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Republik Kabu (Kabuese)
Motto: Persatuan, Negara, Demokrasi, Kesejahteraan
"Unity, State, Democracy, Welfare!"
Land controlled by North Kabu shown in dark green, land claimed but not controlled shown in light green.
and largest city
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
• Colony of Carolinian Islands
• Start of Kabuese Civil War
• Treaty of City
• Current Constitution
|39,482 km2 (15,244 sq mi)|
• 2020 census
|202.63/km2 (524.8/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Kabuese shilling (RKS)|
North Kabu (Kabuese: Kabupik Utara), officially the Kabuese Republic (Kabuese: Republik Kabu) is a state in Southeast Coius. While officially claiming the whole of the Kabu archipelago, its control is limited to the northeastern half of the archipelago and its claims of sovereignty over the southwestern portion of the archipelago are not universally recognised, with many recognising South Kabu, which the country shares a de facto maritime border with. The country's de facto territory consists of sixty-one islands, yet the vast majority of the population is concentrated on the three Telung Sadulur islands in the south or the Sedulur Loro pair in the north.
Sublustrian peoples first settled the island chain during the middle of the first millenium, with evidence of cities built up around paddy fields existing in Sedulur Loro from the 7th century CE. Through contact and trade with Dezevau and other nations in which it was practised, the now-dominant Badi faith arrived in the islands in the 9th century, with elemental cults appearing across the islands. Badi kingdoms and empires would emerge in later centuries, with many of them spanning the whole island chain at their peaks and becoming prosperous over the spice trade. This spice trade, however, would lead to the interest in the islands by the Estmerish !East India Company, which would attempt to establish control over the islands in the 17th and 18th centuries in order to monopolise the trade.
As the Company became increasingly dominant, Estmerish control was cemented and in 1797 the islands were made into the nationalised colony of the Carolinian Isles. Colonial rule would persist for the next thirteen decades with little interruption, until the Gaullican occupation during the Great War led to an upsurge in support for anti-colonial movements, which would increase further after the war when Estmerish promises on self-government were not fulfilled. However, after moves were made to establish an independent state, tensions between nationalists and socialists led to the outbreak of the Kabu Civil War in 1941, with the modern state of North Kabu coming into being in 1947 after the Treaty of City split the archipelago between the two groups. Since then, the country has gone through two periods of authoritarian rule from 1947-1965 and 1978-1990, yet since 1990 the country has democratised and liberalised.
North Kabu is considered to be an middle-income country with one of the fastest growing economies in Coius, with the country boasting a rapidly expanding tertiary sector. Since the transition to democracy, governments have made it a priority to achieve universal literacy and healthcare, with the government aiming to achieve a literacy rate of 98% and a healthcare coverage rate of 95% by 2025.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics and Government
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
Kabuese Civil War
In the immediate aftermath of the civil war, the Kabuese Republic would be established by many of the Northern side's leading generals within the territory demarcated to the North through the Treaty of City. The Republic would be established as a dominant-party state under the newly-rebranded League Against Imperialism and Socialism and would attempt to incorporate many of Sutoro's ideas on political governance, with the country being led by a three-member directorial council largely dominated by former Civil War generals and parliamentarianism being eschewed in favour of strong, centralised leadership and direct citizen participation through plebiscites.
While the regime remained in control through the 1950s, the country would see little economic progress - much of its infrastructure had been devastated by the war while society remained largely agrarian and the government maintained a policy of autarky based on its anti-imperialist ideals. While the government would attempt to invest in capital goods and education, the reach of this investment was limited and significant amounts of aid provided to the country were derailed by rampant corruption and nepotism. This would trigger discontent amongst more educated and urban sectors of society as the early 1960's emerged, with mass protest movements in favour of liberal democracy gaining steam. The government would initially attempt to suppress these movements, rejecting their demands and attempting to prevent information of the often violent protests spreading across the country with little success as by 1965 the country became racked with instability.
Ultimately the scale of the protests would lead to a turn in government attitudes as Executive Councillor Adi Bambang announced a liberalisation of the country's political system on the 7th July 1965, allowing for liberal democratic movements to organise themselves into the Reform Alliance, which would win the most votes in two-party elections scheduled for the 15th August, resulting in a power-sharing agreement being reached between the Alliance and the League and marking the start of what is commonly known as the First Democratic Era. Under this new government, the country would move away from autarky, attempting to align itself with non-socialist Coius in both diplomacy and trade, and would encourage the development of industry, with attempts made to attract foreign investment in the country's capital stock in order to kickstart its manufacturing sector. New elections in 1968 would see a divide between conservative and liberal interpretations of Patangism represented by the League and the Alliance respectively emerge, with the former associated with hardline stances against the South and socialism in general alongside economic protectionism while the latter would be associated with a more internationalist outlook favouring liberal democracy and détente.
While the country benefitted strongly from the transition to democracy as the economy and living standards began to grow significantly, the conservative-liberal divide would become increasingly polarised as families, regions and social groups became increasingly affiliated with opposing sides in the divide. Notably, after conservative dominance between 1971 and 1977, the 1977 election would see an overwhelming victory for the Reform Movement on a strongly ideological platform of free trade and direct negotiation with the Southern government over the future of the archipelago after a series of scandals made the League unpopular. This new government would prove unpopular with many pro-conservative institutions within the country such as the military, which were alarmed by its bold proposals and a narrative of "creeping socialism" developed among many conservative sectors of society.
Ultimately, a core of youthful yet staunchly nationalistic officers led by Sriwidadi Sukarto would stage a coup d'état in 1978 which, while initially organised in a small scale, would quickly energise the military and exploit a shift in public opinion brought about by the narrative of "creeping socialism" and Kabuese nationalism. The liberal government's leaders would surrender on December 3rd, 1978, which would be followed four days later by the declaration of Sukarto as President of Kabu, with a government of generals and technocrats being formed known as the Government of National Purification, declaring its intention to "cleanse" the nation's political discourse. This would necessarily result in a new wave of political repression as liberal and other opposition movements were severely restricted in activities and a one-party state was established around the Republican People's Party, yet would be accompanied by a continuation of the economic liberalisation seen in the First Democratic Era, with the country actively aligning itself with Senria and its allies in Bahia in order to attract economic investment and the government promoting active co-operation between itself and industry.
Relations with the Southern government, which had already been harmed by the coup, would reach an all-time nadir during the mid 1980s after Masioran separatist activists, which the Northern government had long been accused of covertly funding, successfully assassinated Southern President Sutikno Harjo and after the 1986 attempted coup which the Northern government was also accused of involvement with.
The unexpected death of Sukarto in 1989 and a desire to improve its international standing to attract further investment would lead to a commencement of redemocratisation under the leadership of reformist-minded General Slamet Wibowo, who would rewrite the constitution along the lines of what he called "guided liberal democracy", with the nation adopting a liberal democratic semi-presidential system balanced out by a repressive policy towards the actions of socialist organisations and groups. The enactment of this new constitution and the subsequent return of multi-party elections in 1990 would therefore mark the beginning of the New Democracy era of North Kabuese politics.
(add the 90s, 00s and 10s soon)
Politics and Government
Since the enactment of the 1990 Constitution of the Kabuese Republic following democratisation, North Kabu has been a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, with the Constitution establishing four main institutions between which the powers of government are distributed: the President, the Government, the Senate and the Courts.
The President is established to be the head of state of North Kabu and is elected through universal suffrage through plurality voting to serve for a five year term. Intended to serve as a counterweight to the Government and to act as an oversight to their plans, the President is granted significant executive powers: serving as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and as the chief diplomat of North Kabu, they have significant power over foreign and defence policy. Furthermore, they have the power to veto laws that have not gained an absolute majority of 55% of the Senate.
The current President is Dian Suripto, a member of the Republican People's Party who was first elected in 2018. He is the fifth President of North Kabu under the current Constitution and the fourth to come from the Republican People's Party - the only President not to come from the party was the Democratic Reform Party's Raharjo Suratman, who served between 2006 and 2014.
The Government of North Kabu consists of the Premier, who serves as the nation's head of government, and his ministers. The Government is officially appointed by the President, yet it is required that the Government hold the confidence of the majority of the Senate and the Government can only be removed from office by a motion of no confidence within the Senate. Therefore, the Premier and his ministers are in practice chosen by the majority party or coalition within the Senate, yet due to the President's significant authority within foreign and defence policy it is common that they wield significant influence over the appointment of the Foreign Minister and Defence Minister.
As a result of the stalemate between left-leaning and right-leaning factions produced in the 2017 legislative election, a grand coalition between the Republican People's Party and the Democratic Reform Party was formed, with both parties taking an equal number of ministries and the position of Premier being held by independent politician and former economist Kumat Dumarwulan. However, in the runup to the 2021 election, Dumarwulan would officially join the PRD and lead it to victory in the election, leading to the formation of a PRD minority government.
Confidence and supply (8)
The Senate of North Kabu carries the nation's supreme legislative power and is a unicameral body consisting of 175 members elected through a system of parallel voting for four-year terms. Ninety of its members are elected in single-member districts through plurality voting, while eighty-five are elected through a nationwide constituency under proportional representation. The Senate and its members have the ability to propose, pass, amend and reject legislation proposals, and also have the power to impeach a sitting President through a two-thirds majority, which results in their removal from office, yet this procedure has never been successfully utilised.
The Senate has largely been dominated by two main factions - the Patangist, conservative and Kabuese nationalist Republican People's Party (PRR, Partai Rakyat Republik) and the liberal, progressive and pro-détente Democratic Reform Party (PRD, Partai Reformasi Demokratis). These two parties, founded during the 1988-90 transition to democracy, are the only two parties to have supplied a Premier, yet other more minor parties have played a role in the North Kabuese political protest, such as the national conservative National Front, the progressive Democratic Left, the economically liberal Innovation Party and the centrist Sotirian Association.
North Kabu has a hybrid legal system of common and civil law heavily influenced by that of Estmere, with resulting influences from Solarian, Weranic and Gaullican legal traditions, with precedent and custom being recognised as sources of legal authority alongside codified legislation.
Notable differences exist, however, between the country's legal system and that of Estmere. Most notably, trial by jury was abolished in 1957 and the country still retains punishments since abolished in Estmere, with capital punishment still an active punishment used to punish murder, rape, treason, terrorism and drug trafficking and corporal punishment remaining as an occasionally used penalty for minor crimes such as petty theft. The methods used for these are normally hanging and caning respectively, and official government statistics state that over the 2010's about 19 people were sentenced to death.
The supreme court of North Kabu is the High Court of the Kabuese Republic, which serves as the court of final appeal and has powers of judicial review. Underneath the court are provincial courts and then district courts, where cases are normally initiated.
North Kabu consists of thirteen subdivisions organised into two "circuits" - the Sedulur Loro circuit and the Telung Sadulur circuit, which correspond to the two island groups of North Kabu. The thirteen subdivisions in question are split into two types - rural provinces, of which there are seven, and metropolitan provinces, of which there are six.
|(insert map here)||Metropolitan province (Negara Kutha)|
|Kalangang Satu||ꦏꦭꦔꦁ ꦱꦠꦸ||Telung Sadulur||657,195|
|Rural province (Negara Deso)|
|Pasir Emas||ꦥꦱꦶꦂ ꦌꦩꦱ꧀||Sedulur Loro||736,491|
|Lembeh North||ꦭꦼꦀꦧꦺꦃ ꦈꦠꦫ||Sedulur Loro||504,986|
|Pulau Mutiara||ꦥꦸꦭꦻꦴ ꦩꦸꦠꦾꦫ||Telung Sadulur||433,228|
|Pulau Pedhes||ꦥꦸꦭꦻꦴ ꦥꦺꦝꦼꦱ꧀||Telung Sadulur||321,964|
|Lembeh South||ꦭꦼꦀꦧꦺꦃ ꦏꦶꦢꦸꦭ꧀||Sedulur Loro||264,781|
|Pulau Klapa||ꦥꦸꦭꦻꦴ ꦏ꧀ꦭꦥ||Telung Sadulur||203,121|
North Kabu is often considered to play the role of a regional power with a fairly substantial role within the geopolitical scene of Southeast Coius and Bahia. It is known particularly for its staunch anti-socialist stance in foreign affairs and as a result is considered to be a strong ally of similarly anti-socialist states in Coius such as Garambura, Rwizikuru and Senria, with the nation being a member of the Senrian-led Council for Mutual Development alliance. It has also recently pursued relations with Euclean powers such as Estmere and Gaullica, with the nation possessing consulates in the two nations' nearby respective territories of Kingsport and Nouvel-Anglet and ending its longstanding claims on the territories after democratisation in the 1990s.
The nation has a strained relationship with South Kabu, its southern neighbour, as both states consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the entire Kabuese archipelago. While since the conclusion of fighting in the six-year Kabuese Civil War through the 1947 Treaty of City the two nations have not actively fought each other, relations have remained particularly tense and as a result of the South's links to the socialist world, North Kabu possesses tense relationships with many of the world's constitutionally socialist powers who recognise the South's claims to the nation as a whole. However, attempts at détente have been made between the two nations to varying degrees of success, with reformist factions in both the north and south advocating for active negotiations between the two sides in order to reach a solution.
As a result of compromises established in (international treaty of some sort), despite the international controversy over the recognition of North and South Kabu, both nations have become members of the Community of Nations and the International Trade Organisation. Furthermore, North Kabu has been a member of the International Council for Democracy since the reintroduction of democracy in 1990.
The Kabuese Republican Army (Kabuese: Tentara Republik Kabupik, TRK) serves as the armed forces of North Kabu. As a result of the tensions between the nation and the South, it maintains a large military budget - in 2018, the government spent 3% of GDP on defence. Furthermore, mandatory conscription has been in force for the Republic's entire existence, with the current 2019 laws requiring two years' service regardless of gender, yet allows for conscientious objectors to instead serve in public works projects.
The TRK is divided into land forces, a navy and an air force as in many other countries, with the Kabuese Republican Land Forces, the Kabuese Republican Naval Forces and the Kabuese Republican Air Forces taking the role of each of these respectively. The Kabuese Republican Naval Forces are by far the largest of these three forces as a result of North Kabu's maritime position, and as a result receive the bulk of the funding. Furthermore, as well as the standing forces of conscripts and post-conscription volunteers in these three branches, the nation retains a significant reserve force - after completing their mandatory military service conscripts are entered into the reserves for fifteen years and in the case of an invasion can be called up.
(there might be a Senrian military base somewhere in Kabu? specifics will need to be worked out)