Motto: "Til det fælles gode."
"To the common good."
Location of Glanodel (green),
CDN member nations (light),
Other Asuran nations (dark grey)
|Official languages||None federally recognized|
|Recognised national languages||Lhedwinic (Glanish dialect), Midrasian, Newreyan, Aquidish, Vrnallian|
|Ethnic groups||Glanish (80.2%),|
Other Lhedwinic (1%)
|Demonym(s)||Glanish · Glens|
|Government||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|Noah A. Mikkelsen|
• House Speaker
(President pro tempore)
|Karla L. Kruse|
|David L. Vestergaard|
|Legislature||Congress of the Commonwealth (Kongres Glanodæl)|
|Council of State (Senatet)|
|National Council (Nationalråd)|
• King's Day
|1 February 954|
• Two Chambers Day
|5 March 1158|
• Revival Day
|5 March 1900|
|236,326 km2 (91,246 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2015 census
|62.921/km2 (163.0/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2014)|| 29.5|
|HDI (2014)|| 0.930|
|Currency||Gælder (Gilder) (GO)|
|ISO 3166 code||GLN|
Glanodel (Glanish-Lhedwinic: Glanódæl), officially the Glanish Commonwealth (Glanish-Lhedwinic: Glansk Fristatens), is a federal republic in Asura. It consists of 13, semi-autonomous cantons and the city of Vænholm is the seat of the federal government. The country is situated along the Northeast side of the archipelago Lhedwin and is bordered by Navack to the south, the Arctic Ocean to the north and west, and the Asuran Channel to the east. Glanodel is a mostly island, maritime country geographically separated into three areas by Norfeld defining its northern border and Sørfeld defining its southern, spanning an area of 236,326 square kilometres (91,246 sq mi). The Glanish population of 14.8 million, 4.2 million of whom are of a foreign background, is concentrated mostly within its major coastal cities, where the largest Glanish cities are found: among them are the two global cities and economic centers Graylund and Ellesø.
The origins of the modern Glanish culture can be traced back to the emergence of the Dalish tribes at the start of the Iron Age which dominated most of the region now known as Glanodel. As a single, unified country, the nation owes its origins to the establishment of the Kingdom of Glanodel in 1158 with the crowning of King Ögri Vænström. From the 14th to the 17th century, the Northern Renaissance shaped much of modern Glanish political, economic, and social ideology. It also led to the emergence of the nascent, liberal-leaning movement which dominated national policy towards the mid-17th century until the Kingdom joined the union of the United Kingdom of Lhedwin alongside the former Kingdoms of Navack and Crylante. Lhedwinic occupation of Glanodel ended with the nation's liberation by the Grand Alliance in 1899. The subsequent ratifying of the Grundlov (National Constitution) on 5 March 1900, established the Glanish Commonwealth. Facing great challenges following the end of the Great War due in large part to war losses, a majority of the first half of the 20th century was spent on reconstruction, inspiring the name "Reconstruction Era". Glanodel emerged as a dominant manufacturer in the growing world economy throughout the 1930s and 40s. The 1950s saw the empowerment of unions, numerous economic reforms, and unemployment benefits, as well as publicly-funded pensions, universal health care, and greater investments in both public and private education.
In its current form, Glanodel's national legislature is the elected, bicameral Congress of the Commonwealth: composed of the Council of State (Senatet; upper house), presided over by Chancellor David Vestergaard; and the National Council (Nationalråd, lower house), presided over by House Speaker Karla Kruse. Executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, presided over by President of the Commonwealth Noah Mikkelsen, who serves as the nation's head of state and government.
The Glanish people enjoy one of the highest standards of living and the country ranks highly in numerous comparisons of national performance such as education, healthcare, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance, prosperity and human development. Glanodel is frequently ranked as one of the happiest countries in the world and has the world's highest social mobility rate with a high level of income equality and one of the world's highest per capita incomes. Glanodel also has one of the most ethnically diverse populations in Asura, with non-Glanish ethnicities making up roughly 45% of the nation's population. Glanish national identity is rooted in widely shared values of equality, the main inspiration behind its frequent use of referendums. As guaranteed by its Constitution, Glanish citizens reserve the right to freely practice any religion they chose, with Trúathi and Alydianism being the two most commonly practiced religions.
The 21st century saw the rise of Glanodel as a major power in Lhedwinic foreign affairs and a minor power within Asuran politics. Since the nation's rise to economic power in the 1990s, Glanodel has held a consistent place as having the highest per capita income in the world and one of the most economically competitive nations in the world. Glanodel has also emerged as a primary contributor to the 's northern missions, along side Newrey, and is a key proponent in the formation of the Lhedwin Council and the CDN. Glanodel is often referred to by numerous multinational magazines, tourism industries, and news outlets as both one of the world's major "cultural hubs", as well as a "hub of debauchery and indulgence". Glanish cultural achievements are widely known and Glanodel is most commonly known around the world for its famous authors, critically acclaimed musicians and classical orchestras, and its internationally recognizable movies and television shows. In addition, Glanodel is known for having far-libertarian social policies especially in comparison to other developed nations, such as legalized public nudity and even prostitution, as well as a plethora of controlled substances approved for recreational use.
- 1 Etymology and name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics and government
- 5 Law enforcement and crime
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
Etymology and name
Linguistic anthropologists still differ on the exact origin of the name "Glanodel" (Glanish: Glanodæl), especially regarding its relationship with the Glanish people and the unified Kingdom of Glanodel. Most historians agree that the name is a compound. While the word's suffix, del (dæl) is widely accepted as a reference to the Glanish lands and is most likely derived from the Old Lhedwinic word for "valley", the first half of the name, glano is the primary subject of debate.
Originally believed to be a devolved form of an early usage of the word glen, which also refers to a "valley" or even "fjord", most historians now believe the word originates from the Old Lhaeraidh term for "clean", glano(s). Around the start of the 10th century, Lhaeraidh traders regularly made excursions into Glanish territory and one of the most notable differences between the two peoples was the fact that Glens seldom engaged in body modification, tattooing, or body painting. Additionally, the fair, pale skin of Lhedwin natives only stood out even more so in contrast to the darker complexion of the Lhaeraidh. Thus, around the middle of the 11th century, Glanaidh became a widely used term among the Lhaeraidh to describe and refer to the people of modern Glanodel. Consisting of the prefix glano ("clean") and the suffix -aidh ("people" or "folk"), the term essentially translated to the "clean people".
By the start of the 14th century, the Lhaeraidh trading network had spread throughout much of the known world and the term became commonly used even outside of Lhaeraidh territories. As a result, historians believe that "Glanaidh" later became commonly used among Glanish traders as well to facilitate trade agreements. Most historians agree the terms Glansk (tr. "Glanish"; "that of Glanish origin") and Glanska (tr. "Glens"; "Glanish people") became widespread by the early 14th century.
- Main articles: History of Glanodel
The origins of the modern Glanish culture can be traced back to the Dalish culture (Proto-Lhedwinic: Dalings; tr. "people of the Dales" or "people of the valley") of the Iron Age which came to dominate most of modern day Glanodel from 6th century BCE until the 12th century CE. Heavily influenced by the threat of the Fiorentine Empire and its harsh environment, the culture is notable for its abundant rock carvings, runestones, and longships. Dalish territorial expansion followed almost immediately after the collapse of the Empire and was facilitated by vessels which had originally served to defend Dalish lands from invasion. Glanodel had established influence throughout much of the Lhedwinic waterways during the 5th and 6th century and trade routes out of Glanodel soon stretched throughout much of the archipelago, and beyond.
Consolidation of Glanish lands beneath a single ruler began in the 9th century and involved extended conflicts between numerous chiefdoms ruled by jarls. King Ögri Vænström is generally considered the first Kingdom of Glanodel and was officially crowned in 1158. Throughout much of the 13th century, most contemporaries refered to Glanodel as an "anarchic society", as the nation remained relatively decentralized. In 1247, King Gærhialm established the Royal Truathist Church of Glanodel.
From the 14th to the 17th century, a period known as the Northern Renaissance shaped much of modern Glanish political, economic, and social ideology. It also led to the emergence of the nascent, liberal-leaning movement which dominated national policy until the accession of King Brendt III who, after enacting numerous conservative political and social reforms in opposition to public opinion, was forced to join the United Kingdom of Lhedwin in order to preserve his monarchy and prevent a full-fledged revolt.
Glanodel remained under Lhedwinic rule from 1668 until 1899 when Glanodel was finally liberated by the Grand Alliance, ending the Great War. Immediately following the end of the Great War, a provisional government which had been the key support behind the Resistance in Glanodel ratified a second Grundlov (the Second Constitution of Glanodel) on 5 March 1900, establishing the Glanish Commonwealth under a federal presidential form of government. Within a decade, Glanish politics became dominated by two major parties, the Liberal People's Party and Conservative Democratic Party, with fluctuating support among smaller parties.
Glanodel faced great challenges immediately following the end of the Great War and a majority of the first half of the 20th century was spent on reconstruction. These efforts were aided by reparations paid out of the Lhedwin Royal Treasury as the Lhedwin government was dissolved, and by aid from Newrey, among other nations. This period has come to be known as the Reconstruction Era. These funds were primarily used for importing goods from abroad. Starting from May of 1900, these imports were mainly much-needed staples such as food and fuel, but later the purchases turned towards reconstruction needs. 1901 to 1923 saw the fastest period of growth in Glanish history and gave rise to the modern Glanish economy. Glanodel emerged as a dominant manufacturer in the growing world economy throughout the 1930s and 40s.
Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Glanish politics became dominated by two major parties, the Liberal People's Party and Conservative Democratic Party, with fluctuating support among smaller parties. As the overall tax burden on the public rose between the 1920s and 30s, economic growth slowed but standards of living modernized and progressive policies dominated legislation throughout the rest of the 20th century. The late 1920s and the 1930s saw the empowerment of unions, numerous economic reforms, and unemployment benefits, as well as publicly-funded pensions, universal health care, and greater investments in both public and private education. These investments, as well as the restructuring of the tax system coupled with an effective model for redistribution of wealth resulted in high levels of income equality, per capita income, social mobility, and high human development. With the country's industrial base mostly restored, Glanodel emerged as a dominant manufacturer in the growing world economy throughout the 1940s and 50s.
The 1960s saw one of the largest expansions of the entertainment industry in Glanodel. The late 60s and early 70s also saw the rise of Glanodel's extensive tourism industry which by the turn of the 21st century grossed over 4% of the nation's economy. While the late 60s also saw the emergence of the state oil company, Regoil, oil production did not provide net income until the early 1980s because of the large capital investment that was required to establish the country's petroleum industry. Around 1975, both the proportion and absolute number of workers in industry peaked. Since then labor-intensive industries and services like factory mass production and shipping have largely been automated, or in a few cases outsourced.
The 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern Glanish history, especially when the communications infrastructure was equipped to provide internet. Beginning in 1994, Glanodel entered into numerous trade pacts with over 20 other nations throughout the world, the goal being to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the countries with whom Glanodel traded the most; trade among the partners has soared since these agreements went into force. Numerous international finance and economist magazines rank Glanodel as one of the largest economies in the world. At the turn of the 21st century, Inspirekom became the largest, multinational, entertainment company in the world and has since established more filming studios in more countries than any other.
Since the 1990s, Glanodel has experience rapid economic and population growth, both of which are closely tied to relaxed restrictions in areas of immigration and foreign investment. Glanodel has also made considerable expansions in areas of national defense, namely it military and as a result has come under some scrutiny by world leaders like the Former Prime Minister of Newrey.
From 2000 to 2010, internet access was expanded to the majority of the nation's territories, the energy market of the country was converted to nearly 18% renewable energy sources, unemployment fell 3.31% to just over 4% nationwide, and the national economy grew by roughly 43% to its current value of ₲0.783 trillion.
Glanodel was an important member of the Drago Entente for supporting peacekeeping efforts in Northern Asura and in the Lhedwin Isles, as well as a powerful member of the Asuran Community in pushing Lhedwinic nations' goals. In September of 2017, Glanodel advocated for the merging of the Aeian Community and Drago Entente to form the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations. On 29 October 2017, the Lhedwin Council was founded due in large part to the efforts of the late President of Glanodel, Nikolaj Svendsen.
On 20 January 2018, the President of Glanodel Nikolaj Svendsen died in a plane crash off the coast of Newrey. Following House Speaker Katrine Hansen's temporary succeesion as Acting President for 11 months, a new Presidential election was held resulting in the election of Noah Mikkelsen as the 13th President of the Commonwealth.
- Main Article: Geography of Glanodel
The geography of Glanodel is extremely varied, with the most notable differences being between the arable, lowlands of the south and east coasts and the cold, mountainous landscape of the northern and western regions. Among Glanodel's most recognizable features are the Íssvegr and Jokulheim fjords, the Norfeld Mountains, the flat, low areas of Sørland, Østbjorth, and Siwald, and its Arctic archipelagos to the northwest. Sørland, the canton holding its capital city, has many lakes and bogs while the cantons of Østbjorth and Siwald hold numerous moraines. Much of the western and northern side of the country is dominated by mountainous or high terrain, with a great variety of natural features caused by prehistoric glaciers and varied topography, while the east side is mostly grasslands and fens.
Glanodel comprises all land along the Lhedwinic Isles east and northeast of the mountain range Sørfeld, which defines its only land border with another nation (Navack). The rugged coastline, broken by huge fjords and thousands of islands, stretches nearly 14,582 kilometres including the fjords and islands. The longest is Ileinskafjord at 204 kilometres (127 mi) in the city of Vallsberget in Ileinskali. Særlandfjord in the city of Notmarkskov in northern Særland is the world's second deepest fjord. Bors Lake between the cantons of Sumisetr and Helloreg is the deepest lake in Glanodel. Frozen ground can be found all year long in the higher mountain areas along Norfeld and Sørfeld, both of which stretch across the country, from coast to coast. The land is mostly made of hard granite and gneiss rock, but slate, sandstone, and limestone are also common, and the lowest elevations contain marine deposits.
The whole of Glanodel lies in the boreal zone, characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. With coastal territories subject to both oceanic and gulf water currents and inland areas blocked from such effects by mountains, the temperateness varies considerably between the western and eastern coastal regions and the inlands, showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate. Glanodel receives consistent warm currents along its coasts which combine with the moderating effects of the sea to the north resulting in the unusually warm climate compared with other regions that share the same latitude. The interior provinces receive mostly warm weather as well, which has a climate well suited for agriculture. The rest of Glanodel's climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the easternmost regions, while the western regions are suitable for animal husbandry.
Winters in eastern Glanodel (when mean daily temperature remains below 0 °C or 32 °F) are usually about 100 days long, and in the inland the snow typically covers the land from about late November to April, and on the coastal areas, snow often covers the land from late December to late March. Even in the east, the harshest winter nights can see the temperatures fall to −30 °C (−22 °F) although on coastal areas, temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F) are very rare. Climatic summers (when mean daily temperature remains above 10 °C or 50 °F) in eastern Glanodel last from about late May to mid-September, and in the inland, the warmest days of July can reach over 35 °C (95 °F). Although most of Glanodel lies on the taiga belt, the easternmost coastal regions are sometimes classified as hemiboreal. In contrast, the provinces of Norfell, Siwald, and Saerland have long and cold winters, and relatively warm but short summers. The most severe winter days can see the temperature fall down to −45 °C (−49 °F). The winter of the north lasts for about 200 days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May. Summers in the north are quite short, only two to three months, but can still see maximum daily temperatures above 25 °C (77 °F) during heat waves. No part of Glanodel has Arctic tundra, but Alpine tundra can be found in the highest regions of Norfell.
A third of Glanodel lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels. At Glanodel's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter.
According to the Environmental and Ecological Research Institute, the territory of Glanodel can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the subarctic taiga, Sarmatic mixed forests, and Montane Birch forest and grasslands. Taiga covers most of Glanodel from the far eastern side of its northern regions, to the southwestern parts of Villradäl. The coasts of southern Hafland and most of Sørland are covered by mixed forests. In Feniland and Siwald, Montane Birch forests and grasslands are common.
Similarly, Glanodel has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. There are at least sixty native mammalian species, 248 breeding bird species, over 70 fish species, and 11 reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago. Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Glanodel are the brown bear, arctic wolf, wolverine, and elk.
Three of the more striking birds are the whooper swan, a large swan found throughout the arctic; the capercaillie, a large, black-plumaged member of the grouse family; and the European eagle-owl. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity, and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. The most common breeding birds are the willow warbler, common chaffinch, and redwing. Of some seventy species of freshwater fish, the northern pike, perch, and others are plentiful. Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts.
The endangered Teks ringed seal, one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Teks lake system of southeastern Glanodel, down to only 300 seals today. It has become the emblem of the Wildlife Preservation Programs.
Politics and government
- Main articles: Politics of Glanodel, Administrative divisions, Constitution of the Glanish Commonwealth, Congress of the Commonwealth, Federal Government
Glanodel is considered to be one of the most developed democracies and states of justice in the world. Glanodel also has one of the highest ratings of government transparency in the world. According to its Constitution, ratified in 1900, Glanodel is a federal presidential republic wherein power is separated among the bicameral Congress (legislative), the Cabinet (executive), and the Supreme Court (judicial). Additionally, the federal government shares sovereignty with the country's 13 constituent states, referred to as kantons (tr. cantons), which exercise a high degree of autonomy, especially in areas such as education and law enforcement. The Constitution also outlines basic and political rights of individuals and citizen participation in public affairs, and defines the relationship between the federal and local governments.
Constitutionally structured as a representative democracy, federal legislative power is vested with Congress (Kongres Glanodæl; unofficially referred to as the Landsmót, tr. Landsmeet) which consists of two chambers: the Council of States (Senatet, upper house) and the National Council (Nationalråd, lower house). Historically, the Liberal People's Party (Folkpartiet) and the Conservative Democratic Party (Borgerligt Demokratisk) have played leading roles in Glanish politics since 1956. Through referendums, citizens may also directly challenge any law passed by the legislature and through initiatives, introduce amendments to the federal constitution. Additionally, while amendments can be proposed by Congress as well, they can only be ratified by a three-fourths majority referendum.
The executive branch of the federal government consists of the Cabinet (Regering) which is composed of the President, Vice President, the heads of the 14 executive departments, and 9 cabinet-rank officials. As Glanodel's head of state and government, the President is considered the most powerful official within the government. Since 1964, the President is elected for a single, six year term by universal suffrage. Upon their election, the President appoints the members of their Cabinet, who are then approved by the Council of States.
Glanodel uses a civil law system where laws are created and amended by the legislature and the system regulated through the courts of justice of Glanodel. It consists of the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth (composed of 19 permanent judges and a Chief Justice), appellate courts, city and district courts, and conciliation councils. The judiciary is independent of executive and legislative branches. The Courts' strict and formal mission is "to regulate the Glanish judicial system, interpret the Constitution, and as such, implement the legislation adopted by the Congress." In its judicial reviews, it monitors the legislative and executive branches to ensure that they comply with provisions of enacted legislation. As per the Constitution, Supreme Court Justices in Glanodel are appointed by the President and must be confirmed by a Joint Session of Congress. All Justices serve a life term or until they resign or are deemed incapable of carrying out their duties.
Federalism is a hallmark of the Glanish political system. Glanish citizens are subject to three legal jurisdictions: the municipality, canton and federal levels. The federal constitution defines a system of direct democracy (sometimes called half-direct or representative direct democracy. The instruments of this system at the federal level, known as popular rights, include the right to submit a federal initiative and a referendum, both of which may overturn the decisions of the legislature. By calling a federal referendum, a group of citizens may challenge a law passed by the Congress. Similarly, the federal constitutional initiative allows citizens to put a constitutional amendment to a national vote.
Voting in general is perhaps one of the most important institutions to the Glanish population and, to an extent, even seen as sacrosanct. The federal constitution defines it as a civil right and while cantons do control when their elections are held and the locations and number of voting areas, cantons are prohibited from passing laws restricting voter registration or the free exercise of voting. Federal elections are usually held over a three day period whereby citizens can vote up to two days before the official election day. Federal election days are national holidays and canton elections are usually regional holidays with all but emergency services being shut down for most of the day.Main article:
Foreign relations and international institutions
- Main Article: Foreign relations
Glanodel wields considerable influence in the Lhedwin Islands and is a middle power in international affairs. In recent years, Glanodel has gained widespread recognition as a major economic power, trading goods and services to nations across the world. The Glanodel's foreign policy is probably most influenced by its identity as a Lhedwin nation, its lack of autonomy in foreign affairs following the dissolution of the Lhedwin empire and its subsequent protectorate status under the Kingdom of Newrey following the end of the Great War, and in more recent years, its growing role as an international mediator and most perhaps vocal Lhedwin interests advocate. Following the end of the Great War, Glanodel attempted to maintain an official policy of neutrality while benefiting from close political and military ties to the Kingdom of Newrey and was one of the last Asuran nations to join the International Assembly.
Modern sentiment, however, has shifted over the past few decades in favor of some international involvement. Most public officials attribute this support more specifically with support for free trade, reliance on foreign investment, and strong public support for globalization. Large expansions in military spending, as well as increased involvement in regional politics, have also placed Glanodel in the international spotlight with some accusing Glanodel of attempting to reestablish a modern Lhedwin state, though Glanodel has officially rejected this accusation. Glanodel has historically been a strong supporter of international cooperation and peaceful resolutions to disputes.
Glanodel maintains embassies in over 80 countries, with around 60 countries maintaining embassies in Glanodel, all of them in the capital, Vænholm. Glanodel's chief diplomatic official abroad and head of foreign relations is the Secretary of State (currently Lasse E. Mikkelsen) whose department is primarily responsible for both formulating and enacting foreign policy.
A large number of international institutions have their seats in Glanodel. Glanodel is the birthplace of the Human Rights Group (Menneskerettighedsgruppe), the largest freedom of expression and speech advocacy group in the world, and the Universal Suffrage Group (Almindelig Valgret Gruppe), the largest political freedom and political inclusion advocacy group in the world; both of which are headquartered in Vænholm. Glanodel also hosts one of the Aeian Public Health Organization's headquarters. Glanodel is also a founding and permanent member of the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations and was the primary proponent and a founding member of the Lhedwin Council. Many sport federations and organizations have offices located throughout the country as well, such as the Asuran Football Association and the International Ice Hockey Federation, both in Graylund, and the Winter Games Association in Vænholm. Glanodel is also the founder of the World Educational and Cultural Organization (WECO) which publishes reports on internationally recognized cultural events, sites, and structures.
- Main Article: Armed Forces of Glanodel
The Glanish Armed Forces numbers about 45,000 personnel, including civilian employees. According to current mobilization plans, full mobilization produces approximately 150,500 combatant personnel. Glanodel has conscription (including 6–12 months of training), including women as of 2002. The Armed Forces are subordinate to the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense (currently Emil S. Iversen). Glanodel's commander-in-chief is the President. The military of Glanodel is divided into the Navy, Air Force, Cyber Force, and the Home Guard. In military matters, however, the country has maintained a consistent policy of neutrality primarily in order to maintain trade opportunities. Glanodel has a relatively low national defense budget as a result of guaranteed independence from many members of the former Grand Alliance and a protectorate agreement between Glanodel and Newrey.
Law enforcement and crime
Law enforcement in Glanodel is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff's departments, with cantonal police providing broader services. The Graylund Police Department is the largest in the country. Federal agencies such as the Nationale Efterretningstjeneste, or NET, (Glanish National Intelligence Service, abbreviated DSIS) have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security, and enforcing federal courts' rulings and federal laws. At the federal level and in almost every state, a legal system operates on a common law. Cantonal courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the cantonal criminal courts. Plea bargaining in Glanodel is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury trial.
In 2015, there were 461 murders, a 3% decrease from the year prior. The murder rate in 2015 was 4.9 per 100,000 people. In 2001–2, Glanodel had above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of sexual assault compared to other developed nations. A cross-sectional analysis of the Aeian Public Health Organization from 2003 showed that Glanish "sexual assault rates were 6.9 times higher than rates in the other high-income countries." From 1980 through 2008 males represented 54% of homicide victims and 73% of offenders. In 2012, Graylund had the highest crime rate in Glanodel, and Keledalr the lowest. The GNIS's Crime Reports estimates that there was a total of over 365,000 total crimes. While relatively low compared to global averages, Glanodel has one of the highest crime rates in Asura with most crimes committed related to theft or property damage. Glanodel has an incarceration rate of 78 per 100,000 residents and rehabilitation remains the primary focus of the Glanish prison system.
Capital punishment is officially sanctioned in Glanodel for exceptional federal and military crimes, but is expressly prohibited by the Constitution from being exercised by cantonal or lower courts. This being said, Glanodel has not performed an execution since 1967. This is mainly due to a Supreme Court decision in 1967 which ruled that, "only under exceptional circumstances, capital punishment may constitutionally be imposed." As a result of this ruling, it became difficult for courts to impose executions. The last attempt made by a prosecution to impose the death penalty was in 1981.
Glanodel is a major transit and destination country for women and children from Arabekian, Asuran, Rennekkan, and Vestrim countries subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically forced prostitution. There was one report last year of a male teenager from Kavo rescued from the commercial sex trade in Glanodel. The government did not report any cases of forced labor during the reporting period, though the Glanish Anti-Trafficking Center highlighted that workers in domestic service, restaurants, hotels, factories, and agriculture, may be vulnerable to forced labor in Glanodel. There were unconfirmed reports of foreign children being forced to engage in organized street crime. The government released a report in 2010 about increasing evidence that “au pair” organizations could be used as front companies for human trafficking. The hundreds of unaccompanied foreign minors who arrive in Glanodel every year are particularly vulnerable to human trafficking.
Gun ownership is still fairly common in Glanodel and guaranteed by the Second Glanish Constitution and continues to be the subject of contentious political debate. Firearms legislation in Glanodel comes from a long tradition of shooting as a formative element of national identity during the Reconstruction Era after the end of the Great War and the long-standing practice of compulsory military service in which soldiers' service rifles are stored privately at home.
In addition to this, many cantons (notably more rural regions) have strong traditions of hunting, accounting for a large but unknown number of privately held hunting rifles.
Permits for concealed carrying in public are issued only extremely restrictively.
- Main article: Economy of Glanodel
Glanodel has consistently ranked among the five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita and its economy is frequently ranked among the top ten in both stability and overall size compared with its relatively small population. Glanodel has an export-oriented developed mixed economy. Its currency is the Gilder (Glanish spelling: Gælder) (pronounced: gill-d-er) which is pegged at approximately 0.78 gilder to one USD and is derived from the Old Glanish term for "debt".
In terms of structure, the Glanish economy is characterized by a large service sector dominated by the financial, entertainment, insurance, and tourism industries, and a knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector. Copper and iron ore, hydropower, natural gas, petroleum, and timber constitute the resource base of the economy. Major primary and secondary industries include refined metals, paper and pulp products, petroleum products, and shipbuilding, as well as biotechnology, medical equipment, musical instruments, and pharmaceuticals. Glanodel's manufacturing sector accounts for 50% of output and exports, while exported services account for a third of exports, especially banking and insurance, entertainment, and tourism.
As of 2012, the Glanish working population is just over 6 million and roughly half of all employed Glens belonged to a trade union. Glanodel has one of the highest ratios of tertiary degree holders in the world. The country ranks highly in workers' rights. GDP per hours worked was one of the highest as of 2013. Despite a market income inequality slightly above the Asuran average, Glanodel employs a very effective model of wealth redistribution which has led to one of the lowest wealth gaps in the world, evidenced by Glanodel's low Gini coefficient, and one of the world's highest minimum wages. While the government strictly enforces contractual obligations for employment, Glanodel does not have minimum wage legislation or legal requirements for vacation or parental leave. Thus, organized labor has played the biggest role in shaping wages, vacation time, and other benefits for Glanish employees. Additionally, no restrictions apply regarding overtime work, which allows companies to operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The level of unemployment benefits is dependent on former employment and at times also on membership of an unemployment fund, which is almost always administered by a trade union, and the previous payment of contributions. Glanodel is also considered to have one of the highest levels of social mobility in the world. Agriculture accounts for 2% of GDP and employment.
Compared to most Asuran nations, Glanodel has one of the lowest overall tax burdens and sports a predominantly private sector economy. Roughly 40% of the Glanish population own their homes, a relatively low percentage compared with most Asuran nations, with the majority of the population living in apartments, resulting in a high rate of internal migration. The federal budget had a size of 122.6 billion Glanish gælder in 2014, which is an equivalent 18.16% of the country's GDP in that year. This figure did not include regional budgets of cantons or the budgets of local municipalities. When included, total government spending is closer to 36.8% of GDP. The Glanish government's primary funding mechanisms are the value-added tax, a modest federal income tax, and corporate taxes, while its main expenditures are public education and universities, healthcare, and social welfare.
Glanodel claims one of the highest numbers of multinational corporate headquarters in the world and benefits heavily from foreign investments, which its economy has grown increasingly dependent upon. The largest Glanish companies by revenue are the commodity trading companies of Altenergi, Bendixen, Ekstrakt, Glankraft, Glantrae, and Rentbrenn Glanodæl, as well as Avansvare (consumer electronics), Bio-Farma (pharmaceuticals, medical supplies), Hanson Group (music), Inspirekom (film), P&F Publishing (publishing), and Telekom (telecommunications). There are also other multinational companies such as Glanish Airlines (national airline), Graylund Insurance Group (insurance, and the Nørgaard Group musical instruments).
Globalization and free trade have retained strong support among the Glanish population since the mid-1900s. This is primarily due to the fact that most of the country's economic expansion since 1967 is the direct result of international trade and the opening of Glanish markets to foreign investors and consumers. Additionally, in contrast with its Lhedwinic neighbors, Glanodel does not engage in agricultural protectionist measures and as a result, has one of the lowest food prices among Lhedwin nations. While Glanodel is one of the smallest importers in the world by total amount and value of imports, Glanodel is one of the largest importers of goods as a percentage of GDP and the largest of Asuran nations.
Infrastructure and energy
Glanodel's energy market is mostly privatized with some state ownership in key sectors like biofuel industries. In 2017, the nation's total electricity production reached 191.3 TWh, with petroleum and natural gas supplying the majority at 89.6 TWh. The second largest producer of electricity is hydropower which accounts for 17.3% (33 TWh). There is currently an ongoing effort by the government, as well as within many new commercial entities towards increased energy conservation, expanded use of green technologies, and the reduction of carbon emissions. Glanodel is also in the process of phasing out nuclear power plants from its energy grid. A process that is expected to be complete by 2025.
Glanodel has considerably large deposits of oil and natural gas along the coasts of Keledalr, Særmark, Fogilundr, and Ileinskali and is one of the largest net exporters of crude and refined oil and natural gas. Glanodel is also one of the top recyclers in the world, with 66-96% of recyclable materials being recycled, depending on the area of the country. Additionally, the country has for many years pursued a strategy of indirect taxation as an instrument of environmental policy, including energy taxes in general and carbon dioxide taxes in particular.
Transportation in Glanodel is highly influenced by its low population density, mountainous terrain, and long coastlines. While road, rail and air transport increased in importance at the turn of the 21th century, Glanodel's numerous and densely populated, coastal cities still maintain old water transport traditions. Due to the low population density, public transport is somewhat less developed in the rural areas of Glanodel, however public transportation in and around cities is fairly well developed.
In 2016, Glanish tourism grossed between 4-8% of its economy. Glanodel's varied lanscape of mixed forests, fjords, labyrinths of lakes and inlets, rolling hills, and high snowcapped mountains, among numerous man-made attractions brought over 24 million visitors in 2012. Much of Glanodel is pristine and virgin as it contains 10 very large national parks as well as several smaller regional parks. It also has large, major urbanized regions with many cultural events and activities. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities play a significant role in the local tourism industry.
Glanodel is also a popular tourist destination due to its legalization of prostitution and its numerous and well known red-light districts, as well as the legalization of numerous recreational drugs, many of which are not legal in most countries such as several club drugs, ecstasy, LSD, and marijuana.
- Main article: Demographics of Glanodel
Following a 2017 census estimate published by the Glanish Census Bureau, the population of Glanodel is approximately 14,869,859. This equated to a 6.1% growth rate for the country between the 2015 census and the 2017 estimate. Despite the country's relatively low, total fertility rate (1.60 children born per woman), the high growth rate appears to be sustained by very high immigration. Considered one of the youngest, developed countries, the median age of Glanodel is 29.8 years, with 0.97 males per female. The high percentage of younger citizens/permanent residents is mainly attributed to the fact that the average age of immigrants into Glanodel is between 17 and 31. The number of Down Syndrome children born in Glanodel is very low, with most DS pregnancies being aborted since 2005. Glanodel's population is frequently one of the happiest countries in the world. This has been attributed to the country's highly regarded education and health care systems, and its low level of income inequality.
Glanodel is the most diverse nation in Lhedwin and one of the most diverse in Asura with over half of its population having at least one immigrant parent. There are no official statistics on ethnic groups, but an estimated 71% of the population was of at least partial Glanish descent, defined as having at least one parent born in Glanodel and having Glanish citizenship. The remaining 29% were of a foreign background, defined as immigrants or descendants of recent immigrants (with or without citizenship). Of that 29%, most originated from other nations along the archipelago of Lhedwin (approximately 1,243,251), with Asuran nations are the second most common source of foreign born citizens (approximately 856,462). Of the 29% of Glanish residents who were of a foreign background, roughly 73% were foreign residents, or legal Glanish residents without citizenship. Accounting for around 21.2% of the total population, it is one of the largest proportions non-citizen residents in the developed world, most being from Asura.
As of 2014, immigration into Glanodel is mostly from other Lhedwinic nations and nations in Asura, with notable proportions from Rohstian and Terncan. A 2016 estimate indicated that roughly 48% of the Glanish population had one close ancestor (at least within three generations) of foreign descent. Of that 48%, the most common regions of origin were Lhedwinic at 19% of the total population and Asuran at 17%. Vrnallians (7.2% of the total population), Lhaeraidh (7.1%), and Newreyans (5.9%) make the largest single portions of the population.
As opposed to most developed nations of the time, there was a net stagnation in Glanodel's population during the 19th century as a sharp rise in the birth rate due to industrialization was negated by high emigration from Glanodel as many Glanish refugees fled Lhedwinic rule. Beginning in the 1920s and continuing until around the 1980s, Glanodel experiences several population booms due to a wide variety of factors such as re-industrialization, new technologies in life sciences and healthcare, and high levels of immigration.
Lhedwinic is the de facto national language of Glanodel, with the lexicon and grammar of the Glanish dialect being the educational standard. Lhaeraidh, Newreyan, Vrnallian, Nausikaan, and Oser are all recognized minority languages throughout the country. Lhedwinic belongs to the group of languages which encompass much of Northern Asura that share a common ancestor, usually referred to as simply Northern tongues. The languages of Lhedwin, with the exception of Vrnallia, are so closely related that it is possible for Glanish, Nausikaan, and Taeverlandic speakers to understand each other with relatively little effort. Lhedwinic Sign Language was officially recognized as a minority language in 2011. In education, its use for Glanodel's deaf community is regulated by the National Curriculum Guide.
A large majority (86%) of Glanodel speaks at least a second language; however, three languages is fairly common. Secondary languages vary by region and the foreign nations with which they most frequency trade. Current estimates of the most commonly spoken, second languages in Glanodel are Common Iscandrian, Lhaeraidh, Midrasian, Newreyan, Oser, Terncan, and Vrnallian.
Forms of Trúathi and Alydianism have dominated religious life throughout the regions of modern Glanodel over the past century. Although the majority of citizens still identify with Trúathi in censuses and surveys, actual church attendance has experienced dramatic declines over the past 50 years. Immigration has had the largest impact on shifts in religious affiliations in Glanodel, with Alydianism being the fastest growing due to immigration from mainland Asura. Political commentators have come to describe Glanodel as a multi-faith, secularised, or post-religious society.
In the 2001 census 58.6% of all respondents indicated that they were Trúathi, with next largest faith being Alydianism (6.8%), and roughly 1.5% of the population claiming affiliation with another nation. 33% of the population claims no religious affiliation and either stated in the most recent census surveys that they "do not believe there is a God or high power" or identify as agnostic. A survey in 2010 showed that only one in every fifteen Glanish citizens regularly attend church (attending weekly services). Since the beginning of the 21st century, official censuses, as well as independent surveys indicate that the religious population as a whole is growing less Trúathist, while the percentage of other religious affiliations and no religious affiliations are increasing. This has led to a sharp increase in the percentage of the religious population identifying with non-Trúathist faiths.
Religious affiliations generally show the greatest variations when compared along generational lines with individuals over the age of 45 generally identifying as Trúathist. Individuals between the age of 24 and 37 are majority Trúathist with notable percentages of Alydianists. All citizens across ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds, below the age of 25 generally identify as non-religious, particularly agnostic.
Trúathi served as the officially recognized religion of the region since roughly the 9th century and has since remained the nation's dominant religion. Since the 1920s, however, other religions have been imported into Glanodel through immigration, especially from Asura. Since the ratification of the Second Glanish Constitution on 5 March 1900, the government of Glanodel has officially practiced a complete separation of church and state and local governments have been prohibited from officially recognizing religious institutions or passing laws infringing upon the free exercise of religious beliefs. Although not officially a part of the Glanish government anymore, the People's Church of Vænholm (Vænholm Folkekirke) was the official church of the Glanish Kingdom prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth. Today, it holds religious services for a variety of faiths.
Education and Health
Glanodel's health and education systems are somewhat devolved, with counties and cantons having significant control over the implementation and administration of education and healthcare services within their jurisdiction. Officially, the Department of Education administers the education system in Glanodel, while the Department of Healthcare within the Health and Social Services Department officially administers the nation's single-payer healthcare system.
The Education Department's practical responsibilities primarily consist of enforcing national education standards throughout the country and issuing grants and vouchers to schools, students, and families to support both public and private education. Accounting for the variety of systems available to Glanish citizens, about 35% of the population has a degree from a university or college degree, one of the highest rates in Asura and the world. Glanodel also has one of the highest university and colleges per capita and claims 12 of the top 100 universities in the world. Roughly 11% of the general population is privately educated.
Glanodel employs a combination of both single-payer healthcare and private insurance whereby the majority of major operations, treatments for major illnesses, and medical expenses resulting from pregnancy, as well as most expenses resulting from long term, continued care for chronic diseases and other medical expenses considered particularly burdensome financially are all covered by a universal healthcare system which is financed primarily through taxes levied by cantonal governments. Additionally, nearly all medical expenses in general are covered by under the single-payer system until the age of 17.
Private insurance is then used to supplement the costs of regular, preventative care (i.e. regular doctors visits, minor dental procedures, optometry, and ophthalmology), for individuals over the age of 16, and is most commonly paid for as part of an employee benefits package, though individual plans are purchased by some citizens. Citizens can also opt out of the public healthcare program and purchase full coverage through a private provider, receiving a tax deduction each year as "compensation" for not benefiting from the program. Around 18% of the Glanish population has completely private health insurance. Alcoholism and drug abuse collectively accounted for half of all years of life lost in 2014 and are still considered the primary health concerns of the nation.
- Main articles: Culture of Glanodel
There are two major events attributed with having the greatest impact on contemporary Glanish culture. The first event was the end of Lhedwinic rule in Glanodel at the start of the 20th century. This newfound sovereignty, as well as a newly elected, liberal democratic government inspired a strong romantic nationalist movement centering around the reclamation of a national identity separate from a Duchy of the Lhedwinic United Kingdom. This movement is still visible in the country's literature, music, and media. The second was the sharp spikes in immigration and tourism which began in the mid-20th century and plateaued at roughly 24.8 million visitors total in 2010. This widespread exposure to foreign cultures and an ever-growing, ever-diversifying population has led to a broad national identity centering more around acceptance, cooperation, and pride in diversity.
Liberalism, especially freedom of expression and speech, as well as a prevalent aversion to the notions of social engineering, or the efforts of others to shape the social behaviors and morality of the society or population as a whole, are perhaps two of the most defining characteristics of Glanish culture. Egalitarianism, social tolerance, and strong cultural and historic ties to its Lhedwinic neighbors, such as Navack, Cyrlante, and Nausikaa are also key aspects of Glanish life. An emphasis on individualism and some social Darwinist principles are also visible aspects of Glanish culture.
Since the mid-20th century, Glanodel has been considered a "cultural superpower" and numerous, international magazines oriented towards travel have dubbed Glanodel the birther and center of a "Modern Renaissance". As a result of strong government and private support for exhibitions, cultural projects, and artwork, as well as sweeping popular support for the arts, and the Glanish entertainment industry (the largest entertainment industry in the world), Glanodel is known around the world for its cultural products such as literature, music, movies, television, and to a lesser extent, its electronics and related media, which are the most widely distributed cultural exports in the world.
Glanodel has historically been one of the most socially progressive countries and has consistently shown strong support for legislation and policies protecting women's rights, minority rights, and LGBT citizens. Due to the fact that freedom of expression enjoyed broad interpretation throughout most of modern Glanish history, women's and LGBT rights have never been legally abridged. It was not until the 1900s when closer ties between Newrey and Glanodel convinced Glanish lawmakers of a need to codify such rights between 1907 and 1913.
Glanodel was also one of the first nations to allow for absolute primogeniture in 1224, guaranteeing that the eldest child, (regardless of gender) took precedence in the line of succession. In 1930, the sixth President of Glanodel was the first female President, and one of the first, elected, national female leaders in the world.
Originally seen as a sub-culture within the dominant Glanish culture of the region, the Olre people were the subject of discrimination and abuse for many centuries, especially during the rule of the United Kingdom of Lhedwin throughout the 18th and 19th century. When Glanodel gained independence from Lhedwin at the start of the 20th century, the new liberal government enacted policies officially recognizing and protecting the Olre people. This being said, Glanodel has been greatly criticized by some of the international community for its efforts in recent history to exploit the Olre people for tourism and for continual encroachment upon traditionally Olre lands.
Glanodel has long been considered one of the most "gay-friendly" places in the world, generally tying with Crylante for the number one spot. While never being illegal in Glanodel, same-sex sexual activity was guaranteed protection under freedom of expression by a unanimous Supreme Court decision in 1933. Since 1977, the age of consent is 15, regardless of sexual orientation or gender. Same-sex marriage has been legal in all 13 cantons since 1962 when the national Supreme Court ruled in favor of the LSK in LSK v. Eimivollr. The rights of same-sex couples to jointly adopt has been guaranteed since the Supreme Court decision in the 1998 case LSK v. OGV. Gays and lesbians have always been allowed to serve openly in the military, but since 1933 their right to do so has been guaranteed. Public displays of affection between people of the same sex are very unlikely to provoke ire or even be acknowledged by passersby. Lesbians wishing to have access to artificial insemination do not provoke the sort of scandals that can occur in other societies.
Glanodel has also been one of the strongest promoters of human rights internationally and has hosted annual Freedom Forums in Vænholm for the last two decades. Glanodel was also one of the first nations to legalize abortion, prostitution, and recreational drug use. In fact, many of the controlled substances that are legal for recreational use are still not legal in many countries, such as several club drugs, ecstasy, LSD, and marijuana.
The performing arts in Glanodel have always received significant popular support and enjoy moderate state-sponsoring and considerable private funding. Glanish media, television, music, and theater are consumed globally and are considered some of Glanodel's largest exports. Glanish cultural products can be found throughout the developed, especially in Asura, and the developing world. This has led to Glanodel commonly being considered a "cultural superpower".
Glanodel's music industry is the largest and most lucrative entertainment industry in the world, with many of the world's largest recording companies originating from and still headquartered in Glanodel. The largest recording company in the world, the Hanson Group was founded in Glanodel and is still headquartered in Graylund. Big band music and country are perhaps the most recognizably Glanish styles of music.
Glanish mass media and news programming are dominated by the state-sponsored NMN (National Media Network) and the commercial, privately-run InfoCen Grupp, who compete with hundreds of local news organizations based out of major cities and cantons. Printed media, although originally a fairly competitive industry, are on the decline as most newspapers turn to electronic distribution; however, Glanodel currently remains one of the largest consumers of printed media in the world. Dagsavisen (or "The Daily Paper") is the nation's most popular newspaper and has subscribers across Lhedwin and in Asura. The major broadcast television networks are all commercial entities. Cable television in Glanodel offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of niches. Radio programming in Glanodel is mostly commercial and entirely composed of hundreds of small, local channels with a handful of stations broadcasting across an entire canton.
Since the 1980s Glanish movies are shown in theaters around the world. Today, Glanish cinema is dominated by the production companies Inspirekom, Axel Films, and Imaginary Productions. Perhaps the two most popular genres of film Glanodel is best known for are the 1960s and 70s science fiction and steampunk films of Ottesen Studios and the "low-production movement films of the late 1990s, pioneered by the Imaginary Productions. Glanish film and television are known for their realism, moral themes, sexual frankness, and technical and graphic innovations. Glanodel's numerous filming companies also have the advantage of being produced in a variety of languages, giving its products a wider appeal.
Theater is also a popular form of entertainment in Glanodel and Glanish plays attract audiences from around the world. Glanish playwrights still excel in areas of the theater such as romantic drama, comedy, and musicals, all of which have experienced something of a revival in recent years.
The first known Glanish literature is myths and folklore from the 10th and 11th century. With the popularization of secular ideals in the 17th century and the expansion of education accessibility, this period saw several notable, Glanish authors such as the political theorist and satirist Albin Ohly. Since the start of the 1900s, however, literature and publishing have become even more important and widely recognized as a significant part of modern Glanish culture. Perhaps the most famous writer in Glanish history is Edith Lundstrom (1910-81), the author of the most famous series of books to come from Glanodel, the Battle of the Five Kings. The series of four books is attributed with starting the fantasy genre and is still one of the best selling book series in history. Today, book publishing is one of the seven major industries of Glanodel and one of its main cultural exports.
Glanodel enjoys a very diverse food culture with cooking traditions influenced by food cultures throughout Asura since the 12th century, and several new traditions being imported from around the globe since the mid-20th century.
Glanish cuisine tends to simple, with fish (particularly herring), meat, potatoes, and dairy products playing prominent roles. Spices are a more recent addition to many dishes since spices had to be imported throughout most of Glanodel's history. Glanish meatballs and lingonberry jam are the most well known.
Glanodel's open-minded drinking culture is apparent it the fact that the country has no minimum drinking age with most teens traditionally being allowed to drink around age 13. Akvavit is one of the most popular drinks in Glanodel.
Glanish architecture has always borrowed heavily from other northern Asuran countries, but took on a uniqueness during the Northern Renaissance as wealthy, common class landowners and merchants sought to elevate their social status by mirroring their houses after the mansions owned by the nobility.
For the most part, Glanish form of architecture have consistently remained simple and focused on functional, with a heavy focus on durability and effectiveness, with many structures as old as the late 1500s to early 1600s still standing and in use. The vast majority of structures in Glanodel have been modernized with contemporary amenities like electrical wiring.
The establishment of the Commonwealth and a new national romanticism saw the emergence of historicism. This style remains the primary one used throughout the country since the 1950s. Many of Glanodel's oldest public buildings are good examples of the historic style such as the buildings in Herregård.
Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities. The two main spectator sports are rugby and ice hockey. The second most popular is football, followed by horse sports which has the highest number of women practitioners. Golf, track and field, and the team sports of basketball and bandy are also very popular. Sports have been popular in Glanodel since the 1980s. Sporting events have also become a very lucrative industry with the Glanish National Hockey League generating a profit of over $25 billion a year throughout the 1980s. Now the GNHL has offices and stadiums in most major cities in Glanodel. In recent years, Glanodel has also won numerous international tournaments and rugby is currently the national sport.
Glanodel's numerous beaches and resorts are popular locations for outdoor activities as well, such as fishing, canoeing, kayaking and a broad-range of other water-themed sports. Other big sport events include curling and skiing.