Зоравський Pеспубліка (Soravian)
"Об'єднані у перемозі"
(tr.) "Ob'yednani u peremozi"
"United in victory"
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Ilmenian[a]|
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Nicolai Karpenko (Gov.)|
|November 6, 1286|
|May 18, 1454|
|August 12, 1567|
|July 13, 1861|
|June 29, 1936|
• Current constitution
|April 19, 1983|
|2,985,973 km2 (1,152,891 sq mi)[g]|
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
• 2017 census
|29.9/km2 (77.4/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2021 estimate|
|$3.043 trillion (4th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|$1.838 trillion (11th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2017)|| 36.6|
medium · 28th
|HDI (2020)|| 0.823|
very high · 26th
|Currency||Soravian Zolota (SRZ)|
|Time zone||UTC-2 to -3, +13|
|Antipodes||Sunahamas Islands, Senria (from George Ruset Land)|
Soravia (//, Soravian: Зоравія, tr. Zoraviya IPA: [zɔrɑ'vijɑ], see other semi-official names), officially the Soravian Republic (Soravian: Зоравський Pеспубліка, Zoravs'kyy Respublika) is a sovereign state in western Euclea. It borders Kantemosha and Ambrazka, West Miersa and Vedmed to the east, Radushia and Poliania to the south, the Perovo Sea to the north and the Lumine Ocean to the west. With an area of 2,985,973 km2 (1,152,891 sq mi) (including the territory of George Ruset Land), and a population of just over 89 million people, it is Euclea's largest state by both population and area. The country is comprised of eleven provinces and one territory. The capital city of Soravia is Samistopol, the largest city in Euclea with over 10 million inhabitants. Its official language is Soravian and it has six other regionally recognised languages within its borders. Its predominant religion is Episemialist Sotirianity, and is followed by around 90% of the population.
Proto-Marolevs migrated into western Euclea around 10,000 BC, but the first Soravian states did not emerge until the 7th century Great Vesemir. Political and military divergence of interests laid the framework for the divide between Pavatria in the north and the Vesemir in the south, which later went on to form Poliania. The Vesemir split in 910 with the formation of the Duchy of Pavatria by Nuruk. Nikolai of Lipa conquered most of Zalykia with the Treaty of Buryn in 1286, and established the framework for modern Soravian cultural relations. Shortly after, the Iconoclast Wars devastated the country and severed the communion of its churches from the iconoclastic churches in Poliania and Amathia. The country was consolidated and formed into the Archduchy of Soravia in 1454. The Royal Bank of Soravia was founded by Artur Shcherbak in the 15th century and the country sponsored Grigori Kosh's expeditions west. The Soravian Empire formed in 1567 as Chistovodia and Interior Vinalia were colonised over the course of the 16th century. A personal union with Wittislich was created in 1616 at the ascension of Louis II to the throne. The Yellow Tree War expanded colonial influences and set the precedent for colonial policies toward natives in the region. Vedmed and Miersa were conquered in the 17th century and the country went on to be a primary victor of the Ten Years' War in 1721, annexing most of Kantemosha and Ambrazka and the Vinalian Coast from Poliania at the Congress of Cislania.
The First Soravian Civil War established the republic under Eduard Olsov in 1861, and Soravia subsequently lost its colonies in the Asterias in 1863. Olsov emancipated Soravia's serfs in 1876 and moved the country towards mass industrialisation towards the end of the 19th century. Olsov was assassinated in 1904, beginning the Volatile Decades. Under Tadeusz Czyzewski, the Great Collapse had a severe negative effect on the Soravian economy, particularly its industrial production and mechanised agriculture. The economy recovered as Soravia saw victory in both the Great War, where it was primary member of the Grand Alliance, and the Solarian War, where it participated in the Community of Nations-led intervention. Soravia's space agency, Natkosma, cooperated with the east to put the first humans on the moon in 1964, and it continued to play a large role in space exploration and science. The Sostava War split the country into six new states as the presidency of Soravia was overthrown in the early 1980s. Sava Tokar and Vasil Bodnar, the country's first post-war president, were instrumental in the foundation and consolidation of Samorspi, an economic and military organisation consisting primarily of ex-Soravian states, in 1983 and 1989.
Soravia has the world's northernmost point with Arnaqa Point on George Ruset Land, and also has the world's northernmost city with more than 100,000 inhabitants with Nizhnebersutsk, also in George Ruset Land. It possesses a number of significant geographical features, including the Great Western Plain in Zalykia, its six major rivers – the Sarpa, Kvasy, Dolomit (the longest in Euclea), Aldar, Vikna and Tsyr – and Mt. Tuzla, one of Euclea's largest mountains at a height of almost 4,000 metres. It also has an extremely diverse array of flora and fauna throughout the country. Soravia attracts millions of tourists annually and possesses some of Euclea's most visited landmarks.
Soravia's economy is ranked 11th in nominal GDP and 4th by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). It is a G-15 nation and has influence over significant Euclean markets. It is a Shanbally-recognised nuclear weapon state and was one of the first nations to possess nuclear capabilities with Orel-1 in 1956. The country has extensive reserves of fossil fuels, particularly crude oil and natural gas, and is a major producer and exporter of both. Soravia is also one of the world's largest agricultural producers, and a significant exporter of agricultural produce. It is a permanent member of the Community of Nations Security Committee and a member of other geopolitical organisations such as the Atomic Energy Commission, Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, the International Trade Organisation and the League of Oil Producing States. It was member of the International Council for Democracy until its suspension in 1997.
- 1 Etymology, pronunciation and other names
- 2 History
- 2.1 Prehistory (before the 7th century)
- 2.2 Great Vesemir (7th century–910)
- 2.3 Duchy of Pavatria (910–1454)
- 2.4 Archduchy of Soravia (1454–1567)
- 2.5 Soravian Empire (1567–1861)
- 2.6 Olsovian Soravia (1861–1904)
- 2.7 Volatile Decades and Great Collapse (1904–1926)
- 2.8 Great War and Solarian War (1926–1946)
- 2.9 Soravian Federated Republic (1936–1979)
- 2.10 Sostava War (1979–1983)
- 2.11 Post-Sostava Soravia (1983–present)
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics and government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
Etymology, pronunciation and other names
The modern name Soravia is thought to have originated from the Proto-Rutto-Marolevic word *éźera, meaning "lake" or "body of water". Linguists have suggested that this name comes from the Lake Nimgan, an expansive lake that lies in the centre of Soravia, however others have proposed that it actually referred to Lake Min, the world's third-largest lake that lies around 330 km (205 mi) south of Soravia's border with Radushia, and that the name was brought over by nomadic merchants sometime in the 10th century, where the first mentions of Soravia began to arise.
A common alternative etymology that is a popular folk tale in Soravia is the story of Mier, Tengar, and Sorav, correspending to Miersa, Tengaria and Soravia respectively. According to the legend, Mier, Tengar, and Sorav were three brothers who followed separate prey on a hunting trip. Their paths led them to settle their respective countries. Though this tale is near-universally discredited by academics and linguists, it nevertheless remains popular in children's literature.
Historically, other names have been used to refer to Soravia and its predecessor states. Most notably, until the 16th century it was widely referred to as Pavatria, the Solarian name for the city of Patovatra, the capital of the medieval duchy of the same name, and remained in wide use across Euclea for decades after its name was changed officially to Soravia in 1454.
Residents of Soravia are referred to as Soravians (Soravian: Зоравинці; Zoravintsi). Soravia is most commonly pronounced with the diaphoneme /eɪ/ (//), however it is also known to be pronounced with an /ɑ:/ sound, most commonly in Estmerish dialects in Estmere, Hennish and Kesselbourgish.
Soravia's name in each of its seven official or co-official languages is:
- Ambrazkan: Zorasko
- Ilmenian: Зоравія; Zoraviya
- Kantemoshan: Soräjä
- Soravian: Зоравія; Zoravija
- Titiqituq: ᐅᕋᕕᐊ; Suravia or ᐃᓪᓕᖅᓄᓇ; Qilliqnuna
- Vedmedi: ესერეთი; Esereti
- Zalyk: ᡓᡈᠷᠠᡖᡕᠠ, Zalyk Pavaric: Зөpәвя; Zorävya
Prehistory (before the 7th century)
The land that modern-day Soravia inhabits has been inhabited since around 10000BC, where hunter-gatherer peoples settled down somewhere along the northern banks of the River Aldar, and formed small communities of subsistence farming. Early evidence of tool usage in Soravia has been found by archaeologists and associated to these hunter-gatherer peoples, who utilised tools such as blunt hammers, axes, makeshift blades and early weaponry to make a living. Evidence of cave paintings and small artworks by these peoples have also been found within the country as well as neighbouring Kantemosha and Ambrazka, and are some of the oldest of their type in Euclea.
The Soravians first established their state in the 6th century, but occupied the land as small, independent, loose settlements for decades prior. It is believed that a proto-form of the Soravian language had been in use since the 5th century BC, where minimal contact was made with eastern Euclea.
Great Vesemir (7th century–910)
The emergence of the Great Vesemir in the early 7th century as a loose confederation of Marolevic principalities united in common defense against outside threats was the first example of state-like entities within Soravia. What is now Soravia contained six states within the Great Vesemir – the Principality of Lomadin, Principality of Uzyn, Principality of Patovatra, Count of Ovdapol, Principality of Samistopol and the Principality of Dulat and Luchintsy. Soravia in the Great Vesemir was less developed and less connected than the principalities of modern-day Poliania, especially surrounding the city of Vesemir itself, where the Great Vesemir takes its name.
Throughout the era of the Great Vesemir, the principalities that made it up co-existed in relative autonomy and were essentially independent entities outside of external defense. However, states were not obligated to defend a principality if it was attacked by another principality of the Vesemir, which led to states aligning themselves with others, eventually funneling influence to the two main principalities – Vesemir in the south and Patovatra in the north – which set the basis for the emergence of the post-Vesemir states in the area. The divide between Vesemir and Patovatra is often cited as one of the earliest instances of the modern Soravian-Polianian border.
Duchy of Pavatria (910–1454)
The Duchy of Pavatria was the first of Soravia's predecessor states established after the Marolevic migrations from the Miersa region saw an influx of Marolevic peoples into the area, who established it as their own land. Formed in 910 AD by conqueror and administrator Nuruk, Pavatria saw success in its initial conquests into central Euclea as the Euclean order established by the Verliquoian Empire and the Empire of Arciluco began to unfold as both states declined. Often led by Nuruk himself, successful conquests and expeditions eastwards saw duchies and small kingdoms in modern-day Kantemosha and Ambrazka and Miersa brought into the Pavatrian realm. Hippodalia began converting the area to Sotirianity in the early-to-mid-10th century, and baptised Nuruk in 939. The duchy's rise continued under Nuruk's son, Moimir I, who was an expansionist and oversaw consolidation and centralisation of the newly conquered territories, putting Pavatria into a period of relative stability and growth throughout the mid-10th century.
With the Empire of Arciluco officially ceasing to exist in 1000 AD, Pavatria filled the power gap left behind by the empire and became one of Euclea's forefront states for a brief period of time, exerting influence on much of central Euclea that had been fractured by the decline of Arciluco. Pavatria's state of widespread influence was quickly cut short following raids on the duchy's western cities by the Zalyk tribes and Khanate that had established itself in the west following Tagamic migrations into the area around 800 and 900 AD. In 1013, Oleg I declared war on the Zalyk Khanate, beginning the long-lasting Zalyk Wars that embroiled western Euclea for nearly three centuries. Advancements into Zalyk territory were met with fierce resistance as the horse-based structure of the Zalyk armies were able to deal large amounts of damage quickly to the Pavatrian armies, predominantly formed of standing infantry and pikemen. Stories of defeat and disaster made their way back home, and the repercussions brought about by the consequences of the wars eventually put Pavatria into a state of decline and begin the Dark Ages in the region. Widespread loss of life, economic decline and financial ruin from the costs of conflict as well as new diseases emerging from poor hygiene and rodents in many of Pavatria's urban centres characterised Pavatria throughout the late-11th and 12th centuries.
Official truce was declared between the two states in 1189 by Tomislav, and introduced a legal state of peace between the warring kingdoms, who had shared the mutual desire for peace for some time. The peace lasted until 1285, when Ayuga Khan brought a fresh attack upon the significant western city of Nimganopol, angering Pavatria's nobility and general populace, with whom the war was extremely unpopular. Despite this, Nikolai of Lipa rallied the population and nobility, as well as the clergy for religious support, in a successful defense of Nimganopol, instantly and significantly turning the tide of the war and being the pivotal event toward the capitulation of the Zalyk Khanate in 1286, when Ayuga Khan was killed at the Battle of Usaanbalsan. Nikolai signed the Treaty of Buryn with the Khanate, taking much of the Khanate's land for Pavatria and angering the states of Poliania, who had also fought in the war and were promised land for their efforts. Nikolai was revered in Pavatria for his role in ending the war, but was unpopular abroad, particularly in Poliania – and his actions are generally viewed as the beginning of the rivalry between the two states. He assumed the title of Khan of Zalykia after Buryn, setting the precedence for future monarchs and establishing the prestige of Zalykia within the country. Whilst Zalykia was being integrated into Pavatria, it struggled with keeping hold of its central Euclean territories, who were subject to ethnic revolts and independence movements with an overstretched Pavatria. With most of the army in Zalykia to keep stability in the large region, states in central Euclea broke away from the state with little resistance, eventually forcing Pavatria back to the city of Velike Vishnavaya, where its easternmost point remained for almost two hundred years. Patovatra was also subject to invasion by the great Vesemir states of Poliania in 1289, taking a small amount of land around Ut Sala, before Nikolai eventually regained it in 1321. Pavatria also seized the Ludoy Islands during the decline of the Second North Sea Empire in 1314, which had been under Ejderic rule for 450 years.
The House of Vasiliiski, who had ruled Pavatria for 500 years by now, was eventually deposed in 1377 after a series of poor rulers by Pavatrian noble Ivan Ruda, establishing himself as Duke, styling himself as Ivan II Ruda, and establishing the House of Ruda as Pavatria's ruling house. Ivan's reign was characterised mainly by financial recuperation and economic recovery after the wars with Zalykia had left Pavatria's economy in one of its worst states ever, introducing reforms that generally improved quality of life within the duchy and leading it into its first periods of economic growth for a long time. Ivan III succeeded his father when he died in 1408, expanding the crown demesne to include Patovatra, Samistopol as well as much of the fertile lands that surrounded the city, including lands on the Aldar and Tsyr rivers. The House of Ruda again centralised their rule amidst a succession crisis in 1443, eventually retaining the throne.
Archduchy of Soravia (1454–1567)
Duke Jan II established the Archduchy of Soravia in 1454, aiming to centralise and unite the states of Pavatria and Zalykia, who had before co-existed under a single ruler. Unification into one state was also spurred on by the growing powers of the eastern Euclean countries, particularly the emergence of the Sunrosian Monarchy, Rudolphine Confederation and states in Estmere and Gaullica, with Jan aiming to counteract eastern influence on central Euclea. Soravia was still in debt to various Euclean guilds throughout the reign of Jan II, who continued the reforms of his predecessors to encourage alleviation of the country's financial pressure. He established the Royal Bank of Soravia in 1477, which gained access to government funds and bonds. It began to issue bank-notes in 1478 in exchange for government bullion and established bonds that could be continually lent to other buyers. The bank's establishment was a success and most of Soravia's debt had been paid off by Jan's death in 1489.
Around this time, Soravia began to fall behind its eastern Euclean counterparts with the discovery of Asteria Superior by Badawiyan navigator Assim Asteris, working under the Crown of Caldia. With countries such as Caldia, as well as Estmere, Gaullica and Hennehouwe all establishing settler colonies and trading outposts on the country, Soravia was unable to send settlers and colonists to the continent due to extortionate taxes placed on the straits towards the Asterias by the Rudolphine Confederation, Solstiana and the Republic of Montecara, making the New Ovdapol Charter that had been established in Cassier in 1503 unable to be acted upon. Despite this, Soravia was eager to project its influence worldwide, and began to prepare to send out navigators, explorers and colonists westward into the Lumine Ocean.
The first voyages westward took place in 1565, with Soravian navigator and explorer Grigori Kosh departing from Samistopol with his fleet funded and backed by Archduke Ivan IV. Among his crew was Hennish explorer John Aanholt, who had previously sailed on voyages to the Asterias with Hennehouwe, now employed directly by the Archduke. Kosh and Aanholt reached land in 1566, around 40 miles north of Misto Myru. Establishing Fort Ruda where they landed, Kosh and his crew set up a series of small towns along the coast, each housing around 50 colonists and settlers and later focusing on the lucrative fur trade in the region. With Kosh's colonial success and the establishment of the Colony of Chistovodia in 1567, Ivan IV established the Soravian Empire.
Soravian Empire (1567–1861)
With the Empire's establishment and Ivan's coronation in 1567, Soravia moved to bolster its own economic stance in the region by monopolising the lucrative Chistovodian fur trade and greatly increasing the value of exports from the region. Chistovodia saw another mass influx of settlers due to the increasing wealth and quality of life in the region, with Soravia adopting policies of native repression and resettlement shortly afterwards. Native beliefs were often denounced and repressed and forced conversions of the natives were common in the coastal regions of Chistovodia. Ivan IV introduced more scrutinising laws relating to religion, particularly with the various sects of Sotirianism. He denounced the newly emerging sect of Amendism within Soravia, however moved to support the anti-Catholic princes of eastern Euclea, particularly in the Rudolphine Confederation, during the Amendist Wars in an attempt to secure increased influence in the region.
In 1616, Louis II succeeded to the throne, a member of the house of Halte-Herdorf, a Weranic house, also bringing the Principality of Wittislich under personal union. While Louis was a religious king, he largely left Wittislich to its own devices with religious matters, often sponsoring the construction of Episemialist churches and cathedrals in Bürchaft but rarely extending Soravia's harsh religious laws to the region. Louis' reign also marked a period of great expansion for Soravia, beginning with the Yellow Tree War in Chistovodia in 1616, which saw vast amounts of native lands seized and annexed into the colony and the construction of some of Asteria's first native reserves near Lake Tapachanga in the middle of the continent. Around a decade later, in 1631, Soravia moved to annex the Vedmedi Confederation in the Naro-Vedmedi War, subjugating most of it by the turn of the year. The Miersan Wars of Succession also saw the interregnum of the Miersan crown resolved with the country's split, with most of what is now West Miersa annexed by Soravia, marking Soravia's first expansions into central Euclea. In 1663, George I was deposed and killed by his uncle, later George II, aged 14 in 1663, the first non-hereditary passing of the throne in the empire's history. George Ruset Land was discovered and settled by Amathian explorer Cosmin Martinescu, who named it after the Amathian King Gheorghe Ruset, who was ruling at the time.
While Soravia remained an influential power in eastern Euclean politics through Wittislich, it remained neutral during the Gilded Wars throughout the 17th and early 18th centuries. Increased military presence in Wittislich due to the wars also saw a spike in religious repression within the country by soldiers of Soravia, largely left unchecked by the crown. In 1701, Soravia settled its first cities in Coius – Bahan in 1701 (in modern-day Dezevau) and Fort Casimir in 1704 (in modern-day Rwizikuru) – seeing colonial and concessional ambitions in Soravia peak, especially among its explorers. Plans for further expeditions were cut short, however, by the beginning of the Ten Years' War in 1711, which became a pivotal war for Soravia and its status as a power. After the end of the war, in 1721, Soravia received its largest land expansion in history at the Congress of Cislania and the various treaties that ended the war. It annexed Belgarin, the region of Kyrlav and Radushia from Poliania, and partitioned the duchies of Kantemosha and Ambrazka with the Sunrosian Monarchy, although Soravia gained the plurality of the region. Casimir III was wounded during the war and later died of his wounds. Casimir left no legitimate heir, sparking a brief successional crisis that quickly ended with Frederick I of the Ryksmark-Halte-Herdorf house taking the throne, also being elected Chancellor of Azmara, briefly bringing Azmara into a union with Soravia. Soravia's status as a great power in Euclea was secured after the war, and a later alliance with Gaullica saw the two powers preside over much of Euclean unopposed for around 100 years.
In the 1750s, Soravia expanded its influence in Coius, gaining the Kassar concession from the Aslamid Empire of Satria in the Aslamid War, with Frederick naming native-born Satrian Chandran Ghani Khan as its first governor. Soravia was the first of many Euclean countries to gain considerable concessions in Satria over the 18th and 19th centuries, however the prolonged presence of Soravia saw the Sayars emerge as a distinct and unique ethnic and social class within the empire, comprised of native Satrians whose skills ranged from military prowess to handiwork, trade and bilingualism to communicate with Satria's native rulers, particularly for trade purposes. The sayars was first utilised as Kassar's policing force, but their military capacity was realised after Karl I sent them to Chistovodia to quell the 1773 Khmelnytskyi revolt, which they did successfully. The sayars became famous throughout Euclea over the coming years for their skill on the battlefield, displayed initially to much of Euclea during the Etrurian Revolutionary Wars. Years of positive worldwide trade saw wealth accumulate in the hands of the upper-class of Soravia, sparking a widespread famine in 1797 after poor weather oversaw one of the worst harvests in recent memory. A poor and uncoordinated response by Frederick II, which saw many die of starvation, saw him abdicate in 1800 in favour of his son Ivan V. Ivan increased the divide between Soravia's upper class and peasantry and was a brutal, repressive ruler who lived a lavish lifestyle disconnected from Soravia's main populace. His reign was generally uneventful, dying of heart disease in 1829 and succeeded by his son and the final emperor of Soravia, Ivan VI. Ivan promised reforms in his early reign but scarcely delivered on them, only introducing minimal reforms to workers' rights and their employers' boundaries. Dissatisfied with their rule, the peasantry of Soravia stormed the Nuruk Palace in 1848, almost succeeding in breaching the gates and entering the palace. The rest of Ivan's rule was marked with similar feats of unrest until the outbreak of the First Soravian Civil War in 1857, eventually fleeing to Gaullica in 1858.
Olsovian Soravia (1861–1904)
As a result of the First Soravian Civil War, Soravia had seen the secession of its Asterian holdings in Chistovodia and Vinalia as well as massive economic decline throughout the country. Despite the widespread instability, the Soravian elite present in much of the country's Euclean holdings allowed Olsov to retain most of Soravia's pre-war borders. Facing a post-war economic crisis, Olsov moved to consolidate and expand Soravia's trade links in Coius that it had established with the concession of Kassar in the 18th century. Along with a plethora of other Euclean powers, Soravia became involved in various trade conflicts in southern Coius, eventually gaining one of Keisi's legation quarters and the city of Sanday on the east Coian coast. Olsov also increasingly opened Soravia's economy to other nations and welcomed the presence of companies within the country throughout the 1860s. Also wishing to bolster Soravia's military strength, he reformed military wages and structure throughout the 1870s to encourage enlistment, particularly from people in central Euclea. Along with this, he had explicitly curtailed various aspects of labour rights in order to promote the military as a viable option for the free peasantry. Concerned lords who had supported Olsov in the civil war petitioned him to avoid attracting peasants and serfs to Soravia's armies in 1876, to which Olsov responded by abolishing serfdom throughout Soravia in October 1876, seen by many as the end of slavery in Soravia. Military numbers greatly increased as many serfs remained extremely poor.
The emancipation of the serfs in 1876 directly preceded the introduction of the 1877 Constitution of the Soravian Republic, the first official founding constitutional document in republican Soravia. The constitution outlined the establishment of the Presidency as a position of absolute authority in Soravia, citing it as a position supported by the will of the people rather than divine or hereditary right. Unlimited term limits were also outlined in the constituency, establishing elections every five years, a tradition that still exists today.
Beginning in the 1880s, Soravia became increasingly industrialised. More and more factories began opening in Soravia's biggest cities, and migration into cities such as Samistopol and Patovatra skyrocketed towards the end of the 19th century, creating two of Euclea's largest urban populations in the process. Due to Soravia's large size, the construction of railways was limited to eastern Soravia and central Euclea, and Soravia's western rural populace, particularly in Zalykia, fell behind the east in terms of advancements. Agriculture remained significant in the east but stayed dominant in the west, where the exports of livestock, meat, grain, wheat and barley all played a massive part in regional economies across the west of the country. As Soravia progressed further towards adopting a free market industrialised economy, standards of living plummeted in the west, partially due to Olsovian labour reforms introduced two decades prior. Some of the first labour strikes and farmer's rebellions took place in the city of Strusov in October 1891, but were crushed by the military and saw increased scrutiny placed on Soravia's western agriculture. Eventually labour scrutiny was rolled back towards the end of Olsov's presidency and Soravia's first agricultural unions formed in Lyubarskaya and Nurmgö in 1901.
By the beginning of the 20th century, public opinion of Olsov had taken a steep fall. Now approaching his eighties, Olsov's rule was becoming increasingly criticised, especially by those involved in the political landscape of Soravia. His brazen decisions and iron-fisted rule had deteriorated by the 1900s and Olsov had decided to retreat from most public life in 1902. As unrest around his continued presidency grew, especially among Soravia's working class, Olsov appointed his successor as Pyotr Petrovich in a public address in Samistopol in 1903. In 1904, aged 83, Olsov was shot twice in the chest by monarchist Stepan Sushko in Patovatra, killing him instantly and ending his 43-year tenure.
Volatile Decades and Great Collapse (1904–1926)
Following Olsov's assassination, his appointed successor Pyotr Petrovich ascended to the presidency, assuming office on September 8. Much of Petrovich's presidency was quelling unrest across the country that has arisen as a reaction to the death of Olsov. In the east, some central Euclean nations attempted to achieve their independence, but none of the revolts caught wind and were dealt with by the army by 1905, with many prominent pro-independence politicians being imprisoned on charges of treason. Petrovich left office in 1906 and was replaced by economist Maksym Ilchenko, who himself appointed notable econometrician and future president Tadeusz Czyzewski as his Minister-President. With the two well-versed on economics, they accelerated Soravia's progression toward a capitalist, small business and free-market-focused economy. In 1907, Soravia adopted the gold standard for its currency, the zolota, one of the last nations in Euclea to do so, which provided a massive boost to Soravia's economy through investor confidence.
Ilchenko and Czyzewski also funded improvements to Soravia's logistical network both east and west, particularly in the form of railways. By 1909, the total length of railway lines in Soravia had increased by 50%, with rail connections being planned and constructed for most of Soravia's major cities. Higher emphasis was also put on sea-based trade with other parts of Soravia, which achieved essential revitalisation for many of Soravia's ports and docks, and gave more jobs to dock workers, sailors and seamen throughout the country. Despite vast economic successes, Ilchenko and Czyzewski, particularly the latter, were criticised for a perceived ethnic bias towards Soravia's minorities, which had come about due to the increase in standards of life amongst the country's various Euclean dominions while industrial life in Soravia remained largely stagnant.
Ilchenko resigned in 1910 following these allegations and was once again replaced by Pyotr Petrovich for a second term. Petrovich appointed hardline nationalist Vladislav Pudovkin to the Minister-Presidency in 1910, who supported harsher and more oppressive policies in Soravia's dominions in Euclea and other holdings worldwide. Taxes were increased in 1911 to try and funnel more wealth to the mainland, but Pudovkin eventually resigned in 1912 when Petrovich refused to administer Pudovkin's policies in central Euclea, which included deportations and imposition of direct rule. Czyzewski was reappointed in 1912, and implemented restrictions on hours employers can ask workers to work. The move saw Czyzewski's publicity increase and was viewed by unions as a large step forward in Soravian labour rights. Following mental health problems, suspected now to verge on insanity, Petrovich resigned from the presidency in 1913. Czyzewski won the subsequent election with over 70% of the vote.
Shortly after Czyzewski's election, the Weisstadt Stock Exchange in Werania collapsed, plunging Euclea into the Great Collapse. The collapse of many large Euclean economies greatly affected Soravia, who was a massive net exporter of agricultural and industrial products. The Great Strike of 1914 saw around 20,000 workers forcefully dispersed from Olsov Square in Samistopol by the army on orders of the president, which lost him the confidence of much of his left-wing and working class support. The demands of the strikers, among them a plethora of workers' rights guarantees, was unilaterally rejected by Czyzewski, who said he was in no position to negotiate with them. Following the strike, Czyzewski's policies gradually aligned more and more with the right-wing, as he attempted to secure the support of the upper class aristocracy of Soravia to keep his tenure afloat. With unemployment at almost 30% nationwide, Czyzewski resigned in 1921. Vladislav Pudovkin succeeded him in 1921, and focused efforts on moving the unemployed into industrial jobs working for the production of military equipment with the government paying them bare minimum wage and providing them with food from stock seized by subsistence farmers whose produce was seized for attempting to hoard excess supplies.
Pudovkin's policies were eventually successful, and around 10% of the workforce were employed directly or indirectly by established military camps by the time the Soravian economy began to recover and post positive numbers in the first quarter of 1924. Shortly after, Soravia abandoned the gold standard after only 17 years of its use. The expansion of Functionalist Gaullica during this time also saw Pudovkin push Soravian foreign alignment towards Werania, Estmere and Etruria, all of whom were Tripartite Pact members, while Soravia began manning the border with Poliania more. With the Hennehouwe Crisis and Second Sakata Incident sparking the war in 1927, Soravia was a combatant in the war under Pudovkin from the beginning.
Great War and Solarian War (1926–1946)
Soravia was poised for wartime entry with around two years of prior preparation. It had been concerned with the alliance between Poliania and Gaullica for several years now, and while not averse to the ideology of national functionalism itself, was concerned as to what national functionalist ideals in both Gaullica and Poliania saw a post-war Soravia as. Pudovkin himself was a major component for mobilisation, and by the time the Second Sakata Incident in Senria had occurred and the war begun, Soravia's military was concentrated in the south and east of the country.
By far Soravia's most costly front was the expansive southern border with Poliania, the longest single front in Euclea, where plains and marsh gave rise to a high-casualty form of advancement combat by Soravia's generals. Poliania was generally able to counter these advances and make their own counter-attacks into Soravian territory. Poliania's pre-war border at the River Sarpa in Zalykia generally dissuaded them from launching any sizable incursions into the vast plains of the region, and so combat was mainly concentrated in the east. 1928 saw the sieges of Kremina and Syrnitsa, with both cities falling to Polianian forces within three months. Poliania saw a string of successive victories at the Battles of the Vikna, but by 1929 reached their farthest extent into Soravian territory. Historians regard the turning point of the front at Poliania's costly loss at the Siege of Ulan Khol between February and April of 1929. City defenders held off an invading Polianian force of some 20,000, who were eventually flanked, encircled and mostly killed or taken prisoner. Soravia launched a successful counter-invasion a month later which liberated the city of Syrnitsa, leaving Kremina exposed on both sides to Soravian forces. Due to mountainous terrain in the area, Soravian forces opted to push down the centre of the country and towards the west coast of Poliania, where most of its population centres lay.
By late 1930, Lupjin had been sieged and occupied, and Weranian technology sharing saw Soravia begin to mass-produce mechanised weaponry, especially tanks. The introduction of mechanisation to the front, due to its relatively flat terrain, was pivotal to eventual Soravian victory. Soravia continued to advance into Poliania, Pripek was occupied in June 1932, Zhitarovo in 1933 and by the time the Soravian forces had reached Tretagor, Poliania had signed its instrument of surrender in late 1933, allowing Soravia to devert most of its idle forces to a crumbling Gaullica in the east. Soravia briefly occupied a western part of Gaullica, but was quickly relinquished to form the post-war Gaullican Republic.
Soravia also regained Belgarin from Poliania as well as significant reparations from the country. The Holy Amathian State relinquished the western half of Arciluco to Soravia in 1935, which became a significant military outpost for Soravia in eastern Euclea. Military, especially naval, buildup in Soravia saw some of its older ships and military craft sold to Coius and the Asterias in the late 1930s and early 1940s, which helped Soravia's post-war recovery. Parts of central Euclea had been affected particularly bad by the war, with fighting concentrated mainly in modern-day Miersa and Lemovicia on the eastern front. Soravia was a signatory of the Community of Nations Charter in February 1935 and became a permanent member of its Security Committee.
As part of the Security Committee, Soravia partipated in the CN-led intervention in Etruria in 1943, known as the Solarian War. The Solarian War was the last war that saw participation of the sayars, at the Siege of Kassar in 1944. As a country, Soravia contributed the most men to the intervention out of the ten countries that led the invasions. Soravia itself was wary that increased Etrurian influence around the Solarian Sea and in Coius in general would hinder Soravia's trade prospects, especially with the country still owning multiple concessions. At the end of the war, it pushed for independence for Etruria's overseas colonies, which eventually succeeded in 1946. As a goodwill gesture, Pudovkin agreed to the handover of Kassar back to newly-independent Subarna in 1947, after almost 200 years of colonial rule.
Soravian Federated Republic (1936–1979)
Following the wartime period, post-war Soravia entered a position of widespread global power. Despite losing its territory in Miersa due to the Miersan General Strike in the 1930s, its vocal opposition with Swetania on the Godfredson Plan allowed it to retain effective influence over the plurality of its Miersan holdings through the Narophilic state of West Miersa. Soravia's government was critical of the creation of the Euclean Community in 1948 with the Treaty of Ashcombe, and attempts to stifle its creation eventually failed. Soravia's relative power declined with the creation of a new centralised Euclean bloc. Pudovkin himself was one of the most intense critics of the Community, but did not remain in the presidency for much longer, resigning his military role in 1950 and eventually handing over the presidency to Amathian-born party member Gabriel Tozulyak in 1955.
Tozulyak's presidency was laden with a plethora of natural resource discoveries. The presence of oil and gas in Soravia's territory had been known for some time, and minor drilling for oil had begun in the 1930s, but Soravia remained a minor oil producer and most of it was repurposed for its own usage while having to import external oil for petroleum. From 1955 to 1957, the discovery of oil fields in Zalykia, Rykovychi and an offshore reserve in the north-western Perovo Sea massively boosted Soravia's oil production, and was eventually centralised under the State Oil Company (abbreviated as Dernafkom) in 1959, of which the government owned a 53% stake. Natural gas was also discovered in Rykovychi, and the province had an economic boom from the new natural resources. Oil in the Haillet's was discovered in 1959, and massively boosted the economy and population of George Ruset Land. The late 1950s also marked a period of military developments for Soravia. In 1956, Soravia successfully tested its Orel-1 nuclear test, becoming the second world nuclear power to do so. It also coordinated with the Amathian Equalist Republic to quell the Thistle Uprising in 1958, which saw Amathia become increasingly aligned with Soravia following its ideological split with Swetania in the 1940s. Natkosma was founded in 1961 and conducted much of Soravia's space exploration and scientific endeavours, eventually putting Viktor Matvyenko on the moon in a coordinated launch with the Euclean Community and Swetania in 1964.
Tozulyak introduced universal healthcare to Soravia through the National Health Resolution (Національна резолюція щодо охорони здоров'я; Natsionalʹna rezolyutsiya shchodo okhorony zdorov'ya; NARSHOZ) in 1965, joining an assortment of Euclean nations who had already done the same. He also became the arbiter of the export of radioactive materials, particularly uranium, to Amathia in 1966, assisting them in beginning their atomic energy program. Tozulyak came under increasing criticism from his own party for his policies towards Amathia, and in 1971 was forced to resign in favour of Vilem Gardos, a strongarm military general who became Soravia's youngest president, taking office at the age of 40. He appointed himself as minister-president and attempted to centralise power away from governmental institutions and towards himself and the party. This caused a divide in the ruling Soravian Nationalist Party, where some who saw the party as the main organ of the state supported Gardos whereas others, including most of the military, seeing the party as a political entity within the state. Gardos' controversial eight years of uninterrupted presidency ended with the mutiny of general Sava Tokar's men at the Sostava Military Base around 30 miles north of Velike Vishnavaya, beginning the Sostava War.
Sostava War (1979–1983)
The Sostava War began in August 1979, and was initially localised to a small military mutiny in the east of the country. Tokar used his internal influence within the military to convince other leading military figures to begin mutinies elsewhere in the country. Widespread corruption and bribery as well as Gardos' rumoured intention to transform Soravia into a military dictatorship with himself at the helm was the main turning force behind the mutinies in the east of the country. By October 1979 it had grown into full-scale revolts with factions of Tokar's armies occupying entire cities and regions, as well as military bases for supplies. Gardos declared a state of emergency on December 9, indefinitely suspending the Voynaskul and Duma and ordering the remaining parts of government loyalist militaries to deal with the unrest by any means necessary. Intense guerrilla conflict was met often with excessive and destructive force by loyalist forces, which turned public opinion against them and drew more people towards Tokar's movement.
By mid-1980, Tokar had effective control over Kriklivets and eastern Pavatria, and was quickly advancing into Soravia's economic and industrial heartlands in western Pavatria and Samistopol. Significant progress was made for the self-named Partisans of the conflict when PDP director Ruslan Yurchenko pledged the department's allegiances to the new movement, shunning Gardos' government and providing Tokar with invaluable intelligence assets. The New Voyins Movement, who aimed to establish the basis of socialist ideology in the country, also fought alongside Tokar's rebels against the government. Patovatra fell in July 1980 and Samistopol was effectively surrounded by August 1980, falling just two weeks later. Now administrating the plurality of Soravia's eastern half, Tokar founded the Patriots' Front as an alliance of eight political parties in 1981, providing direct political resistance to the ruling Soravian Nationalist Party. Gardos' government had been pushed back to west of the Nimgan by 1982 and had effective collapsed into itself by mid-1982, with Gardos fleeing to Zorasan later that same year.
Whilst infighting between the two governmental factions continued, Zalyk socialist and Badist Tagai Chulgetei had been leading his Fathers of Zalykia movement in a highly successful campaign against Gardos' forces in Zalykia. In direct control of multiple urban centres, and, at its height in 1982, over 100,000 square kilometres of Zalykia, Chulgetei's guerrilla forces were estimated to be 50,000 strong, armed mainly by raided barracks and abandoned military camps. When Gardos' government collapsed, Chulgetei was in the process of brokering peace with the old government. He extended the same offering to Tokar's government – complete Zalyk independence and self-determination as a council communist state – which he rejected. Chulgetei led an impressive movement until he was killed in Yalmta by the PDP in 1983, scattering his forces, most of whom surrendered within the next week.
The Sostava War is generally considered as Euclea's last "major conflict", and as a direct result over a million civilians were displaced with a further half a million casualties, both civilian and military. Soravia's economy plummeted and did not recover until 1990, and five new states declared their independence during the course of the war (Lemovicia, Minilov, Radushia, Vedmed and Kantemosha and Ambrazka), immediately changing the landscape of Euclean geopolitics. Tokar's government gained worldwide recognition as Soravia's legitimate government by 1984, but Gardos continued to lead his own government-in-exile until he was also assassinated by the PDP in 1986.
Post-Sostava Soravia (1983–present)
During the war, Tokar took up the interim presidency to lead his own government, with the intent to step down once elections could be held. Tokar had worked to establish Soravia's new bicameral State Assembly, consisting of the Voynaskul and Duma. Elections were held in 1983 which elected the Patriots' Front with a supermajority and chose Vasil Bodnar as its first president. Working closely in conjunction with Tokar, who had stepped down from any official governmental role shortly after he had been elected, Bodnar aimed to revitalise and reopen Soravia's economy to build it out of the recession it found itself in. Economic liberalisation policies were commonplace under the presidency of Bodnar, and Soravia became more open to international trade, especially outside of Euclea. Imports and exports to and from places in Coius and Asteria Inferior massively increased and bolstered Soravia's flailing export market through the 1980s. Bodnar himself was a vocal supporter of re-integration with ex-Soravian states, many of whom found themselves in a similar economic position with no available means to bail themselves out. Representatives from Soravia as well as all the pre-war states except Radushia and Lemovicia met in Maljubav in Minilov and eventually signed the Treaty of Maljubav, establishing the framework for Samorspi as an economic and military alliance of states.
Radushia later joined the agreement in 1984 and the organisation was consolidated into its modern form with the Treaty of Samistopol in 1989, including a common market, free trade agreements and a organisation legislature (the Mizparl). The organisation was dominated economically and politically by Soravia, who made up around 65% of its population and economy in 1990, the same year Soravia's economy posted its first positive numbers following the war. The 1st Duma under Bodnar established elections every five years in 1989, with Bodnar stepping down and being replaced by Ivan Lecsko the same year. Lecsko was known for his jingoist-like foreign policy, and was considerably more active abroad than his predecessor. He spearheaded the two-year Haillet's Crisis with Cassier, which expanded Soravia's oil and gas regions in the Haillet's Sea in 1993, but also brought it a series of condemnations, especially from countries associated with the North Vehemens Organization. Lecsko also began the South-South Cooperation policy with Xiaodong and Satucin, aiming to expand its influence in Asteria Inferior.
Soravia's influence in Samorspi was expanded again in 1997 with the Tsivebi Military Agreement, which gave Soravia the right to base its own forces in Samorspi member states. It became the first Samorspi foundational treaty that was optional, with Kantemosha and Ambrazka exercising its opt-out immediately. Piraea joined the organisation in 1998 under its right-wing government and also opted out of the TMA. Samuel Czenko was elected in 1999. Czenko oversaw the first talks between Zalykia's territorial council and the government on its re-elevation to a province, which it had been denied under the pretense of government rebuilding in the region since 1983. Czenko himself was sympathetic to the concerns of Zalyk representatives but that view was not shared by a significant fraction of his sitting party members in the Duma. It was not until Mergen Baynev was elected in 2004 that the government eventually introduced provincial rights for Zalykia in 2005. In 2007 the country suffered a minor offshore oil spill in the Perovo Sea off the coast of Myrutyn, which saw the government introduce more scrutinising regulations for offshore oil drilling and extraction. In the same year, Piraea left Samorspi to pursue ties with the Euclean Community. Baynev was re-elected in 2009 but resigned a year later for personal reasons. He was succeeded once again by Czenko, who went on to serve two consecutive terms.
In 2020, Valentina Goga was elected as Soravia's first ever female president, having served previous as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2015 to 2020. She received 71% of the vote share, the least of any president-elect in post-war Soravia. On May 20, 2020, Soravia completed talks with the State of Lemovicia regarding its ascension to Samorspi, and it joined as the seventh member state on June 1.
The plurality of Soravia's land area can be found on continental Euclea, where its ten contiguous provinces (excluding the Ludoy Islands) make up 1,553,825.28 square kilometres (599,935.29 square miles). Including George Ruset Land, this number rises to 2,984,217.6 square kilometres (1,152,212.86 square miles), making Soravia the fourth largest country by land area behind Cassier, Xiaodong and Zorasan. Most of George Ruset Land is inhospitable polar and tundra climate, however, and its contiguous mainland Euclean land alone would make it the 11th largest country. Soravia is Euclea's largest state by land area and also houses Euclea's largest subdivision by land area (Zalykia; 374,391.32 square kilometres). In addition to this, with a population of just over 89 million, it is also Euclea's most populous state, surpassing Gaullica in 2014, and has Euclea's most populous city (Samistopol; 10,533,871 inhabitants).
A wide range of geographical and environmental phenomena can be found in Soravia, and the country sports one of Euclea's most varied climates and landscapes. In the east of the country, large coniferous forests adorn much of the rural landscape, and temperatures there are generally cool throughout the year. The mountainous south east of the country contains the Ostrug Mountain Range along the border with Poliania, and the west of the country possesses some of Euclea's largest and most expansive plains and fields. The geography of the country has historically been influenced by Soravia's six major rivers, from west to east: the Sarpa, Kvasy, Dolomit (also the longest river in Euclea), Vikna, Aldar and Tsyr.
The large Lake Nimgan sits in the centre of the country and effectively divides it into east and west. It is Euclea's largest lake with an area of around 90,000 square kilometres, also making it one of the world's largest lakes. Many cities are settled on the banks of the lake and its underwater landscapes have attracted visitors from across the continent.
Soravia's highest point is the peak of Mt. Tuzla at 3,781 m (12,404 ft) and its lowest is the Zhahr Basin in Zalykia at 53 m (173.8 ft) below sea level. Dvor Rakottyas in George Ruset Land is the world's northernmost permanently-inhabited settlement, and Nizhnebersutsk is the world's northernmost city of over 100,000 inhabitants. Arnaqa Point, also on George Ruset Land, is both Soravia's and the world's northernmost point, lying at the 70th meridian north. The country has five land borders, which are:
- Poliania (1,613 km; 1,002 miles)
- Template:Country data Kantemosha and Ambrazka (1,052 km; 653 miles)
- Vedmed (874 km; 543 miles)
- Radushia (370 km; 230 miles)
- West Miersa (146 km; 90 miles)
Typically, Soravia experiences a temperate climate characterised by above average levels of precipitation and a higher year-round range of temperatures. Throughout the country, however, its climate varies massively and different regions experience much different climates. Seasons can be distinctly split in mainland Soravia and weather follows general seasonal patterns. Snow, sleet and frost are typical in Soravian winters and can be found throughout the country. Much of the eastern part of the country experiences a cool oceanic climate, with long days and temperatures as high as 30°C (86°F) in summer and shorter days, high precipitation and temperatures falling to around –10°C in winter. Sunlight varies from 17–19 hours per day in the summer to 8–10 hours in the winter months in this region.
In the west of the country, especially in the coastal regions and in Zalykia, a warmer coastal climate is found. Precipitation here is rare during the summer and common during the winter, and temperatures average around 27°C (80.6°F) in the summer and 8–10°C (46.4–50°F) in the winter. Temperatures here rarely drop below sub-zero and can rise as high as 40°C (104°F) in the summer. This region of Soravia also holds the record for highest recorded temperature in the country, which was 46.1°C (115°F) at the Etsil Meteorological Centre in the town of Etsil, Zalykia.
George Ruset Land has its own unique climate. A small portion of the south-eastern part of the country (which houses almost all of its population) experiences a Subavanaric climate. Temperatures regularly drop below –20°C (–4°F) in the winter and summer temperatures average out at around 15°C (59°F), and rarely exceed 20°C (68°F). Around 95% of the island experiences a Tundra climate or a polar climate. The far northern regions of the island (including Arnaqa Point) experience ice cap climates, where monthly average temperatures never exceed 0°C (32°F).
|Climate data for Samistopol (Blokpolykh Station), precipitation 1995–present, normals 1985–present, extremes 2000–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.4
|Average high °C (°F)||8.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.4
|Average low °C (°F)||4.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−8.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||108.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||15.1||11.6||12.4||10.9||10.4||8.5||9.4||10.1||9.9||14.4||15.0||14.5||142.1|
|Average snowy days||16||13||5||1||0||0||0||0||2||7||11||15||70|
|Average relative humidity (%)||86||84||82||80||79||80||81||82||83||85||85||86||82|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||61.9||84.1||123.3||187.5||224.8||222.8||213.8||204.4||160.8||115.5||75.3||54.5||1,730.1|
|Average ultraviolet index||1||1||3||4||6||6||6||6||4||2||1||1||3|
|Source: Meteorological Institution of Soravia (Metinar)|
Soravia is known for its dense forests and contains the most forests by area in all of Euclea. Deciduous forests make up the plurality of Soravia's forested areas at roughly 80%, while coniferous forests make up the remaining 20% and are more common in colder areas. Oak and birch trees are among the most common types of tree found in Soravia, while hornbeam and pine are less common but still found within the country. In the west, drier grasses are more common in the country's drier plains and steppe-like areas. It also has a wide diversity of plant species, some of which have historically been incorporated into the culture of local peoples. It is estimated that over 10,000 plant species are native to Soravia. Lichens and mosses can be found in the colder climates are especially common in George Ruset Land. Mushrooms and other types of fungi also grow in Soravia. Similarly to Poliania, mainland Soravia is grouped into four main ecoregions – temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, Solarian forests, woodlands, and scrub, and temperate coniferous forest.
Soravia also possesses a wide and diverse array of native fauna. Due to Soravia's fairly accepting climate, it provides ample habitation for a range of animal species. The imperial eagle is Soravia's national animal and has been subject to adoration and fame from its residents for centuries, despite the species being relatively widespread. Over 500 bird species are native to Soravia, including hummingbirds, robins, tits and rodent birds like crows and pigeons. Foxes and bears are also common in Soravia's forests, but have been subject to human hunting for centuries which has depleted their population. Moose, hyenas and other wild dogs are also common in Soravia's western plains. The Euclean bison and Euclean lynx exist in small populations in Soravia, mainly as an extension of their natural habitat in Poliania, but have also suffered from population depletion from hunting and are classed as a critically-endangered species in Soravia.
The country also has a diverse marine life. The oceans, rivers and lakes of Soravia are home to thousands of species of fish and other marine life. Otters, weasels, badgers and wolverines reside near and around Soravia's rivers and form the plurality of Soravia's semiaquatic marine life. Whales and small sharks (often sleeper sharks) are also native to parts of Soravia. Sleeper sharks are often bred in closed environments and restrictions were placed on their hunting in 2003 after significant concern over their population, which was rapidly falling due to the shark's role in Ochyryby, a famous domestic dish. George Ruset Land is native habitant for beluga whales, and one of the few places that they live naturally. The whaling of beluga whales was entirely banned in 2000 and they are considered a protected species by the government.
Soravia's urbanised population is mainly concentrated in the east of the country, but urban population centres can be found spread out all across the country. Of the country's 11 provinces, four (Samistopol, Pavatria, Kriklivets and Terekhivka) contain urban metropoles with a population in excess of one million.
Largest cities or towns in Soravia
|4||Velike Vishnavaya||Kriklivets||1,361,320||14||Nizhnebersutsk||George Ruset Land||712,162|
Politics and government
Soravia is a de facto unitary semi-presidential republic, whose head-of-state is the president and head-of-government is the minister-president. However in practise, the structure of Soravia's unitary provincial devolution system can be likened to that of a federal system, although the constitution maintains the country remain a unitary republic. Presidents are elected into office by direct popular vote, while their associated parties are voted into the Voynaskul (Войнаскул; Voynaskul) and Duma (Дума; Duma) using first-past-the-post voting. The minister-president is selected directly by the president and inaugurated into office by a majority vote of the Duma. The current president is Valentina Goga and the current minister-president is Nicolai Karpenko.
Soravia's bicameral legislature is known as the State Assembly (Державні збори; Derzhavni zbory, often abbrieviated to Derzbor), and consists of the Voynaskul (upper house) and Duma (lower house). The 120-seat Voynaskul consists of ten senators elected for each of Soravia's twelve political subdivisions – 11 provinces and 1 territory (George Ruset Land). The Voynaskul possesses many powers regarding the political framework of the country, including the announcement and conclusion of Soravian presidential elections, impeachment and the review and approval of presidential decrees. The 500-seat Duma is directly elected by the populace and maintains most political power with the bicameral framework of Soravia's legislature. Duma approval is required for the elevation and demotion of provinces and territories, legal declarations of war (as well as the legal use of the military in other countries), fiscal budget and the appointment of many major offices in the Cabinet of Soravia. The president possesses some executive powers that can override some decisions made by the State Assembly.
The National Courts (Національні суди; Natsional'ni sudy) are the highest level of judiciary in Soravia, and their sitting judges are appointed directly by the incumbent cabinet. National Courts have the power to interpret legislation both before and after it has been signed into law. Legislation in the process of legislative approval can be directly vetoed or overturned by the sitting Grand Judge of the National Courts, who is appointed directly by the president, whereas legislation currently in-force requires a congregation of all sitting judges. Legislation is overturned if it is deemed unconstitutional by the National Courts. Lower-level provincial courts provide the localised framework for the Soravian judiciary at a smaller level.
Since the conclusion of the Sostava War in 1983, Soravia has consistently been ranked as a flawed democracy or an authoritarian state by most independent democratic indexes. Its ruling coalition, the Patriots' Front of Soravia, completely dominate internal politics, with 413 of the Duma's 500 seats and 98 of the Voynaskul's 120 seats. All nine post-war presidents have been members of the Patriots' Front and it has consistently received 75–85% of the nation's popular vote, although the integrity of these numbers have been questioned by multiple countries and organisations.
The Soravian Armed Forces are divided into the Soravian Army (Soravian: Hарозальська армія; Narozaliys'ka armiya), the Soravian Navy (Soravian: Нарозалійський флот; Narozaliys'kyy flot), the Soravian Air Force (Soravian: Повітряні Сили Нарозаликий; Povitryani Syly Narozaliky) and the Soravian Strategic Missile Force (Soravian: Нарозальські ракетні сили; Narozal's'ki raketni syly). Soravia fields one of the largest armed forces in the world, and the largest in Euclea, with an estimated 1.1 million active duty personnel and over 600,000 reservists. Military service is mandatory for all males between aged 18-30, where they must serve for an 18 month term.
Soravia’s military expenditure is amongst the largest in the world at 116 billion Euclos, amounting to 5.4% of GDP, higher than any other Euclean nation. Soravia also retains the third largest stockpile of nuclear weapons, fielding 190 active nuclear warheads with an additional 260 idle warheads, for a total of 450, behind Shanbally-recognised Senria as well as Xiaodong. The country maintains the capacity to deliver such weapons through its ballistic missile submarines, as well as air and land platforms. Soravia was one of the first countries to complete a successful nuclear test, with Orel-1 in the Yandar Valley in 1956. Soravia is one of the world’s main exporters of arms, hosting an almost entirely indigenous military industrial complex that supplies not only its own armed forces but also militaries from Samorspi and ROSPO. Soravia’s military sees extensive deployment beyond its borders, particularly in other Samorspi nations, with notable presence in nations bound to the Tsivebi Military Agreement – with forces mainly concentrated in West Miersa.
Historically, Soravia has been one of the world's foremost military powers, a status it continues to retain today. A victor of both the Great War and Solarian War, as well as a principal member of the Grand Alliance, Soravia's military presence abroad has been significant since the 1930s. Military power and presence abroad decreased massively with the breakup of Soravia during the early 1980s, but recovered mostly by the mid-1990s.
The commander-in-chief of the Soravian Armed Forces is, by default, the President of Soravia (currently Valentina Goga), however in practise the president rarely exercises any powers from their role as commander-in-chief, with most being delegated to the country's Defence Ministry and Chief of Staff.
Soravia is an active nation in the global geopolitical framework, particularly in western Euclea. It maintains diplomatic missions across the world in the form of both consulates and embassies, and has a strong diplomatic presence in all of the world's continents and many countries. Soravia is classed as an authoritarian state, through democratic backsliding that widely occurred through the 1990s and early 2000s, which affects its relations in much of the developed world. Relations with its most immediate geopolitical neighbour, the Euclean Community, are generally hostile, although Soravia maintains diplomatic missions in most EC member states.
Soravia coordinates its foreign policy both independently and through the arm of the Samistopol Cooperation Organisation – currently consisting of itself, Radushia, Kantemosha and Ambrazka, West Miersa, Vedmed, Minilov and Lemovicia, admitted in June 2020 – where it is a founding nation and dominates internal politics through its supreme legislature, the Mizparl. Relations with Samorspi countries are generally cordial on most issues, with all the countries having similar geopolitical goals and outlooks. More recently, Soravia has begun to cooperate extensively with the nations of ROSPO, particularly Xiaodong, as well as Satucin in Asteria Inferior. "South-south cooperation", as it has come to be known, is greatly welcomed in Soravia and something it is widely involved it, despite its geographical position. Relations with the Asterias are generally achieved in coordination with Xiaodong and Satucin, and cooperation has increased in recent times with their collective support for the Mariranan military in the ongoing Mariranan Civil War. Similarly to ROSPO and the International Forum for Developing States, Soravia positions itself as a viable economic and geopolitical alternative to the Euclean Community.
The country is also widely recognised as one of the world's great powers, maintaining a sizable nuclear-capable military, a large economy and a worldwide geopolitical presence. Soravia is a founding member of the Community of Nations, and is a permanent member of its Security Committee. It is a signatory of the Treaty of Shanbally in 1965 and is also one of its recognised legal nuclear states, although Soravia's commitment to the treaties aims of nuclear disarmament have been questioned due to its support of the illegal Xiaodongese nuclear program. Soravia was also a founding member of the International Council for Democracy, but was suspended in 1997, and a full member of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, the International Trade Organisation and the League of Oil Producing States.
Since the conclusion of the Sostava War in 1983, two constitutionally-recognised subdivisions exist within Soravia. The main and predominant subdivision within the country are provinces, which are not nominally federal but share significant devolution from the central government, as well as possessing their own legislatures and in some cases the minor power to govern their respective territories at the consent of the central government. Elections are conducted on both a provincial and national level at varying times. Soravia has eleven provinces that make up all of its territory in Euclea.
The other major subdivision within Soravia is the territory, often sometimes called volodin from the Soravian word for "lordship", and has been in use for centuries dating back to the Soravian Empire. Territories are governed more directly by the central government, often by councils (рада; rada) directly appointed by the President, who in turn elect their respective territorial governor, who possesses powers almost identical to provincial governors. Territories lack the right to govern and do not possess their own legislatures. Three territories have existed since 1983, Zalykia (1983–2005), Sarkola (1983–1991), and George Ruset Land, which remains a territory today.
Under Article 95 of Section One of the Constitution of Soravia, amended in 1983, the Duma has the power to promote a territory to a province with a 3/4 majority vote, whilst demoting a province to a territory requires a 5/6 majority vote of the Duma. The president may also issue presidential decrees demoting and promoting provinces and territories during a state of emergency.
|Province||Population||Area (km2)||GDP (PPP)||GDP per capita (PPP)||Administrative centre||Governor|
|Kriklivets||7,509,182||89,443||$311.3 billion||$41,456||Velike Vishnavaya||Pavlo Voloshyn|
|Ludoy Islands||85,761||9,157||$4.8 billion||$55,969||Eryksborg||Taras Buhaj|
|Lushkina||11,926,172||164,707||$245.1 billion||$20,548||Syrnitsa||Sava Bojko|
|Myrutyn||6,918,277||123,178||$176.5 billion||$25,512||Buryn||Mykola Dudnyk|
|Pavatria||12,877,001||87,304||$756.1 billion||$58,717||Patovatra||Vadym Tokar|
|Rykovychi||3,817,299||220,393||$95.0 billion||$24,889||Zbytyn||Yakiv Kobzar|
|Samistopol||14,217,881||68,118||$728.6 billion||$51,248||Samistopol||Oleh Marchuk|
|Sarkola||1,470,217||19,443||$21.8 billion||$14,829||Tumsha||Blahoslav Sztaurovsky|
|Shumsk||7,192,018||156,554||$154.5 billion||$21,484||Sestrenovka||Kuzma Husak|
|Terekhivka||13,469,018||207,043||$410.1 billion||$30,443||Ulan Khol||Leonid Kutsenko|
|Zalykia||11,927,712||374,931||$169.7 billion||$14,227||Yashkul||Khermen Osor|
|George Ruset Land||191,265||126,257||$3.8 billion||$20,077||Nizhnebersutsk||Brigitka Adanscak|
Soravia has historically been an economy that bridged the gap between agriculture and industrialisation, particularly in the 19th century. Soravia was hit badly by the Great Collapse in the 1910s and operated autarkic policies under the guidance of Vladislav Pudovkin for much of the early 20th century. International trade began to flourish following the conclusion of the Great War and Soravia became a prime exporter of military armaments, carrying on from the market created by the Great Collapse, marketed its arms to many illiberal regimes in Coius who the eastern Euclean powers refused to sell weapons to. The Pardarian Revolutionary Resistance Command during the Pardarian Civil War in Zorasan marked one of the first major breakthrough for Soravian armament selling in the 1940s, and has since gone on to arm allies of itself in many members of Samorspi as well as countries like X and X. Soravia itself produces a plethora of military weaponry, vehicles, as well as spacecraft.
Soravia still retains a somewhat significant agricultural sector and subsistence farming still exists in some rural communities. Soravia remains one of the highest exporters of agricultural produce in Euclea, aimed mainly at budget supermarket chains across Euclea and the Asterias, exporting mainly seafood and beef products. Soravia was one of the first countries to introduce mechanisation for farming in the 1800s.
The Soravian economy suffered profusely with the breakup of the Soravian Empire, with the economy not recovering to the 1979 level until 1990. Industrial production skyrocketed after 1990 as the government introduced significant re-employment plans to allow people affected by the civil war to enter the workforce again. Due to this, a large amount of workers began working industrial jobs in government-subsidised factories for a wide-range of manufactured products. Strong economic continued through the 1990s and the 2000s and the Soravian economy was comfortably the fastest growing economy of the developed Euclean powers. Today, Soravia's economy is the world's fourth-largest and Euclea's second-largest economy by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), with a gross domestic product of over $3 trillion. It operates a mixed economy that blends privatisation and the free market with controlled levels of state interventionism, and is often described as a middle-income country in Euclea, although in recent times this has rapidly changed.
Agriculture and fishing
Agriculture continues to play a significant role in the Soravian economy and the export of Soravian natural goods and produce. Especially in rural villages and communities, agriculture often forms the backbone for the economies of towns in the west of Soravia. In the 1950s, president Gabriel Tozulyak aimed to move the west of the country away from traditional agricultural economies towards complete integration into Soravia's expanded market-driven economy. He reduced state-driven routes for domestic produce and began the construction of suburban areas over arable farming land. By 1961 Soravia's agricultural produce had dropped by more than 15%, as did its available arable and farmable land. Agriculture experienced a revival in the late-1970s to early-1980s and has functioned as an area of economic importance since. With Euclea's largest deposits of arable land and one of its primary agricultural exporters, especially in crops such as barley, maize and wheat as well as the cultivation and farming of livestock, mainly cattle, it remains a significant agricultural nation.
Vineyards are common across the west of Soravia, and wine is a significant export from the province of Zalykia. Soravia is also a major producer and exporter of spirits, especially ones with high alcohol content. Corn, rye, maize and wheat are all grown in Soravia and used for the production of alcohol and base spirits that are later bought by companies worldwide for separate distillation, bottling and selling. Soravia's main alcoholic export is spirits, although beer is also a commonly-produced alcoholic beverage.
Most farms in Soravia come under corporate farm ownership with the decline of family or subsistence farming in the 1940s and 1950s. Tozulyak-era reforms that restructured the way agricultural products were collected, sold and the income funneled back to family farms in the 1950s encouraged the creation of corporate farm exporting that operated separately of state-led routes. By the 1980s, corporate farms made up half of farming plots in Soravia and today the number is around 65%. Family and individual farms make up around 30% while the much more uncommon peasant farms only make up 5%. Family farms are generally regarded as higher quality and their produce is often used in more expensive products.
Fishing also makes up a considerable role of Soravia's agricultural output. With over 11,000 kilometres (6,800 miles) of coastline, the longest in Euclea, that is unfrozen year-round, a significant variety and amount of fish are caught and sold to Soravia's markets every year. Among the most common freshwater fish are blood salmon, pink salmon and lake trout, which have all been introduced to Soravia's rivers and lakes. Fishing is also a considerable export in Terekhivka where the Lake Nimgan lies. Eels and sharks are also fished in Soravia and are considered domestic delicacies. Ochyryby (sometimes transliterated as Ochiribi), which is fermented shark, has gained international notoriety, particularly for its unusual nature and its smell.
Soravia produces some of the highest amounts of energy in the world, both for use within the country and for export to other countries. It has direct access to the large sea oil reserves in the Haillet's Sea through George Ruset Land, which it shares with Cassier, and smaller oil reserves within the Perovo Sea. Soravia is one of the largest oil exporters in the world and often sells to Coius, and is a member of the League of Oil Producing States. By 2023, it is estimated that Soravian oil production will rise to 3 million bbl/day.
Soravia also produces a significant amount of electrical power, mainly through an increased amount of hydroelectric activity on the country's six rivers, which has been criticised by countries who also share the rivers with Soravia. Hydroelectricity makes up a significant portion of Soravia's energy use, and is the least exported method of energy in Soravia. Most of Soravia's energy income comes from its vast reserves of natural gas, which it exports across Euclea. The partially-publicised Zakhaz extracts, refines and exports around 85% of Soravia's total natural gas output annually. Soravia has continued to fund gas pipelines in western Euclea, often selling energy to members of the Samistopol Cooperation Organisation, and has particular political influence in countries such as Kantemosha and Ambrazka, who rely heavily on Soravian natural gas for energy resources. The Borsha Dam on the river Kvasy produces the most hydroelectric output in Euclea, at 36.7 tWh.
Around 15% of Soravia's energy is provided through the usage of nuclear power plants, although this number has been gradually declining over time. While a nuclear incident has never occurred in Soravia on a notable scale, the government is still wary of the drawbacks of power plants and the significant environmental effects that a nuclear meltdown could have on the surrounding environments and biospheres. The last power plant within fifty kilometres of a major urban centre, the Gorashtovo Nuclear Power Plant, was shut down in 2004, and lay around 30 kilometres west of Luchintsy. Gradually the government has taken steps to its eventual destruction and replacement with a more environmentally-friendly housing. Despite its right-wing nature, the government is considered fairly environmentally-friendly and has consistently taken steps to preserve or conserve many of Soravia's major natural areas, including forests, lakes and mountains.
Soravia is a heavily industrialised country and boasts one of the largest industrial sectors in Euclea. Having been industrialised later than its eastern Euclean counterparts, Soravian industry was hit particularly hard by the Great Collapse in 1913, however government intervention in the economy created a funded industrial sector for unemployed workers to produce military equipment for the state, which employed many who had been made redundant by the crisis. President Vladislav Pudovkin is often credited for a revival of the Soravian industry, with the country still having a large industrial sector in the modern day, and one of the largest in Euclea.
Soravia continues to imploy a large portion of its current industrial workforce in the production of military-related equipment, including armoured vehicles, aircraft, naval ships, small arms and spacecraft. The second largest industrial employer is the energy industry, which includes workers in oil rigs in the Haillet's Sea and Perovo Sea, as well as natural gas fracking workers who work primarily in the mainland. It is estimated that around 10% of Soravia's workforce is employed in an industrial sector such as energy or production, however this rate is slowly decreasing as more and more people secure jobs in tertiary or quaternary research sectors, such as health, medicine or research.
Infrastructure and transport
Soravia's infrastructure is significantly more widespread that any other country in Euclea, due to its size. Most major cities in Soravia are linked with a variety of high-speed transport methods, including motorways, rail links, and air routes. Soravia has Euclea's largest air traffic zone that extends out into the Lumine Ocean and Perovo Sea. In 2013 the Soravian government announced plans to begin the construction of several high-speed rail links connecting the cities of Samistopol and Patovatra with the western provinces and south-eastern cities, where construction is scheduled to begin in 2021. Soravia has also theorised plans of a major high-speed rail, nicknamed the "Spine of Euclea" (Soravian: Хребет Євклея; Khrebet Yevkleya), which aim to connect to major members of Samorspi. The Spine of Euclea rail system, if completed in its theorised form, will run from Samistopol to the capital of Gibany in Drosnja, passing through 8 sovereign states. Soravia has some high speed railway tracks, mainly in urban conurbations in the east, with older rails connecting most other places in the country. Plans to expand high-speed rail links across the country, particularly connecting the east and west, have been gradually implemented over the past ten years.
The roads in Soravia are generally good quality and most cities are connected by dual carriageway roads to the rest of Soravia. Soravia has the longest motorway network of any Euclean country, with 16 different national routes within the country. The NM-1, which connects Samistopol to the city of Gashun in Zalykia, is also the longest single road in Euclea. Large roads in Soravia are split into national routes (національний маршрут; natsionalʹnyy marshrut), which run between states and cities and are maintained by the central government, and state routes (державний маршрут; derzhavnyy marshrut). National routes are indicated by the numbering NM-X, whilst state routes are indicated by a unique two-letter state code followed by three numbers.
Science and technology
Soravia has produced many notable scientists and has contributed significant advancements to the fields of astronomy, biology, chemistry, computing, geometry and physics. Along with the rest of Euclea, scientists during the enlightenment were present significantly in Soravia, and many of the country's top universities during this period. The University of Malbay, founded in 1604 by astronomer Oleg Shulyayev, is considered the country's top university and was attended by many notable scientists throughout Soravia's history.
Kolba's law, photovoltaic effect and Vannian radiation are among Soravia's primary discoveries in the field of physics, curated by Vas Kolba, Olezka Ewaschuk and Yuri Vann respectively. Universal gravitation was discovered and documented by Lawrence Lugin in the 17th century.
In the field of chemistry, Grigor Tyshchenko created the world's first version of a periodic table, which listed the then-known elements according to their atomic weight, and revolutionised the grouping of elements that dislayed apparent periodicity if arranged by atomic weight. He also curated the Periodic Law, which Tyshchenko was able to use to calculate previously-unknown properties of various elements. He also theorised the existence of unknown elements using the Periodic Law, many of which were later discovered throughout his lifetime. Grigorium, a synthetic laboratory element, is named after him.
Soravia was particularly scientifically active during the early periods of space exploration and discovery. The contributions of Maria Boskovsky to initial iterations of the astronautics theory spearheaded global space flight development and construction, and is regarded as both a scientific pioneer as well as a gender icon who broke societal barriers and became one of the world's first renowned female scientists of the 20th century. It was one of six countries to send a cosmonaut to the moon in 1964, and since 1990 has one of Euclea's largest space ports in the Viktor V. Matvyenko Cosmodrome in Terekhivka.
It is also at the forefront of military engineering, and has consistently maintained a modernised fleet of naval vessels and aircraft. Its Gulka series of fighter jets and the Gulka G-14 have entered supersonic and stealth development, one of few countries to do so. It also manufactured many ships used by the post-colonial and developing world throughout the 1940s and 1950s. It employed nuclear power throughout the late 20th century and is a member state of the Atomic Energy Commission. Soravia continues to modernise technologically today, and while still considered a very high development country by the Human Development Index (HDI) (0.823 in 2018), it is still considerably behind its eastern Euclean counterparts.
Soravia has a population of 88 million in the 2017 census, however this number is expected to have exceeded 89 million in 2020 and is expected to rise further to 90 million by July 2021. It is the most populous country in Euclea and the second-most populous outside of Coius, behind only Satucin. This population is primarily dominated by Episemialist Soravians, who make up around 80% of the population, with the next largest demographic being the Zalyks in Zalykia at around 14%, with the remaining 5-6% being made up of immigrant communities or ethnic populations near the borders of the former imperial republics, including Vichods, Seniaks, Vedmedis, and Minilovians.
Soravia has a fairly high birth rate, with 12.8 people born per 1000 women, higher than the average seen in the Euclean Community, but this is beginning to decrease as technology progresses within the country and more families choose to not have children. Life expectancy in Soravia is 74.6 years for men and 79.1 years for women, which has risen in recent years due to a major crackdown on violent crime, especially within the adolescent and teenage populace, in Soravia's major cities. Soravia encourages immigration, especially from states formally within its borders, and the government has launched many programs to assist immigrations in settling down in Soravia. Despite this, there is still large social prejudice against immigrant populations, especially those originating from outside of Euclea or Chistovodia. Many independent organisations have called Soravia's social prejudice against immigrants one of the worst still remaining in Euclea. Despite these prejudices, Soravia's immigrant populace, numbering around 4-5 million, is one of the largest in Euclea.
Education in Soravia is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16, where students will rise through three tiers of the schooling system. At the ages of 5 and 6, students will attend kindergarten, where the begin to learn basic intellectual skills such as the alphabet, small words in Soravian, and counting. Kindergarten in Soravia is often compared to daycare systems in eastern Euclea, with before-and-after school clubs widely available to care for kids whose parents are working at usual start and end times for the school day. At 6, students enter their first year of primary school, while the first year is comparatively similar to kindergarten, learning eventually picks up through the year, building on skills they have learnt in kindergarten.
At age 11, students will take their preliminary secondary exams, which are non-binding for high school entry but are used to arrange the students into respective bands for their high school education. Students will enter high school aged 11-12, and will remain until they are 16. For the final two years of high school students choose subjects to take forward for two years and to study their primary secondary exams on. A wide range of subjects are offered at most schools throughout the country, however some schools may choose to offer subjects others do not. Most common subjects, such as geography or STEM subjects, are offered at all schools. One primary secondary exams have been completed, students may enter the workforce or attend college until 18, where they will study two or three subjects to take to their university preliminaries. At 18, students can then enter university through their prelim exams. Soravia has a range of quality universities, with its main one, the University of Malbay, consisting ranking in the top 10 in Euclea.
Soravia is fairly linguistically diverse. Soravian is the main language, national and official language, and is spoken by the plurality of the population as a daily language as well as one of business and commerce. The national government only recognises Soravian as an official language, and other regional languages are left to the legislatures of their respective provinces to recognise. Zalyk is by far the most-spoken recognised minority language in Soravia, with an estimated 6 million L1 speakers and a further 10 million L2 speakers in Soravia, it was recognised as a regional language by the Grand Khural of Zalykia in one of its first sessions in 2005. Seniak and Vichod (both official languages of Kantemosha and Ambrazka) gained regional recognition in Sarkola when its legislature reopened and it was elevated to a province in 1991. Volynian is a recognised language both Terekhivka and Zalykia and is the only language to have regional recognition in multiple provinces. Vedmedi is a recognised language in Kriklivets and Titiqituq is a recognised language by the council of George Ruset Land.
Many spoken languages in Soravia do not have provincial or territorial recognition, and most of these languages stem from diasporas that have emigrated to the country throughout its history. Miersan is a minor language spoken by around 15,000 people in Soravia. Samundrese is one of the largest non-recognised languages, and comes from settled sayars as well as immigrants from Kassar during the early 20th century, and is spoken by around 250,000 of the diaspora in Soravia, particularly in its urban centres.
Soravian is also a widely-spoken language abroad, and as a result of Soravia's colonial holdings and expeditions, Soravian is a recognised language in other countries, mainly in the Asterias. Most of the member states of Samorspi have Soravian minorities and recognise it as a minority language, and the organisation itself uses it as its official working language. Both Chistovodia and Vinalia use Soravian as their official and working language. The total number of Soravian speakers worldwide is estimated to be around 180 million and could be as high as 200 million. Soravian is one of the highest spoken Euclean languages in the world.
Soravia has historically been dominated by its Episemialist populace and the Episemialist Church, which spread from Amathia and Piraea in the 6th century BC. Much of Soravia's history centres around its religious status, with the Soravian Episemialist Church being of the largest geographical religious denominations in Euclea. Around 90% of Soravia's populace in Episemialist, the highest majority of Sotirianism in any country in Euclea (with the exception of Tibernum) by a significant margin. Zalyks have historically followed a variety of religions, including Badi, Irfan, Satyism and their own forms of paganism, however most of these differing beliefs were eradicated when Saint Nikolai of Lipa converted much of the Zalyk populace during its subjugation by the Duchy of Pavatria. A revival of Zalyk Badists occurred in the early 1980s during the Sostava War.
Soravia is known and renowned for its unique religious architecture, and boasts some of the largest churches and cathedrals in Euclea. St Nikolai's Cathedral in Samistopol is one of the largest in Episemialist Euclea and is one of the primary landmarks of the religion, inciting many visitors from Episemialist followers in Amathia, Piraea and Kantemosha and Ambrazka, as well as small Episemialist populations in eastern Euclea. Soravia runs many political and overseas funds for Episemialist populations abroad, and often encourages their migration into Soravia in cases of severe persecution.
Sexuality and LGBT rights
Openness about sexuality and the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in Soravia have been shunned and discouraged by the ruling Patriots' Front of Soravia since 1983. LGBT people regularly experience discrimination and face both legal and social challenges that are not experienced by other people. It is estimated that around 3–5% of the Soravian population are openly LGBT, although this number is likely an underestimate due to the prevailing homophobic and transphobic attitudes throughout the country. In 2006, Mergen Baynev's 6th Duma passed the Sexual Activity Bill, permitting private homosexual intercourse between two consenting individuals. Since then, experts have pointed to Soravia as a country where attitudes towards LGBT individuals are not progressing in a similar manner to other Euclean countries.
Five of Soravia's eleven constituent provinces (Lushkina, Myrutyn, Rykovychi, Shumsk and Zalykia) have passed separate local law banning or limiting the distribution of "LGBT propaganda" within provincial borders. In these states, it is mostly illegal to hold LGBT rallies, speak out in support of LGBT rights or discuss homosexual relationships in educational institutions. Rural parts of Soravia are often seen as more hostile to LGBT individuals than their urban counterparts, and human rights organisations such as the International Human Rights Observatory and Liberty House have regularly advised "serious caution" to LGBT individuals who wish to travel outside of Soravia's larger cities. Pride parades are regularly disbanded or barred from going ahead, and are limited to Soravia's major cities. Almost all of the Soravian parties that see representation in the Duma have been described as explicitly anti-LGBT by outside observers, with the exception of few individual party members or independent non-inscrits. Same-sex marriage is illegal and same-sex civil unions have never been recognised in Soravia. Same-sex couples are currently not permitted to adopt children, although opinion of this is beginning to change among polls, especially among young voters.
The Soravian Code for Civil Law and Administration mentions under Section 17.1a lists "transsexualism" and "gender dissonance" as mental disorders, sections that have been upheld in Soravian courts multiple times in cases related to workplace LGBT discrimination. In the military, LGBT people face regular casual discrimination, although the military adopts a de facto policy of "don't ask, don't tell".
Architecture in Soravia takes a plethora of both modern and historical influence. Throughout its history, architecture in Soravia has been influenced mainly by Amathian and Verliquoian styles, especially following the country's conversion to Sotirianism by the Empire of Arciluco during the period of the Great Vesemir.
Episemialist architecture within the country is often characterised by its fanciful and ornate nature, displayed in some of Soravia's largest, oldest and most famous churches and cathedrals. It often differs from its Solarian counterparts in the east in build and stature. Even in smaller local churches in smaller villages, the application of vibrant colour in religious build can be observed. Churches built around the period of the Iconoclast Wars also sport many homages to Jesus Sotiras, much more than can be seen in a religious building from a different period.
Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, an increasing amount of eastern Euclean architects travelled to Soravia to design and build buildings in a more eastern renaissance style. Often seen in cities such as Luchintsy and Velike Vishnavaya, the implementation of eastern-styled architecture gave a unique identity to these eastern cities. Soravian architecture at the time was less focused on beauty and style, and had adopted an increasingly utilitarian purpose since the Great Western March oversaw the construction of settling of many news cities in the north-west of Soravia.
The 19th century industrial revolution in Soravia gave rise to the importance of compact, urban housing. Wide streets, named prospekts, were constructed in major industrialised cities and lined with terraced brick housing that could house hundreds of workers. Seen particularly in Samistopol and Patovatra, this terraced housing came to form the brunt of both cities' poorer districts and slums. These compact streets of housing are often viewed as a continuation of the utilitarian architecture that came to characterise Soravian buildings since as early as the 15th century. Pudovkin-era architecture aimed to rejuvenate these desolate and derelict streets, and began to adopt a more modernised approach that including the introduction of brutalism in the mid-1920s. Large concrete blocks as well as more abstract and blocky designs came to represent the developments of new Soravian architecture throughout the mid-20th century. Civilian areas such as bus stops, public parks, restaurants, squares and streets were all revamped with brutalist or brutalist-inspired art pieces. Nebozhy apartment highrises also take large inspiration from the brutalist movement of the early-to-mid 20th century, and are now widespread apartment buildings throughout Soravia.
Soravia is famous for its vibrant musical and artistic scenes, and was the one of the forefront countries in artistic innovation throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Soravia is often viewed as the birthplace of realism in art, and the deviation from social normalities in art seen in the works of the famous painter Catherine Beaumonoir allude to the changing cultural aspect of Soravia, despite her being abroad at the time. Many of Beaumonoir's contemporaries were enticed by the realist movement, and by the time Beaumonoir had passed in 1856, it had become one of the most popular artistic movements in Soravia. Soravia is also famous for its many religious frescoes that depict influential religious or royal figures and adorn many of the grand cathedrals within the country.
After the death of Eduard Olsov, Soravia's modernist art scene exploded into popularity through the subsequent Volatile Decades, art movements and styles such as cubism, dadaism and fauvism typified Soravia's early 20th-century expressionist period of art. Artists such as Maryna Vakalenko, Tamara Tereshchenko and Lina Tretyak were among the period's most revered and famed artists. Modernist art movements of the 1910s also saw female artists popularised in an increasing manner, and far more than in previous art movements. Beaumonoir herself saw increased popularity during this period. The modernist art movements also gave birth to the uniquely Soravian Vidkamen sculpting movement, blending elements of cubism and fauvism to produce colourful and vibrant sculptures, many of which still remain in excellent condition to this day.
Samistopol is regarded as a centre for Euclean art in the modern era, and many museums and showrooms are dedicated entirely to the display of artistic works from a variety of periods and eras. The Muzey Mystets in Samistopol is among Euclea's largest and most notable art galleries, and displays a wide range of Soravian art through a time span of over 400 years. The most visited art museum in Soravia is the MSKT (Музей сучасних та класичних творів; Muzey suchasnykh ta klasychnykh tvoriv, "Museum of Modern and Classic Works") in Luchintsy, with over 5 million entries in 2018. Most museums are run or owned by their respective cities, but it is not uncommon to see larger museums in the ownership of the state. Velike Vishnavaya, Patovatra, Lipa, Malbay and Filimonovka also house significant galleries and museums.
Cinema in Soravia has its origins in the late 1920s, with the recovery of the Soravian economy and the general end of the Great Collapse. While older moving pictures had been invented and published in Gaullica throughout the 1890s and 1900s, wartime circumstances meant that photographic and film equipment manufactured there was not shipped to Soravia. Because of this, early Soravian film cameras were separate inventions to the Gaullican – and broadly eastern Euclean – counterparts. Pyotr Sokolov was the first to patent a recognisable film camera in 1923, and the Sokolov 440, a refined model of his earlier invention, became one of the first widely-used film cameras in Soravia throughout the late 1920s. Silent films were the first to enter the Soravian cinema market, with publications such as The Southern Wind (1927), A Night in Koskov (1928) and Seafarer, also published in 1928. Among the most influential directors in this early era of Soravian film was Adrik Sahaidachny, whose silent films gained worldwide recognition throughout the war. The success of Soravia's film industry eventually jeoparised its success, as Pudovkin's wartime government aimed to capitalise on this, commissioning film studios, directors and actors to produce wartime propaganda films through the 1930s. While the essential nationalisation and consolidation of the film industry by the government in Soravia did not go as far as it did in Functionalist Gaullica, it was still considerable.
As the war ended, Pudovkin loosened restrictions on the film industry and in the 1930s and 1940s, the first Soravian sound films began to develop. The boost in the Soravian film industry was part of a larger trend of Euclea-wide cinema boosts, especially with films that depicted the recently-passed Great War. Many prolific directors of the era, including Bogdan Doroshenko, Maksimillian Yurchenko, and Ivano Panchyk made their directorial breakthroughs with post-war films. Pudovkin's government aimed to continue to stimulate the local film industry, but higher quality and better produced films abroad began to dominate the film market in Soravia by the 1940s. In 1934, around 55% of films shown in Soravian cinemas were of Soravian origin, but by 1940 that had dropped to around 10%. Coupled with increasing production from the Asterias, Pudovkin's government passed decrees that mandated the display of at least 25% locally-produced films at cinemas across the country. In effect, this policy lessened the quality of films in Soravia, and gave rise to Vazhkar films – low-quality high-action films produced quickly to fulfill film quotes for cinemas. Sometimes, Vazhkar films would be produced by the cinemas themselves under different aliases. Wartime films picked up again in the mid-1940s, this time without governmental influence, with the Solarian War. Towards the end of his tenure, Pudovkin placed greater restrictions on film production in Soravia, particularly on subjects. These restrictions were eventually loosened by Gabriel Tozulyak in 1961, which massively increased film production and quality in Soravia. Directors such as Motka Shevchuk became globally famous for sci-fi films such as Keshkov, and Soravia was a pioneer in science fiction films.
Vilem Gardos also placed restrictions on Soravian film, but were quickly loosened again by Sava Tokar and wartime films gained a massive boost with the conclusion of the Sostava War in 1983. Sostava films of the 1980s would often depict guerrilla warfare in Zalykia, and in some cases were classed as derogatory films towards Zalyks, although this trend eventually waned into the 1990s. Due to relative size, Soravian film continues to dominate film showings in many Samorspi countries, and its industry is worth tens of billions of Euclos. While not considered a premier film producing country, Soravian films still enter the box offices in multiple countries across Euclea.
Soravia has a wide array of cuisines that stem from many different regions of the world. In particularly, Zalyk cuisine has had a profound influence on the overall Soravian culinary identity. Dumplings such as buuz are often filled with meat and eaten by the Soravian populace, and they are often compared to dim sums or dumplings from southern Coius, where they originate. Suutei tsai has become popular as a unique iteration of the famous Soravian tea culture, and a popular choice for tourists travelling to Soravia to try. Yak butter and kumis are traditionally farmed by Zalyk farmers and are a staple in Zalyk day-to-day cuisine, while khorkhog and boortsog are more of a delicacy.
On the Euclean side, Soravian cuisine has blended traditional foods of the east with the flair of Zalyk cuisine in the west, especially in the modern day. Soups and stews are especially popular in Soravia, and many versions of noodle soups and meat-based stews found across the country, stemming from the popularity of the dishes during wartime. Soups often make use of common vegetables or produce from Soravia's vast agricultural diversity and output, commonly featuring foods such as beef, carrots and cabbage. Desserts like blini, small wheat pancakes, have also grown in popularity recently as a staple street food, especially among tourists to the country.
Literature and philosophy
Literature in Soravia has existed since the time of the Great Vesemir, where poems dedicated to early Marolevic pagan beliefs were enscribed on trees and rocks throughout the country. With the introduction of the Sotirian Holy Bible in around the 9th century, translated and transliterated by the Empire of Arciluco to convert the pagan Marolevs of the west, religious literature emerged to become popular among the Duchy of Pavatria's established noble classes, with many hymns, songs, chants and poems being written throughout the 10th and 11th centuries in both the Pavaric script and religious Glagolitic script.
Pavaric eventually dominated as the writing system of most early Pavatrians, while Glagolitic was retained as a liturgical script by the Patriarchate of Pavatria, who regularly published their hymns and chants in the script. In the same time frame, Zalyk literature was emerging among its royals and khans, with the region giving extreme importance to the idea of songs of worship, songs of battle and songs sung at death. Ulämörndün, one of the earliest recorded songs of Zalykia, was composed around the 9th century, apocryphically by Chanyu Ekkin, a Tagamic warlord and leader who led the insurgency into Euclea in the 8th century. Evidence of literature in Zalykia can be found earlier than that of Pavatria, attributed mainly to their established script, which allowed them to publish literature earlier.
Religious literature again saw a massive spike in the 14th and 15th century, particularly surrounding the issue of iconoclasm in the Episemialist Church. Officially, the church had taken an iconodulic position on the matter, putting it at odds with the neighbouring Polianian patriarchate, who espoused iconoclastic beliefs. Iconodulism was criticised by many early religious figures in Soravia, many of whom were later persecuted or exiled, leading to the emergence of many folk tales pertaining to the subject of divine will as a result of iconodulism, many of which are still widely known today and applied metaphorically to a broader range of topics. Trazheno, one of the earliest folk tales, emerged around the 15th century, and told the tale of Michel Pasnit, an iconoclastic priest living in Velike Vishnavaya who was separated from his family and exiled to Poliania during the Iconoclast Wars. The story signifies the idea of obedience and hierarchical respect, and, while still remaining popular in Soravia, its morals have been criticised by many literary critics and authors from other countries.
Until the early 18th century, much of Soravian literature was a prized commodity enjoyed by only its noble and wealthy populace, however after the Ten Years' War, the emergence of literature as a common practise in the east saw many Soravian authors and early philosophers begin to produce their work in the country. Early authors such as J.L. Chernysh, Ilya Moroz and A.V. Mykhajlenko laid the basis for widespread and recognisable literature in Soravia. Both Chernysh and Moroz were playwrights whose theatre became extremely popular in the country as well as abroad in Eastern Euclea. Romantic literature and poetry, particularly that whose subject was nature, also became extremely popular throughout the 18th century, while classicism also remained popular throughout Soravia in the early 1700s. Novelism also emerged in the 18th century but did not become widely popular until the 1800s, where stories of war, marriage and life in general became popular, especially those of a fictional sense. Books detailing national history were also published first around the early 1800s, and educational institutions advanced greatly during the ensuing period of creativity. Minister-President Wenceslaus von Alzen greatly encouraged literary creativity during his tenure, and commended the great advancements the country had made in its literary culture throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries. After the War of the Triple Alliance, stories of war and famine began to emerge throughout Soravia.
Republican literature became popular during the reign of Eduard Olsov, during which it was pushed heavily by the state as essential literary material. Some of Soravia's leading novelists completed much of their work in the late 19th century and early 20th century, including Yakiv Kozachenko, Olek Krymchuk, D.A. Kulish as well as Amathian emigrée Claudiu Tismaneanu, often regarded as Soravia's finest foreign novelist. War stories emerged again during and following the Great War and Solarian War, now portraying war in an extremely negative light and bringing public attention to the horrors and trauma of conflict. Ivanna Medvid's Tale of Two Halves was one of the biggest selling post-war novels in Euclea, and Medvid's only novel. In the modern-day, the emergence of fantasy novels has had a large impact on Soravia's literature, and is now one of its most popular genres.
Soravia's music scene is often referred to as Euclea's most unique, having blended two wildly different cultural backgrounds in the Soravian and Zalyk to produce its own historical music scene that was unlike any seen in Euclea before it. Progression from medieval music and military chants such as Ulämörndün, often attributed to the legendary conquerer Ekkin, in the 9th century blended with the traditional music of the Soravians, similar to many Eucleans, taking large influence from religion and ceremonial instruments such as the organ and harp. During the Imperial era, Kantemosha and Ambrazkan-born composer Dimitri Hopko wrote and performed his Symphony No. 3 at the Nikolai IV Theatre in Samistopol in 1798, eventually growing to be one of Euclea's most famous compositions, especially of the baroque era.
Among the famous composers of classical music originating in Soravia are Mikhail Sagachanov, Igor Rayt, Ilya Bobrov-Ivchenko and Abraham Minkovski, whose contributions to baroque music, romanticism and opera influenced and continue to influence compositions to this day. Lev Letov has also gained notoriety for his modern compositions, including Deo gratias and Mea culpa.
Soravia was one of the pioneering states of electronic music and one of the first to utilise the advent of the synthesiser in the 1960s, through artists such as Gregori Udivenko and bands like Zhakhy, whose debut album Prospekt is seen as a pioneering album in the ambient rock and experimental rock genres. Soravia has a storied history of modern music, including many forms of disco, rock and pop music. Electronic and dance genres with a pioneering history in Soravia include house, drum and bass and jungle. Artists such as Vitaly Shevchenko are also credited with introducing breakcore.
Music in the 1980s, particularly after the Sostava War, moved towards early coldwave and post-punk influences, and bands such as Prynyato, Respublika and Nove Svitlo gained popularity across Euclea. Senro-Soravian musician Dima Hadzhima gained considerable fame worldwide as the lead singer and frontman of rock band Irzha, and is considered an influential figure in the development of rock in western Euclea. Elements of post-rock were also incorporated into Soravian music briefly in the 1990s, but the genre remained relatively obscure among mainstreams artist.
Perhaps the most notable modern music scene in Soravia is its extremely refined and popular cloud rap scene. Beginning the mid-2010s, Soravian rappers began to use more ethereal beats that themselves stemmed from electronic music – particularly vaporwave – that made music seem disconnected and "cloudy" (where the genre gets its name, coined in 2014 by journalist Viktor Dyachuk). Cloud rap mainly idolises the innate and innocent state of adolescence experienced particularly during late teenage years. The genre is extremely popular in Soravia and artists like Rollerr, Molod and Maaalooo regularly chart. Cloud rap is unique due to its almost localised popularity, and the genre sees almost no overseas mainstream popularity. Despite this, it has gained a sizable cult following online, described as one of the first mainstream breakthroughs of internet music.
Soravia is an extremely sporty country, and features in many competitions in a massive variety of sports across the world. Some of the more popular supports include football, basketball and ice hockey. Soravia participates in the Lumine Classic with ex-dominion Chistovodia, an annual basketball match for the Lumine Cup, a prestigious trophy for basketball players of both countries. Soravia's Pro League is one of the world's top basketball leagues, and attracts stars from across the world. In football, Soravia is the most recent winner of the IFF Coupe du Monde, having won the 2019 edition of the tournament that was jointly hosted by Piraea and Gibany, beating Nuvania 3–2 in the final. Soravia is traditionally one of the better ice hockey nations, and participates regularly in international tournaments. Soravia is also renowned for its proficiency in winter sports, and has one of the largest Winter Invictus medal tallies in history.
Soravia hosted and won the 2020 Winter Invictus Games in the city of Ulan Khol in Terekhivka Province, winning the most gold medals of any country in the tournament. It was the first time the country had hosted the Winter Invictus Games and the second time it had hosted the Invictus, having held the Summer Games in Patovatra in 1966. Soravia also unsuccessfully bid for the 2015 Coupe du Monde, with the Soravian Football Federation stating it wishes to host an edition of the tournament sometime in the near future.
Soravia has many sporting rivalries, particularly with eastern Euclean nations, Chistovodia in basketball and ice hockey and Cassier in ice hockey. Most recently, Soravia won gold in the women's ice hockey event at the 2020 Winter Invictus Games beat Gaullica for the gold medal in the men's final. Soravia also regularly sends teams to the GBF Basketball World Cup, and has a constructor that competes in the Formula One, as well as a racing circuit in Garbuzy that appears in many annual racing calendars, including Formula One.
Soravia has 16 officially recognised national holidays, many of which are classed as public holidays, whereby workers are entitled to days off, however this is not the case for all national holidays. Most national holidays in Soravia involve the Episemialist Church, important national dates, and celebrations of Soravian, as well as Marolevic, culture.
|Date||Name||Native Name||Public Holiday||Notes|
|January 1||New Year's Day||Новий рік; Novyy rik||Celebration of the new year.|
|January 2–5||Nativity Holiday||Свято Різдва; Svyato Rizdva|
|January 6||Nativity's Eve||Святвечір; Svyatvechir||Day before the Nativity.|
|January 7||Nativity||Різдво; Rizdvo||Celebration of the birth of Jesus Sotiras|
|January 8||Boxing Day||День боксу; Den' boksu||Day after the Nativity.|
|January 19||Epiphany||Водохреща; Vodokhreshcha||Celebration of the Baptism of the Lord.|
|February 14||Valentine's Day||День святого Валентина; Den' svyatoho Valentyna|
|March 11||Maslenitsa||Маслениця; Maslenytsya|
|March 16||Army Day||День армії; Den' armiyi||Celebration commemorating soldiers of Soravia and the Soravian Army.|
|moveable Friday||Good Friday||Хороша п'ятниця; Khorosha p'yatnytsya|
|moveable Sunday||Easter Sunday||Пасхальна неділя; Paskhal'na nedilya|
|moveable Monday||Easter Monday||Пасхальна понеділок; Paskhal'na ponedilok|
|April 2||Victory in Poliania Day||Перемога в День Поліанії; Peremoha v Den' Polianiyi||Celebration commemorating Soravia's victory over Poliania in the Great War.|
|April 9||Navy Day||День маринарка; Den' marynarka||Celebration commemorating sailors of Soravia and the Soravian Navy.|
|April 22||Air Force Day||День повітряно-військові сили; Den' povitryano-viys'kovi syly||Celebration commemorating pilots of Soravia and the Soravian Air Force.|
|June 17||Minister-President's Day||День міністра-президента; Den' ministra-prezydenta||Commemoration of the inauguration of Wenceslaus von Alzen as Soravia's first Minister-President in 1771.|
|July 13||President's Day/Republic Day||День Президента; Den' Prezydenta/День Республіки; Den' Respubliky||Celebration of the inauguration of Eduard Olsov and the formation of the Soravian Republic in 1861.|
|August 2||Bajir||Баджир; Badzhyr||Traditional Zalyk holiday commemorating Zalyk culture.|
|August 25||Brasva||Брасва; brasva||Soravian holiday commemorating Marolevic culture across the world.|
|September 7||Labour Day||День Праці; Den' Pratsi|
|October 19||St. Nikolai's Day||День святого Миколая; Den' svyatoho Mykolaya||Celebration commemorating the ascension of Nikolai of Lipa to the throne of Pavatria.|
|December 31||New Year's Eve||Переддень Нового року; Peredden' Novoho roku||Day before the new year.|