Rĕpublica Dasene (Desenan)
Anthem: "Marșul Dogei" (Desenan)
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||French|
|Government||Parliamentary crowned republic|
• Prime Minister
• President of the Senate
• President of the National Assembly
• Turian League
• Instrument of Government signed
|28 August 1820|
• Treaty of Valcele
|21 February 1923|
• May Coup
|18 May 1945|
|10 January 1990|
|118,736 km2 (45,844 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2017 estimate
|47.39/km2 (122.7/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|NSD 209.79 billion|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|NSD 187.34 billion|
• Per capita
|Currency||Desenan lira (DSL)|
|Time zone||East Conitian Time (ST−3)|
|ISO 3166 code||DS|
The Desenan Republic (Desenan: Rĕpublica Dasene), traditionally referred to as the Most Serene Republic of Desena (Desenan: Seninisĕma Rĕpublica de Dasena), is a country in Esquarium. It has a total population of approximately 5.6 million people, more than 1.2 million of whom live in the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Desena (//; Desenan: Dasena), the nation's capital and namesake. In total, the country covers an area of 118,736 square kilometers and is organized into five regions, four provincial cities, seventeen provinces, and three autonomous provinces. The Desenan Republic is the last remaining crowned republic in Esquarium and one of its oldest surviving countries.
The area occupied by the Republic was inhabited by early Carpathians since at least 600 BCE. Proto-Desenans likely emerged from them during the iron age and often came into conflict with migrating peoples from Northern Nordania. They were conquered by the Latin Republic in the first century AD along with the other cultures of the region. Latin control over the area dwindled during the Late Antiquity, leading to the rise of a number of smaller states during the Early Middle Ages, including the city-state of Desena. In 1371 the Turian League was formed by a number of merchant guilds and cities led by Desena to control maritime trade in Eastern Nordania. During the 15th century Desenan dominance over the league became effectively absolute as smaller members were absorbed into the growing network of Desenan colonies, while cities that could resist Desenan influence left the league. The republic flourished during the Renaissance, widely considered the "golden age" of Desena, which reached its greatest territorial extent in Conitia in 1718. Desena expanded its overseas territories worldwide during the Age of Discovery but ultimately lost most of its influence with the rise of oceanic trade and colonialism. Over the course of the 19th century the power of the dogeship gradually declined as democratic and liberal reforms were introduced. In 1945 the last of Doge's powers were stripped as the Assembly of the Republic became a rubber stamp for the Syndicalist Party of Desena, which outlawed all other political parties and nationalized the Desenan trade guilds in the establishment of a command economy. Following several years of social unrest and demonstrations against the government, the Syndicalist party peacefully relinquished control over the country in 1990.
Today the Desenan Republic is widely considered a regional middle power and representative democracy with a parliamentary system of government. It is a developed country with a high standard of living and an advanced economy with steadily increasing economic growth. The Republic performs well in many international rankings of education, health care, innovation, and civil liberties. An extensive system of social protection provides Desenans with universal health care, tertiary education, and access to a number of social assistance programs. The Desenan Republic is a member of many intergovernmental organizations, including the International League, Central Ocean Basin Alliance, and Latin Union, and is an observer of the Esquarian Community and member of its Esquarian Common Market.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
- 7 See also
Renaissance and the Enlightenment
Early modern period
The Desenan Republic is located in southeastern Conitia between latitudes 10° and 24° N and longitudes 46° and 56° W, almost entirely within the tropics, or "torrid zone." The country is made up of five regions that run along the western coastline of the Nerean Sea. The northernmost of these is the Desenan mainland, historically referred to as the Domini di Terraferma ("Mainland Domains") and in modern times as Metropolitan Desena. The city of Desena is located on the northern end of Victoria Bay at the mouth of the Suran River. The other four territories, collectively referred to as Maritime Desena or the Domini da Màr ("Domains of the Sea"), are, in order of descending latitude, Bredas, Caresus, the Valeni Islands, and Ondor.
The Desenan Republic has a total area of 118,736 km2 (45,844 sq mi), of which 113,548 km2 (43,841 sq mi) is land, the remainder consisting of its territorial waters. Its Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) covers an area of 268,102 km2 (103,515 sq mi) and is the largest in the Desenan Sea. Metropolitan Desena covers an area of 66,846 km2, approximately 56% of the Desenan Republic's total surface area. The remaining 51,890 km2 are the land territories and islands of Maritime Desena.
The northern area of Metropolitan Desena lies in the outer regions of the Ardes and contains the country's most rugged and mountainous terrain. Roughly 50 km from the border with Nameria is Mount Corund, the highest mountain in the Desenan Republic , with a peak elevation of 4,458 m (14,626 ft) above sea level. Also in the region is Mount Valari (Desenan: Muntele Vălări), the country's only active volcano, situated directly adjacent to Lake Sibel (Desenan: Lacul Sibiul), the largest lake in the country by both surface area and volume. To the south the Desenan Karst forms a band covering most of central Metropolitan Desena. The topography of this area is the result of acidic rain easily dissolving bedrock to form jagged landscapes and vast underground cave systems which have become widely associated with the Desenan Republic . Towards the coast the terrain gradually develops into smoother coastal plains that cover most of the remainder of Metropolitan Desena.
The terrain of Bredas is covered mostly by forested hill country and grassland. In contrast, Caresus is the country's other major mountainous region, with the Posari Mountains covering almost the entirety of the land territory on the Conitian mainland. The Valeni Islands are the country's largest island chain, and Ondor is its southernmost territory.
Earthquakes close enough in proximity to affect the Desenan Republic are uncommon, the most intense in recent history being the 6.1 Mw 2011 Iteşti earthquake.
Most of the Desenan Republic is classified as having a humid subtropical climate, Cfa in the Köppen climate classification. These areas have a hot summer and warm winter, and receive steady amounts of rain year-round. Sizeable regions of subtropical highland are found in northern regions and inland Caresus. They experience somewhat more mild temperatures but roughly the same amount of precipitation. Small portions of tropical savanna and tropical rainforest climate zones are also found on the isles of Caresus and the Valeni Islands.
Annual precipitation along the coast of Metropolitan Desena averages around 1,200 mm (47.2 inches). The farthest inland regions receive about 800 mm (47.2 inches). Tropical cyclones generally make landfall from summer through autumn. Due to the relatively small space for them to form in the Lazarene Sea, they are usually not as intense as tropical cyclones formed in other parts of the world. Even in the colder interior, it is rare for temperatures to drop lower than 15 °C (59 °F). During the hottest part of the year average daytime temperatures of around 30 °C (86 °F) are common throughout the country. The city of Desena experiences several instances of daily peak temperatures exceeding 40 °C (104 °F) a year, which in proper conditions can result in apparent temperatures approaching 50 °C (122 °F).
Biodiversity and environment
Despite the relatively limited number of distinct climate regions in the country, it has relatively high biodiversity for its size with more than 40,000 species of fauna recorded. There are at least 110 distinct endemic species of mammals in the Desenan Republic , as well as 167 species of reptiles and amphibians, 749 species of birds, 588 species of freshwater fish, and over 20,000 species of invertebrates. Many non-endemic species have been introduced to the country, including the Raccoon, Silver carp, Red imported fire ant, and White-tailed deer. Over 627 species of vascular plants are also found in the Desenan Republic .
Protected areas in the country are primarily organized into Natural Parks and National Parks (Desenan: Parcul Natural and Parcul Național). There are 12 Natural Parks and 5 National Parks covering a total area of 8,718 km2 (3,366 sq mi). As of 2016, there are 40 registered zoos, public aquariums, and aviaries in the country. Of its land area, 33.8% is covered by arable land, 29.6% by forest, 22.6% by urban area or roadways, and 14.0% by permanent pastures.
The national government considers climate change to be one of the major threats to the country. Most of the population is located at low elevations near the coastline and would be disastrously affected by a rise in sea level caused by global warming. In anticipation of this, the country has constructed and continues to develop one of the largest systems of dams and floodgates in the world, including the Desenan Seawall, which cost D₤6.8 billion ($1.8 bn USD) and took eight years to build. The Desenan Republic consistently performs well in international rankings of sustainability and environmental protection. Nonetheless, it has been criticized by many environmentalist activists and organizations for the widespread usage of intensive animal farming practices, commercial fishing, and continued expansion of and investment into oil production in the Nerean Sea.
|Desena||Special provincial city||1,212,379||46.09||38,015||-||41|
The Desenan Republic is a crowned republic and a federacy. The uncodified Constitution of the Desenan Republic forms the basis of the modern Desenan political system. The Doge of the Desenan Republic (Desenan: Doce) is the ceremonial head of state and de facto elected monarch, appointed for life by the Great Council. The Prime Minister (Desenan: Prim-ministru) is the head of government and holds executive power in the government. Alexandru Scorza has been Prime Minister since 2012 and is the fifth to serve under Doge Emil II Marculescu, who acceded to the dogeship in 1997.
The Desenan Republic has a score of 3 out of 5 in political freedoms and 4 out of 5 in civil freedoms according to the Esquarian Freedom Index published annually by the Esquarian Human Rights Monitor, which considers the country to be an electoral democracy.
Like many other countries, the government of the Desenan Republic is structured into legislative, executive, and judicial branches in a parliamentary system. The bicameral Parliament of the Desenan Republic is the national legislature and has the ability to enact laws, amend the constitution, declare war, determine the government budget, ratify treaties, and propose individuals for appointment as Prime Minister to the Doge, who is required to accept parliament's proposals. The Senate is the upper house of parliament and is elected by citizens using a party-list proportional system. The National Assembly is the lower house and is elected by citizens, foreign nationals with 5 years of residence, and Desenans living abroad for less than 5 years using a province-based semi-proportional system. Each province (or equivalent) receives one deputy automatically, and an additional one for every 30,000 population. Additional deputies are added as a majority bonus to the party or coalition that wins the most deputies, equal to five percent of the final total. Both chambers have the same powers in most areas, with the notable exception of amendments to and other matters related to the constitution, which the Senate has sole control over. General elections take place every four years.
Technically, "Prime Minister" is a recognized alternative title for the President of the Council of Ministers, who has the power to appoint and dismiss ministers freely with the exception of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Defense, and Minister of Justice, which have certain restrictions and requirements on their officeholders. In addition to control over the cabinet, the Prime Minister has limited legislative power in the form of decrees and government regulation. Typically the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest political party in the governing coalition, if there is one.
The Presidium of the Council of Ministers is a government agency that acts as the executive office and staff of the Council of Ministers. It is equivalent to chancelleries or cabinet offices in other governments. Videle Palace is the seat of the government and the official residence of the Prime Minister.
Historically, the Desenan Republic's largest political parties were the Democratic People's Party, Social Democratic Party, and the Syndicalist Party of the Desenan Republic. Over the mid to late 2000s the National Syndicalist Party overtook both the Social Democratic Party and Syndicalist Partyin votes and membership. In 2010 it secured the largest number of seats of any single party and formed a coalition government with the Syndicalist Party, democratically returning syndicalists to power in the country for the first time since the end of one-party rule in 1990. The coalition won again in 2014 and 2018. It currently possesses a combined 184 out of 318 seats in the National Assembly and 65 out of 115 seats in the Senate. The center-right Democratic People's Party remains the second largest political party in the country and the largest in the parliamentary opposition.
Law and criminal justice
The Desenan Republic uses a civil legal system based on Napoleonic Code and Roman law. Courts and the judiciary are administered by the Ministry of Justice on a national level. The Constitutional Court of the Desenan Republic has the power of judicial review and is the highest authority on constitutional and administrative law. The Prosecutor-General of the Desenan Republic is the single most powerful figure in the national judiciary and is responsible for investigating corruption in all branches of government. The Supreme Court of the Desenan Republic is the court of last resort for private law and criminal law.
Desenan law is codified into the Cod Civil (Civil Code) and Cod Penal (Penal Code). The Constitution of the Desenan Republic is not codified in to a single document but is fully written, made up of several distinct documents of constitutional laws. The most notable of these is the Instrument of Government of the Republic, enacted on 28 August 1820 by Leon I with the approval of parliament. The country's bill of rights, the Declaration of the Rights of the People, was adopted in 1889 and has been modified extensively since then, most recently in 2015. The declaration guarantees Desenan citizens various fundamental rights, including the right to life, freedom of assembly, and equality before the law.
The two main law enforcement agencies in the Desenan Republic are the Poliția Națională (National Police) and Jandarmeria (Gendarmerie). Both are under the control of the Ministry of Interior. The National Police carries out most regular police duties while the Gendarmerie is considered a paramilitary organization and has more specialized responsibilities, including protecting sensitive national infrastructure, such as nuclear power plants, and counter-terrorism. The Desenan Republican Guard (Garda Rĕpublicană) is part of the Gendarmerie and is responsible for protecting important government officials and buildings, including the Doge and the Doge's Palace.
Abortion has been legal since 1981 and possession of small amounts of cannabis is decriminalized. Same-sex marriages are not performed, though civil unions are permitted. The country has an intentional homicide rate of 2.14 per year per 100,000 inhabitants and there are approximately 22.1 civilian-owned firearms per 100 population.
The Desenan Republic is a founding member of the the International League and the Latin Union. Historically, it has often proclaimed itself a neutral country, most recently in 1940. It has not explicitly ended the policy of armed neutrality since then, but has gained observer status in the Esquarian Community in 2004 with membership in the Esquarian Common Market and became the second country to join the Central Ocean Basin Alliance (Cenba) after its foundation in 2015. The Desenan Republic enjoys particularly close relations with Ainin, Namor, and Ordennya, as well as with many other current and former syndicalist states.
Since democratization, Desenan foreign policy has promoted multilateral politics, which has resulted in greater participation in intergovernmental organizations. The Desenan Republic participates in a number of peacekeeping and international security operations and provides a significant amount of material and financial aid to underdeveloped countries, especially former Desenan colonies.
Science and technology
Largest cities in Desena