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Lemovician Civil War

Lemovician Civil War
LemovWarMap.gif
Animated map of the Lemovician Civil War
     Lemovician government
     Miersan separatists (until 1985)/Opposition-separatist coalition (from 1985)
     Opposition forces (until 1985)
Date5th March, 1980 - 22nd June, 1992
(12 years, 3 months, 2 weeks and 3 days)
Location
Result

Military stalemate

Belligerents
until 1985:
LemovOldFlag.png State of Lemovicia
Supported by:
TBD
until 1985:
LemovEntFlag.png Lemovician opposition
Supported by:
TBD
until 1985:
MiersEntity.png Miersan separatists
Supported by:
TBD
1985-1992:
LemovOldFlag.png State of Lemovicia
Supported by:
TBD
1985-1992:
LemovEntFlag.png Lemovician opposition
MiersEntity.png Miersan separatists
Supported by:
TBD
Commanders and leaders
LemovOldFlag.png Saroi Garnica
LemovOldFlag.png Sahats Tolayogoicoa
LemovOldFlag.png Kintiliano Arreiti
LemovOldFlag.png Luki Lopeola
LemovEntFlag.png Otxote Sasiambarrena
LemovEntFlag.png Gizon Artalolea
LemovEntFlag.png Xuban Urtizverea  
LemovEntFlag.png Seniko Urdiaga
MiersEntity.png Izydor Domzalski
MiersEntity.png Jan Swiech
MiersEntity.png Marin Oldakowski
MiersEntity.png Bartosz Zborowski
Strength
LemovOldFlag.png State of Lemovicia 130,298 LemovEntFlag.png Lemovician opposition 65,149 MiersEntity.png Miersan separatists 97,725
Casualties and losses
Lemovicia
30,521 killed
38,696 wounded
14,696 missing and captured
Opposition
32,157 killed
18,668 wounded
12,488 missing and captured
Miersans
15,359 killed
41,506 wounded
18,921 missing and captured
c. 300,000 civilians killed
2,171,631 internally displaced persons and refugees

The Lemovician Civil War (Lemovician: Менділуреко єндеарен бойна, Mendilurreko jendearen bojna, Miersan: Łemowicza wojna domowa) was a twelve-year long civil war in Lemovicia, between the Lemovician government, the opposition forces, and the Miersan separatists which lasted from March 1980 until the signing of the Alikianos Accords in June 1992.

Its roots can date back to the industrialisation of Lemovicia, as due to Lemovicia's mineral resources, and its status as part of the Narozalic Empire, Miersans migrated from present-day West Miersa, which at that point in time was under Narozalic rule, to Lemovicia, which would, by 1900, lead to them forming a majority in the northern regions of Lemovicia. After the independence of Lemovicia from Narozalica in 1979, it instituted a constitution which formalized Lemovicia as a national syndicalist state under the National Syndicalist Union, and only granted full rights to the native Lemovicians. Over the following year, under the rule of Saroi Garnica, he instituted discriminatory policies against the Miersan majority, and began to establish syndicates and nationalise the banks.

By March 1980, peaceful protests against the regime took place, but after violent repression in the cities of Loiola, Topagunea, Włocłamyśl, Zubiharra, and Sechia, where the Sechia Massacre took place, leading to the start of the civil war by the end of the month. While it initially started as a three-sided civil war between the government, the opposition, and the separatists, from June 1985 onward, the opposition and separatists formed a coalition to help fight against the Lemovician government. Despite efforts by both sides to end the civil war with military force, it remained a stalemate, and by 1992, under pressure from the international community, and from the Lemovician population, a peace agreement was signed which ended the war.

Origins

The roots of the civil war are believed to begin with the industrialisation of present-day Lemovicia: due to the substantial coal and iron deposits present in the region, migrants, primarily from the Miersan Governorate of the Narozalic Empire, which at the time, ruled over both present-day West Miersa and Lemovicia. This allowed substantial migration of Miersans to Lemovicia, ultimately forming a substantial majority in the northern regions of present-day Lemovicia by 1900.

Following the implementation of the Godfredson Plan in 1936 which granted Miersa independence as West Miersa and East Miersa, many Lemovicians were embittered by the fact that Miersa was granted independence, while Lemovicia continued to remain under Narozalic rule. This led to increasing tensions between the Lemovician and Miersan communities, particularly as while there were a small community of Narodyns residing in Lemovicia, the Miersans were significantly more prominent of Narozalic policies.

As the Narozalic regime became more authoritarian, particularly under Gabriel Tozulyak and Vilem Gardos, Lemovicians began clamoring for independence from Narozalica, with Saroi Garnica creating the National Syndicalist Union, and Otxote Sasiambarrena creating what would become known as the Liberal Democratic Party of Lemovicia in the 1970s.

Prelude

After the independence of Lemovicia from Narozalica in November 1979, and brief fighting against the Narozalic forces in the war of independence, Lemovicia instituted a constitution which formalized Lemovicia as a national syndicalist state under the National Syndicalist Union.

Under the de-facto leadership of Saroi Garnica, the National Syndicalists aggressively pursued a policy of minority rule, denying the Miersans and other minorities the right to Lemovician citizenship, with the intention of establishing a state "of the Lemovicians, for the Lemovicians." In addition, the government was very authoritarian, with some critics calling Lemovicia a totalitarian state. These policies quickly led to the alienation of many people in Lemovicia, which was further helped by the fact that both de-jure leader Eztebe Tolaregain, and Saroi Garnica were incompetent, with their policies leading to many foreign businesses who have not left the country during the war of independence to do so.

As such, Izydor Domzalski and Jan Swiech began advocating for an independent Miersan state in northern Lemovicia, as a reaction to the policies by the newly-established Lemovician government that discriminated against Miersans and other minorities, while the Liberal Democrats began advocating for an overthrow of Garnica's government and the establishment of a democratic government.

Thus, by February 1980, tensions began to emerge between Lemovicians and Miersans, particularly as state media demonized Domzalski and Swiech for their advocacy of separatism, and accused the Miersans as being a fifth column within Lemovicia. That month, elections took place, which saw Garnica become the President, allowing him to exercise legal power over the country.

Events

Protests

Protests in Sechia, 5 March, 1980

On 5 March, 1980, non-violent protests against the Lemovician government broke out at the Syndicates' Square in Sechia, with Otxote Sasiambarrena advocating for Garnica to "end National Syndicalist rule and resign." While these protests were initially peaceful, the Lemovician Armed Forces and the Lemovician Police Force were deployed to Sechia to suppress the protests, and at 17:43, the Sechia massacre took place, killing 68 protestors, with Sasiambarrena narrowly escaping "sudden death."

In the aftermath of the brutal suppression, copycat protests sprung up in the following days in the cities of Loiola, Topagunea, Włocłamyśl, and Zubiharra. Like in Sechia, these protests were brutally suppressed by the police and the army. With peaceful protests seemingly being met with fierce resistance from the Lemovician government, riots broke out, particularly in Loiola and Włocłamyśl. Over the next several weeks, the Lemovician government lost control of the situation, as their heavy-handed response to the protests only created more protests and resistance against the government.

By 21 March, 1980, Sasiambarrena declared himself President at the Synidcates' Square in Sechia, and with the support of a battalion who defected from the Lemovician Armed Forces, were able to take control of much of the Lemovician-inhabited areas of the city. The following day, in Włocłamyśl, Izydor Domzalski declared the establishment of the Miersan Republic of Lemovicia, with the goal of separating the Miersan-majority regions of Lemovicia, and establishing a separate state. Roadblocks began appearing in the northern reaches of the country.

Early phases

By April 1980, with the civil war well underway, many Miersan-majority settlements throughout northern Lemovicia declared their loyalty to the Miersan Republic of Lemovicia, while in the city of Sechia, the Miersan-majority neighbourhoods declared their loyalty to the Miersan Republic of Lemovicia, while the Lemovician-majority neighbourhoods declared loyalty to Otxote Sasiambarrena's opposition government. As well, some smaller communities throughout the country declared their loyalty to the opposition government.

On 16 April, 1980, fighting broke out in the city of Loiola, which was the capital of the Bidegurutzean Province. Although Loiola had a slim Miersan majority in the 1977 census (at 53%), and sought to join the Miersan Republic of Lemovicia, it had a sizable Lemovician minority, making up 42% of the population, with most of them loyal to the regime. During the Battle of Loiola between Miersan separatists and Lemovician soldiers, the Lemovician government were able to take control of the city of Loiola from the separatists, and by 6 May, were able to drive them out of the city, with the Miersan inhabitants subject to reprisals.

At around the same time, Otxote Sasiambarrena attempted to negotiate with Domzalski in order to establish a "united front" to defeat the Lemovician government, with Sasiambarrena pledging "equal citizenship" and official bilingualism in Lemovicia. However, when negotiations failed in June 1980, the Battle of Sechia began between the Lemovician opposition forces and the Miersan separatists. The infighting allowed the Lemovician Armed Forces to make huge gains in the north, and by September 1980, the Lemovician Armed Forces reached Sechia. This forced both the Lemovician opposition and the Miersans to fight side-by-side to repel the Lemovician Armed Forces, successfully doing so by October. Shortly after, on 15 October, 1980, a ceasefire was brokered between the opposition and the Miersans, ending the Battle of Sechia.

Following the conclusion of the Battle of Sechia, the Lemovician opposition forces became more prominent, especially given that in November 1980, a unit of the Lemovician Armed Forces stationed in Zubiharra, led by Brigadier Xuban Urtizverea, defected and seized control of the city on behalf of the Lemovician opposition, while the Miersan separatists continued to face setbacks, as the Lemovician Armed Forces continued their advance.

Active phase

By the start of 1981, the Miersan Republic of Lemovicia had lost control of much of their claimed territory, with only portions of northern Lurza, Lautada, and Zelaia remaining under the control of the separatist forces, with the much of the rest of Lurza, Lautada, and Zelaia under the control of the Lemovician opposition forces, who also by that point had control of the northern regions of the Bidegurutzean Province.

Under the command of Gizon Artalolea, the Lemovician opposition decided on an offensive to try and take control of the nation's capital of Topagunea. Thus, in February 1981, the city of Loiola faced another battle, which was marked with the Lemovician government being forced to retreat from Loiola. As the Lemovician Armed Forces began moving down towards the south to fortify Topagunea, Miersan separatists took advantage to begin attacking the opposition forces from the north.

On 10 April, 1981, the Battle of Topagunea began. Over the next seventy-seven days, the Lemovician defenders were able to repel opposition forces, until by 26 June, the opposition forces were forced to withdraw from their positions surrounding Topagunea. Following the end of the offensive, the Lemovician Armed Forces went on the Northern Offensive, with half of their forces directed to "pursue the opposition to the border," and the other half to recapture the opposition-held city of Zubiharra from Xuban Urtizverea's forces, who at that point in time had control of Zubiharra and its surroundings.

Thus, on 3 July, 1981, General Sahats Tolayogoicoa reached Zubiharra, commencing the Battle of Zubiharra. Although the Lemovician state hoped for Zubiharra to fall quickly, the city held out until 7 January, 1982, when after a pre-arranged truce was declared, the Lemovicians committed perfidy, and secured control of Zubiharra and its surroundings.

Elsewhere on the front, on 15 July, 1981, Loiola faced a third battle, which saw the Loiola return to government control by the end of the month: the northern offensive subsequently spread out, with the intention to "strangle Sechia" from all outside support. By February 1982, with opposition forces having been weakened by both government and Miersan offensives, the government sought to "smother Sechia," thus starting the second battle of Sechia on 14 February, 1982. Although both Miersans and opposition forces fought side by side in the second battle, helping force a retreat by 5 March of that year, as the opposition had lost much of their territory, it was seen as a pyrrhic victory for the Lemovician opposition.

Following the Battle of Sechia, the Miersan separatists gained the upper hand, as the Lemovician opposition forces became largely confined to Sechia, and government forces had lost control of much of the north. Thus, over the next several months, the Miersans steadily advanced south, and in August 1982, took over Loiola from the Lemovician government, while they began the Battle of Bailara, which lasted until February 1983, when the Lemovician forces were able to secure a pyrrhic victory, as although they kept control of Bailara, they no longer had the capability to launch assaults against Sechia.

In July 1983, the second Battle of Topagunea began, with Miersan forces cutting off the city from Lemovician supply lines. Despite the situation, the Lemovician defenders of Topagunea fought ferociously, and although the Miersans were able to take control of the outer neighbourhoods of the city, a stalemate developed, especially after the siege was broken in November 1983.

Stalemate and renewed offensive

Bailara after the Battle of Bailara, 1985

With the stalemate taking hold between the Miersan Republic of Lemovicia and the State of Lemovicia in the aftermath of the second battle of Topagunea, few large-scale offensives took place, as both sides feared that reducing their numbers in Topagunea would allow the other side to take control of their positions. Nonetheless, consistent shelling continued to take place throughout 1984, with skirmishes taking place, as well several minor battles.

In June 1985, Otxote Sasiambarrena and Izydor Domzalski signed an agreement to establish a united front against the State of Lemovicia, and to not fight among each other. This decision enabled the remainder of the opposition forces to be sent to the front: however, unlike the Miersans, who intended to hold out in their positions near Topagunea, the opposition were to be sent on an offensive against Bailara, with the intention of seizing control of the city, and ideally diverting a good portion of the government armed forces to Bailara, which would reduce the number of troops stationed in Topagunea.

Thus, on 7 July, 1985, the second Battle of Bailara began: while Bailara was defended by the government forces, as Saroi Garnica was unwilling to divert troops away from Topagunea, Bailara fell on 12 July to opposition forces. However, the collaboration between the Lemovician opposition and the Miersans meant many people in Bailara did not welcome the Lemovician opposition as liberators. Nonetheless, as Bailara's fall cut off a large pocket of government-controlled territory from the rest of government-controlled territory, it became critical for the Lemovician opposition to seize control the Amabizca Pocket: thus, from August 1985, the Siege of the Amabizca Pocket took place, which lasted under the commander of the Amabizca Pocket surrendered in January 1986.

However, in February 1986, the Lemovician Armed Forces diverted much of their forces from the southern neighbourhoods of Topagunea, save for the corridor connecting it to the rest of government-held territory, to try and retake Bailara and the Amabizca Salient. On 27 February, 1986, the third Battle of Bailara took place, which resulted in a government victory: on 4 March, 1986, the Miersan separatist forces lost control of the Amabizca Salient. At the same time, the third Battle of Topagunea took place, which saw the opposition take control of the southern neighbourhoods, but they were unable to completely cut off the defenders in Topagunea, let alone take over the city centre. Thus, by the end of March, the stalemate resumed in Topagunea between the government and the Miersan separatists.

Despite this setback for the opposition, in July 1986, the opposition made substantial inroads into central Bidegurutzean, reaching the Fradua Stream in the Fradua Offensive. However, by September 1986, Kintiliano Arreiti waged a counter offensive which narrowly cut the Fradua Salient, and made inroads to recapture villages seized throughout the Fradua Offensive, succeeding in creating two salients. These efforts lasted until the end of 1986, when both sides reached a stalemate once again.

Throughout 1987 and most of 1988, skirmishes were widespread, but few advances were made by both the government and the opposition-separatist coalition against the other.

Operation Storm and Operation Michael

Monoza after falling to Lemovician forces, 1988

On 7 June, 1988, the Lemovician government under the command of Sahats Tolayogoicoa and Kintiliano Arreiti launched a surprise attack against the village of Monoza, with the intention of retaking control over the province of Lurza in what they codenamed Operation Storm. This caught the Lemovician opposition and the Miersan Republic of Lemovicia off-guard, as they were expecting an attack towards the Fradua Salient, and not an attack out in western Lemovicia.

Due to this, they initially met little resistance: in the settlements conquered, the Miersan inhabitants of the area were rounded up and imprisoned in camps situated in Ibaiak for treason against the Lemovician state, while ethnic Lemovicians were left alone. This approach slowed down the advance of the Lemovician Armed Forces, which gave ample time for the Miersan separatist forces and Lemovician opposition to move their forces to combat the advancing government troops. Thus, on 28 July, at the village of Otermin (present-day Skończone), the Battle of Otermin took place between the Miersan-opposition troops, and the Lemovician government troops. Over the next week, a bitter battle occurred between the Lemovician government and the coalition, before ultimately resulting in a victory for the Miersan separatists and Lemovician opposition.

While various salients were formed as a result of Operation Storm (three Lemovician salients and two separatist-opposition salients), and the separatists and opposition did lose ground, the Battle of Otermin stopped the advance of government troops, although the separatists and opposition failed on 31 August to retake control of the Monoza salient. This led to a second stalemate between the government, the opposition, and the separatists, particularly as both sides entrenched their position along the western section of the front line.

In an attempt to break the stalemate, on 21 November, 1988, the Lemovician government launched Operation Michael, with an attack on the city of Loiola, resulting in the fifth Battle of Loiola, as they believed that by securing control of Loiola and its surroundings, they would be able to cut off the opposition and separatists from their positions around Topagunea, and thus make it less likely that they could besiege Topagunea. During the battle, the opposition/separatist defenders cut off the salient that the Lemovician government was relying on to support their troops in Operation Michael, which cut their supply lines. This meant that the Lemovician Armed Forces were forced to attempt to restore the supply lines, which allowed the defenders of Loiola to maintain control of the city. On 9 January, 1989, the Battle of Loiola ended with a victory for the opposition/separatist coalition, although on 11 January, 1989, the opposition/separatists lost the Battle of the Loiola Salient which allowed the Lemovician Armed Forces to exit the salient.

Thus, the stalemate returned, as both sides were hesitant to advance, as they feared that it would give an opening for the other side to advance. Thus, throughout the rest of the year, and into 1990, while skirmishes continued, neither government nor opposition-separatist forces were able to make an advance against the other side.

Final phases

Ruins of the village of Artzain, 1991

On 21 July, 1990, under the command of Marin Oldakowski, the opposition-separatist forces launched an assault in the east in order to cut off the upper reaches of the Baitxi Valley from the rest of government-controlled territory, with the intention of "starving the supporters of the regime out." After succeeding in the Battle of the Baitxi Pass on 26 July, 1990, against the defenders, they began besieging the Upper Baitxi Valley. At the same time, another force attacked the middle parts of the Baitxi Valley, with the intention of securing control over the northern bank of the Baitxi Stream, securing control of the north bank by 13 August, 1990, and expelling the Lemovician inhabitants of the north bank of the middle Baitxi Valley.

The intention of the assault was to divert the Lemovician Armed Forces away from Topagunea and the western front, so to give an opening to the Miersan Republic to make further inroads into Lemovicia, with the Lemovician Armed Forces reducing the number of troops stationed in the western front to redeploy them east, with the intention of freeing the entirety of the Baitxi Valley.

Thus, on 6 September, 1990, the Miersan forces in the area, led by Bartosz Zborowski, launched an attack against the village of Monoza: this was seen as a moral victory, and as had been done in the north bank of the middle Baitxi Valley, ethnic Lemovicians were expelled from Monoza, leaving it a ghost town. However, on 2 November, 1990, Monoza was again lost to government forces.

On 18 September, 1990, the Lemovician Armed Forces fought a battle against the Miersan-opposition forces in Artzain, as Artzain was situated on the northern bank of the Baitxi Stream in the middle Baitxi Valley, resulting in a victory for the Lemovician government. There, the Miersans residing in Artzain were sent to camps located in southern Ibaiak. While the Lemovician government briefly retook control of the north bank of the middle Baitxi Valley, on 22 October, 1990, Artzain faced a second battle which saw the Lemovician opposition retake control of Artzain.

During the winter, as the Upper Baitxi Valley was completely cut off, the defenders there began to be demoralised, while starvation set in. By March 1991, the Upper Baitxi Valley was on the verge of collapse, when on 8 March, the second battle of the Baitxi Pass took place, which saw the opposition-separatist force see a significant defeat, forcing them to retreat, and thus lifting the siege. On 8 April, the government secured another victory, when at the third Battle of Artzain, they managed to drive out the Lemovician opposition and Miersan separatists from the town, and by the end of the month, had driven opposition forces away from the north bank of the middle Baitxi Valley to where the front lines were prior to July 1990. Throughout the rest of 1991, there was very little advancement of the front lines by either side.

By this point, there was starting to be substantial war-weariness among the Lemovician population, with protesters in both Sechia and Topagunea calling for the war to end. As well, with the war having all but destroyed the national economy, it became doubtful that either side could keep going for much longer, especially as the government was running low on funds to keep the war effort going, with many historians and economists believing that Lemovicia could only keep fighting until, at the very most, the end of 1992. Thus, by the winter of 1991-2, many combatants on both sides deserted, as they were no longer willing to continue fighting. As well, with many international organisations demanding that the war end, pressure was being put on both the Lemovician government, the Lemovician opposition, and the Miersan separatists to end the war.

On 25 March, 1992, all three sides agreed to a ceasefire, in order to begin negotiations in Alikianos, Piraea.

Negotiations

The front line, as it stood at the end of the war

On 1 April, 1992, the leaders of the State of Lemovicia, the Lemovician opposition, and the Miersan Republic of Lemovicia met in the Piraean city of Alikianos to negotiate an end to the civil war which plagued Lemovicia for over twelve years.

Over the coming months, all three sides agreed to establishing a federation with a weak central government (albeit with a collective presidency), comprised of two entities (the Lemovician Entity and the Miersan Entity, comprising of four provinces each, with Bidegurutzean split into South Bidegurutzean, situated in the Lemovician Entity, and Zbieg, situated in the Miersan Entity), with their borders set to be at the front line as it stood at that point in time. The three sides also agreed that Lemovicia would function under a new democratic constitution, which would be drafted after the signing of the accords by Miersans and Lemovicians.

As well, the Accords required that all combatant forces be disarmed by the end of 1992, including the Lemovician Armed Forces as it existed at the time, although it did include a provision to allow the establishment of a "new armed forces" which would be inclusive. Finally, the three sides agreed on having official bilingualism of Lemovician and Miersan, on equal rights for both Lemovicians and Miersans, which included mandatory education of both official languages, and the recognition of minority rights to protect minority communities situated within Lemovicia.

After the treaty was agreed upon, it was signed in Alikianos on 22 June, 1992, thereby ending the Lemovician Civil War after twelve years of fighting.

Aftermath

Ruins of a Topagunea neighbourhood, 1994

After the signing of the Alikianos Accords on 22 June, 1992, which ended the civil war, the 1979 constitution remained in nominal effect, with a caretaker government being established comprised of Saroi Garnica, Otxote Sasiambarrena, and Izydor Domzalski. During this plan, the 1992 constitution was drafted up, whose intention was to ensure that Lemovicia would become a federal parliamentary republic, while enshrining the basic principles of the Alikianos Accords. On 1 October, 1992, the new constitution was promulgated, and elections were called for 1 November, 1992. In the nation's first free and fair elections, which were held peacefully, the first collective leadership was elected, as well as the National Assembly, who proceeded to elect the parliamentary leader of the Liberal Democrats, Fabian Duch, as the first Premier of Lemovicia. By the end of 1992, all militias were dissolved, including the Lemovician Armed Forces as had existed under the regime, and all surviving prisoners of war were released.

Under Duch's tenure as Premier from 1992 to 2004, he oversaw the reconstruction of Lemovicia, although his rule was marked with controversy, as he cracked down on freedom of speech and freedom of expression of ethnic nationalists. In 1993, he and the Presidency officially apologised for their actions during the civil war. In 1998, he re-established the Lemovician Armed Forces as an inclusive organisation, whose sole purpose is to maintain peace within the country. At the same time, officials from the former Lemovician government, the governing Liberal Democratic Party, and the Miersan separatist government who were found to have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity were tried at the International Criminal Court in Ashcombe.

Since the 2000s, Lemovicia's economy has become largely service based, and standards of living have risen for the average person, with the nominal GDP per capita rising from $319.01 ($581.31 as of 2019) in 1992, to a nominal GDP per capita of $6,477 in 2019. Despite the rise in standards of living, there continues to be some tension between the Lemovicians and the Miersans, especially outside of Sechia.

Impact

Demographic

In the 1977 census, before the Lemovicia gained its independence from Narozalica, and the start of the Lemoviciaan Civil War, it had a population of 3,257,447 people living within its borders. However, over the course of the Lemovician Civil War, about two-thirds of the Lemovician population were either internally displaced, or else fled the country to neighbouring nations, as a result of ethnic cleansing by all sides of the war: thus, by the time the war ended, virtually all Miersans in Lemovicia lived in the Miersan Entity, while outside of Sechia, which still contains a sizable Lemovician community, Lemovicians lived in the Lemovician Entity. To this day, Lemovicia remains divided ethnically by the front line as it stood at the end of the civil war in 1992.

As well, it is believed that around 380,000 people were killed over the course of the civil war. Of those, around 300,000 people were civilians, while 78,037 were armed combatants from all three sides. In addition to the dead, 98,870 combatants on all three sides were wounded over the course of the war, and 46,105 were captured, and/or missing.

Economic

At the start of the Lemovician Civil War, Lemovicia was instituting national syndicalist economic policies, while the economic damage from the Lemovician War of Independence caused many foreign businesses to leave Lemovicia. Combined with the far-right ideology practiced by the governing National Syndicalist Union, and its geographic position in the middle of Euclea, few nations were willing to trade with Lemovicia.

In 1979, the Lemovician nominal GDP per capita was at $1,570.21 ($5,529.41 adjusted for inflation in 2019), but by the end of the Lemovician Civil War in 1992, the country's nominal GDP per capita was at $319.01 ($581.31 as of 2019). As well, by the time the civil war ended, virtually all of Lemovicia's economic capacity had been destroyed.

As well, due to hyperinflation, the Lemovician denar was seen as worthless, with the West Miersan grosz being the preferred currency, particularly in the present-day Miersan Entity. Thus, in 1993, the Lemovician denar was redenominated, with the exchange rate fixed 1:1 with the Weranic reichsmark, in order to restore confidence in Lemovicia's own currency.

War crimes

Ethnic cleansing

A concentration camp in Ibaiak, c. 1988

Ethnic cleansing was widely practiced during the Lemovician Civil War, primarily by the Lemovician Armed Forces and the Miersan separatists, with the former seeking to expel "all foreigners" who settled in Lemovicia during Miersan and Narozalic rule.

In the case of the Lemovician government, they sought to expel all Miersans from the country, who in 1977 formed the majority of Lemovicia's population, at 55% of the population, as they were seen to be colonisers of the Lemovician nation, who sought to destroy the identity of the Lemovician people. Thus, over the course of war, "traitors" and their families were interned in concentration camps, with the intention of deporting all Miersans from Lemovicia to West Miersa "once the war had concluded." The conditions of the concentration camps were harsh, but still met the "bare minimum" of international standards regarding prisoners of war.

As the Lemovician government continued their ethnic cleansing, it was decided by Bartosz Zborowski to "expel every last Lemovician" from "any new Miersan-captured territory" in either late 1987 or early 1988: the policy was implemented with the Battle of Otermin, where after the separatist victory, saw the expulsion of the Lemovician inhabitants from the village of Otermin, and renaming it to Skończone. From this point on, ethnic Lemovicians in newly-conquered territories by the Miersan Entity were expelled, such as after the Battle of the Baitxi Pass in 1990.

In addition, both sides conducted ethnic cleansing against the Savaders, with anti-Savader sentiment being used "as a tool by both sides to expel and destroy their communities" in the country.

By the conclusion of the war, while there were still sizable Lemovician minorities in the present-day Miersan Entity, few Miersans resided in the Lemovician Entity, with the Miersan population in the Lemovician Entity reaching its nadir in the 1997 census.

Perfidy

Perfidy was committed during the Battle of Zubiharra, where on 29 December, 1981, both sides agreed to a truce, so that soldiers on both sides may take a break on Christmas Day on 7 January, and observe the holiday.

While the opposition forces were willing to follow the terms, the Lemovician Armed Forces took opportunity of the truce to seize the city and imprison all the opposition soldiers on 7 January, 1982, enabling them to secure control of the city from opposition forces, and end the battle, and the siege of Zubiharra.