Zhoushi language

Zhoushi
Neo-Bogmian, Bogmo-Zhengian
Ʒөшinчina
ZhoushengFlag.png
Pronunciation/ʒu͡oʃɪnt͡ʃina/ Speaker Icon.svg
Native to
RegionSlavic Belt in Thuadia
EthnicityZhoushi Slavs
Native speakers
L1: 110,985,000
L2: 12,532,000
FL: 7,230,000
Standard forms
Great Corpus of the New Zhoushi language
Dialects
  • Central Bogmian
  • Bogmo-Zhengian[1]
  • Zhengian
  • Transmountain
  • Haldenian
  • Mosterec Bogmian
  • Louzen-Bogmian
  • Velpan-Bogmian
Modified Latin alphabet
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1ZS
ISO 639-2ZSG
ISO 639-3ZSG
ZhoushiLangMap.png
Distribution of the language
     Absolute majority
     >30% of native speakers
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Zhoushi language is a Slavic language out of Kento-Polyash language group, which is a official language of Zhousheng and a official federal language in Mustelaria along with Belgorian and Neo-Mustelarian.

Introduction

The language has a slavic root and grammar, however, unlike other slavic languages, has 8 grammatical cases (other have 7 or 6). Also, there are about 700 Zhengian words in present day Zhoushi language, they are inflected using Bogmian grammar. Old Zhengian, having been descendant out of Prei-Phnom languages, was slowly assimilated into Slavic grammar, having transformed into Slavic Zhengian. Because of the Zhengian accents profilerating, Zhoushi language has 40 unique phonemes, 2 of which are exclusive to Zhoushi language (those are /r̝̊/ (Voiceless alveolar fricative trill)[3] and /ȴ̩/ (Syllabic voiced alveolo-palatal lateral approximant)).

Alphabet

After the reform of 1912, when Bogmian language officially abandoned Protopolyash script in favor of the new Latin script, hoping to solve the problematic grammar, as multiple phonemes shared one symbol (such as "i" and "j" were both noted as "ⲓ") Three official versions of the new script had been made:

  • Grapheme version: This version was later adopted as the official alphabet of the new Zhoushi language in 1984, uses special symbols for each phoneme
  • Diacritic version: This version uses basic latin alphabet and solves the phonemes by adding diacritic symbols. Although still being recognized as a acceptable version of the language, it is barely used.
  • Digraph version: This version uses digraphs to sign specifical phonemes. It was dropped in early 1950's, as it didn't solve the main reason why Bogmians abandoned the Protopolyash script in the first place.

Zhoushi, although not officially using it, sometimes used lenghtened marks for vowels and syllabic consonants. Those symbols were used in some historical transcripts, but were eventually faded in pre-1950's unification proposals and didn't make it into the official grammar of 1984.

A a
/a/
B b
/b/
C c
/ʦ/
Ч ч
/ʧ ~ ʨ/
D d
/d ~ ɖ/
Đ đ
/ɟ/
Ƌ ƌ
/ʣ/
E e
/ɛ/
Є є
/e/
F f
/f/
G g
/g/
Г г
/ʤ ~ ʥ/
H h
/ɦ ~ h/
Ȝ ȝ
/x/
I i
/i ~ ɪ/
J j
/j/
K k
/k/
L l
/l/
Λ λ
/ȴ/
M m
/m ~ m̥/
N n
/n ~ ɳ/
Ƞ ƞ
/ɲ/
O o
/o ~ ɔ/
Ө ө
/uo/
P p
/p/
Q q
/kv/
R r
/r ~ r̥/
Ꝛ ꝛ
/r̝ ~ r̝̊/
S s
/s/
Ш ш
/ʃ ~ ɕ/
T t
/t ~ ʈ/
Ꞇ ꞇ
/c/
Þ þ
/ð ~ θ/
U u
/u/
V v
/v/
Ƿ ƿ
/w ~ ʋ/
X x
/ks/
Y y
/ɨ ~ y/
Z z
/z/
Ʒ ʒ
/ʒ ~ ʑ/

Detailed table

Latin version Protopolyash version Glagolitic version IPA Symbol Example of a common word with the sound
Official (Grapheme) version Diacritic version Digraph version
1 A a A a A a About this sound/a/ After
Ā ā Aa aa About this sound/aː/ Ask
2 B b B b B b About this sound/b/ Label
3 C c C c C c ⲦⲤ ⲧⲥ About this sound/ʦ/ Its
4 Ч ч Č č Cz cz ⲦϢ ⲧϣ About this sound/ʧ/ Check
5 D d D d D D About this sound/d/ Done
6 Đ đ Ď ď Dj dj ⲆⲒ ⲇⲓ ⰄⰬ ⰴⱜ About this sound/ɟ/ Voiced palatal plosive (not in common)
7 Ƌ ƌ Dz dz ⲆⲌ ⲇⲍ About this sound/ʣ/ Voiced alveolar affricate (not in common)
8 E e E e E e About this sound/ɛ/ Bed (General American accent)
Ѥ ѥ Ē ē Ee ee About this sound/ɛː/ Air
9 Є є Ě ě Je je About this sound/e/ Bed (Australian accent)
Э э Ê ê Jee jee About this sound/eː/ Not in common. Example: "Jemand" in Sino-Gadorien language
10 F f F f F f About this sound/f/ Fine
11 G g G G G g About this sound/g/ Game
12 Г г Ǧ ǧ Dzh dzh Ϫ ϫ About this sound/ʤ/ Jam
13 H h H h H h Ϩ ϩ About this sound/ɦ/
About this sound/h/
Hello
14 Ȝ ȝ Ȟ ȟ Ch ch About this sound/x/ Velar fricative (not in common: examples: voiceless / voiced)
15 I i I i I i About this sound/i/
About this sound/ɪ/
Free / Bit (General American)
Ī ī Ii ii About this sound/iː/
About this sound/ɪː/
Wheel
16 J j J j J j About this sound/j/ You
17 K k K k K k About this sound/k/ Key
18 L l L l L l About this sound/l/ Later
Ł ł Ĺ ĺ About this sound/l̩/ Not in common. Example: "Vlk" in Velnotian language
19 Λ λ Ľ ľ Lj lj ⲖⲒ ⲗⲓ ⰎⰬ ⰾⱜ About this sound/ȴ/ Million
Л л About this sound/ȴ̩/ Not in common
20 M m M m M m ⰿ About this sound/m/ Mother
ʍ ʍ ḿ About this sound/m̩/ Impressionism
21 N n N n N n About this sound/n/ Month
22 Ƞ ƞ Ň ň Nj nj ⲚⲒ ⲛⲓ ⰐⰬ ⱀⱜ About this sound/ɲ/ New
23 O o O o O o About this sound/o/
About this sound/ɔ/
Yawn / Not
Ō ō Oo oo About this sound/oː/
About this sound/ɔː/
Alright
24 Ө ө Ǒ ǒ Uo uo /u͡o/ Not in common. Example: "Kôň" in Slovanic language
Ô ô Uoo uoo /u͡oː/ Not in common
25 P p P p P p About this sound/p/ Play
26 Q q Q q Q q ⲔⲮ ⲕⲯ ⰍⰂ ⰽⰲ /k͡v/ A bigram of /k/ and /v/, for example in Question
27 R r R r R r About this sound/r/ Bright
Ԗ ԗ Ŕ ŕ About this sound/r̩/ Not in common. Example: "Krk" in Velnotian language
28 Ř ř Rz rz ⲢⲒ ⲣⲓ ⰓⰬ ⱃⱜ About this sound/r̝/
About this sound/r̝̊/
Voiced and voiceless raised alveolar fricative trills (not in common)
29 S s S s S s About this sound/s/ Surprise
30 Ш ш Š š Sz sz Ϣ ϣ About this sound/ʃ/ Show
31 T t T t T t About this sound/t/ Time
32 Ť ť Tj tj Ϯ ϯ ⰕⰬ ⱅⱜ About this sound/c/ Voiceless palatal plosive (not in common)
33 Þ þ Th th About this sound/ð/
About this sound/θ/
This / Thin
34 U u U u U u About this sound/u/ Boot
Ɯ ɯ Ū ū Uu uu About this sound/uː/ Doom
35 V v V v V v About this sound/v/ Valve
36 Ƿ ƿ W w Ƿ ƿ W w Ϥ ϥ About this sound/w/
About this sound/ʋ/
Weep
37 X x X x X x ⰍⰔ ⰽⱄ /k͡s/ A bigram of /k/ and /s/, for example in Maximal
38 Y y Y y Y y ⲒⲨ ⲓⲩ About this sound/ɨ/ Lip (London accent)
ỿ Ȳ ȳ Yy yy About this sound/ɨː/ Not in common. Example: "Über" in Sino-Gadorien language
39 Z z Z z Z z About this sound/z/ Zoo
40 Ʒ ʒ Ž ž Zh zh Ϭ ϭ About this sound/ʒ/ Pleasure

Additional symbols

Zhoushi language, however, has multiple characters, that symbolize a concept and are regulairly used in a language:

Symbol Zhoushi term Common translation Note
& / ɛ̗́ / 🙰 Aj And A symbol, that can be used as "and" in sentence
Ӿ Xajλis Xailis Former currency of Zhousheng before adoption of Sekinar
Seꞇien Seten Former subdivision of a currency of Zhousheng before adoption of Sekinar
Sekinar Sekinar Symbol for Sekinar
ֆ Rovaƞ Rovan Symbol for a subdivision of Sekinar
⳩ / ☧ Jeʒiш
Bөg
Jesus
God
Symbol used to depict Jesus or God, which is sometimes used in writing by religious people
Чislo Number Symbol used for denoting cardinal numbers
# Symbol used for denoting ordinal numbers
Meƌimƞena Intercurrency Symbol for ACU (Anterian Currency Unit)
Niч Nothing Symbol for empty set

Punctuation

Following punctuation marks are officially recognized by Zhoushi language:

Symbol Name Meaning Usage Example
. Bodka End of sentence OFTEN I ate a banana.
, Чarka End of a part of a sentence OFTEN I ate a banana, puked afterwards.
! Vykꝛiчƞik Exclamation mark OFTEN Eat that banana!
? Tazaƞik Question mark OFTEN Did you eat that banana?
Obөjƞik Interrobang SOMETIMES You ate all the bananas‽
Retoriчƞik Rhetorical question mark SOMETIMES Can't I stop myself from eating bananas⸮
Point de doute (Hervé Bazin).svg Poȝybƞik Doubt mark RARELY That banana raised my blood pressurePoint de doute (Hervé Bazin).svg
Point de conviction (Hervé Bazin).svg Utoчƞik Conviction mark RARELY That banana intentionally raised my blood pressurePoint de conviction (Hervé Bazin).svg
Ironiezeichen CPNB.svg Vaʒeƞik Irony mark RARELY I love bananas sooo much I could eat them 25 hours a dayIroniezeichen CPNB.svg

Study version

Usage of G/H in Ꚕ
Usage of Î a Ĵ
Usage of O/E in Œ
Usage of V/W in Ʋ
Usage of long vowels

Because of the wideness of the language and a set of different dialects, a special characters have been created for foreign people to learn the Zhoushi language. Those characters will be used in the inflection tables in this article, although in Zhoushi, they are replaced by their respective characters

Symbol Standart IPA Placement
Ā ā A a Macron is added in noun & adjective inflections for suffix vowels
Ą ą A a a ~ ə Ogonek is added in verbs for sounds reducted into Mid central vowel (/ə/)
Ē ē E e ɛː Macron is added in noun & adjective inflections for suffix vowels
Ę ę E e ɛ ~ ə Ogonek is added in verbs for sounds reducted into Mid central vowel (/ə/)
Ê ê E e ɛ ~ ◌ Used for noun & adjective inflections, where j can, but doesn't need to, be included
Є̄ є̄ Є є Macron is added in noun & adjective inflections for suffix vowels
G g H h g ~ ɦ ~ h Used in adjective inflections, as both g and h are grammatically correct
Ī ī I i iː ~ ɪː Macron is added in noun & adjective inflections for suffix vowels
Î î I i i ~ ɪ ~ ◌ Used for noun & adjective inflections, where i can, but doesn't need to, be included
Ĵ ĵ J j j ~ ◌ Used for noun & adjective inflections, where j can, but doesn't need to, be included
Ō ō O o oː ~ ɔː Macron is added in noun & adjective inflections for suffix vowels
Ө̄ ө̄ Ө ө u͡oː Macron is added in noun & adjective inflections for suffix vowels
Œ œ E e O o o ~ ɔ ~ ɛ Used in adjective inflections, as both e and o are grammatically correct
Þ þ ð Used as a modified version of Thorn (Þ) to denote only Voiced version of the sound
Ū ū U u Macron is added in noun & adjective inflections for suffix vowels
Ų ų U u u ~ ə Ogonek is added in verbs for sounds reducted into Mid central vowel (/ə/)
Û û U u u ~ ◌ Used for noun & adjective inflections, where j can, but doesn't need to, be included
Ʋ ʋ V v Ƿ ƿ v ~ w ~ ʋ Used in adjective inflections, as both v and ƿ are grammatically correct
Ȳ ȳ Y y ɨː Macron is added in noun & adjective inflections for suffix vowels
Ŷ ŷ Y y ɨ ~ ◌ Used for noun & adjective inflections, where j can, but doesn't need to, be included

Phonology

Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Bilabial Labiodental Linguolabial Dental Alveolar Postal-veolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k g q
Sibilant affricate ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ ~ ʈʂ ~ ɖʐ ʨ ʥ
Non-sibilant affricate
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative f v θ ð ʝ x ɣ χ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ j w
Tap/Flap ɾ̥ ɾ
Trill ~ r̝̊ r ~
Latelar affricate
Latelar fricative
Latelar approximant l ȴ ʟ
Latelar tap/flap
Tongue position Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y ɨ u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ʌ ɔ
Near-open æ ɐ
Open a ɑ ɒ
Diphthong a͡u ~ ɛ͡u ~ e͡u ~ o͡u ~ ɔ͡u ~ u͡o ~ u͡ɔ ~ a͡e ~ a͡i
Long vowels ~ ɛː ~ ~ ~ ɪː ~ ~ ɔː ~ ~ ɨː

Bold are the common sounds, while regular sounds may happen in dialects and/or in a world for easier pronunciation

Nouns

Grammatical gender

Zhoushi languages distinguishes a total of 3 grammatical genders, one being latter subdivided into animate and inanimate forms[4] and one non-gender labeled as "Indifferent",[5] which has the simplest inflection rules:

  • Masculine (Muʒsky)
    • Masculine animate (Muʒsky Ʒiƿny) (symbol ♂, letter M)
    • Masculine inanimate (Muʒsky Ƞeʒiƿny) (symbol ⚦, letter D)
  • Feminine (Ʒonsky) (symbol ♀, letter F)
  • Neuter (Srєdsky) (symbol ⚲, letter N)
  • Indifferent (Ƞemistny) (symbol ⚥, letter I) (used is some foreign words, such as "Zombie" or with a religious terms. Name "Preah"[6] (In Zhoushi "Priєȝ") is for example inflected as indifferent. As intedefferent are also declined terms for countries and regions ending as -ijє)

Grammatical cases

Zhoushi langauge works with 2 grammatical numbers (singular (Odnetƞik) and plural (Mnoʒƞik), some dual forms are still present for some words) 8 separate grammatical cases:

  • Nominative (Miƞik): Subject or a Predicate noun or adjectiv (Shorcut Nom., № 1)
  • Genitive (Rodƞik): Possessive or partial direct object, without Subject (Shorcut Gen., № 2)
  • Dative (Darƞik): Giving to Subject, phrases linked to certain verbs (Shorcut Dat., № 3)
  • Accusative (Viƞik): Interract with Subject (see, hear, harass...) (Shorcut Acc., № 4)
  • Locative (Mistƞik): In Subject, on Subject, past Subject, nearby Subject, about Subject (Shorcut Loc., № 5)
  • Instrumentative (Tvorƞik): Using Subject, with Subject (Shorcut Ins., № 6)
  • Ablative (Mєrƞik): Part of Subject, compared to Subject, the way (Shorcut Abl., № 7)
  • Vocative (Volaƞik): Referring to Subject, calling Subject (Shorcut Voc., № 8)

There are 16 Inflection patterns (4 for Masculine animate, 4 for Masculine inanimate, 4 for Feminine and 4 for Neuter)

Grammatical inflection

Inflection table of nouns
Note: symbol Ь denotes softing of the previous sound from the root:

C → Ч; D → Đ; Ƌ → Г; E → Є; H → Ȝ; L → Λ; N → Ƞ; R → Ꝛ; S → Ш; T → Ꞇ; Z → Ʒ

Translation to Common Code Singular Plural
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Loc. Ins. Abl. Voc. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Loc. Ins. Abl. Voc.
Masculine Animate
Man M Muʒ Muʒe Muʒi Muʒє Muʒi Muʒem Muʒi Muʒi! Muʒy
Muʒove
Muʒө Muʒūm Muʒe Muʒyȝ Muʒmy
Muʒemy
Muʒymy Muʒy!
-e -i -i -em -i -i! -y
-ovē
-ūm -e -yȝ -my
-emy
-ymy -y!
Sir P Pan Pana Panovi Pana Panovi Panem Pani Pane! Pany
Panove
Panū Panūm Pany Paneȝ Pany Panymy Paƞy!
-a -ovi -a -ovi -em -i -e! -y
-ovē
-ūm -y -eȝ -y -ymy -ьy!
Mayor S Starosta Starosty Starostovi Starostu Starostovi Starostө Starosti Starosto! Starosty
Starostove
Starostө Starostūm Starosty Starosteȝ Starosty Starosty Staroste!
-a -y -ovi -u -ovi -i -o! -y
-ovē
-ūm -y -eȝ -y -y -e!
Leader V Vөdce Vөdce Vөdcovi Vөdce Vөdcovi
Vөdci
Vөdcem Vөdci Vөdce!
Vөdчe!
Vөdci
Vөdcove
Vөdcū Vөdcūm Vөdce Vөdciȝ Vөdci Vөdcy Vөdci!
-e -e -ovi -e -ovi
-i
-em -i -e!
-ьe!
-i
-ovē
-ūm -e -iȝ -i -y -i!
Masculine Inanimate
State Ш Шtat Шtatu Шtatu Шtat Шtatu Шtatem Шtaty Шtate! Шtaty Шtatө Шtatom Шtaty Шtateȝ Шtatmy
Шtatamy
Шtatemy Шtaty!
-u -u -u -em -y -e! -y -om -y -eȝ -y
-amy
-emy -y!
Forest L Lєs Lєsa
Lєsu
Lєsu Lєs Lєse Lєsem Lєsy Lєse! Lєsy Lєsө Lєsөm Lєsy Lєseȝ Lєsmy Lєsemy Lєsy!
-a
-u
-u -e -em -y -e! -y -өm -y -eȝ -my -emy -y!
Machine T Stroj Stroje Stroji Stroj Stroji Strojem Strojy Stroji! Stroje Strojө Strojөm Stroje Strojiȝ Strojmi
Strojemi
Strojamy Stroje!
-e -i -i -em -y -i! -e -өm -e -iȝ -mi
-emi
-amy -e!
Church C Cerkev[7] Cerkvi Cerkvi Cerkev Cerkvi Cerkvi
Cerkvө
Cerkvy Cerkevo! Cerkve Cerkvө Cerkvөm Cerkve Cerkveȝ Cerkvimi
Cerkvamy
Cerkavy Cerkve!
-ev -vi -vi -ev -vi -vi
-vө
-vy -evo! -ve -vө -vөm -ve -veȝ -vimi
-vamy
-avy -ve!
Feminine
Woman Ʒ Ʒona Ʒony Ʒonje Ʒonu Ʒonє Ʒonө Ʒoni Ʒono! Ʒoni Ʒon Ʒonām Ʒony Ʒonaȝ Ʒonami
Ʒonama
Ʒonimi
Ʒonima
Ʒoniє!
-a -y -je -u -i -o! -i -ām -y -aȝ -ami
-ama
-imi
-ima
-iє!
Rose Ө Rөʒe Rөʒe Rөʒi Rөʒi Rөʒi Rөʒiji Rөʒej Rөʒe! Rөʒe Rөʒī Rөʒīm Rөʒє Rөʒiȝ Rөʒemi
Rөʒema
Rөʒimi Rөʒe!
-e -e -i -i -i -iji -ej -e! -e -īm -iȝ -emi
-ema
-imi -e!
Cherry Ч Чerшeƞ Чerшƞe Чerшƞi Чerшeƞ Чerшƞi Чerшƞiji Чerшƞi Чerшƞi! Чerшƞe Чerшƞī Чerшƞīm Чerшƞє Чerшƞiȝ Чerшƞemi
Чerшƞimi
Чerшƞimi Чerшƞe!
-eƞ -ƞe -ƞi -eƞ -ƞi -ƞiji -ƞi -ƞi! -ƞe -ƞī -ƞīm -ƞє -ƞiȝ -ƞemi
-ƞimi
-ƞimi -ƞe!
Joy Radosꞇ Radosꞇi Radosꞇi Radosꞇ Radosꞇi Radosꞇiji Radosꞇi Radosꞇi!
Radosꞇ!
Radosꞇi Radosꞇīȝ Radosꞇem Radosꞇi Radosꞇeȝ Radosꞇmi
Radosꞇami
Radosꞇim Radosꞇi!
Radosꞇє!
-i -i -i -iji -i -i!
∅!
-i -īȝ -em -i -eȝ -mi
-ami
-im -i!
-є!
Neuter
Sea Moꝛe Moꝛe Moꝛi Moꝛє Moꝛi Moꝛem Moꝛy Moꝛe! Moꝛe Moꝛîĵī Moꝛīm Moꝛe Moꝛiȝ Moꝛima
Moꝛema
Moꝛimi Moꝛe!
-e -e -i -i -em -y -e! -e -îĵī -īm -e -iȝ -ima
-ema
-imi -e!
City Ƞ Miƞєsto Miƞєsta Miƞєstu Miƞєsto Miƞєstu Miƞєstem Miƞєsty Miƞєsto! Miƞєsta Miƞєst Miƞєstūm
Miƞєstөm
Miƞєsta Miƞєsteȝ Miƞєsty Miƞєsti Miƞєsta!
-o -a -u -o -u -em -y -o! -a -ūm
-өm
-a -eȝ -y -i -a!
Chicken K Kuꝛe Kuꝛete Kuꝛeꞇi Kuꝛє Kuꝛeꞇi Kuꝛetem Kuꝛy Kuꝛe! Kuꝛata Kuꝛat Kuꝛatūm
Kuꝛatөm
Kuꝛata Kuꝛateȝ
Kuꝛataȝ
Kuꝛaty Kuꝛati Kuꝛata!
-e -ete -eꞇi -eꞇi -etem -y -e! -ata -at -atūm
-atөm
-ata -ateȝ
-ataȝ
-aty -ati -ata!
Reeds R Rakosij[8] Rakosi Rakosi Rakosijє Rakosiĵî Rakosi Rakosij Rakosîĵe! Rakosiĵ Rakosīȝ
Rakosit
Rakosī Rakosijє Rakosiĵîȝ Rakosi Rakosij Rakosîĵe!
-ij -i -i -ijє -iĵî -i -ij -îĵe! -iĵ -īȝ
-it
-ijє -iĵîȝ -i -ij -îĵe!
Indifferent
Zombie I Zombie Zombi Zombi Zombi Zombi Zombi Zombi Zombi! Zombiei Zombīĵei Zombīĵei Zombīĵei Zombīĵei Zombīĵei Zombīĵei Zombīĵei!
Zombīje!
-e ∅! -ei ∸ĵei ∸ĵei ∸ĵei ∸ĵei ∸ĵei ∸ĵei ∸ĵei!
∸je!
Anteria Є Anterijє Anterije Anteriji Anterijє Anteriji Anteriji Anteriji Anterijє!
Anterije!
Anterije Anterijiȝ Anterijōm Anterije Anterijiȝ Anterijimi Anterijimy Anterije!
Note: Anteria as a term is almost never inflected as plural (multiple "Anteriae").
-e -i -i -i -i -є!
-e!
-e -iȝ -ōm -e -iȝ -imi -imy -!

Adjectives

Association to gender

Zhoushi adjectives could be divided into four groups:

  • Descriptive soft
  • Descriptive hard
  • Possessive soft
  • Possessive hard

Possessive adjectives describe a association to or a ownership of a certain object (such as "Father's car" - Oþcovo auto), while the descriptive adjectives describe a atribute or a property of the said object (such as "Blue car" - Modre auto). Adjectives do not differentiate between masculine inanimate and masculine animate.[9] Indifferent gender words are declined using neuter forms.

There are 4 Inflection patterns (One for each group of adjectives)

Grammatical inflection

Inflection table of adjectives
Note: symbol Ь denotes softing of the previous sound from the root:

C → Ч; D → Đ; Ƌ → Г; E → Є; H → Ȝ; L → Λ; N → Ƞ; R → Ꝛ; S → Ш; T → Ꞇ; Z → Ʒ

Translation to Common Code Singular Plural Gender
Nom.+Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc. Loc. Ins. Abl. Nom.+Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc. Loc. Ins. Abl.
Descriptive Hard
Young J Malodȳĵ Malodœꚕo Malodœmu Malodœꚕo Malodīm
Malodēm
Malodȳm Malodīmy Malođi Malodȳȝ Malodȳm Malodîĵe Malodȳȝ Malodȳmi Malodȳmy Masculines
Malodē Malodā Malodēȝ Neuter
Malodā Malodîĵe Malodē Malodө̄ Malodє̄ Malodө̄ Malodө̄ Malodē Malodīȝ Feminines
-ȳĵ -œꚕo -œmu -œꚕo -īm
-ēm
-ȳm -īmy -ьi -ȳȝ -ȳm -îĵe -ȳȝ -ȳmi -ȳmy Masculines
-ēȝ Neuter
-îĵe -ө̄ -є̄ -ө̄ -ө̄ -īȝ Feminines
Descriptive Soft
Summer E Letƞī Letƞīꚕo Letƞīmu Letƞī Letƞīm Letƞīm Letƞīm Letƞī Letƞīȝ Letƞīm Letƞī Letƞīȝ Letƞīmi Letƞīmy Masculine
Letƞī Letƞī Letƞī Letƞī Letƞī Letƞī Letƞī Letƞīȝ Letƞīm Letƞī Letƞīȝ Letƞīmi Letƞīmy Feminine
Neuter
-īꚕo -īmu -īm -īm -īm -īȝ -īm -īȝ -īmi -īmy Masculine
-īȝ -īm -īȝ -īmi -īmy Feminine
Neuter
Possessive Hard
Father's O Oþcө̄ʋ
Oþcovo
Oþcova Oþcovu Oþcovo Oþcovo
Oþcovє
Oþcovo
Oþcovym
Oþcovi Oþcovi
Oþcovy
Oþcovyȝ
Oþcovo
Oþcovym Oþcovy Oþcovyȝ
Oþcovo
Oþcovymi Oþcovymy Masculines
Neuter
Oþcөva Oþcovy Oþcoʋjє Oþcovu Feminine
-ө̄ʋ
-ovo
-ova -ovu -ovo -ovo
-ovє
-ovo
-ovym
-ovi -ovi
-ovy
-ovyȝ
-ovo
-ovym -ovy -ovyȝ
-ovo
-ovymi -ovymy Masculines
Neuter
-өva -ovy -oʋjє -ovu Feminine
Possessive Soft
Mother's Ч Maꞇчin Maꞇчina Maꞇчiƞe Maꞇчina Maꞇчiƞe Maꞇчinym Maꞇчiny Maꞇчiny Maꞇчinyȝ Maꞇчinym Maꞇчiny Maꞇчinyȝ Maꞇчinymi Maꞇчinymy Masculines
Maꞇчina Maꞇчiny Maꞇчinu Feminine
Maꞇчino Maꞇчina Maꞇчino Neuter
-a -ьe -a -ьe -ym -y -y -yȝ -ym -y -yȝ -ymi -ymy Masculines
-a -y -u Feminine
-o -a -o Neuter

Zhoushi uses five forms for comparison of the adjective:

  • Negative - Negation of the word: Happy → Unhappy
  • Positive - Basic form of the word: Happy
  • Comparative - Form for comparison relative to something: Happy → Happier
  • Superlative - Form showing absolute relative to a group: Happy → Happiest
  • Augmentative - Form showing absolute position without a relative: Happy → Ultimately/Absolutely happy

Pronouns

Preference of beginning in third person singular inflections (Ƞ × J)

Pronouns are inflected as well. Zhoushi has multiple factors, such as masculine, feminine neuter and indifferent singular third person, inclusive and exclusive first person plural and reflexive pronouns.

Inflection table of pronouns
Translation to Common Person and number Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Loc. Ins. Abl. Voc.
I Me First Singular Ja Miƞe Mi
Mƞe
Mƞe Mƞe Mnө Mnu
You
(Singular)
Second Ty Tebe Tobi
Tobjє
Tebe Tobjє Tebө Tebu Ty!
He Him Third Өn Ƞej
Jeꚕo
Ƞemu
Jemu
Ƞej
Jej
Ƞem
Jim
Ƞim
Jij
Ƞimu
Jiju
She Her Өna Ƞi
Jej
Ƞi
Ji
Ƞi
Ji
Ƞi
Ji
Ƞi
Ji
Ƞu
Ju
It Өno Өnoꚕo Өnœmu Өno Өƞem
Өƞeȝ
Өƞim Өnu
They
(Singular)[10]
Them Өnu Ƞij
Joj
Ƞi
Ji
Ƞij
Jij
Ƞij
Jij
Ƞij
Jij
Ƞiju
Jiju
-self
(Singular)
Reflexive Sebe Sobje
Sobjє
Sebe
Se
Sobje
Sobjє
Sebө Sebu
We
(Inclusive)
Us First Plural Ny Nas Nam Nas
Ny
Nas Nami Namu Ny!
You
(Plural + formal)
Second Vy Vas Vam
Vas Vas Vami Vamu
Vanu
Vy!
They
(Masculine)
Them Third Oni Ƞiȝ
Jiȝ
Ƞim
Jim
Ƞe
Je
Ƞiȝ
Jiȝ
Ƞimi
Jimi
Ƞimu
Jimu
They
(Feminine)
Them Ony Ƞeȝ
Jeȝ
Ƞim
Jim
Ƞe
Je
Ƞyȝ
Jyȝ
Ƞimy
Jimy
Ƞimu
Jimu
They
(Neuter/indifferent)
Them Ona Ƞєȝ
Oƞєȝ
Ƞim
Oƞim
Ƞe
Oƞe
Ƞiȝ
Oƞiȝ
Ƞimy
Oƞimy
Ƞimu
Oƞimu
We
(Exclusive)[11]
Us Fourth My Mas Mam
Minam
Mas Mas Mami Mamu My!
-self
(Plural)[12]
Reflexive Sєbe Sөbje
Sөbjє
Sєbe
Sөbje
Sөbjє
Sєbө Sєbu

In plural, if the subject of the coversation which is substituted by "they" a mix of multiple genders, there is a hierarchy of genders which are prefered. Here is a list:

  • Masculine (both animate and inanimate) - Muʒy, Lєsy, Rөʒe aj Kuꝛata - use "Oni"
  • Feminine - Rөʒe aj Kuꝛata - use "Ony"
  • Neuter/indifferent - Kuꝛata aj Miƞєsta - use "Ona"

If masculine is present, use masculine form. If there is no masculine, but there is a feminine, use feminine form. Use neuter if only indifferent and neuter words are present.

Numbers

Due to the prominence of hexadactyly between the Zhoushi populace, Zhousheng is one of the few nations, that developed a dozenal system. Zhousheng officially used latinized dozenal system until 1978, when the government officially decided to abandon the system and move towards a decimal system. In school, both systems are told in a paralel to each other, which helps Zhoushi students to better understand numbers and aren't tied to just one graphical representation of the number, supporting abstract thinking. However, this also causes some problems with education, therefore math is being told in kindergarden as well to balance the pressure kids would be subjected during math exams.

Numbers 1-10

List of basic terms for numbers
Decimal term
(Common)
Dozenal term
(Common)
Decimal term
(Zhoushi)
Dozenal term
(Zhoushi)
0 0 0 Zero Zero Nula Nula
1 1 1 One One Oden Oden
2 2 2 Two Two Dva Dva
3 3 3 Three Three Tꝛi Tꝛi
4 4 4 Four Four Чotyꝛi Чotyꝛi
5 5 5 Five Five Peꞇ Peꞇ
6 6 6 Six Six Шosꞇ Шosꞇ
7 7 7 Seven Seven Sydem Sydem
8 8 8 Eight Eight Өsem Өsem
9 9 9 Nine Nine Đeveꞇ Đeveꞇ
10 ១០ Ten Dek Deseꞇ Deseꞇ
Dozenal us 10.svg
A
11 ១១ Eleven El Jedenasꞇ Hєleꞇ
Dozenal us 11.svg
B
12 10
១០

10
១២ Twelve Do Dvanasꞇ Ceλeꞇ (Cyclical)
Tuƌeꞇ
Design of the face of clocks used in Zhousheng
7-seg numbers

Currently, dozenal system is used only sparsely in common use, but for example clocks still retained their original cyclic description (that is 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-ᚴ-ⵒ-ᘐ), so called cyclical symbol, noted as "ᘐ" in new Zhoushi numerals refers to a number in a twelve-step cycle. Example could be clock, where numerals 10, 11 and 12 are replaced by ᚴ, ⵒ and ᘐ to this day. Some translations of the Kaȝin Canon still use dozenal naming, especially in the Book of Revelation of John.

Numbers 11-1ⵒ

Numbers 11-1ⵒ are created by adding suffix "-asꞇ" (Or "-nasꞇ") to the numbers 1-ⵒ. The same system applied to the old decimal numbering, therefore, the next table is listing both decimal and dozenal, keep in mind the values are relative:

Terms for numbers 10-1ⵒ
Symbol
(Dozenal)
Symbol
(Zhoushi)
Symbol
(Zhengian)
Symbol
(Preimeai)
Literal translation
(Common)
Zhoushi term
11 11 ១១ ១១ Eleven Odenasꞇ
12 12 ១໒ ១២ Twelve Dvanasꞇ
13 13 ១៣ ១៣ Thirteen Tꝛinasꞇ
14 14 ១૫ ១៥ Fourteen Чotyrnasꞇ
15 15 ១൪ ១៤ Fifteen Peꞇnasꞇ
16 16 ១૬ ១៦ Sixteen Шosꞇnasꞇ
17 17 ១൭ ១៧ Seventeen Sydemnasꞇ
18 18 ១൮ ១៨ Eighteen Өsemnasꞇ
19 19 ១໙ ១៩ Nineteen Đeveꞇenasꞇ
1↊ 1Dozenal us 10.svg 1ᚴ ១൰ Tenteen Deseꞇenasꞇ
1↋ 1Dozenal us 11.svg 1ⵒ ១൯ Elteen Hєleꞇenasꞇ

Tens

Tens, similar to 10 (Deseꞇ, Tuƌeꞇ), other multiples of 10 are made using the numbers 1-ⵒ and adding suffix "-ƌet" (10-40) or "-desaꞇ" (50-ⵒ0):

Terms for tens
Symbol
(Dozenal)
Symbol
(Zhoushi)
Symbol
(Zhengian)
Symbol
(Preimeai)
Literal translation
(Common)
Zhoushi term
10 10 ១០ ១០ Ten/Do Deseꞇ/Tuƌeꞇ
20 20 ໒០ ២០ Twenty Dvaƌeꞇ
30 30 ៣០ ៣០ Thirty Tꝛiƌeꞇ
40 40 ૫០ ៥០ Fourty Чotyꝛiƌeꞇ
50 50 ൪០ ៤០ Fifty Pedesaꞇ
60 60 ૬០ ៦០ Sixty Шodesaꞇ
70 70 ൭០ ៧០ Seventy Sydemdesaꞇ
80 80 ൮០ ៨០ Eighty Өsemdesaꞇ
90 90 ໙០ ៩០ Ninety Đevedesaꞇ
↊0 Dozenal us 10.svg0 ᚴ0 ൰០ Tenty Desedesaꞇ
↋0 Dozenal us 11.svg0 ⵒ0 ൯០ Elty Hєledesaꞇ

Numbers 21-ⵒⵒ

Regular numbers between 20 and 100 are made by the combination of the tens and units. The western (Haldenian) dialects, having been influenced by Gadori grammar, sometimes use a version with the conjunction interix "-a-" with a switched order. Here are some examples:

Terms for all numbers below 100
Symbol
(Dozenal)
Symbol
(Zhoushi)
Symbol
(Zhengian)
Symbol
(Preimeai)
Literal translation
(Common)
Zhoushi term Haldenian dialect
23 23 ໒០ ២០ Twenty three Dvaƌeꞇ tꝛi Tꝛiadvaƌeꞇ
37 37 ៣൭ ៣៧ Thirty seven Tꝛiƌeꞇ sydem Sydematꝛiƌeꞇ
41 41 ૫១ ៥១ Fourty one Чotyꝛiƌeꞇ oden Odenaчotyꝛiƌeꞇ
5↊ 5Dozenal us 10.svg 5ᚴ ൪൰ Fifty ten Pedesaꞇ deseꞇ Deseꞇapedesaꞇ
66 66 ૬૬ ៦៦ Sixty seven Шodesaꞇ шosꞇ Шosꞇaшodesaꞇ
7↋ 7Dozenal us 11.svg 7ⵒ ൭൯ Seventy el Sydemdesaꞇ hєleꞇ Hєleꞇasydemdesaꞇ
85 85 ൮០ ៨០ Eighty five Өsemdesaꞇ peꞇ Peꞇaөsemdesaꞇ
99 99 ໙໙ ៩៩ Ninety nine Đevedesaꞇ đeveꞇ Đeveꞇađevedesaꞇ
↊4 Dozenal us 10.svg4 ᚴ4 ൰൪ Tenty four Desedesaꞇ чotyꝛi Чotyꝛiadesedesaꞇ
↋2 Dozenal us 11.svg2 ⵒ2 ൯០ Elty two Hєledesaꞇ dva Dvaadєledesaꞇ

Number past 100

TBA

Inflection of numbers

Inflection table of numbers
Common Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Loc. Ins. Abl. Voc. Gender/Number Notes
Link to Singular genitive
Zero Nula Nuly Nule Nulu Nule Nulө Nulө Nulo! Universal Every form needs a noun in genitive, not in the restpective case
Quarter Чoterꞇ Чoterꞇi Чoterꞇi Чoterꞇ Чoterꞇi Чoterꞇī Чoterꞇī Чoterꞇi! Universal Used for example for "Quarter a bread" → "Чoterꞇ Ȝilaba"
Half Pөl Pөli Pөli Pөl Pөli Pөlī Pөlī Pөli! Universal Used for example for "Half a bread" → "Pөl Ȝilaba"
Link to Singular form of the noun
Other fractions -(ꞇ)ina
(suffix)
-(ꞇ)iny -(ꞇ)iƞe -(ꞇ)inu -(ꞇ)iƞe -(ꞇ)inө -(ꞇ)inөj -(ꞇ)ino! Singular Used for fractions with number 1 in the numerator (example: ⅛ - Odna өsmina)
-(ꞇ)iny
(suffix)
-(ꞇ)in -(ꞇ)inom -(ꞇ)iny -(ꞇ)ināȝ -(ꞇ)ināmi -(ꞇ)ināmi -(ꞇ)iny! Paucal
Plural
Used for fractions with numbers 2-4 in the numerator (example: ⅜ - Tꝛi өsminy)
-(ꞇ)in Plural Used for fractions with numbers 5-∞, all negatives and all non-integers in the numerator (example: ⅝ - Peꞇ өsmin). The fraction word is not inflected and remains in genitive
One Oden Odnœꚕo Odnœmu Oden Odnom Odƞīm Odƞīm Oden! Masculine
Odna Odnē Odnē Odnu Odnē Odƞө̄ Odƞom Odna! Feminine
Oden Odno Odnœmu Odno Odnœm Odƞīm Odƞīm Odno! Neuter
Raz Razu Razu Raz Razu Razœm Razœm Raze! Universal Term used in the west for "one" without a noun term, such as counting
Link to Plural form of the noun
Two Dva Dvө Dvөm Dva Dvө Dvєma Dvєma Dva! Masculine Old dual noun terms might still pop up in this usage time to time
Dvє Dvө Dvєma Dvє Dvө Dvєma Dvөma Dvє! Feminine + Neuter
Three Tꝛi Tꝛī
Tꝛeȝ
Tꝛem Tꝛi Tꝛeȝ Tꝛema
Tꝛemi
Tꝛema
Tꝛemi
Tꝛi! Universal
Four Чotyꝛi Чotyꝛ Чotyꝛem Чotyꝛi Чotyꝛeȝ Чotyꝛema Чotyꝛema Чotyꝛi! Universal
Link to Plural genitive
Five Peꞇ Peꞇi Peꞇi Peꞇ Peꞇiȝ Peꞇima
Peꞇimi
Peꞇima
Peꞇimi
Peꞇ! Universal Same inclension works for "Шosꞇ", "Đeveꞇ", "Deseꞇ", "Hєleꞇ" & "Ceλeꞇ" (6, 9, ᚴ (10), ⵒ (11), ᘐ (12/10))
Seven Sydem Sydmiȝ Sydmi Sydem Sydmi Sydmi Sydmi Sydîm! Universal Same inclension works for "Өsem" (8)
Eleven Odenasꞇ Odenasꞇi Odenasꞇi Odenasꞇ Odenasꞇi Odenasꞇiĵî Odenasꞇiĵî Odenasꞇ! Universal Same inclension works for all 1◌ numbers
Dozen Tuƌeꞇ Tuƌtu Tuƌtu Tuƌeꞇ Tuƌtu Tuƌtœm Tuƌtœm Tuƌte! Singular Term "Tuƌeꞇ" a plural version for multiple dozens of something
Tuƌty Tuƌtū Tuƌtœm Tuƌty Tuƌteȝ Tuƌty Tuƌty Tuƌty! Plural
Twenty Dvaƌeꞇ Dvaƌeꞇi Dvaƌeꞇi Dvaƌeꞇ Dvaƌeꞇîĵeȝ Dvaƌeꞇi Dvaƌeꞇi Dvaƌeꞇ! Universal Same inclension works for all ◌0 numbers end with a suffix -eꞇ
Fifty Pedesaꞇ Pedesaꞇi Pedesaꞇi Pedesaꞇ Pedesaꞇiȝ Pedesaꞇi Pedesaꞇi Pedesaꞇiĵe! Universal Same inclension works for all ◌0 numbers end with a suffix -aꞇ

Note: terms "Чoterꞇina" and "Pөloƿina" exist as well and are inflected as by the -(ꞇ)ina inflection Here are following terms for mathematical symbols

Symbol Zhoushi term Common translation Note
= Jest rovno Is equal to Note used for equation
Bliʒi se Is approximate to Note used for approximation
+ Plus
Aj
Plus Note used for addition
- Minus
Bez
Minus Note used for subtraction
\
Krat Times Note used for multiplication
×
*
: Đeleno Divided by Note used for division
÷
[13]
Fumocnina Root Note used for roots
^ Na
Umocƞeno
To the power of Note used for exponentiation
I And Note used for conjunction
Anebo Or Note used for disjunction
Nebo Alternatively Note used for exclusive disjunction
Aj proto Therefore Symbol used in short notes to symbolize forward implication
Ʒtobo Because Symbol used in short notes to symbolize backward implication
Jest totoʒny Is equivalent/identical to Symbol used in short notes to symbolize equivalence
🡘

Verbs

M = Masculine Animate, D = Masculine Inanimate, F = Feminine, N = Neuter, I = Indifferent

Verb "to be"

Irregular verb "to be"
Infinite form 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 4th person Number Literacy form
M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I
Present
Bȳt Jsem Jsi Je Singular Common
Jsme Jste Jsө Jsmy Plural
Bȳꞇi Jesm Jeseш Jest Singular Literary
Jesme Jeste Jsųt Jesmy Plural
Imperfekt
Byȝi Bєȝ Bєшę Bєшeĵ Singular Universal
Bєȝmo Bєste Bєȝų Bєȝmy Plural
Perfektum
Jsem byl Jsem byla Jsem bylo Jsi byl Jsi byla Jsi bylo Byl Byla Bylo Singular Common
Jsme byli Jsme byly Jsme byla Jste byli Jste byly Jste byla Byli Byly Byla Jsmy byli Jsmy byly Jsmy byla Plural
Jesm byl Jesm byla Jesm bylo Jeseш byl Jeseш byla Jeseш bylo (Jest) byl (Jest) byla (Jest) bylo Singular Literary
Jesme byli Jesme byly Jesme byla Jeste byli Jeste byly Jeste byla Jsųt byli Jsųt byly Jsųt byla Plural
Pluperfektum
Bєȝ byl Bєȝ byla Bєȝ bylo Bєшe byl Bєшe byla Bєшe bylo Bєшeĵ/Bє byl Bєшeĵ/Bє byla Bєшeĵ/Bє bylo Singular Common
Bєȝmœ byli Bєȝmœ byly Bєȝmœ byla Bєste byli Bєste byly Bєste byla Bєȝųb byli Bєȝų byly Bєȝų byla Bєȝmy byli Bєȝmy byly Bєȝmy byla Plural
Bєȝ byl Bєȝ byla Bєȝ bylo Bєшe byl Bєшe byla Bєшe bylo Bєшeĵ/Bє byl Bєшeĵ/Bє byla Bєшeĵ/Bє bylo Singular Literary
Bєȝmœ byli Bєȝmœ byly Bєȝmœ byla Bєste byli Bєste byly Bєste byla Bєȝų byli Bєȝų byly Bєȝų byla Bєȝmy byli Bєȝmy byly Bєȝmy byla Plural
Conditial present
Byȝ byl Byȝ byla Byȝ bylo Bys byl Bys byla Bys bylo By byl By byla By bylo Singular Common
Bysmœ byli Bysmœ byly Bysmœ byla Byste byli Byste byly Byste byla By byli By byly By byla Bysmų byli Bysmų byly Bysmų byla Plural
Byȝ byl Byȝ byla Byȝ bylo Bys byl Bys byla Bys bylo By byl By byla By bylo Singular Literary
Byȝmœ byli Byȝmœ byly Byȝmœ byla Byste byli Byste byly Byste byla Byȝų byli Byȝų byly Byȝų byla Byȝmų byli Byȝmų byly Byȝmų byla Plural
Conditial pluperfekt
Byl byȝ byl Byla byȝ byla Bylo byȝ bylo Byl bys byl Byla bys byla Bylo bys bylo Byl by byl Byl by byla Byl by bylo Singular Common
Byli bysmœ byli Byly bysmœ byly Byla bysmœ byla Byli byste byli Byly byste byly Byla byste byla Byli by byli Byly by byly Byla by byla Byli bysmų byli Byly bysmų byly Byla bysmų byla Plural
Byl byȝ byl Byl byȝ byla Byl byȝ bylo Byl bys byl Byla bys byla Bylo bys bylo Byl by byl Byla by byla Bylo by bylo Singular Literary
Byli byȝmœ byli Byly byȝmœ byly Byla byȝmœ byla Byli byste byli Byly byste byly Byla byste byla Byli byȝų byli Byly byȝų byly Byly byȝų byla Byli byȝmų byli Byly byȝmų byly Byla byȝmų byla Plural
Future
Budi Budu Budeш Bude Singular Universal
Budemœ Budete Budө Budemy Plural
Imperative
Buđî! Buđ! Buđî! Singular Universal
Buđmœ! Buđte! Buđmy! Plural

First conjugation

First conjungtion: example verb: "Đelat" = "To do"

M = Masculine Animate, D = Masculine Inanimate, F = Feminine, N = Neuter, I = Indifferent

First conjugation, inflection pattern "Đelat"
Infinite form 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 4th person Number Literacy form
M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I
Present
Đelat Đelām Đelāш Đelā Singular Common
Đelāme Đelāte Đelajī Đelāmy Plural
-t -◌̄m -◌̄ш -◌̄ Singular
-◌̄me -◌̄te -jī -◌̄my Plural
Đelaꞇi Đelajų Đelaješ Đelaję Singular Literary
Đelajemo Đelajetę Đelajųt Đelajemy Plural
-ꞇi -jų -ješ -ję Singular
-jemo -jetę -jųt -jemy Plural
Imperfekt
Đelaȝet Đelaȝ Đelaшę Đelaшeĵ Singular Universal
Đelaȝmo Đelaste Đelaȝų Đelaȝmy Plural
-ȝet -шę -шeĵ Singular
-ȝmo -ste -ȝų -ȝmy Plural
Verbal base (Used for creation of perfect, pluperfect, future and conditial forms)
Đelat (common)
Đelaꞇi (literary)
Đelal Đelala Đelalo Đelal Đelala Đelalo Đelal Đelala Đelalo Singular Universal
Đelali Đelaly Đelala Đelali Đelaly Đelala Đelali Đelaly Đelala Đelali Đelaly Đelala Plural
-t (common)
-ꞇi (literary)
-l -la -lo -l -la -lo -l -la -lo Singular
-li -ly -la -li -ly -la -li -ly -la -li -ly -la Plural
Imperative
Đelaĵ! Đelaj! Singular Universal
Đelajmœ! Đelajtє! Đelajmy! Plural
-ĵ! -j! Singular
-jmœ! -jtє! -jmy! Plural

Second conjugation

Second conjungtion: example verb: "Mȳt" = "To wash", with a secondary example for exceptions "Kupuvat" = "To buy"

M = Masculine Animate, D = Masculine Inanimate, F = Feminine, N = Neuter, I = Indifferent

Second conjugation, inflection pattern "Mȳt"
Infinite form 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 4th person Number Literacy form
M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I
Present
Mȳt Myjų Myjeш Myje Singular Common
Myjemê Myjete Myjө Myjemy Plural
-vat -jų -jeш -je Singular
-jemê -jete -jө -jemy Plural
Mȳꞇi Myji Myjeш Myje Singular Literary
Myjeme Myjete Myjī Myjemy Plural
-ꞇi -ji -jeш -je Singular
-jeme -jete -jī -jemy Plural
Imperfekt
Myjaȝet Myjaȝ Myjaшę Myjaшeĵ Singular Universal
Myjaȝmœ Myjaste Myjaȝų Myjaȝmy Plural
-jaȝet -jaȝ -jaшę -jaшeĵ Singular
-jaȝmœ -jaste -jaȝų -jaȝmy Plural
Verbal base (Used for creation of perfect, pluperfect, future and conditial forms)
Mȳt (common)
Mȳꞇi (literary)
Myl Myla Mylo Myl Myla Mylo Myl Myla Mylo Singular Universal
Myli Myly Myla Myli Myly Myla Myli Myly Myla Myli Myly Myla Plural
-t (common)
-ꞇi (literary)
-l -la -lo -l -la -lo -l -la -lo Singular
-li -ly -la -li -ly -la -li -ly -la -li -ly -la Plural
Imperative
Myĵ! Myj! Singular Universal
Myjmœ! Myjtє! Myjmy! Plural
-ĵ! -j! Singular
-jmœ! -jtє! -jmy! Plural
Second conjugation, -va inflection pattern "Kupuvat"
Infinite form 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 4th person Number Literacy form
M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I
Present
Kupuvat Kupujų Kupujeш Kupuje Singular Common
Kupujemê Kupujete Kupujө Kupujemy Plural
-vat -jų -jeш -je Singular
-jemê -jete -jө -jemy Plural
Kupuvaꞇi Kupuji Kupujeш Kupuje Singular Literary
Kupujeme Kupujete Kupujī Kupujemy Plural
-vaꞇi -ji -jeш -je Singular
-jeme -jete -jī -jemy Plural
Imperfekt
Kupuȝet Kupuȝ Kupuшę Kupuшeĵ Singular Universal
Kupuȝmo Kupuste Kupuȝų Kupuȝmy Plural
-ȝet -шę -шeĵ Singular
-ȝmo -ste -ȝų -ȝmy Plural
Verbal base (Used for creation of perfect, pluperfect, future and conditial forms)
Kupuvat (common)
Kupuvaꞇi (literary)
Kupuval Kupuvala Kupuvalo Kupuval Kupuvala Kupuvalo Kupuval Kupuvala Kupuvalo Singular Universal
Kupuvali Kupuvaly Kupuvala Kupuvali Kupuvaly Kupuvala Kupuvali Kupuvaly Kupuvala Kupuvali Kupuvaly Kupuvala Plural
-vat (common)
-vaꞇi (literary)
-val -vala -valo -val -vala -valo -val -vala -valo Singular
-vali -valy -valo -vali -valy -valo -vali -valy -valo -vali -valy -valo Plural
Imperative
Kupuĵ! Kupuj! Singular Universal
Kupujmœ! Kupujtє! Kupujmy! Plural
-ĵ! -j! Singular
-jmœ! -jtє! -jmy! Plural

Third conjugation

Third conjugation, inflection pattern ""
Infinite form 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 4th person Number Literacy form
M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I
Present
Singular Common
Plural
- - - - Singular
- - - - Plural
Singular Literary
Plural
- - - - Singular
- - - - Plural
Imperfekt
Singular Universal
Plural
- - - - Singular
- - - - Plural
Verbal base (Used for creation of perfect, pluperfect, future and conditial forms)
(common)
(literary)
Singular Universal
Plural
- (common)
- (literary)
- - - - - - - - - Singular
- - - - - - - - - - - - Plural
Imperative
Singular Universal
Plural
- - Singular
- - - Plural

Fourth conjugation

Fourth conjugation, inflection pattern ""
Infinite form 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 4th person Number Literacy form
M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I
Present
Singular Common
Plural
- - - - Singular
- - - - Plural
Singular Literary
Plural
- - - - Singular
- - - - Plural
Imperfekt
Singular Universal
Plural
- - - - Singular
- - - - Plural
Verbal base (Used for creation of perfect, pluperfect, future and conditial forms)
(common)
(literary)
Singular Universal
Plural
- (common)
- (literary)
- - - - - - - - - Singular
- - - - - - - - - - - - Plural
Imperative
Singular Universal
Plural
- - Singular
- - - Plural

Fifth conjugation

Fifth conjugation, inflection pattern ""
Infinite form 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 4th person Number Literacy form
M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I M D F N+I
Present
Singular Common
Plural
- - - - Singular
- - - - Plural
Singular Literary
Plural
- - - - Singular
- - - - Plural
Imperfekt
Singular Universal
Plural
- - - - Singular
- - - - Plural
Verbal base (Used for creation of perfect, pluperfect, future and conditial forms)
(common)
(literary)
Singular Universal
Plural
- (common)
- (literary)
- - - - - - - - - Singular
- - - - - - - - - - - - Plural
Imperative
Singular Universal
Plural
- - Singular
- - - Plural

Repetitivety

TBA

Questions

TBA

Adverbia

wikipedia:Adverb TBA

Prepositions

TBA

Conjunctions

TBA

Particles

TBA

Interjections

TBA

Language examples

Lord's prayer

Following text shows Lord's prayer compared to Belgorian and Slovanic languages

Common language Zhoushi (Grapheme) Zhoushi (Diacritic) Belgorian (Protopolyash) Belgorian (Diacritic) Slovanic langauge
Our Father in heaven, Oþчe naш, kitory jesꞇєш na ƞieby, Ot́če naš, kitory jesťěš na ňieby, ⲟⲧⲕⲓ ⲛⲁϣⲓ, ⲧⲓϣ ⲓⲥⲉϣ ⲛⲁ ⲛⲓⲉⲃϣⲓⲭⲁⲭ, Otki naši, tiš iseš na niebšichach, Otče náš, ktorý si na nebesiach,
hallowed be your name. mino Tiƿe buđ posviƌeno, mino Tiwe buď posvid́eno, ⲡⲟⲥⲫⲁⲧⲓⲓ ⲥⲁ ⲙⲉⲛⲟ ⲧⲯⲟⲓⲟ, Posfatii sa meno Tvoio, posväť sa meno Tvoje,
Your kingdom come. Tiƿoje guo pꝛiȝađ, Tiwoje guo přiȟaď, ⲡⲣⲓⲓⲭⲟⲇⲓⲓ ⲕⲣⲁⲗⲫⲥⲧⲯⲟ ⲧⲯⲟⲓⲟ, Priichodii kralfstvo Tvoio, príď kráľovstvo Tvoje,
Your will be done, biduч Tiƿuj janг, biduč Tiwuj janǧ, ⲃⲓⲓ ⲯⲩⲟⲗⲁ ⲧⲯⲟⲓⲁ, bii vuola Tvoia, buď vôľa Tvoja,
on earth as it is in heaven. jak v ƞeby, tak aj na zөmi. jak v ňeby, tak aj na zǒmi. ⲓⲁⲕ ⲯ ⲛⲓⲉⲃⲓ, ⲧⲁⲕ ⲁⲓ ⲛⲁ ⲍⲉⲙⲛⲓ. iak v niebi, tak ai na zemni. ako v nebi, tak i na zemi.
Give us this day our daily bread Ȝilab maш tudejшij divaj mam dƞes Ȟilab maš tudejšij divaj mam dňes ⲭⲗⲓⲉⲃⲓⲕ ⲛⲁϣ ⲯⲍⲇⲉⲓϣⲁⲓ ⲇⲁⲓ ⲛⲁⲙ ⲇⲛⲓⲉⲥ Chliebik naš daj nam dnies Chlieb náš daj nám dnes
and forgive us our debts, aj ƿypujuшꞇaj mam гriȝy maшije, aj wypujušťaj mam ğriȟy mašije, ⲓ ⲟⲇⲡⲩϣⲧⲓ ⲛⲁⲙ ⲛⲁϣⲓⲉ ⲯⲓⲛⲓⲉ, i odpušti nam našie vinie, a odpusť nám naše viny,
as we also have forgiven our debtors. jak aj my ƿypujuшamy mašim huoqum. jak aj my wypujušamy mašim huoqum. ⲓⲁⲕ ⲓ ⲙⲓ ⲟⲇⲡⲩϣⲧⲓⲁⲙⲉ ⲛⲁϣⲓⲙ ⲯⲓⲛⲓⲕⲁⲙ. iak i mi odpuštiame našim vinikam. ako i my odpúšťame svojim vinníkom.
And do not bring us into temptation, Aj ƞevydaj mas fu pakuшenji, Aj ňevydaj mas fu pakušenji, ⲓ ⲛⲓⲉⲍⲯⲓⲉⲇⲁⲓ ⲛⲁⲥ ⲯ ⲡⲟⲕⲩϣⲓⲉⲛⲓⲉ, I nezvidai nas v pokušenie, A neuveď nás do pokušenia,
but rescue us from the evil one. le zibafuj mas ƿy Jingu. le zibafuj mas wy Jingu. ⲁⲗⲓⲉ ⲭⲣⲁⲛⲓⲓ ⲛⲁⲥ ⲟⲇ ⲍⲗⲟⲅⲟ. ale chrani nas od Zlogo. ale zbav nás Zlého.

Interactive analysis of the prayer

Common:
Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And do not bring us to the time of trial, but rescue us from the evil one. Amen.

Zhoushi:
Oþчe maш, kitory jesꞇєш na ƞieby, mino Tiƿe buđ posviƌeno. Tiƿoje guo pꝛiȝađ. Biduч Tiƿuj janг, jak v ƞieby, tak aj na zөmi. Ȝilab maш tudejшij divaj mam dƞes. Aj ƿypujuшꞇaj mam гriȝy maшije, jak aj my ƿypujuшamy mašim huoqum. Aj ƞevydaj mas fu pakuшenji,[14] le zibafuj mas ƿy Jingu. Amen.

IPA:
[oθ.t͡ʃɛ ˈmaːʃ | ˈki.to.rɨ ˈjɛ.scɛʃ na ˈɲie.bɨ | ˈmi.no ˈti.we ˈbuɟ ˈpo.svi.d͡ze.no ‖ ˈti.wo.jɛ guo ˈpr̝̊i.ɣaɟ ‖ ˈbi.dut͡ʃ ˈti.wuj ˈjand͡ʒ | ˈjak ˈfu ˈɲie.by | ˈtak ˈaj ˈna ˈzu͡o.mi ‖ ˈxi.lab ˈmaʃ ˈtu.dɛj.ʃij ˈdi.vaj ˈmaːm ˈdɲɛs ‖ ˈaj wɨ.pu.ju.ʃcaj ˈmaːm ˈd͡ʒiː.xɨ ˈma.ʃi.je | ˈjak ˈaj wɨ.pu.ju.ʃa.mɨ ˈmaʃ.im ˈhu.o.k͡vum. ‖ ˈaj ˈɲɛ.vɨ.daj ˈmaːs ˈfu ˈpa.ku.ʃen.ji | ˈlɛ ˈzi.ba.fuj ˈmaːs ˈwɨ ˈjin.gu ‖ ˈaː.mɛn] Speaker Icon.svg

World Peace Manifesto

World Peace Manifesto is the founding agreement, that formed the Anterian World Assembly. The document, although being written in Common was originally written by Mustelarian prime minister Jeliþo Pogөf, a native Zhoushi, who later translated this matterial into Zhoushi. Interactive translation includes the first paragraph of the text:

Interactive analysis of the manifesto

Common:
We, the nations of Anteria, hereby stand together, working together, united and willing to cooperate to reach global peace. We have seen enough deaths, enough suffering, enough pain and enough ruined lives. We came together with a hope and a ideal, that there are things that should be done, there are ways better than war, there is a better way to work with the world.

Zhoushi:
Ny, narody Anterje, ƿustavame pospolu, pracujiƌ pospolu, odnetƞi aj ȝoчuƌ spөlupracovaч k dosaʒenje ʒөmskeho santifu. Ny viгali pꝛiliш smrꞇiȝ, pꝛiliш utrpeƞi, pꝛiliш bөlu aj pꝛiliш zƞiчoniȝ чiƿtu. Ny sє sȝromaʒđili s virө aj idealem, ʒto jsu vjeƌi, kitore by miaλy byч đelane, jsu moʒnosꞇi lepшє neʒ vojna, je moʒnosꞇ pracovaч se шtaty zөme.

IPA:
[nɨ ˈna.ro.dɨ ˈan.te.rʲɛ ˈpu.sta.va.mey ˈpospolu | ˈpra.t͡su.jid͡z ˈpo.sp.olu | ˈod.nɛ.tɲi ˈaj ˈxo.t͡ʃud͡z ˈspu͡o.lu.pra.t͡so.vat͡ʃ k ˈdo.sa.ʒɛn.jɛ ˈʒu͡om.ske.ho ˈsan.ti.fu ‖ ˈnɨ ˈvi.d͡ʒa.li pr̝̊iː.liʃ. ˈsmr.cix | ˈpr̝̊iː.liʃ ˈu.tr.pɛ.ɲiː | ˈpr̝̊iː.liʃ ˈbu͡o.lu aj ˈpr̝̊iː.liʃ ˈzɲi.t͡ʃo.nix ˈt͡ʃiw.tuː ‖ nɨ se ˈsɣro.maʒ.ɟi.li s ˈvi.ru͡o aj ˈi.dɛ.aː.lem | ˈʒto ˈjsu ˈvje.d͡zi | ˈki.to.rɛ ˈby ˈmia.ȴɨ ˈbɨt͡ʃ ˈɟe.la.nɛ | ˈjsu ˈmo.ʒno.sci ˈlɛp.ʃe ˈnɛʒ ˈvoj.na | ˈjɛ ˈmoʒ.nosc ˈpra.t͡so.vat͡ʃ se ˈʃta.tɨ zu͡o.me] Speaker Icon.svg

First words from the Moon

First country to land people on the Moon was San Calia, which successfully got a lunar lander with two people in Mare Unitaris on July 20th, 1967. Calonaut David Russel was the first to touch the surface of the Moon, saying the quote seconds after climbing down the ladder. Interactive translation of the quote:

Interactive analysis of the first words

Common:
We come in the name of San Calia, for Anteria, and for all mankind.

Zhoushi:
Pꝛiȝazimy ve minu Svekalije, pro Anterji, aj pro cөle λuƌitvo.

IPA:
[pr̝̊i.xa.zi.mɨ ˈve ˈmi.nu ˈsve.ka.li.je ˈpro ˈan.te.rʲi ˈaj ˈpro ˈt͡su͡o.le ˈȴu.d͡zi.tstvo] Speaker Icon.svg

Dictionary

Dictionary for nouns

Zhoushi term Inf. code Common term Important note
Anterijє Є Anteria
Bөl Ш Pain/Suffering
Buducnoшꞇ Future
Cerkev C Church
Чerшeƞ Ч Cherry
Чiƿt Ш Life
Чas Ш Time
Doba Ʒ Time/Era
Drʒitel M Holder
Guo Ƞ Kingdom
Гriȝ Ш Sin
Huoq P Debtor Term used for debt in a moral sense
Ȝilab L Bread
Janг T Will
Jaro Ƞ Spring (season)
Jeseƞ Ч Autumn/Fall
Jing Ш The Bad/The Evil
Kөd Ш Code
Kuꝛe K Chicken Technically, term is used only for young chicken
Leto Ƞ Summer
Lєs L Forest
Λuƌitvo Ƞ Mankind
Mama Ʒ Mom
Maꞇka Ʒ Mother
Mino Ƞ Name
Minoшꞇ Past
Miƞєsto Ƞ City
Misto Ƞ Place/Location
Moꝛe Sea
Moʒnosꞇ Option/Variant
Muʒ M Man
Narod M/Ш Nation (group of people)
Narodnosꞇ Nationality See mustelarian definition of nationality
Ƞiebe Sky/Heaven
Ƞiebeso Ƞ Heaven
Odneta Ʒ Unity
Oþec V Father
Өꝛad Ш Office (governmental)/Bureau
Pakuшenj R Temptation
Pan P Sir/Mister
Podpis Ш Signature
Poglovij R Sex/Gender
Praƌa Ч Work/Job
Preah I Priєȝ Preah is the main god of Kammism
Pꝛimiƞe Ө Surname
Radosꞇ Joy/Happiness
Rakosij R Reeds
Rөʒe Ө Rose
Santif Ш Peace
Smrꞇ Death
Sөчasnoшꞇ Present (time)
Spөlupraƌa Ч Cooperation
Starosta S Mayor
Stroj T Machine
Шtat Ш State/Country
Tata S Dad
Utrpeƞij R Suffering
Vjeƌ Thing
Vojna Ʒ War/Military service
Vөdce V Leader/Commander
Zima Ʒ Winter
Zombie I Zombie
Zөme Ө Ground/Earth (Anteria) Term used for Anteria, if the name is itself avoided
Ʒona Ʒ Woman
Ʒөme Ө Earth/Globe
  1. Bogmo-Zhengian dialect is the most "literal", as its base was taken for the design of the new language in early 80's and was later codified in 1984
  2. Official languages of the Sekidean Union are official languages of countries that are members. Therefore, Zhoushi is considered an official language, although on the international basis, Common is used the most.
  3. Note: this phoneme is present in other two Kento-Polyash languages: Velnotian and Ulevan
  4. See Wikipedia articles about Grammatical gender and Animacy
  5. Technically, "Indifferent is not a gender, but many linguists mark it as a gender to simplify the grammar, as it is a gender in many ways. In many new linguistic texts, you can see a note, that Zhoushi has 4+1 genders.
  6. Preah is a main God of Kammism. See a subsection of article about Zhousheng about religions of Zhousheng
  7. In many cases, words inflected by this infletion are slowly shifting towards inflection pattern "Rөʒe" (Feminine)
  8. In many cases, words inflected by this inflection are slowly shifting towards inflection pattern "Radosꞇ" (Feminine)
  9. Except the suffixes, in which the masculine animate ends with "-i", while masculine inanimate ends with "-y"
  10. They in singular number is rarely used in Common, but still exists.
  11. See article about Clusivity of first person singular
  12. Usage of this term slowly shifts and merges with the singular form. This form is sometimes considered archaic
  13. The notation a)̅b̅ symbolizes b÷a (see notation on Wikipedia)
  14. Other version is "(...) Aj ƞedaj abyȝom nebyli vydaƞi fu pakuшenji, (...)" This version is favored by Kaȝin Christians, while the Catholic Christians prefer the version listed above.