sukabyt consolidated his power as King the Baiqiao Revolution broke out in neighbouring Xiaodong, creating the Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire which claimed sovereignty over the land ruled by the Xiang dynasty, including Duljun. As a result Sukabyt begun belated modernisation efforts, abolishing the clan holdings and creating a centralised state and a unified army. However Sukabyt's modernisation policy faced heavy resistance from clans, leading to domestic instability and peasant revolts.

In 1875 the Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire began to invade Duljun, allying with local clans opposed to Sukabyt's rule starting the Xiaodongese invasion of Duljun. The archaic and disorganised irregular Duljunese forces were quickly defeated by the more modern, disciplined Heavenly Xiaodongese Army which took the capital of Duljun Henjintao in 1878. King Sukabyt however would continue to lead Duljunese irregular forces loyal to him until 1880 when he was captured by Xiaodongese authorities, thus completing the annexation of Duljun into Xiaodong.

Under the Xiaodongese Heavenly Empire Duljun was fully incorporated into Xiaodong proper, unlike other areas in the Xiaodongese sphere of influence such as Tinzhan. The Duljunese language was abolished for official purposes whilst Xiaodongese aristocrats ran the new civil service in Duljun.

Government and Politics

U Mya, Governor of Chanwa since 2012.

Chanwa is a devolved autonomous province within the Auspicious Republic of Xiaodong. Xiaodong is an unitary state, with its main administrative divisions, prefectures, having limited authority - however since 2002 Chanwa has been given a large amount of autonomy within Xiaodong. The Chanwan regional government is technically four prefectures (Wuxintai, Tongguan, Qingbei and Shihebao) that are under the control of the Regional Presidium of Chanwa, a body that reports directly to the national Executive Council. The Executive Council is the government of the Chanwan region, and functions as a parliamentary republic with a governor leading the Executive Council and being responsible to the Regional Legislature. Like in the rest of Xiaodong, public officials must be approved by the Examination Secretariat to either hold public office or serve in the civil service.

Since 2002 Chanwan politics have been dominated by the Society for Union, a Xiaodongese nationalist organisation that officially is affiliated with the central government. The current Governor of Chanwa is U Mya who has served as Governor since 2012. The majority of Chanwa's politicians are serving military officers.

Government

Duljun is governed as a parliamentary republic with the executive government of Chanwa known as the Regional Presidium. The Regional Presidium is chaired by the Governor of Chanwa. The Regional Presidium is both responsible to the central Xiaodongese government yet must also command the confidence of the Regional Legislature of Chanwa - however, the central government has the sole right to appoint the Governor. If the Regional Legislature rejects the government's choice for the Governor of Chanwa the central government has the right to dissolve the Regional Legislature and impose direct rule over the region, effectively suspending the regional government - this happened between 1988-2002 after the Xiaodongese government refused to accept the pro-independence Chanwan People's Liberation Front forming a government in Chanwa.

The Governor of Chanwa officially appoints the members of the Regional Presidium and acts as the leader of Chanwa, and has the ability to override the Regional Legislature if he has the consent of the Xiaodongese government. The Regional Presidium has devolved powers over environmental policies, local public services and transport provisions, agricultural policy, housing, aspects of law and order, local government taxation, local infrastructure and economic development.

The current and second Governor of Chanwa is former general U Mya, who during his 8 year rule has been accused of authoritarianism, corruption and nepotism.

Legislature

Chanwa has a unicameral legislature known as the Regional Legislature of Chanwa. The legislature contains 70 members - 35 are appointed by the governor and 35 elected via first-past-the-post. Unlike in the rest of Xiaodong, where an election is declared invalid if it fails to produce a 50% turnout, Chanwan elections have no such restrictions - as such the average turnout in Chanwa is closer to 40%.

The Chanwan Regional Legislature officially nominates and appoints a Governor as well as propose, draft, amend, pass and repeal legalisation that fulls within the authority of the Chanwan government. A majority of votes (36) is needed to pass legalisation, whilst a supermajority (47) is needed to petition to the Xiaodongese government to amend the constitutional status of Chanwa, subject to a vote in the Legislative Council. The Regional Legislature is chaired by a President.

Currently the legislative council is made up of 36 members of the Society for Union, 30 military officers and 4 independents. All are considered loyalists to Governor U Mya.

Prefectures

# Prefecture (省) Xiaodongese name Chanwan name Administrative centre Xiaodongese name Chanwan name Population
1 Wuxintai 五心太
Wǔxīntài
Jinjiang 进疆
Jìnjiāng
2 Tongguan 潼关
Tóngguān
和进套
Héjìntào
3 Qingbei 清被
Qīngbèi
Caofang 操放
Cāofàng
4 Shihebao 是和包
Shìhébāo
Guoshan 过山
Guòshān

Human Rights

Geography

Biodiversity

Climate

Economy

Demographics

Ethnic groups

Ethnic composition of Xiaodong (2013 census)

  Chanwan (74.28%)
  Xiaodongese (24.02%)
  Other (1.7%)

Ethnically Chanwa is dominated by the native Chanwan people who make up 74.28% of the Chanwan population identifying as such at the last census. As such Chanwa is home to 95.3% of the total Chanwan population in Xiaodong.

The Chanwan people are a xxx people who are often seen to live as semi-nomadic herders. However there are regional differences with most southern Chanwan tribes having traditionally been sedentary agricultural people although it is accepted that northern tribes are primarily nomadic. In 1957, a study done by the College of Henjintao found around 46% of the Chanwan people lived nomadic lifestyles and a more recent study done in 2003 found this number had declined to around 19-23%.

Around 24.02% of people in Chanwa identify as ethnic Xiaodongese. Xiaodongese people since the days of the Xiang dynasty have inhabited Chanwa and have always led sedentary agricultural lifestyles. However it was under the Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire that the "Xiaodongeseisation" of Chanwa began as the government encouraged large scale immigration to Chanwa by Xiaodongese farmers' and workers', primarily during periods of economic depression in the 1890's and the 1910's. It was only during the 1960's up until the 1980's that the Xiaodongese government however began to encourage much larger scale emigration of Xiaodongese to Chanwa.

There has been controversy over ethnic issues in Chanwa. During the 1920's the Xiaodongese government supported a policy of genocide in Chanwa deporting and murdering Chanwan people, and since the 1960's have pushed through several policies that some Chanwan people accuse of constituting an ethnic cleansing. The Xiaodongese government has consistently denied pursuing a policy of ethnic cleansing although they refuse to institute policies such as positive discrimination that are demanded by many Chanwan civil rights activists.

Health

Healthcare is a devolved matter in Chanwa. Healthcare was a state monopoly in Chanwa until 2007 when to reduce spending the healthcare system was privatised to resemble the rest of Xiaodong, where private hospitals are the norm. The Chanwan government subsequently have created a voluntary insurance system where people sign up to government insurance that subsidises a portion of healthcare costs depending on income. The Chanwan government spends some the highest healthcare costs per capita in Xiaodong due to the average income in Chanwa being a lot smaller than the rest of Xiaodong. However Chanwa is also the region with the largest amount of people uninsured in Xiaodong with over 30% not possessing any form of health insurance. Most people uninsured are nomads.

Language

Chanwa has two official languages - Chanwan and Xiaodongese. Prior to 2002 Xiaodongese was the only official language and prior to 1993 Chanwan was banned in schools and from being publicly broadcasted. Plans for a policy of official bilingualism in public administration was announced in 2005 but as of 2017 has not yet been implemented.

Religion

Culture

Clans

Duljunese society, especially that in rural areas, it still very much defined by Hiro's, large clans that contain several families. The largest clans include the Akjanul, Tsanggiya, Urhugeci and Ikulha with there being many smaller clans. Hiro's are strong kin groups - in rural areas especially. Clans often have unique rituals and distinct lifestyles - the Tsanggiya clan for example still puts great emphasis on equestrianism whilst males in the Akjanul clan traditionally wear the queue haircut. Traditionally intermarriages between the clans was rare.

The growth of urbanisation and the development of an industrial society alongside active attacks on clan lifestyles has led to a decline in the traditionally insular clan lifestyles, especially in urban areas. Duljunese nationalism has also served for many Duljunese to abandon clan ties and instead promote a unified Duljunese identity. However, in more isolated and rural areas clan life is still prominent in Duljun especially amongst those who still follow nomadic lifestyles.

Cuisine

Media

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