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Motto: "УOИEA" or "UOIEA"
"Unitas Obtulit Iustitiam et Armoniam"
"Unity offers Justice and Concord"
Anthem: "Колко е превъзходно Твоето име по цялата земя"
"How Admirable is Thy Name in the Whole Earth!"
Location of Tengaria (dark green) in Euclea (light green & light grey) and in Samorspi (light green)
and largest city
|Recognised national languages||Savader|
|Recognised regional languages||Amathian|
|Ethnic groups||Tengarian- 77.8% |
|Religion||95.7% Episemialist |
1.5% Other Sotirian
|Government||Unitary dominant-party Presidential Republic|
|Chamber of Deputies|
• Fall of Lenovo
|September 6, 1930|
• Resistance Movement
|15 March, 1957|
|373,811 km2 (144,329 sq mi)|
• 2022 estimate
|189.07/sq mi (73.0/km2)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|833.11 billion (21st)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|401.33 billion (22nd)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2020)|| 29.9|
|HDI (2020)|| 0.871|
|Currency||Tengarian solidus (Ꞩ) (TNS)|
Tengaria (Tengarian: Tангария or Tangariya) is a sovereign country situated in Western Euclea in the world of Kylaris. It is bordered by Amathia to the East, Ravnia to the West, and Bistravia to the North, and shares both a border with Lake Min to the northeast and the Achelonian Sea to the south. Tengaria has a predominantly temperate climate, and has an area of 373,811 km2 (144,329.31 sq mi), and a population of 22 million. Tengaria is the 9th largest country in Euclea, and is the second most populous country in Samorspi. The wide outlet of Lake Min, the historic River Len, flows through the central valley of Tengaria, and along it is where the capital of Lenovo is located, as well as the ancient Piraean city of Istros and the third largest city of Visnagrad. The fertile Len River Valley is the central region of Tengaria's development and is considered the heartland of the country.
The ancient home of the Kaloí and Armonic peoples, Tengaria straddled the borders of the Solarian Empire. The great Marolevic migrations saw the Tengar tribes dominate the region largely and displace and assimilate the other peoples. Soon after its fall, the Tengar tribes were conquered and Sotrianized by the Empire of Arciluco, and later became an autonomous vassal known as the Vicariate of Tengaria when the Empire's authority declined. Following the collapse of the Empire to the Realm of Thorns in 1385, the Vicarius was named Emperor by the exiled Ecumenical Patriarch and the Council of Lenovo, founding the Empire of Tengaria, which saw itself as the legitimate successor to the Solarian Empire through Arciluco. The Empire was the spiritual and intellectual center of Western Eculea for several centuries, but Tengaria began to lose its influence, eventually falling into the sphere of Soravia. During the Great War, the Empire was invaded and occupied by the Amathians. A resistance movement, led by Simeon Kovachev, fought against the occupation, and successfully restored sovereignty after the war with Soravian support. After the war the nationalist Tengarian Republic was created, although it was was plagued by instability, factionalism and a rough economy, which eventually culminated in the Tengarian Civil War. After the War, Kovachev took over on a platform of unity and political stability. Since Kovachev's reforms, Tengaria has been a Unitary Presidential Republic, well known for its strong presidential powers and centralized authority under a dominant-party system with the Patriotic Union dominating Tengarian politics under the leadership of the Kovachev family.
Tengaria is known for its strong historic influence as the beacon of Western Euclean thought and a rich tradition in both philosophy and literature. Although this reputation suffered in the later centuries, Tengaria's intellectual scene has prospered under the Kovachev family, especially under its unique and powerful educational system. Tengaria's educational system and emphasis of philosophy make it distinct from other countries, although critics say that it focuses too much on outdated and antiquated philosophy or that it indoctrinates children. Tengaria is also known for its authoritarian patriotism and moralistic and religious values, highly centralized government and economy, strong infrastructure and a low crime rate. Critics have as such labeled the country as "undemocratic and authoritarian", strong governmental control and use of underhanded means to keep power, including alleged incarceration and elimination of political opponents. The country is also known for having a high amount of corruption, in particular nepotism. Although Simeon's son Dimitri Kovachev loosened some of the systems in order to modernize the state, including becoming a member of Samorspi in 1984, Simeon's authoritarian system remains entrenched and strongly in control. The current President, Teodora Kovacheva, has taken measures to improve the public image and to lower abuses while maintaining the incumbent system and supporting her grandfather's ideas. Tengaria is a founding member of the Community of Nations, a member of Samorspi, and an observer to the Association of Solarian Nations.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Education
- 7 Economy
- 8 Culture
The first recorded name of the land currently known as Tengaria was κᾰλοία or Kaloia named by the Piraean settlers when they first discovered the region. This is derived from the Piraean word κᾰλός, meaning "beautiful" or "noble", on account of the beauty and the mildness of the area and of the people they met there. The tribes in the region came to be known as the Kaloí, a name which carried through most of the Solarian period, and the Solarians used a modification of the Piraean name for the region when dealing with the peoples, calling it Calia.
The current name, Tengaria, is most likely derived from the Marolevic Tengar tribes who have occupied the region after the fall of the Kaloí tribes, and is the name given to the region by the late Solarians referring to the "Land of the Tengars". This was the name for the region under the Empire of Arciluco, although properly referring to the central part of the current country, which eventually gained influence over the other regions. The name of the Tengars is based upon the word Tenger in the native to the tongue of the Tengars, and comes from an ancient word for sea, in reference to them being the Marolev tribes which were located closest to the southern Achelonian sea. This may also have to do with the fact that the Tengars were across the other side of the largest inland body of water in Lake Min from the north Marolevs, or perhaps also in reference to their settlement around the River Len and the Coastal Plains which connected them to the Sea.
Traditionally, the name Tengar is said to be taken from the Legend of Mier, Tengar, and Sorav, which details the principal Marolev peoples as coming from three brothers. In the Tengarian version of the legend, Tengar was the oldest and strongest of the three brothers. While on a hunting trip, Tengar caught sight of a magnificent lion. He separated from his brethren and brought his people south in pursuit of his prey. After chasing it for hundreds of miles over hills and rivers, the trail eventually ended when he came to the southern sea, where he could go no further. He found the lion, and, wrestling with it, managed to hold his own. The lion then revealed that he was no lion, but an angel in the corporeal form of a lion, and admonished him saying that while Tengar might be strong, he needed to temper his strength with wisdom and with the love of God. He instructed Tengar in these things, before revealing that this land before him was the land his descendants were destined to settle. Most scholars recognize this legend as historically inaccurate, especially citing the anachronistic Sotirian messages. Nevertheless, this myth plays an important part in Tengarian literature, as the epic poem the Epic of Tengar is the earliest work of Tengarian literature known, with manuscripts dating to the 9th century.
Under the 1958 constitution, the country is officially known as Tengaria, without any other title. However, Tengaria is still often called the Tengarian Republic, the Republic of Tengaria, or even the State of Tengaria in common speech, or in foreign sources. The current state of Tengaria is sometimes regarded as the Second Tengarian Republic, to contrast it with the Tengarian Republic, which is sometimes called the First Tengarian Republic.
Main article: History of Tengaria
Early History (before 495)
Archeological records of settlement around the Len River Valley date back thousands of years. The earliest known records for the region was originally inhabited by a group of tribes known as the Kaloí, who were related to other tribes of Dytikoí and Satrio-Euclean origin, a name first recorded by the Piraean settlers. Little is known about the Kaloí outside of the artifacts they had left behind and accounts given by the Piraeans and later the Solarians. They were described by such as a mostly peaceful people, and were well known for their music and their fair features. They kept mostly to rural farming communities, however, the tribes were known to still wage war against one another or against migratory groups. Although they left no written records, they did have their own language, worship their own gods, and had a common culture, leaving behind burial chambers, settlements, and religious artifacts. They are also credited with developing the fighting style of the Peltast, which spread through Istros to the rest of the Piraean world.
Piraean settlers settled in the southwest region, and also the city of independent city state of Istros along the central Southern Coast in the seventh century BCE. This first coastal city first exposed the Kaloí to the civilization of the Piraeans, and was the largest city in the region for many years. The Piraean language and system of writing did spread to some of the southern tribes, but did not reach most of the tribes. Around 450 BC, many various tribes of the Kaloí were united under one King, Peirous, who formed the Kingdom of Kaloia. This Kingdom only encompassed the southern and central region of modern Tengaria, focused around the Len River Valley and the Coastal Plains. Although there were kings who had knowledge of Piraean civilization, very few cities were built, save for a city on the banks of the Len which eventually came to be Lenovo. Other distinct Kaloí tribes remained outside of the Kingdom as well, especially upon the northern hills.
In addition to the Kaloí, Tengaria was also home to another civilization, that of the Armonic peoples, who lived in the northwestern and western portions of the country. Eventually this civilization would began to expand and to found city states, eventually forming the Armonic League in the region of Visoclesia along the coast of Lake Min. However, Armonic civilization existed well beyond the League in various tribes and petty kingdoms, which occasionally made war with the Kaloí. The word Armonic comes from the corruption of the Solarian name for the region, Harmonica, named in part of the music of said civilization, and because they were reportedly held to be kinsmen to the Kaloí and as such bore much of their character.
When the Solarians first conquered Amathia, some of the Priedan tribes fled to Kaloia as a means of escape. Now the realms of the Kaloí were located at the far borders of the Solarian Empire, and occasionally engaged in warfare with the Empire. The Empire did make several incursions into the Kaloí lands and even for a time controlled a slight portion of eastern marches of Tengaria. For the most part however, this border territory was often the center of many conflicts between the Solarians and the Kaloí, as disputed territory saw warfare between the two. Several settlements and border forts in the East of Solarian origin have been discovered, but they are sparse. While the Kaloí were exposed to Solarian culture, it did not become widespread as of that time. However, Sotrianity is regarded as spreading to Istros in the region in the first few centuries, and John the Apostle was said to be exiled there during his final days. Despite being in conflict with the Solarian Empire in the initial centuries, the Kaloí eventually began to make alliances with the Solarians, hiring themselves as mercenaries.
When Marolevs eventually invaded the land from the North, the Kaloí were driven either towards the Sea, into the hilly parts of the country, or into Solaria itself. Most of the Kaloí fled to their kinsmen in modern Amathia became foederati of the Amathians. The Armonic peoples were crushed and scattered, and the city states greatly reduced; many fled northwards, and later became the Kireno-Kantemoshan peoples, while still others adopted a migratory lifestyle, and became the Savader people. Many Marolevs passed through the land on their way to Solaria. The ones which stayed in the region were known as the Tengars. Once they had come dominate the region during the waning days of the Empire, the Solarians first called the region "Tengaria", which the region was referred to as henceforth. Eventually the Western Empire collapsed in 426, but the Empire of Arciluco continued to hold on in the East. The Tengars assimilated much of the remaining Kaloí and Armonic peoples, and came to dominate the region.
Rule by the Empire of Arciluco and Vicariate (495-1385)
By the time the Marolevic invasions of Solaria had begun to cease, the Tengars had already largely established themselves in the lands roughly corresponding to the border of Tengaria. However, the power to the East, the Empire of Arciluco, looked to expand its borders westward. With the help of the Preidans and the Kaloí foederati, Arciluco conquered most of current day Tengaria, barring Visoclesia, into the Empire following a successful series of campaigns lasting from 480 to 495. The Tengar tribes were incorporated into the Empire first as foederati, and most of modern Tengaria was divided into three administrative divisions, known as dioceses. The eastern one, closest to Amathia, was populated with Kaloí, and became known as the Diocese of Calia. The southern coast, which was largely taken over by Tengars but had a Piraean minority, was formed as the Diocese of Istros. The final one, the largest and westernmost one, was called the Diocese of Tengaria, but also included the region of Armonia, where the Savaders who remained were also made foederati of the Empire. A colony was founded on the remnants of an old Kaloí settlement, which was called Urbs Lenis, as the administrative centre. This city would come to be known as the city of Lenovo. Collectively, these would later be known as the Vicariate of Tengaria, but initially this only referred to the territory controlled by the Diocese of Tengaria.
The Empire of Arciluco began a process of integrating the foederati into the structure and culture of the Empire. At the beginning of the sixth century, Saint Mihail of Tengaria, a missionary from Arciluco, brought Sotrianity to the Tengar tribes. Due to Mihail's position in the historic see of Istros, the Bishop of Istros would become the spiritual centre of the rising Tengarian Church. Through the working of Mihail and missionaries who followed, written language was introduced to the Tengarians, with the first Marolevic literary language, known as Old Church Marolevic or Church Marolevic, was introduced by the clergy. This langauge would come to be the standard liturgical langauge for almost all Marolevic peoples, although it would later be reformed. As Arcilucan culture began to spread, Vulgar Solarian accompanied it and became dominant in both the major cities as well as the Diocese of Calia, but many Tengars in rural areas continued to speak their own toungue, which was also protected as a liturgical language.
The Tengars who had not fallen under the control of Arciluco were known as the Visoclesians, who were divided into various principalities along the coast of Lake Min. Over time, these consolidated into two major principalities, centred around the cities of Garna and Visnagrad. These were not Sotirian at the time, and as they grew they caused great tension on the borders of the Empire of Arciluco. The Diocese of Tengaria, as a border province, developed more quickly than the others, and its leader, known as Vicarius et Comes, eventually came to be seen an important military figure and by the mid-eighth century. Eventually, in 777 the border conflicts broke out into open conflict led to Visoclesian War. Despite several initial defeats and the death of the previous Vicarius on the field of battle, new the Vicarius, an Ethnic Tengar called Leo Tenatus, was able to eventually repel the Visoclesian invasion and successfully conquered the cities of Garna in 779 and Visnagrad in 781, bringing both of them under Imperial control. Leo himself became extremely influential and powerful in the Imperial court, leading the Vicariate becoming a hereditary position and arranging for the Archbishop of Istros to be raised to the status of Patriarch.
With the expansion of the Vicariate due to the addition of Visoclesia and the influence of the Vicarius Leo, the Vicarius et Comes became one of the most important military and political positions within the Empire of Arciluco, competing with the Magister Utriusque Militiae and the Eastern Vicarius et Comes. Under the authority of the Vicarii the Tengarian region began to excercise more poltical autonomy, yet it still remained closely tied to Imperial politics and authority. For example, although the Tenati vicarii were ethnic Tengars, they adopted Solarians names and followed cultural attitude of the Imperial court. The Tengars and Savaders largely adopted a Solarian identity during the following centuries, especially so in the cities. However, the Tengarian Church having liturigcal functions in Tengarian and the existence of ecclesiastical literary schools meant that the Tengarian language continued to survive, especially among the rural populace. Cultural integration was further assisted by the Saint Teodor of Garna, who brought the Tengarian liturgy and written language to the Visoclesian Tengars and introduced them to Sotirianity, but also provided another group which adopted the Tengarian language.
After the tenth century, the political power and authority of the Emperor in Arciluco began to dwindle. The Vicariate of Tengaria became more autonomous as time progressed, and eventually took oversight of the Diocese of Istros in the ninth century and the Diocese of Calia in the twelfth. A failed rebellion by Tenati Vicarius where he attempted to seize the throne as Emperor in 1194 saw the overthrow of the Tenati dynasty and its replacement with a scion from the Cyriacan Dynasty.
Imperial Era (1385-1927)
Main Article: Empire of Tengaria
During the Iconoclast Crisis, Tengaria consistently supported the iconodule side of the debate, arguing for the use of icons in the Church. When Amathian fell into Civil War between the the Iconoclastic Order of Thorns and the iconodule Emperor, Tengaria supported the Emperor's side. However, the Order of Thorns was able to take the city of Arciluco and impale the Emperor, resulting in the collapse of the Empire of Arciluco and the establishment of the Realm of Thorns. The exiled iconodule Ecumenical Patriarch, iconodule Amathian Bishops, and the royal family fled to Tengaria. Upon the confirmation of the joint Synods of Amathia and Tengaria under the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarch, the Grand Prince, Vasil V, was elected and crowned the next Emperor (Vladetel), thus translating the Empire from Amathia to Tengaria and resulting in the creation of the Empire of Tengaria (although it was never formally called such). In order to increase this legitimacy, the daughter of the last impaled Emperor was married to Vasil's son and heir.
Vasil immediately called an ecumenical council in the city of Lenovo in an attempt to formulate an answer to the Iconclast Controversy. Although it did not end up succeeding in solving the dispute and in fact also saw a formal split with the Solarian Catholic Church, Vasil was confirmed in his Imperial authority by a full council of the Church, in part solidifing the translation of the Empire under Tengarian control. Choosing not to embroil the Western part of the continent in war, Vasil instead embarked on a campaign of widespread internal development. His reign marked the beginning of the Tengarian Golden Age, a period of intellectual and philosophic flourishing and cultural renewal. Tengaria became the major intellectual and spiritual centre of Western Euclea, with the establishment the University of Lenovo as the first University in Western Euclea in 1392. The thought Xenagoras became widespread and united with Orthodox Episemialist though, leading to Tengaria becoming the prominent source of Iconodule theology at the time. A great deal of philosophical and theological writings, as well as literature, poetry and stage plays, date to this time period.
Once Vasil I had died and was succeeded by his grandson, Vasil II Tengaria was ready to engage the Iconoclasts on the field of battle. As its position as nominal leader of the Episemialist world, Tengaria became involved in the Iconoclast Wars in 1408 supporting the Duchy of Pavatria against the Kingdom of Ravnia, the Realm of Thorns, and rebellious iconoclastic Bistravians. During the war, Vasil invaded Amathia and was able to defeat the forces of the Realm of Thorns in battle and even conquer the western marches from the iconoclasts. However, he was never able to capture his goal of Arciluco, despite several failed sieges of the city, and he lost most of the lands he did manage to gain when the iconodule Unio Trium Nationum came into power. Vasil II was able to decisively crush the Bistravian revolt and restored Iconoclasm and its control over the region, establishing a Tengarian nobility. Due to focusing their fighting to the north and to the east, the Ravnians were able to take the western marches of the Empire. With Ravnia's iconoclasm still remaining, the iconclasts had scored a de jure victory, discrediting Tengaria's role as spiritual leader and causing the political decline of Tengaria's power. Tengaria's failure to capture the old Imperial capital of Aciluco further undermined their credibility to the Amathians. As such, the war turned out mostly to be a poltical failure. The Duchy of Pavatria became the prominent political power in Western Euclea, and although the Emperor of Tengaria kept his title, the title lost its old authority in the eyes of the West.
However, despite the political loss for Tengaria, the internal cultural and intellectual system which St. Vasil the Great had built continued to allow Tengaria to be the foremost intellectual and cultural leader in Western Euclea. The city of Lenovo functioned largely as the culutral capital for Western Euclea, and was a source of great learning, literary and philosophical development, and eventually what ended up causing the creation of the University over the lands of Western Euclea. However, as the political power of the Empire continued to decline with the with gradual territorial losses to Ravnia and loss of its Bistravian lands in 1549, so too did its cultural and intellectual significance began to lessen. The establishment of the Soravian Empire saw much of the intellectual focus turn from Lenovo to Samistopol, in addition to more recent scientific discoveries and philosophic ideas from eastern Euclea which seemed to discredit the authority of the ancient philosophers. Nevertheless, the Imperial system continued to survive, although it remained only as a regional power. The rising power of the Kingdom of Amathia also saw Tengaria hemmed in other side of three greater powers. Tengaria was strong enough to keep from being conquered but never enough to make itself a prominent power.
Eventually, in the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Empire began to fall into the sphere of Soravia, and the Tengarian intellectual life, which had survived in an albeit weaker form, began to fall into steep decline and Eastern Euclean and Soravian thought began to dominate the intellectual circles of the country. The Pavaric script became the norm, replacing the old Amathian script in official usage. The Empire began to stagnate economically and politically after the reign of Vasil IV. The economic situation continued to worsen, which created worsening unrest, which was kept in check by the Imperial Army. In 1848 Simeon III came to the throne, and after the Green Revolution in 1868 instituted a nominal constitution in several Imperial Acts from the dates of 1851 to 1855, as well as other amendments from later in his reign. Among other things, these acts included codifying the Senate, a historic body of nobility which met upon occasion previously, into a permanent body; and establishing the Chamber of Deputies and the State Council as its two branches. He first began to bring modern elements to Tengaria, and commissioned the completion of the famous Tengarian Assembly Building in Lenovo. He worked to bring in modern infrastructure and industrialization from Eastern Euclea, and laid the groundwork for much of Tengaria's later development.
All of this laid the groundwork for a renewal which began to emerge during the reign of Saint Hristophor "the Holy", which saw a kind of rebirth in Tengarian culture and economic prosperity. As it began to modernize, Hristofor's promotion of the faith and works of charity and kindness made him widely popular among the lower classes; however, the intellectual elite and some of the nobility despised him for his charity and generosity, or simply for his power as monarch. During the reign of his nephew, Dragomir II, the Znaniya School of philosophy and literature arose and became widely popular and began to change the intellectual atmosphere of the country against the influence of the more progressive thought of the contemporary Intelligentsia. Led by Ivan Istina, this group of like-minded philosophers and scholars were hated by the intellectual community and progressives, who saw it as a reactionary movement and wanted it to die. In addition, during the reigns of these monarchs, a rebirth of architecture and music was seen in Tengaria, especially focusing on the ideals of beauty and order. Dragomir II's policies also helped avert some of the damage of the Great Collapse, and Tengaria fared better than most countries, but still suffered somewhat. Tengaria even hosted in the 1918 Summer Invictus Games in the city of Istros, which was quite prestigious for its time. However, the period of growth and rebirth was cut short by the outbreak of the Great War in 1927.
The Great War (1927-1935)
The Empire entered into the Great War on the side of the Grand Alliance and Soravia. From the beginning of the war, Tengaria faced two enemies on two fronts- Ravnia to the West and Amathia to the East. Tengaria's army was relatively well trained and well supplied, and was composed of two major kinds of forces- a well trained force of mobile light infantry skilled in fighting in rough terrain, as well as its more poorly trained traditional infantry. Seeing Ravnia is the larger threat, the Imperial Army committed most of its forces to the Western Front, especially around Lake Min. It established a defensive front to keep out any Amathian incursions from the East. The War began quite well for the Tengarians, with the well trained light infantry gaining several key victories in the early part of the war against Ravnia. Ravnia's preoccupation with the Soravian Front made this possible in part, but also the spectacular victories of Simeon Kovachev, who quickly rose through the ranks despite his age.
However, the front against Amathia fared very poorly, with the Amathians breaking through the Imperial lines at several points, making significant gains. The Tengarian army was slowly but surely pushed back, and by 1929, the situation was dire. Most of the resources put on the Western front were called back to face the problems in the East. This caused the gains made in the West to be indefinsible and subsequently lost back to Ravnia. The Amathians kept on defeating the Tengarian forces, pushing them further and further back. Ravnian advances along the coast began to spell the death knell for Tengaria as the forces encroached closer and closer to Lenovo. On the 6th of September in 1930, the Amathians were finally able to sieze the city of Lenovo. By this point, the Emperor had already fled the city, and the Imperial family was divided. Some fled to Soravia, some joined with Simeon Kovachev's forces, and some stayed behind during the occupation. Empreror Dragomir III himself fled to the Imperial Navy, which attempted to sail to Soravia to get further support for Tengaria; however, the Ravnians intercepted the Tengarian Battle Fleet and destroyed it, taking the Emperor prisoner. The few remnants of the Imperial government who stayed behind capitulated, and the Amathians declared the Empire to be over.
Kovachev still was in control of Tengaria's best forces, and he retreated to the Northernmost hills of Tengaria, close to the border of Soravia and the shores of Lake Min. Many fragments of the defeated portions of the Imperial Army and volunteers joined him, forming what became known as the Free Solarian Army. Simeon by this point had already been named as Regent by Emperor Dragomir III and was the effective Head of State of Tengaria for the next five years while the Emperor was imprisoned. The Free Solarian Army was able to fight a Guerrilla War against the Amathian forces. With strategic support from Soravia, local support and Kovachev's leaderhsip eventually the Tengarian army was able to recapture key positions and pushing back the Amathians and Ravnians from Tengarian territory. Tengaria's orginal borders were restored at the conclusion of the war.
The Early Republic (1935-1955)
Main Article: Tengarian Republic
After the war's conclusion, Kovachev continued to function as the Regent for a short duration after the war. He worked to repair the damages caused by the war, give compensation for wartime destruction, and punished those who had a major role in promoting the Amathian occupation. These processes reunified Tengaria but put the country in debt to Soravia. Repeated attempts to negotiate for the return of Emperor Dragomir from the Ravnians were rebuffed, and eventually the Emperor was handed over to Soravian hands. Soravia refused to let him return, and demanded that Tengaria should become a Republic, although they suggested that Kovachev could easily become dictator. Kovachev, an ardent monarchist, refused to take power, and instead oversaw a transition phase into the new Republic. Without Kovachev's leadership, members from Tengaria's academic field instead wrote the constitution. There were two major opposing schools, those who wanted a conservative and authoritarian regime and were heavily pro-Soravian, and those who wanted to build a democracy reflective of Eastern Euclea. In the end, a compromised was reach, and the writers decided on a Presidential Republic with the legislative and executive being separate. The post of Minister-President would be abolished, but the legislative would still have the legislative control over laws. The Senate was maintained, although it dropped its Imperial titles and replaced them with National instead. The first elections of the new Republic were held in August of 1935, with the conservative pro-Soravian TNVP sweeping the elections, with the prominent academic Gregori Ervo becoming Tengaria's first President entering office in November of the same year.
Many of the old parties from before the collapse of the Empire remained, although the TNVP had taken most of the support from the old Conservative and Centre parties. The main opposition party was the pro-East Euclean Liberal Progressive Party, along with two leftist parties, the Social Democrats and the TSMR. On the fringes of the political scene, the Restoration Party advocated for the return of the Empire, but failed to gain much support in the first twenty years of the republic. During the first five years of the republic, the TNVP managed to finish many of the things which Kovachev had started, but still struggled with finances. However, although the TNVP had initially held together to accomplish its aims, it soon became apparent that the party's big tent nature was becoming a problem as the factions grew worse. In 1939, several parties split off from the TNVP, included the Episemialist Democrats, the Federalists and Svoboda Rights. The Republic would not again have a united government until 1955; and the Chamber of Deputies always relied on large and unstable coalitions. In the 1940 elections, the Liberal Progressives won the Presidency under Vasil Stoychev and were able to form a majority in the Assembly with TSMR and the Social Democrats. However, without having control of the Senate and being part of a contentious coalition, the government was able to achieve very little. The economic situation, which had shown signs of improvement in the first few years, began to lose all the progress that had been made. Party squabbles and Stoychev's weak Presidency only further served to weaken the situation. In 1943, tensions had reached the point where the Liberal Progressives suffered a fracture into the Republican Party, bringing most legislative work to a standstill. During this time, there arose tensions between Kovachev's army and the government. Kovachev attempted to keep the army outside of politics, allowing it to become a State within a state, however, Stoychev and his successor hated the popularity and influence which Kovachev wielded, seeing him as an opponent and his attempts to insulate the army as a potential takeover. For this reason Kovachev and some of his staff were sent to the Kabu Civil War to act as advisors. In 1945, Stoychev won a second term, but still failed to gain a working government.
During this time, Tengaria also participated in the Solarian War against Etruria, helping Soravia on the Western front of the war. The economic downturn and the increasing incompetency of the government caused resentment in the general populace. Using the people's frustration to his advantage, Vladmir Vasilov, a TSMR politician, was elected as President in 1950, on the platform of reforming the system under a socialist banner. The TSMR did not win enough seats, however, and were forced to rely on a very tenuous four party coalition in the Assembly. While the TSMR found it hard to compromise on legislation with their coalition counterparts, the TNVP led opposition in the Senate maintained a strong check upon most things which the Assembly did manage to overcome. Vasilov made the extremely unpopular move of dismissing Kovachev from his position over a property dispute. Vasilov found it increasingly difficult to do anything, especially with an uncooperative military he could not enforce any extreme measures. Due to the political gridlock of the time, the economy declined even more significantly, legislation reached a standstill, and partisan infighting only increased. Popular resentment of the government reached dangerously high levels. As the economic situation worsened, many citizens began to consider that the Republic had been a failure, and that the time had come to bring back prosperity by bringing back the Empire. Socialism, which had been seen as the first alternative, largely came to be associated with the failure of the TSMR and so declined in popularity. Political tensions began to rise as the people began to look for an end to the current troubles.
Tengarian Civil War (1955-1956)
Main Article: Tengarian Civil War
In the elections of 1955, Dimitri Denov, former second in command to Kovachev and a war hero of the Great War in his own right, ran on a campaign with the Restoration Party, promising to bring stability, to end the political squabbles, and to restore the Tengarian Empire, calling the Tengarian Republic a political failure. The people, sick with the failure of the Republic and the other parties, followed this message, and so Denov and his party won the election narrowly, with the Restoration Party won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and the State Council, controlling then the whole Grand Assembly and Presidency with a coalition with the sympathetic Episemialist Democrat Party. This did not please most of the left-leaning parties, who despite internal disputes were furious over the loss of the Assembly. Immediately after the election took place in August, the feuding left-leaning parties united under a common cause and began to protest the new results, refusing to accept the outcome as legitimate, and called themselves "Republicans", claiming both there had been voter fraud and that the new government would restore the tyranny of the Monarchy. With them went several right-leaning politicians of a strong republican bent, but the newly-elected government worked out an agreement with the TNVP for a political alliance, gaining the conservatives on a side which soon became known as the "Patriots". Tensions began to grow as the Labour unions began to strike against the new regime in the intervening months. President Vasilov and his administration promoted the agitation and division, furthering the chaos. Soon riots and violent lynchings of prominent Restorationists and former nobles began happening in the streets.
On November 14th, the first day the new government was to be sworn in, Vasilov had members of the the National Army bar the doors of the Grand Assembly from the newly elected members of the Restoration and other right-leaning parties who attempted to get in. When this happened, the newly elected members traveled instead to Saint Vasil's Cathedral in Lenovo, where they began to have a new session of the Grand Assembly. Vasilov took this move as a "conspiracy against the republic", and had National Army soldiers arrest all of them. When word of this spread throughout Lenovo, a crowd of Patriots began protesting in the streets in front of the Presidential Mansion. The National Army soliders opened fire on the crowd, killing seven and wounding nine more, an event which came to be known as the "Black 14th". Vasilov then declared martial law. Considered widely as a self-coup, pro-Patriot army officers planned to defect against the Vasilov government, claiming that Vasilov was no longer in power and was a danger to the nation. Denov and his remaining supporters went to Istros, where Denov was sworn is as President of Tengaria. Simeon Kovachev was called back out his forced retirement by Denov and his fellow Patriot officers to take command of the Patriot cause. On November 17th, National Army units across the country defected to support the Patriot government, led by Kovachev. Especially prominent among these were the junior officers and experienced veterans, as most of the senior officers were government appointees.
The War would last a little under a year. Although the Republicans controlled most of the country and more forces and equipment, the forces which they had were poorly led, as most of the skilled officers and NCOs had gone over with Kovachev to the Patriots. In addition, the Patriots had wide popular support due to the hatred of the government which had been developing and because of the percieved self-coup. Kovachev quickly defeated the forces of Vasilov government in the early stages of the war. Both sides utilized militias, committing acts of terror both against the sides. In addition, the anti-clerical Republican forces attacked, looted and destroyed churches, killing priests and religious. This only served to alienate some of the remaining neutrals into siding with the Patriots. The Patriots also committed atrocities, but were not as widely recognized by the general populace due to a myriad of factors. The primary battle of the war was the Siege of Lenovo, which took place over the course of two months, which ultimately ended in success for the Patriots, driving the Republican government to the city of Avren. However, shortly after establishing himself in Lenovo, President Denov was assasinated by a Republican partisan, however, he had appointed Kovachev to succeed him. In addition to commanding the field armies, Simeon Kovachev now took over as Head of State. In the waning stages of the war Kovachev founded the Patriotic Union to foster political unity, focused on healing the wounds of the war and unifying Tengaria against partisan infighting. This effort proved massively popular by many, and sealed the death knell Republicans soon found themselves both beaten back and without support. With National Army soldiers advancing in on Avren, many of the remaining Republicans fled the country into Amathia. The city was captured on November 13th, finally putting an end to the conflict.
Post Civil War Tengaria (1956-present)
In the wake of the Civil War, Simeon Kovachev was left in charge of the government as provisional head. According to Kovachev, it was clear that the first system of the Republic was a failure. He could not restore the monarchy like he wanted, due to the international backlash that would no doubt arise, especially from Tengaria's main backer and ally, Soravia. At the same time, he realized that leaving it as it was would only make things worse. To create a solution, he wrote a new constitution for Tengaria, in which the Presidency was stronger and had more ability to prevent the issues which had happened in the early republic. The Constitution was based on a strong government to preserve order and unity, and to minimize the effects of civil strife and factionalism. In order to achieve this, he began actively promoting his campaign, the Patriotic Union. The Union was a non-partisan movement, running on a platform of establishing political stability, order, and ending partisanship. After decades of political chaos and a Civil War, the idea was massively popular. Kovachev and Patriotic Union swept the elections under the new constitution in 1957, and he began to make reforms and to stabilize the country.
Under Kovachev's economic policies, Tengaria saw an economic boom over the next two decades, overcoming the debt the republic had wracked up and making a surplus by 1970. He revitalized Tengarian education, making it one of his chief priorities to do so. He promoted the influence of the Patriarchate of Tengaria in civil life, and also restored the property to the Imperial Family. His efforts saw government influence extend over many fields of culture and society, and his comprehensive plan of social reform had a great impact on the way Tengarian Society developed, such as the type of arts it promoted and sponsored. In addition to education and culture, Kovachev also expanded Tengaria's infrastructure, such expanding Tengaria's rail and energy system, such as subsidizing the first thorium-based nuclear power project on a country-wide scale. Many of these would be finished by his son Dimitri. Kovachev finally died of natural causes on January 2, 1983, when he was 81 years old.
Dimitri Kovachev, Simeon's youngest son, was elected as President after the death of his father in 1983. Less of an idealist than his philosopher and more of a pragmatist, he tried to modernize Tengaria more and to ensure the survival of the Patriotic Union throughout the next decades. He instituted six year terms for the Presidency, and also brought Tengaria into Samorspi. Beset with a financial crisis from the beginning of his Presidency in the 1980s, Dimtri's popularity was nowhere near the same as his father. He re-aligned Tengaria close to Soravia in the wake of the Sostava War and brought Tengaria into the diplomatic bloc of Samorspi in 1984. During his Presidency monetary corruption, in addition with favouritism and nepotism, began to develop within the Union and government. His reign also saw political repression of increased opposition groups, and increased government involvement in journalism, internet control, and mass media. Dimitri died of cancer in 2014.
After Dimitri's death, his daughter Teodora Kovacheva was elected the Presidency. At the time, she was thirty years old, making her one of the youngest heads of state in the world at the. More of an idealist like her grandfather than her father, Teodora has claimed that it is her priority to repopularize the Patriotic Union and its principles. She is notable for becoming an internet sensation at the time of her election due to her youthful appearance. In addition, she has worked to cut back on the monetary corruption in the government, but many believe her anti-corruption measures do not cover all kinds of corruption. Teodora was re-elected to the Presidency in 2018.
Tengaria is located in Southern Euclea, and has a variety of geographical features and diversity. Tengaria borders two major bodies of water, the Acheloian Sea to the south, and Lake Min to the north. The country shares land borders with Ravnia to the West and Amathia to the East. Through Lake Min, the country also shares a maritime border with Radushia. The country has a land area of 305,981 kilometers squared (or 118,140 square miles), making it larger than Estmere but smaller than Amathia, and the second largest in land area in Samorpsi. Tengaria on the whole is considered as part of the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, although not all of the country is forested. Common trees in Tengaria include oaks, beeches, and birches, while some of the higher altitude forests include more pines and firs. Some areas in Tengaria more closely approach an alpine biome or steppe.
Tengaria is divided into two major geographical regions, the Планини (Planini or highlands) and the Низини (Nizini or Lowlands). The Planini are located in the north of the country, and is characterized by hills, mountains, valleys, and forests. This region also includes the coast of Lake Min, which is a popular resort destination. Most of the country's Wilderness, designated parks and protected lands are located in this region. The Ninzini are located in the south of the country, and feature arable plains, grasslands, marshes, and the coastlands. This region is more populated on a whole than the north, but population is contained mostly in coastal cities or along rivers through the southern regions. This region also contains the majority of the nation's agricultural land. The Ninzini also have grasslands which are used for Pasture, and have historically been used by the Savader peoples.
Flowing from Lake Min to the sea and through both regions, the River Len is a major geographic feature and an important body of water, being the only outlet river of Lake Min. The Len River valley is very fertile, and divides the Planini in Tengaria into the regions of the Visoclesian Hills and the Radon Hills. The Len River valley is also the center of settlement and development in Tengaria, and the river has three of the most populous cities located along it, from Visnagrad, a popular resort city located on Lake Min, through the capital city, Lenovo, and its surrounding metro area, and flows out near Istros, Tengaria's oldest city and historic centre. The Len River is a wide river and has a deep water flow, and has a significant geographic feature throughout Tengaria's history.
Tengaria is divided into two climates roughly corresponding to the main geographic divisions to the country. The entire Planini and the northern part of the Ninzini have a Humid continental climate, which covers most of the country. The hills to the north of the country block the warm fronts from the south, and so this part of the country is cooler and has more snowfall. The summers are warm, and generally see less rainfall than the cold winter, but there is not enough of a distinction to make the summers dry. The remaining part of the country along the coast has a Humid subtropical climate, and is much more exposed to the warm air currents from the south. This part of the country sees hot and humid summers with rain and thunderstorms, and does not have a freezing month.
Tengaria's average rainfall is 703 mm, but differs on the area of the country. The highest rainfall in the Planini comes during the winter, while it is usually in the early summer months fro the Ninzini. The Ninzini also tend to receive more rainfall than the South, due to the higher elevation and precipitation from Lake Min. Lake-effect snow comes from Lake Min, and snowfall is abundant in the North; however, the southern parts will usually receive snow during the winter, although it is less common. The snow cover usually lasts anywhere from 20 days in the lowlands to up to 7 months in the higher hills. The average temperature of Tengaria is 12.4 °C, usually ranging from an average of 15.2 °C in the Planini to 8.3 °C in the Ninzini. The highest ever recording was taken in July of 1941 in Krasiv, with a recording of 45.4 °C, while the lowest recording was taken in January of 2016 in upper Silenya, with a recording of −36.1 °C.
|Climate data for Tengaria (records from all meteo stations)|
|Record high °C (°F)||26.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−36.1
Biodiversity and Enviroment
Tengaria is home to a variety of wildlife, most of which are common to Western Euclea. Most notably, Tengaria is notable for having some of the last Euclean populations of Panthera leo leo, otherwise known as the Lion, which is its symbolic animal. Because of their importance as the symbol of the Imperial dynasty, the Tengarian Emperors established some of the first policies to protect the lion in the 17th century, preventing its extinction. However, the population numbers remain low, and so the lions remain a critically endangered species in Euclea. Tengaria also has various species of birds, such as the Partridge, mammals, such as Bison insects, and other aquatic life. The Imperial Eagle is another popular animal, which is seen as a symbol of Saint John the Apostle, and the most popular of the bird species. The coast off of Tengaria as well as the rivers also have a rich abundance of fish and other marine life. In addition to animal and marine life, Tengaria also has many species of plants, especially in the forested regions of the north. Oak and Birch are the most common trees, although coniferous species exist as well.
Tengaria has 13 designated parks, 18 nature reserves, and many more protected areas, set aside by the government to protect the natural wildlife and the enviroment. Most of these are in the rural areas of the country, especially in the north. Most of these areas are also forested and protected from human development. These parks are home to much of Tengaria's wildlife, and also serve as popular attractions, both for tourists and citizens. The government has done certain developments in the parks and reserves, such as the construction of trails and shelters, to provide better access to these places. However, certain protected areas are completely untouched so as not to disturb the ecosystem. Tengaria is generally considered environmentally-friendly, has comparatively little air pollution, but is still working to prevent water and soil pollution, which mostly comes from the use of pesticides and outdated sewage.
Most of Tengaria's population is located in the cities. Almost seven million people, or roughly 30% of the population, live in the country's twenty largest cities. Of these, the four largest, Lenovo, Istros, Visnagrad and Drangovo, have populations over a three hundred thousand people people. Much of the urban spread is concentrated along the Len River valley, the southern coast, or the coast of Lake Min. In addition, the metropolitan area of each of these cities is larger than the numbers given. However, certain cities on the list, such as Rhŭn and Isen, fall into the metropolitan area of another city, in this case, Lenovo.
Largest cities or towns in Tengaria
Tengaria is a Unitary Republic that uses a Presidential System of government, with heavy powers being granted to the nation's President. The First Constitution of the Republic, which was in place from 1935 until 1958, was also presidential but was replaced after issues with its structure of government and political division caused the rise in the Tengarian Civil War in 1955. Simeon Kovachev authored the Second Constitution after the Civil War, which was meant to provide a strong government to fix the problems with the nation under his supervision. It was approved by referendum and then promulgated on the 15 of March, 1958. The Second Constitution of Tengaria is considered the prime legal document of the Nation, and it outlines the basis, purpose, and particular system of government. Most notably, the constitution draws its foundational principles primarily from the Sotirian and Teleological ideas of the Znaniya School and is notably devoid of common democratic principles found in most other constitutions.
The President is both the head of state and the head of government, and wields broad executive powers. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Tengarian Armed Forces, appoints the members of the State Council, can submit or veto legislation, appoints cabinet members and justices with approval of the Senate, is responsible to determine and to implement domestic policy and foreign policy, and in addition has all of the ceremonial duties of a head of state. Under the original constitution, the President served for life; however, President Dimitri Kovachev reformed the limit to unlimited six-year terms as part of his constitutional reforms in 1999. The President is the most powerful and influential figure in the Tengarian government. The President appoints the Deputy President, who functions as both deputy head-of-state and deputy head-of-government, serves as speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, and becomes the acting President if the President dies in office. In addition, the President also appoints the Cabinet of Tengaria to assist them in affairs of state. The current President is Teodora Koacheva, who was elected to office in 2014 after the death of her father and re-elected in 2018; upon her second term, she appointed Imre Király, a notable Svoboda politician, as her Deputy President.
During the first Republic, the President was elected through a popular direct election. Under the 1958 Constitution, Tengaria uses an electoral college to indirectly elect the President. The College is comprised of 150 eligible electors, although there may be fewer depending on the circumstances, at least 101 electors (two-thirds of eligible members) are needed to form a quorum. All sitting State Councilors, the sitting prefects from the six prefectures, the twenty-seven provincial praetors, and twenty-two representatives selected from the Chamber of Delegates are permitted to be part of the college. The election is overseen by the previous Deputy President, who may cast the deciding vote in the case of a tie. Prior to the vote, the first sessions of the electoral college are meant as periods of deliberation and discussion before finally arriving at a chance to vote. A two-thirds majority of votes from the present electors is necessary for the President to be selected, and the electoral college may take many ballots as necessary until this is reached.
Legislative power is invested in the Senate, which is a bicameral legislature, consisting in the upper house, the State Council, and the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate is officially a non-partisan legislature, and neither house has any group majority functionalities, instead operating on a system of consensus government. The State Council focuses on judicial oversight, presidential appointments, and cultural and ceremonial affairs of Tengaria. Councilors serve for life terms or until they resign, and are appointed by the President. There are 95 seats in the State Council. Members of the State Council are expected by the Constitution to have communal importance and high moral standing. Several clergy and noblemen are granted seats in the Senate, including the claimant to the defunct throne of Tengaria, Vasil VI. The Chamber of Deputies is the house which deals more actively in legislative affairs, and can create legislation, declare war, has power of the purse, approves treaties, and other legislative prerogatives. There are 380 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, and Assembly members serve six year terms. Seats are divided among the eleven Provinces by population.
The government has been dominated by the Kovachev family, who have controlled the powerful Presidency for sixty years, and the political movement they lead, the Patriotic Union, which is socially conservative and explicitly anti-partisan, has consistently (but unofficially) dominated the legislature by huge margins. Although de jure a non-partisan democracy, the Union's dominance of the Presidency and Legislature makes it a de facto dominant-party state. Tengaria and its constitution is considered by most Eastern Euclean sources as undemocratic and authoritarian. Questions about the veracity of election results, combined with the promotion of the Patriotic Union in media, literature and education, and rumors of suppression of other political movements, give it a low ranking on many international democracy listings. In 2020, Tengaria scored 46 out of 100 on the International Freedoms and Civil Liberties Report in 2020, and is tied for lowest in Euclea with West Miersa, and is classified as an "Obstructed Democracy". It was the lowest in Euclea for some time, only recently being tied with West Miersa.
Foreign Relations and International Institutions
Main Article: Foreign Relations of Tengaria
Tengaria's Foreign Policy is overseen by the President, who designates much of the responsibility and administration of this to the executive department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , which is headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. This ministry has been headed by Violeta Bogdaneva, the former ambassador to Soravia, since 2018. Ambassadors are appointed to their positions by the President and serve at the President's pleasure. Tengaria has established diplomatic relations with many states across the world; it has diplomatic embassies in over 40 countries, while many countries have embassies or diplomatic missions in the city of Lenovo.
Tengaria has historically been an ally and supporter of Soravia since the early 19th century. Although it previously was a part of and had closer kinship with Amathia, relations were greatly damaged after the Iconoclast Wars, and never fully recovered. In the early 20th century, as Ravnia and Amathia became more powerful, Tengaria fell under the sphere of influence of Soravia, which it has remained under. It was Soravia's ally during the Great War, and became indebted to Soravia during its occupation and rebuilding. It initially supported the government during the Sostava War, however, Dimitri Kovachev reversed this policy and supported the Patriot's Front instead after the war's conclusion, and led Tengaria to join Samorspi in 1984. Tengaria is the only member of Samorspi which was never a part of the Soravian Empire or Republic, and is also the second most populous and powerful state in the alliance. Despite being closely aligned with Soravia, Tengaria has also made it a priority to maintain its sovereignty and political system.
Tengaria is a founding member of the Community of Nations, joining the organization in 1935 along with its ally Soravia. Tengaria has usually supported its ally Soravia in CN decisions, although it has acted against it in particular decisions. Tengarian has fielded one Secretary-General of the Community of Nations, Theodosii Istina, from 1984 until 1988, a controversial pick in regards to Tengaria's government but an important decision in the wake of the Sostava War. Istina promoted global educational programs across the world, as well as for the protection of culture and world religions, which Tengaria has always supported. Tengaria has complicated relationships with its neighbors. Tensions have not been fully healed with Amathia and Ravnia on account of tensions from the Great War, or Amathia's support of the Republicans during the Civil War. In addition, Tengaria's status on the global scale is mixed. The country is a popular tourist destination, but is criticized by many for its undemocratic government and authoritarianism.
Judiciary and Law Enforcement
Tengaria uses a Civil Law System, which relies on a set code of laws. Under the second Constitution of Tengaria, this code has been the Обнародвания (Obnarodvaniya), or the Promulgations, which was codified and established by Emperor Vasil III in 1785. This is one of the oldest set of civil codes which are still in use; and is a through compilation of four hundred years Imperial Tengarian law, which is in turn derived from the old Solarian law and its successor Arcilucan law which were brought to Tengaria during the rule of the Empire of Arciluco. During the early republic, the Republicans introduced a new legal code which conformed more to Eastern Euclean legal practices, but Kovachev reintroduced it in 1958 when he took power. There have been changes since them and modifications to adapt to recent developments, but the fundamental basis of the code has remained the same and largely unaltered. As such, Tengaria's legal system is one of the most unique in the world, although it bears similarities to its neighbors as well as those which are influenced by Solarian law. Unlike other civil-law systems which use inquisitorial systems, Tengaria uses an adversarial system, but without a jury.
In the days of the Empire, the Emperor was considered the highest legal authority, however, in practice the Emperor designated judges to determine cases. Even still, a few exceptional cases were still tried before the Emperor. Reflecting this, Tengaria, the court system is overseen by the President and the Minister of justice, currently Tihomir Todorov, which by custom is chosen from a political independent and not a full member of the Union. The Second Constitution of Tengaria establishes the highest judicial power is given to the High Court, comprised of three High Judges, with the most senior judge presiding over the case. Given the importance which Tengaria places on its legal code, the High Court does not practice judicial review, but rather is the court of last appeal. Below the High Court are the Civil Courts, Prefectural Courts, and Provincial Courts, which differ in degrees of authority and appeal. The President nominates all High and Civil Judges, all of which are approved through the Senate, while prefectural judges are appointed by Prefects and provincial juges by the Pretors. Judges may be removed by the President with the approval of the Senate, however, this only happens rarely, and many judges serve for life. Due to the heavy influence of the executive in judicial affairs, Tengaria has one of the lowest rankings of judicial independence in Euclea.
In addition to the civil courts, Tengaria also has military and ecclesiastical courts. The military courts have distinct system of military justice which applies to members of the Armed Forces, which is overseen by the Minister of Defense. Court-martials and crimes related to military service or property are dealt with by these courts, although usually only with the. The ecclesiastical court deals with crimes committed by clergy, against church property, or crimes against canon law. The authority and jurisdiction of these courts were greater in the Imperial era before the establishment of the Tengarian Republic; but after the Civil War the Ecclesiastical courts were restored in part. Most notably, Tengaria's ecclesiastical courts deal with almost all issues pertaining to marriage and divorce, except barring non-Episemialists who recieve a special civil-marriage recognition.
The law is enforced jointly by the Tengarian Home Guard and the Tengarian Police. The primary of these, the Home Guard, is a gendarmerie force which is dedicated to maintaining order in Tengaria, as well as being able to protect government officials, respond to interior threats and emergencies. As it is a branch of the Tengarian Armed Forces, it is overseen by the President and the Minister of Defense, although it does also work in cooperation with the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Justice. The Home Guard is equipped to deal with emergency situations, and also have specialized forces which can respond to anything, including being trained in anti-terrorism measures, especially against the Tengarian Republican Army. In addition, the Home Guard also has branches which oversee border control and intelligence operations. The Police are overseen by the Minister of the Interior, and have responsibility for more mundane policing tasks, such as traffic policing, crime investigation. The Police are more commonly seen in cities and larger towns, and each municipal police force is overseen at the provincial level and ultimately at the country-wide level.
Tengaria has a relatively low crime rate, with fairly low homicide rates, and the majority of crime being related to transport, drug usage or theft. Recreational drug use is illegal in Tengaria, and excessive use of alcohol is also punishable by fine. Tobacco products are legal, but heavily taxed and discouraged by the government. Under the Presidency of Dimitri Kovachev, government officials became increasing involved in cases of economic polticial corruption, such as bribery or misuse of public funds. Since Teodora took office in 2014, economic corruption has been severely cut back upon by her anti-corruption policies; however, international institutions accuse Tengaria of still practicing nepotism and rewarding loyalists rather than competent members.
Tengaria has a long military tradition which dates from the Empire of Arciluco, with a heritage from the Solarian Empire. The military of Tengaria, known as the Tengarian Armed Forces, are divided into four major parts, the Tengarian Army, the Tengarian Navy, the Tengarian Air Force, and the Home Guard. Tengaria has a medium sized armed force, with over 90,000 active duty personnel and 60,000 reservists. Historically, the army has always been the principal branch of service, and receives most of the manpower and funding. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and still retains a great deal of influence than most other countries. However, most practical matters of defense are handled by the Minister of Defense, currently Angel Zlatanev, in conjunction with the Chief of Staff. Since 1958, Defense Ministers have been drawn from the active and high ranking officers of the military, rather than from the civilian population, leading to criticism about civilian control of the military. There is a strong martial culture within Tengaria since the beginning of Kovachev's regime, and the military is routinely presented as being necessary for the defense and well-ordering of the patria. Public holidays such as Army Day and Liberation Day celebrate the armed forces, and military parades are held annually.
As a member of Samorpsi, Tengaria is a participant in the Tsivebi Military Agreement, and its armed forces work and train in close conjunction with its ally Soravia. In addition, Soravia has several military bases around the country, and Soravia provides most of Tengaria's heaviest military equipment and practically all of its naval and aviation resources. Unlike other members of Samorpsi, Tengaria's military is all-volunteer, although all male citizens must register for conscription and may be called up for service upon the President's request and the Chamber of Deputies' consent. This means that Tengaria's forces are smaller than even some smaller countries, such as West Miersa. This has been a deliberate choice since the end of the Great War, when Simeon Kovachev introduced professionalization to focus on a smaller but more professional army due to major funding issues. Tengaria fulfills its strategic role within Samorpsi by specializing its forces for specific uses of highly-trained soldiers, including special operations.
Tengaria spends roughly 5.13 billion on military spending each year, or 1.27% of GDP, which is one of the lowest per capita percentages on military spending in Samorspi. Tengarian arms companies mostly produce models and variations of Soravian equipment, such as the S-69 main battle tank, which is unique but based on of a Soravian design. However, Tengaria does produce some its own unique arms and equipment, such as the BLK-7 Istrov, but usually these line up with Soravian calibres and ammunition capacity. Tengaria invests some money into military research and development, investing in new and better technology, such as the S-75 in 2019, but usually only spends this money on the development of the Army.
Main Article: Administrative divisions of Tengaria
Tengaria is divided into six administrative principal divisons called Prefectures (Prefektura) or regions, two of which, Calia and Armonia, are considered as autonomous. The autonomous prefectures have special priviledges and perrogatives, mostly dealing with cultural or educational aspects pertaining to the minorities which comprise the majority of the region. Each Prefecture is divided further into Provinces (Provintsiya), which in total number 25. Each province is further divided into various kinds of local municipalities, both urban and rural. As a unitary state, the regions and provinces are all answerable to the central government, but are designated responsibility by the central government to maintain the common good for the local areas. Each Prefecture has an elected Assembly, consisting of 75 members each (barring the region of Tengaria, which has 150 members), and an executive Prefect (Префект or Prefekt) appointed by the President or elected in the two autonomous Prefectures. Provinces are run by a Pretor (Претор or Pretor), appointed by the provincial prefect, and have a 30 member provinicial council to oversee affairs. Regional assemblies and provincial councils also generally serve six year terms, corresponding with the elections of the President and the Chamber of Deputies. Tengaria's government is highly centralized, and the regional governments usually have to rely upon the central government for funding, support, and other means.
|Map||Region||Coat of Arms||Capital||Population||Prefect|
71,811.09, 2 extra
According to the 2022 census, Tengaria's population was estimated to be 27,288,217 people. This means that the country's population density is 73.08 people per square kilometer, one of the lower density figures in Euclea. Most of the population is concentrated in the cities, with 30% of the population living in the country's twenty largest cities. The most heavily populated area is the valley around the city of Lenovo, which contains the Lenovo metropolitan area areound it. Population centres are mostly found around the River Len, as the primary waterway of the nation, or the coasts, either on the sea or of Lake Min. Outside of the urban areas, most of the communities are rural and not as densely populated, especially in the hilly and forested regions of in the north and west. Urban areas tend to be more developed and have lower birthrates, while the rural areas tend to have higher birthrates and are less developed. Tengaria has one of the highest birthrates in Euclea, with a total birth rate at 2.12 women per child, just above the replacement rate but only barely, and is expected to fall below the line in the upcoming years. This figure has only been sustained by family promotion policies by the government in order to forestall the the population decline found in other Euclean countries, especially by President Kovacheva. After losing much of the population due to violence or political exile in the Great War and the Civil War, Tengaria saw a population boom over the prosperous decades of the 1960s and 1970s. However, the growth rate started to decline during the 1980s, and continued to decrease before roughly flatening out in the 2010s. Population censuses in Tengaria are taken every 10 years. From the 2012 census Tengaria saw a overall population increase during the intervening decade, a 0.26 increase, mostly due to foreign immigration from Coius.
Main Article: Svoboda
Throughout Tengaria's history, the concept of ethnicity has been for the most part downplayed. The ethnic groups are largely built around linguistic differences, as most of every group had in other ways become significantly inculturated with the others. Once the Empire of Arciluco conquered the region it attempted to impose a common Solarian identity on the various different groups. This for the most part succeeded in establishing a common identity, but due to a combination of liturgical language and failed colonialism the Tengars and Armonian Svoboda kept their identity intact. The Empire of Tengaria continued the policy of permitting general linguistic differences while emphasizing a common Solarian, rather than Tengarian, identity. For centuries, all of the major groups in Tengaria would call themselves primarily Solarian, but the regional distinctions also coexisted with this. In the 19th century, the rise of nationalism across Euclea first began to cause some to begin to drop the Solarian identity and to begin to push an ethnic or linguistic identity. This was mostly supported by republicans, and it was only after the Great War that the Tengarian Republic adopting nationalism and the idea of ethnicity. After the Civil War, the census dropped the ethnic distinctions, and the government does not officially record data on internal ethnic groups, barring more recent foreign internationals. Independent statistics estimate that 77.8% of the population is Tengarian, 8.5% is Svoboda, 6.9% is Calian, 1.8% is Piraean, 1.7% is Amathian, and 3.3% is other.
The Tengarian ethnicity is used to refer to those who descend from the Tengar tribes, who share an affinity with the Marolevs of Western Euclea. The current main hypothesis is that the Tengars took their name from dwelling in the land between the "seas" of the Achelonian Sea and Lake Min, but traditionally it is held that the Tengars share descent from the people of Tengar in the tale of three brothers Mier, Tengar, and Sorav. The Tengars migrated to Tengaria from the North and the West during the early 4th century AD, and conquered or drove away the Kaloí, Piraean and Armonian peoples and assimilated those that were left, except for in the regions of Armonia and Calia. After the Empire of Arciluco, most the Tengars lived under prosperous border region which became known as Vicariate of Tengaria, and were heavily influenced by Soravian culture; the Tengars who lived in Visoclesia remained independent until the seventh century. Due to the later autonomy the Vicariate had in addition to the persistence of an independent literary language, the Tengarian language survived attempts of assimilation by Arciluco, although the Tengarians identified as Solarian. The idea of a Tengarian ethnicity first appeared from pro-republican nationalists in the 19th and early 20th centuries, although the idea was criticised heavily by the Monarchy. The term grew in prominence during the Tengarian Republic, where it was seen as the defining feature of the Tengarian nation, but once again fell out of favor after the end Tengarian Civil War. Many continue to call themselves Solarian.
The largest minority is the Svoboda people, who are more commonly called Savaders in Estmerish, or as Szabadok in their own tongue, and a subgroup of these called Armonians is present in Tengaria. Certain scholars believe that the Western and Northern regions of Tengaria were home to the Armonic peoples, a loose grouping based on a common Proto-Armonic language. It is speculated that the Kireno-Katemoshans which were to the north split from the southern Armonic peoples who would become the Svobobda over time. The Armonic peoples were decisively beaten during the Marolevic invasions of the 4th century, leading to the scattering of the Armonian peoples across Euclea, particularly to the North, and the majority of Svoboda fled Armonia and adopted a migratory lifestyle. However, a group of Svoboda managed to retain control the region which came to be known as Armonia, and were made foederati of the Empire of Arciluco. Placed under the jurisdicition of the Tengarian Vicarii, nevertheless they excercised a great deal of practical autonomy, retaining the status of foederati for much longer than other tribes. Later they were granted special priveledges by the Vicarii and later Emperors in exchange for military service, and for centuries they formed the bulk of the Empire's cavalry forces. Over time they became mostly inculturated into Tengar and Solarian society, although they preserved their language. The group faced perseuction during the Tengarian Republic, which inclined them to support the Patriot Cause during the Civil War; as a reward the Kovachev regime largely restored their historic priveledges, provided they remain loyal to the regime.
With roughly 2,375,000 to over 2,500,000 Svoboda, Tengaria has the greatest number of Savaders by far out of any country. Of these, approximately 2,100,000, or 90%, are of the Armonian subgroup, also known as the Változatlan, while the other 10%, or 250,000, are itinerant Svoboda who later migrated back to Tengaria, known the Vándorlás. The Armonians form the majority of people in the region of Armonia, but communities of them also exist in the major cities of the country, and are significantly more incluturated in Tengarian society. The other Svoboda still retain their migratory lifestyle and can be found all over Tengaria, in to be in much smaller numbers. In addition to these, more of Svoboda descent have historically or currently have left the life of wandering to intermarry with Tengarians, and so many Tengarians have some kind of Svoboda descent. Although the government has set aside grazing land for the migratory Svoboda, those who live a migratory lifestyle face sigificant more distrust and discrimination than the settled ones. Although they are officially recognized as the Svoboda people by all official sources, people use the Soravian term Kosak either out of custom or as a deliberate pejorative slur for them. In addition, Tengaria's Változatlan Svoboda, due to not sharing the itinerant people, are often seen as distinct and seperate by members of main international Savader community.
The next largest minority in Tengaria is the Calian people, which descend from the Kaloí peoples which used to occupy the region before the arrival of the Tengars. The majority of the Kaloí were driven out or assimilated by the Tengars during the late fourth century, with many fleeing to Amathia and becoming foederati. When Arciluco conquered the region, the Kaloí were settled in the administrative region which became known as the Diocese of Calia. The Calians were initially much closer to Amathian influence than the Tengars, and the attempts at Solarianization were much more thorough, influencing their language and not just their culture and indentity. In the eighth century Calia fell under the political control of the Tengarian Vicarii, and thus began to branch off from complete assimilation. It is estimated that 6.9%, or approximately 1,900,000, of the population has Calian descent, concentrated primarily in the region of Calia, nearest to the Amathian border.
Tengaria also has a minority group of Piraeans which number at approximately 500,000, or 1.8%, of the population. Most of these located in the very soutwest of the country on the Aretian Peninsula, but smaller communities also exist in Istros and other cities along the south. These Piraeans are a historic group, having first settled in the region in the beginning of the seventh century BC, although further settlements in Aretia followed in the subsequent centuries. Sometimes, Tengarian Pireans are called "Aretians" on account of the gradual differences which have developed as the group has remained distinct from Piraea. The group has seen significant incluturation, and most Aretians do not speak their own dialect of Piraean.
The last significant ethnic group is that of Amathians, making up approximately 1.7% of the population, or roughly 465,000 people. These groups are primarily concentrated primarily on the Amathian border, but Lenovo and other Tengarian cities have sizeable groups as well, which date back to the Empire of Arciluco. Many of the settlers of the Arcilucan settlements, in Tengaria were initially Amathian, but later became outnumbered and largely assimilated by Tengarian influence, although communites managed to remain, and were later expanded by certain royalist Amathian exiles following the Amathian Civil War. It is estimated that the Amathian community in Lenovo form an ethnic enclave of about 40,000, the largest ethnic enclave in the city.
There are roughly 245,000 ethnic Bistravians in Tengaria, which form about 0.9% of the population, mostly concentrated around the Tengarian-Visoclesian border but also with migrant communities in the major cities. Other ethnic groups from Western Euclea such as Soravians, Miersans and Ravnians, as well as from the other Samorspi countries, make up about 1.3% of the population. Tengaria's stability during the Sostava War made it an attractive destination for some refugees from the collapsing All-Soravian Union of Republics and all of its successor states, as well as those who came during Tengaria's historic friendship with Soravia. The remaining 1.1% of the population is comprised of migrants from Eastern Euclea and the rest of the world, such as those from Coius.
Main Article: Tengarian Language
The primary language spoken in Tengaria is the Tengarian language, which is used for almost all official legislative procedures, legal proceedings, laws and official announcements, except in certain jurisdicitions. Tengarian is one of the oldest documented Marolevic language, but it also has a close kinship to the Amathian language and thus to the Solarian languages due to the extensive influence of the Empire of Arciluco. Old Church Marolevic, also known as Old Tengarian, was the first Marolevic literary langauge introduced by Arcilucan missionaries and over time, through the development of the Church Marolevic in other countries, became the primary liturgical language of the Marolevic peoples in the Episemialist Church. Due to its status as both a literary language and the language of the Church in Tengaria, the Tengars kept their own language, but adopted extensive Solarian loanwords and phrases. The Tengarian language underwent development and later becane distinguished from Old Church Marolevic due to linguistic standardization during the Golden Age. Originally written in the Amathian script, it changed to Soravian script in some practice during the 19th cenutry as the country fell under the sphere of Soravia and was officially implemented as the new script with the by the Tengarian Republic in 1935. In the same year, the Republic also replaced Solarian, which had been the official language of the Empire of Tengaria, with Tengarian as the official language, although it was commonly used prior to the establishment of the Republic.
The second largest language in Tengaria is Savader, spoken mainly among the Svoboda people. Most of the Armonian Svoboda speak Armonian Savader, which although lingusitically distinct from the principal international Savader language has certain amount mutual intelligibility with it. It is estimated that roughly 1,500,000 speakers, or roughly 70% of Armonian Svoboda, speak Armonian Savader as a mother tongue, although increasingly Svoboda have been simply teaching children Tengarian. The language was not recognized during the Tengarian Republic and efforts were made to standardize all public schools in teaching only Tengaria, but since the beginning of the Kovachev regime is officially recognized as a protected language of Tengaria, alongside mainline Savader. As such there are several societies to promoting its revival and use in the Armonian Svoboda communities. In addition, schools in Armonian speaking areas teach in Armonian, although they are also required to teach Tengarian as well. Mainline Savader is exclusively among the Vándorlás Svoboda in their own communities, and has a rich oral tradition which is passed down among the various communities, and is estimated to have approximately 140,000 speakers. Tengaria is held to by some be the linguistic homeland of the Armonic langauges, although Armonian Savader is the only Armonic language commonly spoken in Tengaria.
The third largest language in Tengaria is Calian, which is a Solarian language which came from the fusion of the Kaloí language with spoken and written Solarian between the fourth to eighth centuries. It is spoken primarily by the Calian people, and had the most direct lingusitic influence by the Amathians than any of Tengaria's principal languages. After the Diocese of Calia came under the control of the Vicariate of Tengaria, the language began to develop distinctly from the other Solarian languages of the Empire of Arcilcuo, in part because written Solarian was preserved as its liturgical language under the Patriarchate of Istros, and the newfound influence of the Tengarian language. The language lasted in Calia throughout the duration of the Vicariate and the Empire of Arciluco, but began to decline in use with the establishment of the Tengarian Republic, when the Tengarian language was enforced in all public schools. It saw a decline in speakers, although the Kovachev government also declared it a protected language and permitted its use in local education in Calia. Today there are estimated to be just over a 1,250,000 speakers, or roughly two-thirds of Tengaria's Calian population, but the number declines as more choose to simply teach Tengarian language. Unlike Tengarian, it uses the Amathian script.
Other mother tongues include Aretian Pirean, Amathian, Bistravian or those of the smaller ethnic minorities living in Tengaria. It is estimated that there are approximately 330,000 Amathian speakers in Tengaria, located in Amathian communities around the country, and approximately 135,000 Bistravian speakers in Tengaria, which form the next smallest languages. However, these languages are not protected or taught in public education, and exist mostly within the local communities, and have been dying out in part as time has progressed, especially Aretian. Despite the Aretian Piraeans outnumbering other smaller ethnic groups, their language has seen a sharp decline in the past centuries, with less than 100,000 speakers left in rural regions. Other more minor first languages of smaller groups in Tengaria include Soravian, Miersan, Ravnian, Rahelian, Pardarian, and several Satrian languages.
Most schools in Tengaria use Tengaria as their primary language. Schools in Armonia and Calia use the respective regional language as primary but also teach Tengarian as a secondary language. All schools teach Solarian as a secondary or tertiary language due to its historic importance. However, only a handful of students actually study it to the point of speaking, as most only learn the basics of it and as a literary language. Solarian was used for official documents during the Imperial era and on buildings as a mark of Imperial authority and nominal Solarian heritage, and was used as the scholarly language for centuries during and following the Golden Age. Tengaria is notable for having all students learn three seperate alphabets: the Soravian, the Amathian, and the Solarian. In various places of the country, signs are made in multiple scripts in order to facilitate ease of understanding.
Besides for mandatory schooling, the government also sponsors institutions which promote the learning of other languages, mainly Soravian, Gaullican, or Estmerish. Those who go into diplomatic or international work will often study at these institutions upon finishing their schooling. These institutions also provide oppurtunities for students to learn outside of regular study or during higher education, and many students take the oppurtunity to do so, especially for using and conversing over the internet and to follow foreign job oppurtunities. Part-time classes for teaching foreign languages are also popular with older citizens who require training in other languages. Due to Tengaria's emphasis on ancient philosophy, Ancient Piraean is another popular choice for extracurricular study, so as to study works of Xenagoras or Theocritus or other ancient authors in the original language.
Main Article: Patriarchate of Istros
Tengaria is a Sotirian State, and officially recognises Episemialist Sotirianity in its Constitution as the state religion. One of the world's most religious countries, Episemialist comprise a vast majority of the population. The religious unity of the populace is high, with the government placing a high priority on the faith as essential to maintaining political unity. This stems from the country's deep historic roots in Sotirianity and current promotion of the faith among the populace. Although the Episemialist Church is the established Church in Tengaria, there are no formal restictions upon other religions or forms of Sotirianity or even non-religion, but tend to be on the fringes of society and are generally looked down upon by the vast majority of the Episemialist populace.
According to government statistics, the percentage of combined Episemialist Churches in Tengaria comprise nearly 96% of the country, with over 21 million registered members. Of these, the primary Episemialist Church in Tengaria is the Patriarchate of Istros, an Autocephalous Church headed by the Patriarch of Istros, comprising 93.4% of the population. There are also Amathian Episemialists, which number at or about 1.1% of the population, while 1.2% follow other Episemialist Churches, such as the Soravian or Miersan Churches. Most of these communities are associated with immigrant groups who have migrated to the country within the last hundred years, although some Amathian communities on the Tengarian-Amathian border are under the proper jurisdicition of the Amathian Church.
The Patiarchate of Istros has four major divisions. The principal division, the main body of the Patriarchate, which uses Old Church Marolevic as its litrugical language, oversees four Metropolitanates, each with Bishoprics and Archbishoprics underneath it, as well as all of the international dioceses. This is the principal organ of the Tengarian Church, and comprises most of Tengaria's territory and population, with about 16.6 million members. In addition to this, there also exist three autonomous Metropolitinates, or sub jurisdictions which excercise autonomy within larger framework of the Tengarian Church, which includes the Metropolitanate of Calia, with 3 million members, Metropolitanate of Armonia with 3.2 million members, and the Metropolitanate of Dubnitsa, mostly located in Bistravia but with communities in Tengaria. The Metropolitanate of Calia was originally under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch until the eighth century, when oversight was transferred to the Patriarch of Istros. As a result, it retained Solarian as its liturgical language even after Arciluco began to use proto-Amathian as its liturgical language, and has kept it to this day. The Metropolitanate of Armonia comprises most of the churches in the region of Armonia, and uses Armonian Savader as its litrugical language.
After Episemialism, Irreligion takes the second place with 1.9% of the population. Although Tengaria ranks the highest in Euclea in terms of registered religious believers and religious homogeneity, the percentage of active members are lower than registered believers. This is for a variety of reasons. Irreligion is heavily frowned upon, and is seen by some as unnatural and detrimental to the common good of society for not believing in a Divine Authority. In addition, those who advocate secularism are associated with the disastrous old republic, having ties to the rebels who began the Tengarian Civil War and as opposing the reign of the Kovachev family. Thus the number of people who are irreligious in practice or belief is actually higher, but many choose to identify as Sotirian to avoid social conflict and stigma, further inflating the numbered of registered Sotirians.
Non-Episemialist forms of Sotirianity such as Solarian Catholicism and uniate Tengarian Catholicism comprise 1.5% of the population, or about 335,000 followers. The philosophical connexion to Thomism and Scholasticism in the writings of the Tengarian Golden Age as well as Tengaria's Teleological philosophy and historic hesitance towards Hesychasm disposed some Episemialist theologians and clergy to reunite themselves with the Solarian Church in the nineteenth century, corresponding with efforts from the Solarian Church to bring back Episemialist Sotirians. These have historically faced discrimation and prejudice, and have become pejoratively known as "Uniates" by those who remained Epismeialist. Aside from these, Amendist or other Sotrian groups exist in very small numbers. Finally, less than 1% of the population comprises members of other religions. Most of these are immigrants from Satria and Zorasan.
The Episemialist faith plays an active role in Tengarian life. Simeon Kovachev actively involved the Church in politics, making laws in conformity with the Church's teaching and basing the social policies of the Patriotic Union around them. Currently, the Episemialist Church is openly endorsed and supported financially by the central government, and the government works with the Church to establish laws to foster religious and political unity. Episemialist doctrine is mandatory to learn and are taught in Tengarian schools from a young, and study in theology is mandatory in the later stages and seen as the capstone of the entire education. In turn, the Church has been instrumental in giving legitmacy to the Kovachev regime, which was further helped when it declared Kovachev to be a Saint in 2020.
The religious centre of Tengaria is the historic city of Istros, where the Patriach resides, and also with the Basilica of St. John, a Church which is said to be over the burial site of St. John the Apostle. The current Basilica building dates from the mid-sixth century, built on top an older one. This has been a popular pilgrimage site for Sotirians. The city also has an older Church, called the Church of Holy Wisdom, which dates from the mid-fourth century, and the large Cathedral of the Holy Cross, the seat of the Patriach. The city of Lenovo is also a popular place of pilgrimage, with the Cathedral of Saint Vasil as a prominent Church, along with many other churches throughout the city. Other famous church buildings include the Monastery of the Nativity of the Most Holy Theotokos, located in the hills of Visoclesia, and the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Theotokos, a large Cathedral located outside the city of Silen.
Immigration and Emigration
Migration and customs are overseen by the Ministry of the Interior, currently headed by Boris Sabinev. Tengaria has a positive net immigration rate, with an estimated 0.9 immigrants entering the country per 1000 persons, although the rate is close to a neutral amount. Of the first and second generation migrants, the largest group were those from Western Eulcea, in particular the Samorspi countries, numbering at 250,000 or nearly 1.1% of the population. Many of these immigrated during the troubles during the Sostava War, Lemovician War and the following years of political and economic upheaval in Western Euclea, as Tengaria had a Marolevic heritage but also was stable at the time. In addition, Amathians have migrated to Tengaria, including Amathians fleeing political persecution or political violence throughout the twentieth century. It is estimated thate there are approximately 80,000 Amathian first and second generation immigrants, although there are also more third generation immigrants from those who migrated during the Amathian Civil War, who largely settled into the prexisting Aamthian communites. In more recent years, immigrants from other areas of the world, in particular Zorasan and Satria, have immigrated to Tengaria to start a new life, or to study internationally. There are roughly 275,000 migrants, comprising about 1% of the population, who come from the rest of the world. In recent decades, Tengaria has increased the ease of naturalisation of foreign nationals in order to alleviate the declining population rate.
Tengaria during its history experienced periods of significant emigration, especially during the Amathian occupation during the Great War, the twenty-year economic failure of the Tengarian Republic, and the Tengarian Civil War, which saw the population drop from a pre-war high by nearly 8.75%. In addition, many Tengarian Republicans and left-wingers fled Tengaria after the Civil War out of fear of reprisal or to avoid the new regime. These factors came together to produce the Tengarian Diasporia. The major places of the diaspora include Amathia (with over 700,000 ethnic Tengarians), Galenia (nearly 160,000), and West Miersa (over 100,000), as well as places in the Asterias. After these events, however, Tengaria's emigration rate sharply declined as the country stablized and saw rapid economic growth, but began to gradually increase in the late 1980s and continued to increase in the following decades, although not significant enough to eclipse the immigration rate. The main factors of emigration are mainly due to increased financial oppurtunity in foreign economies or disatisfaction with the regime or with basic health needs, and were strongest under Dimitri Kovachev, although rates have declined since Teodora Kovahcev took power.
Tengaria has universal healthcare for primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare, run and directed by the Tengarian Health Service, or TZS, which is in turn overseen by the Minister of Health, currently Mihail Plamenev. Most of the hospitals and clinics throughout the country are publicly run and funded, although privately funded institutions exist as well. Tengaria has a developed healthcare system, but with significant problems and functional issues in comparison to Eastern Euclean countries, due to a myriad of factors. Tengaria has a life expectancy rating of 76.7 years of age, higher than the world average but significantly less than Eastern Euclea and less than the Samorpsi countries of Soravia and Vedmed. Healthcare on the whole tends to be much better developed in urban than in rural areas. Despite suggestions to privatize the healthcare system in the 1990s and 2000s, the Kovachev government has remained committed to providing universal care to all of its citizens.
Despite nominally having universal healthcare, Tengaria has a functionally two-tier healthcare system. All citizens are nominally covered for all basic health services through public spending, however, many of them are required to pay out-of-pocket costs anyways due to corruption and lack of funding, especially in more rural areas. These problems sometimes result from the lack of equipment, or the requirement of the recepient to provide more basic supplies, such as syringes and In light of some of the poor coverage which the main system has, wealthier citizens often choose to purchase their own private healthcare for an additional cost, which often gives them better or faster service. Tengaria practices a policy of compulsory insurance, either from the public system or from a private provider. Public funding for healthcare mostly comes from common taxpayer funding, ususally scaled to how much the person makes, with wealthier citizens paying a larger share into the country's health system.
Tengaria does not prioritize on medical research, but instead relies largely on Soravia for the country's medical technology and research. Although comprable in many ways to other more developed countries, Tengaria's healthcare system has had significant problems with upkeep and modernization. In rural areas, in addition to lack of equipment, much of the medical equipment and buildings are outdated and obsolete. This, coupled with funding issues, has led to the development of institutional corruption, with some patients being forced to bribe their doctors, a practice, which although illegal, has been consistently ongoing for decades. Recent attempts by the Kovacheva government to crack down on bribery have stopped some of this, but nevertheless it still remains an issue throughout most of the country's rural areas.
Main Article: Education in Tengaria
Education is one of the most important parts of Tengarian society, and has been since the reign of Simeon Kovachev. Kovachev believed that education was fundamental in building a well ordered and truly free society, and that educational programs around the rest of the world had fallen away from the pursuit of truth and of wisdom. Due to the importance which Simeon gave to it, the educational system was one of the first things reformed by the Kovachev administration, and has continued to remain a constant top priority for the government since then. Although in many respects it differs from the educational systems of the rest of the world, it has ancient roots, and is largely reflective of the historic schooling which was found during the Tengarian Golden Age, except now widely spread on a mandatory and country-wide level.
Generally speaking, Tengarian Education emphasizes a classical mode of education, placing the primary importance on Theology and Philosophy, with the Liberal arts being the pathways by which these are reached. It utilizes the Great books as the means of engaging in the greatest questions which have faced humanity throughout the centuries, letting the authors be the real teachers of the students, and as such Tengarian teachers are called "tutors" rather than teachers. The students are to grapple with the ideas themselves rather than being limited to hearing what others say about them, but are also guided and led by their tutors to do so in an ordered and disciplined manner.
Education is heavily overseen and funded by the government. All schooling is free to Tengarian citizens, but most institutions of higher education require the applicant to pass a rigorous test before admission. Education is mandatory for 11 years, from the roughly the ages of 6-17, but on average students take about 13 years of schooling. In addition to the main universal system of education which is mandatory throughout childhood, the government also sponsors technical or prepatory schools for students to specialize in the skills which they need to enter the workforce or to prepare further for higher education. The government also closely monitors who they select as teachers at almost all levels, to ensure that they meet the standards which the government is looking forward. Educational affairs are overseen by the Minister of Education, currently Zhelyazko Aleksandarev.
Tengaria has one of the world's most unique curricula, designed and implemented by Simeon Kovachev and inspired by the thought of the Znaniya School. The education harkens back to the ancient liberal arts education of Piraea and the Solarian Empire, but further and beyond this is ordered primarily by Teleological and Episemialist principles. However, it distinguishes itself from other contemporary liberal arts education in principle- whereas other liberal arts programs pursue a “humane studies” or “general education", Tengaria views the liberal arts as seven introductory disciplines which prepare the student for the more profound subjects, those that constitute the heart of a liberal education. The ultimate goal of the liberal education is the knowledge of the truth to be found by Wisdom both Divine and Natural, namely Theology and Philosophy. A liberal education is one that "frees" men by pursuing this truth, allowing them to know and pursue their proper end. The education is not ordered towards any practical end or career path, but is instead ordered to pursuit of knowledge for its own sake and for producing virtuous citizens.
For this reason, the Primary Education of Tengaria is focused on the study of the classical Trivium, namely Grammar, Logic and Rhetoric, and Quadrivium, namely Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and Music. The study and habituation of these speculative arts give the student the necessary foundation by which they can study the higher things later in the curriculum. Students study the basic principles of these arts, and habituate them by means of demonstrating propositions, giving arguments, grammatical exercises, studying the stars, listening to and giving speeches, and other methods. The students do practical exercises but do not study them merely for their practical ends, but rather use these practical means for the sake of studying the speculative or scientific knowledge of these arts. When possible, works by the great authors are used directly, as the students are supposed to deal directly with the great ideas rather than through another teacher. The foremost example of this is Euclid's Elements for Geometry. However, this is not always practical or possible for every subject or for every grade level, so textbooks and manuals are occasionally used.
In addition to the liberal arts, all primary school students (both upper and lower) take religious education, gymnastics (physical education), musical performance and civic virtue classes. Religious education is taught from an Orthodox Episemialist point of view, and educates the populace on the principles of the faith from an early age. Gymnastics is seen as necessary for the development of a healthy and well balanced lifestyle. All students learn how to sing and are required to study another instrument of their choice. This is required because music is seen as a means of ordering the soul towards the good, and it also habituates the students in musical experience. This is distinct from their study of music as a liberal art, which focuses on the mathematical and auditory principles of the speculative art of music. Finally, all students take Civic Virtue classes, which are classes which aim to teach ethics and patriotic loyalty from a young age, as well as Tengaria's history. All students, when studying grammar, are also taught ancient Piraean and portions of Solarian. In addition, they are also taught the Amathian script, and so primary school students are required to learn a total of four alphabets.
After successful completion of both levels of primary school, students move to secondary school, called Universal School. It is named as such because the curriculum is still focused on the study of universals and speculative knowledge, rather than particulars and practical knowledge. Students study Theology, Philosophy, Natural Science, and more advanced Mathematics. These are counted as the "Universal Studies", and are given priority in the order of studies. Theology is given primacy of place due to its divine origin; Philosophy is also very highly valued. The natural sciences, such as biology and chemistry, and more advanced courses of mathematics, such as algebra and calculus, are also considered instrumental and necessary for a complete understanding of the principles of the world. Textbooks are very rarely used; most reading takes place from the greatest works of the prominent authors. By using the books themselves, students are challenged to engage with the great conversation of the intellectuals throughout history. In addition, literature and history are also studied, along with a continuation of musical performance and civic virtue classes, but are not given as much importance as the others. Although completing Universal School is the requisite for all citizens, there are other further steps of secondary education. Students who enter into Preparatory School continue the Universal Studies until they are prepared to enter into tertiary education. Technical school diverges away from speculative knowledge and focuses on the practical studies for students who desire enter into the workforce.
The universities of Tengaria are funded and overseen by the central government. Students who study at University pursue the core studies of the universal education, except at a much more intense and comprehensive level. The liberal arts are again approached, but now as looking back upon the principles which lead into the higher sciences, from a vantage point of experience. In addition, there are no history, music, or civic virtue classes, and University focuses on developing the intellectual life of the students. All students take the same degree, and once they graduate, they are allowed to move on to higher studies in a particular field of their choice. This uniformity is in place so that the students will have a basic understanding of universal speculative knowledge before they go on to study a narrower field of study. Tengaria is considered to have a very strong classical education, and the students come out having a wide range of knowledge.
However, the education is not without its detractors. Several international educators criticize the lack of electives and specialization options available for students, saying that it causes students from finding paths which uniquely suit their abilities and talents. Some have criticized it for being too archaic and backwards, with its classical mindset hampering the students through poor educational focus or outdated thought. Because the thought and intention behind the education is so radically different than most countries, several scholars think the whole system is flawed. Other innovators claim that a focus on learning through books and lack of technological learning and other modern developments hamper the student's abilities to thrive in the modern world. The harshest critics say that contrary to the education's goal to make the students free, the religious education and civic virtue classes constitute nothing less than "brainwashing".
|Preschool||Предучилищна (Preschool)||2 years (age: 4 to 6)||Basic Reading and Writing, Experiential Learning|
|Primary education||Нисък Училище (Lower school)||3 years (age: 6 to 9)||Grammar, Arithmetic, Geometry|
|Горен Училище (Upper school)||3 years (age: 9 to 12)||Logic, Astronomy, Music, Rhetoric|
|Secondary education||Универсален Училище (Universal school)||5 years (age: 12 to 17)||Universal Studies, Literature, History|
|Подготвителен Училище (Prepratory school)||1 or more years (age: 17 to 18 or later)||Further Universal Studies|
|Технически Училище (Technical school)||1 or more years (age: 17 to 18 or later)||Apprenticeship or other Practical Training|
|Tertiary education||университет (Bachelor's degree)||3 years||Higher Universal Studies|
|Майсторство (Master's degree)||1 or 2 years||Specialized Subject|
|Докторат (Doctorate)||3 years or more||Specialized Subject|
Stages highlighted in yellow below are compulsory.
Tengaria's educational structure shares some structural similarities to other countries, but also differs greatly in the methodology and material. All schools in Tengaria are run or heavily overseen by the central government, and all follow the same structure. Tengaria has 11 years of mandatory education, from ages 6 to 17, though other levels are offered before and after. Primary and secondary education are required, with the Primary education being split into two parts. Furthermore, education is often split by sex; oftentimes, the schools are single-sex or several the classes in the school are divided by sex, a practice which is found even the nation's universities. By law, gymnastics and civic virtue classes are always split by sex, and usually differ in focus for each sex.
Parents can send their children to designated preschools when the child reaches four years of age. This is designed to give the child early sense experience in order to foster his later education. Another important function of this lower school is to ensure that the children have some basic literacy before they enter in primary school. If the parent chooses to opt out the child from preschool, they must ensure their child has this literacy before they are allowed to enter into primary school. Primary school is divided into two parts, a lower and an upper, each lasting three years. After this, all students go into the Universal school, which lasts for five years. Every student takes the same courses, and most finish by the time they are 17 or 18. Some take longer, but students who consistently fail are sent to designated schools for students with learning issues. If deemed unable to complete the education at all, special exceptions are made.
After the completion of Universal school, students are no longer required to take any studies. Many students enter into the workplace immediately after school, and those wishing or needing to learn technical skills in any variety of fields can go to certain government sponsored Technical schools, which are designed to give the students practical knowledge of their field of interest. For those wishing to pursue higher education, they must take an common examination. Each university has a threshold which the student must clear. The threshold is fairly high, and many do not pass the examination on their first attempt, or might only qualify for certain universities. If the student does not make any threshold, he may go to a Preparatory school to study more to pass the examinations.
In addition to primary and secondary education, Tengaria also has institutions of higher education. The most famous and well known of these is the University of Lenovo, which is the oldest University in Western Euclea. Inspired by the scholastics of Eastern Euclea, St. Vasil the Great founded the University in 1405 to be the centre for higher learning and to augment and enhance the liberal education already present from the Empire of Arciluco. Although there were schools prior to this, such as the Agora School and the higher learning of institutions of Arciluco, the University was the first one of its kind based upon the model of university found in the East. Since then, several other universities were established, but the University of Lenovo was always seen as the top and primary institution of learning in Tengaria. The universities gave students a higher degree of learning in the liberal arts and theology and philosophy, before allowing for the student to become a master of a subject. However, as education in Eastern Euclea and Soravia began to change in the twentieth centuries, the universities began to slowly adapt to their methods as well. After the Great War, the university system was in shambles. As part of his reforms during the 1960s, Simeon Kovachev changed the structure and format of the university system, reflecting the older traditions of the universities and also putting a greater focus on liberal education.
There are three levels of tertiary education. The first and primary one is simply called "University", reflective of the universal curriculum which it pursues. All university students take the same undergraduate curriculum, studying at a higher level the universal studies which they pursued in universal school. Theology and philosophy are given the primary importance, but mathematics and the natural sciences are all rigorously studied. All classes are discussion-based and directly use the great books. Supplementary lectures available for interested students. The education is known for being very intense and difficult, and is ordered to developing the intellectual life of the students rigorously. For Tengarian citizens and qualified international students, the three-year university is common to all other undergraduate students. All those who pass are granted a degree in Liberal Arts, which is held as equivalent in credit hours to a Bachelor's Degree with a dual major Theology and Philosophy and a dual minor in Mathematics and Natural Science in international standards.
Having completed University, students then have the opportunity to progress on to the next levels of tertiary education. In order to be accepted into higher programs, an applicant must successfully complete even more rigorous examinations, usually focusing on the subject matter which they wish to study. At these levels, the student moves away from universal study begins to specialize in the field of their choice. The length of the degree often depends on what they choose to study, and medical, theology and philosophy students usually spend longer on their degrees then other departments. The second level is a Master's Degree, which can last anywhere from one to five years, and the third level being the Doctorate, which lasts at least three years but can extend up to six or seven years. It is easier to be accepted to the Masters level than at the Doctorate level. Tengaria's schools are usually not focused on research study, but pedagogical studies instead, as the profession of educator is one given great prestige in Tengaria. However, the top-tier universities have research-based graduate programs, especially for the natural sciences.
All tertiary level education is free for Tengarian citizens and paid for by the government; however, it is not free for International Students, although the Tengarian government on occasion has been known to give grants and scholarships to certain international students to encourage them to experience Tengarian education. For international students who wish to study under the Tengarian mode of education but are not prepared to engage in the rigorous process, several universities offer a four-year less intense and more basic approach to liberal education for all who are interested in getting a basic liberal education. International students who wish to pursue graduate-level education also have more lenient and less rigorous entrance exams, because of the difference in educational background. In particular, graduate level studies in Philosophy at Tengarian Universities are internationally renowned, but are known for being extremely selective in who they choose to admit.
Main Article: Economy of Tengaria
Tengaria has a high-income mixed economy, considered by some sources to be a developed country but by others still to be a developing country. Tengaria has a 0.871 on the Human Development Index, placing it in the very high range, placing it above Senria but below Estmere. It has a per capita nominal gross domestic product of 14,707 Euclos, placing it above Satucin but below Senria; it also has a per capita gross domestic at product purchasing power parity of 30,530 Euclos, placing it above Amathia but below Vedmed. Tengaria was largely an agricultural country until it began to industrialize in the late eighteenth century; during the early republic period the economy stagnated and later collapsed, leading to the Tengarian Civil War. After the War Simeon Kovachev undertook massive reforms to revitalize the economy, further industrializing and later greatly expanding the service sector of the economy. Since then the Tengarian economy has diversified and developed, being a mixture of a mostly free market with economic interventionism and state-owned enterprises influenced by corporatist principles. Currently, services, energy, agriculture, education, mining, metallurgy, and tourism are important parts of the economy.
Main Article: Energy in Tengaria
Tengaria's energy industry is mostly controlled by public companies overseen by the Tengarian Energy Holding. Due to its use of nuclear and hydroelectric power, Tengaria is completely self-sufficient in energy, and exports energy to neighboring countries. In addition, the dominance of these two kinds of energy ensures that Tengaria functions on an mostly low-carbon economy. Like its ally Soravia, Tengaria is considered a fairly environmentally-friendly country; Simeon Kovachev believed firmly in the preservation of Tengaria's natural lands, while his son Dimitri saw the economic gain of non-reliance on fossil fuels, which Tengaria did not have the resources to sustain a full economy on. This resulted in significant investure in the mostly-green Nuclear power and the reduction of fossil fuels.
Nuclear energy accounts for 73.9% of Tengaria's energy output, mostly taken from the Dragomir III Nuclear Power Plant, although several other nuclear power plants exist. Based on international research done in the 1960s which produced a successful molten salt reactor, Tengaria was the first country to invest significant resources into the research and development of Thorium-based nuclear power, working on the development of a stable and efficient liquid fluoride thorium reactor throughout the 1970s, before investing in the construction of these on a commercial level in the 1980s, eventually taking over as the dominant source of energy for the nation as more reactors are built. Thorium development posed a unique challenge in terms of increased cost and development; however, it also has several advantages, such as reduced need on Uranium in lieu of the more common material of Thorium, and an almost minimal chance of a nuclear meltdown. In addition to being used by Tengaria, energy from the reactors is also exported to nearby countries. Tengaria remains a leader in the Thorium based nuclear power industry, with several other countries later deciding on implementing thorium based power. It is one of the countries most dependent on Nuclear energy in Western Euclea.
The second largest source of power is taken from hydropower, which makes up 24.7% of the country's energy output energy. These come from the country's two primary rivers, the River Len and the River Drang. However, due to the historic and cultural importance of the River Len and the proliferation of settlements and trade along the river, the Kovachev government only permitted one dam, the Silver Gate Dam, which is situated along the Silver Gate gorge of the River Len in Visoclesia, and the narrowest point of the river. This Dam is one of the larger producers of hydroelectricity in Euclea. Other hydroelectric facilities exist along the River Drang, mostly located in the sparsely populated province of Khulm.
Fossil fuels and biomass are not widely used for energy production, yielding only roughly 1.4% of the country's energy production, but are still used for such things as motor vehicles, military use, and construction equipment. After the country's switch to nuclear power in the 1980s, usage of these fuels were gradually phased out. Almost all of the oil and natural gas needs of Tengaria are met through the pipeline supplies from Soravia, and the country exports most of the oil and the natural gas it produces. Although Tengaria does have an abudance of coal in the northern hills, most of it is lignite, which lowers its potential value, and most coal mining operations have decreased over the twentieth century. Since 2014, the government has halted efforts of further hydraulic fracturing.
Tourism is a major contributor to Tengaria's economy. Tengaria has many popular sites, both manmade and natural, and has worked to promote tourism from the late 1970s. In the decades following the Civil War, the government has promoted its tourist sites on the international, especially to wealthy East Eucleans, made possible by reform of the country's transportation system and economic recovery. Tengaria recieves nearly 22 million foreign visitors each year, making it a high-ranking tourist country, though by no means the largest. Tengaria's most popular tourist areas are the coastline along the Acheloian Sea, Visoclesia and the coastline around Lake Min, the historic cities of Lenovo and Istros, and the River Len. In addition to foreign tourism, domestic tourism is also prominent.
The southern coastline along the Acheloian Sea offers resorts, designated beaches, and other attractions, especially along its southern coastline. The warmer climate of the south makes it a very popular vacation destination for its Samorspi allies, which is facilitated by a customs union it has with the other Samorspi states. Sailing or boating is a popular tourist activity. Tengaria's coastal resorts generally tender to be cheaper than many in Eastern Euclea, making the destination attractive for less expensive coastal vacations. The southern coastline's tourist season generally peaks in the winter, but continues throughout the whole year. In addition, the coast has some of the country's largest population centres located along it, such as Istros and Drangovo, which allow for tourists to have major centres of transportation and convience in the area.
Visoclesia is one of Tengaria's largest regions, and includes coastline, major cities, and large areas of preserved forest and rugged hills. The coast of Lake Min, although cold in the winter months, is temperate during the summer and has a long border with the freshwater lake. The coast alternates between hilly and smooth, with beaches and resorts at certain areas and high-overlooks and cliffs in others. Inland, there are many natural parks, nature reserves and such areas which tourists may visit, with oppurtunities to hike and explore. In addition, the River Len flows from Lake Min through the Visoclesian hills, which at its narrowest point forms the Silver Gates, a popular tourist attraction for the steep walls which the river runs through. Another major attraction of the region is the Visoclesian Railway, a scenic heritage tourist railway built in the late nineteenth century which goes through the hills along the coastline. In addition to natural or resort attractions, this region also has the cities Visnagrad and Garna, the third and fifth largest cities in the country, providing places to stay as well as shops.
In addition to the coastlines and natural areas, Tengaria is also known for its cultural and historical areas. The cities of Lenovo and Istros are particularly known for being important centres of historic or major cultural landmarks and buildings. The city of Istros has well preserved Piraean ruins, inlcuding of the historic Agora School and the well preserved Xanthos Library. It also has major religious sites, such fourth century Church of Holy Wisdom, one of the oldest still-standing churches in the world and the the Basilica of St. John, a Church which is said to be over the death site of John the Apostle. The city of Lenovo is filled with tourist destinations, and is a major hub of foreign tourism. Prominent tourist sites include the iconic Grand Assembly Building, the Great Baths, the Imperial Palace, and Saint Vasil Cathedral. These cities also have many cultural events and other activities which tourists can experience and partake in. In addition to these areas, there are many other particular sites spread throughout the country, such as the Monastery of the Nativity of the Most Holy Theotokos and the Radomin Arches, which are also attractive to tourists. In recent years, river cruises along the River Len have become popular.
Infrastructure and Transport
The primary mode of transportation in Tengaria is by rail, and the government has made rail transport its priority in terms of funding and investment. Most of rail transport in Tengaria is managed by the publicly owned company Tengarian Rail. Most of the major rail lines lead back to the central city of Lenovo, but many smaller lines operate out of most cities and connect most towns throughout Tengaria. Tengaria's four largest cities all include above or underground subways which connect the parts of the city together. The country's rail network is connected to Arciluco through close proximity, and thus to the major Euclostar rail networks by extension. In 2018, Tengaria completed a high-speed rail line, known as Bŭrzina, running vertically along the country along the Len River from Visnagrad to Istros, making it the country's first high-speed rail network, which can reach up to speeds of 294 km/h. Plans exist to extend high-speed rail lines into Bistravia and Amathia for increased ease of international travel, as well as an eventual connexion to Soravia's prosposed "Spine of Euclea" project. Tengarian railways almost exclusively support electric locomotives, which have helped to reduce the costs of maintainence and fueling with coal or diesel and which have worked with the country's growth in nuclear power. There are a few exceptions, such as the Visoclesian Railway, which operates with modified coal-powered steam engines, the only railway in the nation to still do so, by special government mandate. On the whole, the major railways tend to be better funded and maintained, and are known for good service, but some of the branch lines and more rural lines are less well maintained and generally more inefficient.
Tengaria has extensive roadways across the country, most of which are paved. Tengarian road infrastructure is overseen by the Tengarian Highway Authority, which oversees the construction and maintenance of roads throughout the country. Roads are an important way of travel and shipping for people living in rural areas away from railway stations, however, most travel and freight is done or carried by railways instead. Major highways include the имперски магистрала (Imperski Magistrala, or Imperial Highway) which stretches from the city of Visnagrad down along the Len River valley through Lenovo and eventually on to Istros, and the крайбрежна магистрала (Kraĭbrezhna Magistrala or Coastal Highway), which stretches along the southern coast of the country. Public bus services also utilize the roadways, particularly focused around major cities. Do to the country's emphasis on railway travel, roads are not as well constructed or funded as other countries, and so Tengaria has a relatively low road quality outside of the cities.
Air travel in Tengaria is overseen and managed by the Tengarian Aviation Authority. Tengaria has four international airports, the largest being Saint Vasil the Great Airport in Lenovo, followed by Xenagoras Airport in Visnagrad, Saint John Airport in Istros, and Holy Wisdom Airport in Drangovo. In addition, many of Tengaria's larger cities have domestic airports as well, although these are not always commonly used, and tend to be fair smaller. The largest carrier in Tengaria is Air Tengaria, which is the nation's flag carrier. Air travel is one of the primary ways of long-distance international travel, and are used by both foreign and outgoing tourists for entry into the country. Although Tengaria's international air travel is well developed, Tengaria has had major issues with its domestic flight system, on account of old infrastructure and funding going to rail.
Tengaria's telecommunications networks and internet infrastructure are mostly handled and overseen by the publicly owned Tengarian Communications corporation. Almost all people have some access to forms of telecommunication, although the telecommunications structure in rural areas is often outdated an in need of modernization. Around 69% of the population has access to internet, mostly focused around the urban areas of the country; however, this number has increased since the government began a plan to bring broadband to all areas in 2018. Tengaria is known for implementing censorship on certain internet programs and websites, mostly pornographic or blasphemous in nature, although increased access to virtual private networks provides a work around for this.
Science and Technology
Tengaria's scientific development was first marked by the influence of Empire of Arciluco, through which it recieved the scientific works the ancient world. During the Tengarian Golden Age, the inspiration of the classical studies saw the formation of several scientific institutions associated with the various branches of knowledge. Due to its importance in the Quadrivium, an astronomical academy was established in Lenovo in 1392, and soon became associated with the University of Lenovo. The proliferation of Xenagoras's works of natural philosophy saw a revival of biological and zoological studies, as well as studies of physics. However, these studies were largely done in the context of a Geocentric model and according to theories such as the theory of impetus.
Eventually, with the advent of the Scientific Revoultion, the scientific works in Tengaria would be outclassed by Soravian and Eastern Euclean scientists, many of whom would overturn the foundational theories held in classical science. Some of these scientists, Lawrence Lugin, studied for a time in Tengaria due to the availability of texts and extensive research already done. Tengaria was reluctant to accept the new findings at first, however, as better equipment and experimentation came along, they started to gradually accept the newer findings. Many sought to reconicle the new scientific findings with the basic priniciples of the classical authors; this was most notably carried out by the polymath Ivan Istina and Znaniya school. In the late 20th century, Tengaria would become a pioneering force in nuclear physics because it spent significant funding and research to develop Thorium based nuclear technology, becoming the first country to produce a commercially viable liquid fluoride thorium reactor. Iordan Dafov was the head scientist on the project, and became a well known nuclear scientist in the field. Tengaria is a member state of the Atomic Energy Commission.
Since the 1990s, Tengaria has seen an expansion in technology manufacturing as well as information and communications work, especially within the context of Samorspi. Maufacturing companies such as Lenovo produced computers and other electronic devices throughout the early 2010s on a domestic scale, however these companies were incorporated into larger international companies.
Philosophy has played an important role in the development and formation of Tengarian culture and political society. Tengarian legend holds that the great philosopher Xenagoras came to Istros and founded a school of Philosophy in the late third century BC. Most historians now agree that this claim is spurious, and that it was one of Xenagoras' disciples, Xenagenes, who founded a school in the city, who among his many other works, is also responsible for writing several works later mistakenly attributed to Xenagoras himself, namely, the Mechanics and On Indivisible Lines. Regardless, Teleological philosophy dominated the learning of the independent city state of Istros for the next few centuries through the Agora, the school which Xenagenes had founded, even after the school of thought was largely forgotten in the Solarian Empire and Piraea itself. The city was not isolated, however, and continued to recieve philosophical works from the Piraean cities and the Solarian Empire throughout the following centuries. During this time the citizens of Istros first came to follow the classical mode of the Liberal arts education which was developed in the Solarian Empire and Piraea.
After the Empire of Arciluco came to dominate the region, the dominance of Teleology started to fade as the city of Istros became a part of the the greater Empire. Since Sophism and Stoicism had become the prominent philosophic systems in Arciluco, they quickly became the dominant stands of philosophy in Istros. They also became the dominant philosophic systems in the education of the Tengar tribes, which were etsablished by Arcilucans and modeled on Ariculucan education. Since the Empire was Sotirian and converted the formely pagan Tengars, the rise of education through most of Tengaria coincides with the rise of Sotirianity. This brought Sotrian Theology into the forefront of the philosophical discourses of the time, a position it would remain thereafter in Tengarian philosophy. Most theologians and philosophers, as was common throughout the Empire, took a Sophist stance. For the next few centuries, Tengaria's philosophic and theological scene would be largely considered just as a part of the Empire of Arciluco. After the formation of the Grand Principality, the writings of Xenagoras once more began to gain traction and support. However, there was still a great deal of dialogue between the two, especially with the Sophist-leaning theologians of the Empire, and the proliferation of Arcilucan culture began to set the stage for the intellectual growth of Tengaria. As the Empire of Arciluco began to decline and fall apart, Tengaria continued to develop its intellectual sphere, and increasing began to take a leading role during the Empire's final days. During the Iconoclast Controversy in the last days of the Empire of Arciluco, most of the Tengarian theologians and philosophers came down on the side of the Iconophile side, in part due to the Teleological view giving more importance to the body than the dualism found in Sophism. Leading this faction was the Patriarch of Tengaria, Saint Boris the Confessor, who along with the Grand Prince, Vasil V, would play an integral role in the defense of icons against the rising Iconoclast movement. However, the Empire soon collapsed into the Realm of Thorns, which led to the proclamation of Empire of Tengaria and the Council of Lenovo, which saw the proponents of Iconodulism and Iconoclasm combat in theological debate. Although the Council failed to reconcile the two factions, nevertheless it firmly established Tengaria as the leading intellectual power of the time in the eyes of most of the Episemialist Church.
The rise of the Empire of Tengaria corresponded with the beginning so called Tengarian Golden Age, which lasted from 1385 until 1550. Although this Golden Age corresponded with the flourishing of all forms of cultural output, the intellectual development of Tengaria was also greatly augmented. This is primarily because the collapse of the Empire Arciluco had resulted in the importance of Arciluco having diminished, especially since it was considered to have fallen into heterodoxy. Lenovo took its place, becoming the Imperial capital and soon the centre of learning. Since Tengaria had already largely embraced Teleological philosophy at this time, it allowed for famous Scholastic writings and learning of East Euclea to spread to Western Euclea. This new outpouring of intellectual discussion and writing was encouraged and supported by both state and church. Emperor Vasil established the University of Lenovo as the first West Euclean University in 1392, which provided a natural nexus for the new intellectual centre, and it soon became the main centre of learning in Western Euclea for the next few centuries. Saint Boris the Confessor also was a leading figure in the intellectual discourse, and famously defended the writings of Xenagoras in his tract On the Unity of Wisdom, which wove together Xenagoran Philosophy with Sotrian Theology. In addition, with Tengaria taking the role as defender of Orthodox Sotirianity, which was solidified by the Council and by Boris' work on the In Defense of the Images of God, which defended the usage of Icons, Tengaria was also able to take a prominent role in Episemialist Theology. Intellectual discussion and writing would greatly increase during this time. The old Agora school, which had fallen into decay, was revitalized. Old manuscripts of ancient works were reproduced and disseminated, some of them even then going to Eastern Euclea. This period of great intensity lasted throughout the first part of the 15th century, but settled to a more moderate pace afterwards. Still, for the centuries following, Tengaria continued to maintain its status as the intellectual leader of Western Euclea.
As Tengaria began to become politically overshadowed by the powerful Soravia and a rebuilding Unio Trium Nationum, the quality and quantity of Tengaria's intellectual output began to diminish as more and more scholars gravitated towards new schools in Soravia. This increasing influence began to bring the Tengarian intellectual Golden Age to its end. Tengaria largely retained the scholarly discourse and schools of learning it had established during its Golden Age, but quickly began to fall behind as scientific advancement and new ideas of philosophy began to take root in other countries. Despite its intellectual renown, Tengaria's scholars were largely considered conservative Teleologists, which rendered many hostile to the advances of the scientific revolution. Despite of this, Tengaria's institutions continued to remain some degree of presitge, and scholars such as the Soravian Lawrence Lugin were known to come to Tengaria to access critical texts or engage in active philosophic discussions. Many Tengarian scholars, seeking to go beyond the set structures which were in place, flocked to Soravia or to Eastern Euclea to engage in the new paths of intellectual discourse which were occuring there. Eventually, the established educational system began to fall into a period of decline, which allowed for many of the Tengarian scholars to bring in the new ideas of more modern thought from Eastern Euclea. This was still often met with hostility by the conservative parts of the intellectual community, which led to the development of intellectual factions within the country, with various degrees of rejection of the principles of each. This conflict only compounded the increasing decline. The Agora school was largely abandoned, and the University of Lenovo fell greatly in prestige. Eventually, the conservative Teleological faction was greatly reduced, and most intellectuals ended up attempt to imitate the other Euclean countries, particularly Soravia. With Soravia's influence on the Empire and the formation of the Republic in 1861, Soravian republican thought began to become prominent in intellectual circles. The focus was largely transferred from the classics and Tengarian literature to modern Soravian literature and Eastern Euclean scientific advancements and thought.
There was a brief revitalization period in the late 18th century of Teleological thought with the ascension of Vasil III, but it was not enough to largely effect the tide which had been occuring. At the turn of the twentieth century, an Teleological resurgence began to come again with the Znaniya School, which was a group of various scholars and artists of a wide variety of branches and studies. The school was known for supporting the revitalization of Teleological philosophy in the light of advances in modern sciences, defending the teachings of Episemialist Sotirianity, reforming the educational system to return to the system on the classics which had been used during the Golden Age, and promoting a love for the common good and of the nation. At the head of this movement was Ivan Istina, a philosopher, scientist and overall Polymath who attempted to united Xenagoras' thought with contemporary knowledge, as well as an extensive writings enoromous range of other topics, from metaphysics to geometry to politics to music. Based on his broad range of knowledge, one of his most prominent ideas was that of universal studies, which holds that specialization is dangerous for the intellectual community, and that education must be holistic and carefully ordered so as to arrive at true knowledge. Another prominent thinker in the movement was Archbishop Aleksandar Dilov, who was a prominent Theologian who published several important works the nature of grace and divine providence from Episemialist tradition, as well as other many popular tracts. The school was ostracized by many the current academics at the time, although they attracted many other Tengarians and young scholars, including Simeon Kovachev. The group made a lasting impact through hosting free and public lectures and discussions, distributing widely circulated books, and also later with Imperial sanction.
Although many of the primary leaders of the Znaniya school were killed during the Great War, the movement continued to persist after the course of the war. With the establishment of the Republic in 1935, many of the public figures who were in support of a republic were the current scholars themselves, as they tended to have the strongest republican sentiments, either based upon Soravian authoritarian republicanism or Eastern Euclean liberal democracy. However, this resulted in the schools across Tengaria having greatly reduced faculty, which had already been a problem since the Amathian occupation during the Great War. In addition, the economic downturn and political chaos of the early republic saw the decline of the Tengarian university system, with fewer and fewer students enrolling. When Simeon Kovachev took power in the wake of the Civil War, he instituted his educational reforms, done in the model of the Znaniya school and rapidly rebuilding and expanding the educational system. With the implementation of the model, the ideas of the Znanya school- revitalized Teleology, Epismialist Theology, and emphasis on the classics and developing citizens of virtue, changed the philosophical scene in Tengaria. This was largely in part because this philosophical mandate was supported and practically enforced by Kovachev's government. Because it was enforced by the government in the educational model, it also was spread to Tengarians of all ages, and quickly became the dominant philosophy in Tengaria. Nevertheless, other philosophical schools exist to varying degrees throughout the country, ranging anywhere from revitalized Neo-Sophism to post-modern philosophies.
Currently, Tengaria is considered a leader in the field of classical studies, historical philosophy, and Episemialist theology. The government continues to stress the importance of philosophy, and due to its education and focus on the intellectual life, philosophy is considered a key part of Tengarian culture. This fact is generally recognized internationally, with a qualification that this philosophy is considered at best antiquated or worse as repressive by most of the scholarly community. Nevertheless Tengarian scholars are recognized by many for the breadth of knowledge and seriousness of study. Scholars such as Boris Idenev, a polymath published in many academic fields and contemporary pioneer of Istina's case of Universal Studies, is a well known and respected author on the international scale, and Tengarian philosophers have been consistently members of invited to prestigious international groups, such as Tiranis Phrontis. In addition, Tengaria is home to several influential international philosophical awards and organizations, such as the Aletheia Award, considered one of the greatest academic distinctions for Philosophic work, the International Philosophy Institute, a global group of philosophers and historians of philosophy, and the Xenagoras Society, the primary association of Teleological philosophers or those who specialize in the study of the works of Xenagoras.
The oldest preserved visual art in Tengaria dates from the Kaloí peoples, who used pigments to paint frescos and murals on the walls of their temples and their tombs. Most were lost to history, but a handful, such as the Tomb of Peirous, contain art pieces from the late 5th century BC, although Tengaria has more tombs which date from the 4th cenutry. The art on the tombs give some of the best indication of te practices and beliefs of the Kaloí peoples, and are some of the most prized artistic momuments of early Tengaria. Also, statues dating from the Piraean and Solarian periods can be found in the city of Istros, such as the second-century statues in the Library of Xenagoras. Art from the Classical period of Istros also includes mosaic structures as well, as found in several homes.
Another major area of visual art came with the Empire of Arciluco in the sixth century, which introduced a new style of Western Solarian art with a decidely Sotirian focus. One of the major movements of this was the development of the religious Icon, which became a widespread devotion across the Episemialist world. Icons became central to liturgical practice in Tengaria, with its culmination being the development of the Iconostasis. In addition to icons, Church frescoes became a common practice, usually lining the walls of Churches and Monasteries with images of the Saints or bilical figures. While many of the early Tengarian churches are more austere, later ones become more and more ornate, sometimes implementing use of gold and gems to enhance the religious art and vestments. One of the most prominent buildings which feature this religious art was the Monastery of the Nativity of the Most Holy Theotokos in Visoclesia, and important centre of religious art and a popular tourist site today.
Religious art also formed the centre of the controversy behind the Iconoclast Wars. Tengaria, as the spiritual leader of the iconodule side, continued the development of icons and increased their pride of place beacuse of the controversy. As such almost all churches from the late fourteenth century and beyond feature many icons or other forms of religious art. This also coincided with the Tengarian Golden Age, during which the production of art underwent significant increase as well as change. In addition to the continued development of iconography and frescoes, religious sculpture was revived, a practice which had decline in Episemialist art, with a basis on Piraean and Solarian statuary. In a mixture of religious and secular, stautes of Vasil the Great became extremely popular to produce. It was during this time that secular art became more prominent, as Emperors or noblemen would commission art of themselves or family; but this was always secondary to religious art.
Despite a period of decline after the sixteenth century, nevertheless the artistic community still managed to design art for churches, although much along the same lines as had been accomplished during the Golden Age. This changed in the middle of the nineteenth century, when increased building gave artists new chances to do art for new ornate buildings, such as the churches built during this time or new political buildings. An artistic revival began during this period, which continued throughout the beginnings of the century. Art during this period also began to take on various elements of Neoclassicism and Romanticism, but did not fully embrace either. In the early twentieth century, the art community became divided between those who favored more traditional Tengarian styles of art while others wanted to adopt the trends of Eastern Euclean modern art and of Soravia. This led to a bitter feud between the two factions, one that would last throughout the next decades. During the final years of the Empire, the traditional camp was more prominent, but after the war and the rise the early republic, the modern camp became preeminent. When Kovachev took power, the traditionalists were given pride of place, and modern art largely was surpressed and driven underground.
This conflict also resulted in the destruction of important artistic pieces and sites. Much historic and traditional art, most commonly as was in churches, were destroyed during the fighting in the Great War and Tengarian Civil War. Attacks against churches and religious art were especially common during the civil war by anti-clerical rebels, an act often lamented as the "new Iconoclasm" by the Tengarian Patriarchate. On the other counter side to this, much of the art produced in the early twentieth century by the modern camp was percieved as "ugly" and "disordering" and largely destroyed in the post-civil war reaction of both the government or by local people, largely erasing the artistic legacy from that era.
Since the beginning of the Kovachev regime, the government has been a firm supporter of the visual arts, and has several publicly funded museums which house important collections of art from Tengaria but also other countries around the world. Many historic pieces of art were restored or put under careful preservation under the care of the government. The Tengarian government stresses the importance that works of art ought to be of "religious, cultural or moral merit", and so will generally fund artist based on a set of criteria that usually fits in with traditional art styles and values. Tengaria is a prominent producer of religious art, especially Episemialist art, and is known for its historic schools of iconography. Despite the effots made by the government to preserve certain kind of art, many around the art world criticize the Tengarian government for the measures it takes against art which goes against its values, and that the government purposefully stifles creativity in art in exchange for the enforcing of the cultural norm.
Fresco from the 5th century BC Tomb of Peirous.
10th-century ceramic icon of Saint Teodor of Garna.
Frescoes from the Monastery of the Nativity of the Most Holy Theotokos
13th-century frescoes from Saint George's Church in Elena.
14th-century Iconostasis of Saint Teodor Church in Drangovo.
19th-century Iconostasis in the Cathedral of the Logos.
Tengaria's architecture is largely inspired by historical trends belonging to Eastern and Western Euclea. The early Armonic and Kaloí peoples built buildings of stone, including burial mounds which remain preserved to the current day. The Piraean settlement of Istros saw buildings mainly in the Piraean classical style, although many of the buildings later had the influence of Solarian architecture as well, especially most of the preserved buildings in the city. Tengaria has some of the best preserved Piraean ruins in the world, most of which date from the second century AD. Later, the conquest of the Tengars by the Empire of Arciluco saw the expansion of Arcilucan architecture take prominence, especially in the building of Churches. Examples of this include the sixth-century Basilica of Saint John, one of Tengaria's oldest Churches, which is done in the Arcilucan style. Eventually, during the Grand Principality of Tengaria, Tengarian architects developed their own style, called the Principality Style, although it had marked influence from Arciluco.
At the beginning of the Tengarian Golden Age, styles from Eastern Euclea were brought over, most prominently, the Gaullican and Etrurian styles. The first buildings of the University of Lenovo were built in a Gaullican style. Tengarian architects took these styles together along with the Classical and Arcilucan styles and, taking what they thought best and most beautiful from each, use the combination to create the fusion based Tengarian style, which has dominated Tengarian architecture for centuries. Certain buildings tended to show one more prominently than the others. The architect Lyubomir Krumir laid down the principles of the style in his 1488 book Rules of the Builder, which has been a landmark text in Tengarian architecture since. As a result of using a variety of styles together, Tengarian architects were quite flexible in how they could construct buildings. The style did taken on further baroque influences, but not from schools like rococo. Because of its flexibility, it adapted well with neoclassical and neogaullican revivals across Euclea. The famous building of the Grand Assembly of Tengaria, built in the late nineteenth century, is a prominent example of the Tengarian style, as it combines several styles together, although most prominently Gaullican.
Throughout the late Imperial period in the early twentieth century, there arose an hostile reaction to Modern architecture from the Tengarian architectural community over the percieved lack of "beauty". Many architects of the Tengarian school fell into the sphere of the Znaniya School, and were able to effectively minimize the influence of architects who did not match their values. In 1925, Emperor Dragomir III passed restrictions on the types of buildings that could be built, mostly relegating the use of material such as concrete to be used in industrial buildings only. With the destruction of many buildings in the Great War, some more modern building constructions were used to repair the old buildings, however, there was never much funding on account of the financial issues. After Kovachev took power, he implemented building restrictions, effectively cutting off many avenues of modern architecture, especially in cultural and historic centres such as the city of Lenovo and Istros, both of which have comparitavely fewer buildings such as skyscrapers than other cities. The Kovachev government has also spent significant resources to repair and restore historic buildings. Under his son Dimitri, the rules were laxed slighty in other places around Tengaria, but the proliferation of Tengarian school architects means that most building is done in a more traditional style.
Main Article: Literature of Tengaria
Written literature in Tengaria dates back to the ancient Piraean city state of Istros, along the Southern Coast of the country. The Piraeans were the first ones to use written scripts, and also brought important works of Piraean literature and poetry throughout the centuries from the other Piraean cities. Thus the works of authors such as those of Homer, Sophocles and Pindar were first spread to the city. Trade from the city state to the later Solarian authors would also bring works of Solarian literature, from Vergil to Cicero and Horace, among other works. Many of these literary works, along with many other written works of various categories, had copies preserved at the Xanthos Library. The building eventually fell into decay and was not taken care of, but some of the documents it held were preserved by scholars, making Tengaria possess certain books which had been lost in the Eastern portions of Euclea with the fall of the Solarian Empire. However, most of the literary output of the scholars of Istros consisted in philosophic works, and not works of imaginative literature.
The Kaloí and the Armonic peoples did not have their own written language, but several legends and myths were recounted in literature by their Piraean neighbors, mostly in passing references. These legends, often recounted in philosophical tracts, usually pertained to the Kaloí's beliefs with pertained to philosophical questions of the school. Several scholars of the Agora school claimed that the primary means of oral transmission of folk tales among the Kaloí was through musical poetry; however, no extant examples have survived. Some legends survived in different form when the conquered peoples were assimilated into the Marolevic Tengar tribes in the fourth and fifth centuries, usually being incorporated as certain elements of the new legends, but at the same time the dominance of the Tengars ensured that the folk legends became predominantly Marolevic in origin. One of the most prominent legends was the Marolevic legend of the three brothers of Mier, Tengar, and Sorav, and in particular many legends arose about Tengar himself, which came to serve as an origin myth for the Tengar peoples. These legends continued to be passed down through oral tradition.
With the conquest of the Tengar tribes by the Empire of Arciluco in the fifth and sixth centuries and coinciding with the rise of Sotirianity among the Tengars, the first written literature began to arise. This was principally because the Sotirian missionaries were first able to write the Old Tengarian language, also known as Old Church Marolevic, into the Amathian script, creating the first Marolevic literary language. This marked the beginning of the period of Old Tengarian Literature, a period that lasted from roughly 600-1000 AD. This literary language first saw the translation of the Holy Scriptures and important religious and philosophical texts into Old Tengarian; eventually, however, it saw the development of a variety of poetry and prose, some of which were recorded by religious figures at the time. Most of the literature from this period is religious in nature, and the largest subset of extant literature are religious poetry which speaks on Sotirian messages and themes. Secular poetry also was made, though on a lesser scale. Religious prose included sermons, devotional works, theological tracts, while secular prose includes examples of legal documents, histories, and various scholarly works.
The primary work which has come out of the Old Tengarian literary period is the Epic of Tengar, an epic poem set around the legend of the pursuit of the Great Lion by Tengar and his people, and how he leads his people to the land of Tengaria. This earliest manuscript of the epic is known to be from the nineth century, but it is unknown exactly when or who wrote it. The epic includes both aspects of early Tengar culture but also many Sotirian elements and themes, leading various scholars to say it was a collection of multiple legends of multiple authors compiled by Sotirian editor, that it was a pagan Tengar legend orally transmitted before being written down in the 9th century, or that it was the single work of one author. The work itself fell into relative obscurity did not become widely popular until the late 14th century, when the manuscripts were rediscovered during the beginning of the Tengarian Golden Age. The work became and remained Tengaria's National Epic, and is a core part of the literary education of Tengarians. However, the work was never popularized outside of Tengaria, and thus remains outside the scope of most Eastern literary studies; although it is somehwat more commonly studied in the countries of Western Euclea.
With the establishment of the Grand Principality around 1000 AD, Grand Prince Vasil the Strong had Tengarian scholars implement codifications and standardizations of the Tengaria langauge used in writing, which had been before reflective of the vernacular but not without standardization. This led to the creation of Middle Tengarian, and saw a new literary period begun, mostly focused around the churches and monasteries of Tengaria. Like the period before it, most surviving texts from this period are religious works, although this period begins to mark a point away from more basic religious literature to more complex and academic theological works. This period also is remarked for its legends of Saints of the Church, many transmitted from earlier sources but greatly expanded upon, which became a popular and plentiful source of literature. Legal and political writing also multiplied during this time, aided much by the autonomy of the Grand Principality. As the Empire of Arciluco continued to decline, the Tengarian literary output became both more numerous and prominent as well as unique in style and thought.
With the development of the Iconoclast controversy in the 1370s, the literary output of Tengaria increased as Tengarian theologians took a firmly opposed stance to the Iconoclast movement. With the proclamation of the Imperial translation in 1385 and the beginning of the Tengarian Golden Age, Tengaria's golden age of literature began. The theological and philsophical tracts during this time were the primary literary output, but far from the only ones. Literary works sought to revive some of the literary practices from antiquity. Epic Poetry saw a revival during this, with authors writing various kinds of epics concerning saints, princes and classical figures. Of these, the most famous were two works by the author Georgi Blagunev (1435-1506), one being the Legend of Saint George, which details the life of Saint George, and another called simply The Pilgrimage, an epic which details the spiritual and moral journey of a man through the difficulties of life personified in mythical form. The output of both religous and secular poetry of various kinds increased significantly, from various styles- some imitating the classical or older Tengarian forms, while others popularized a new style of verse known as the Imperial style. Poets from this period included Kalin Spasnov (1344-1411), author of many poems done in imitation of the classical styles, and Andrei Dragomirev (1414-1468), who is credited with developing the Imperial style of poetry. Plays also saw a revitalization during this period, in addition to other works of various kinds. Many works published during this time in Tengaria spread to other Eastern Euclean countries. In addition, linguistic changes from Middle Tengarian and standarization under the Imperial schools saw the development of the Modern Tengarian first as a literary language, which would later become the standardized version on Tengarian.
When the Tengarian Golden Age began to end, the literary output of the country began to decrease, but did not fall off altogether. Poets continued to produce poetry, mostly in the Imperial style, creating periods of "Early Imperial", "Middle Imperial", and "Late Imperial" poetry. Epics no longer to be published on the scale on which they once were, and most of the literary discussion focused on the works which had already been produced. However, despite the decrease in terms of total output, the increase in means of sharing and spreading literature resulted in the beginnings of literary criticism, extending from religious exegisis and commentary to commentary on the works produced. Yavor Yasenev's (1634-1704) Commentary on the Epic of Tengar remains an important text in the development of Tengarian literary criticism. However, unlike literary criticism developing in other parts of the world, Tengaria's tended to focus less on Eastern Enlightenment ideas but instead retained the importance on the Xenagoran methods of understanding literature. Lyuben Vasilev's (1712-1778) New Poetics is based on Xenagoras's poetics and attempts to revive the principles in relation to the more recent developments in literature.
Towards the end of the eighteenth and throughout most of the nineteenth century, Tengaria's literature would become largely dominated by the Soravian literature, which saw the introduction of the literary form of the novel introduced into the country. This did result in several Tengarian authors writing in styles which imitated those of the other moderns; however, these never saw wide popular appeal, in part due to the fact that literacy was only slowly spreading. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, Tengarian literature saw a great revival with the rise of the Znaniya School, as several authors joined the movement and participated in it. The most prominent of these was Gregori Renev (1861-1931), an author and political theorist who wrote several works of literature, including the epic length novel Golden Sun, which is considered the modern landmark work of Tengarian literature; and Stanislav Kozlek (1896-1930), a poet who transformed Tengaria's poetical landscape, and wrote the epic poem, the Vasilad. Largely inspired by the poets of the Golden Age Kolzek's poetry was instrumental in reviving Tengarian poetical practice, causing others to follow in his footsteps. Thus for the time period just before the Great War, the Empire saw another great revival in literary output. However, there was conflict between the established literary community and the Znaniya authors, mostly based on idealogical grounds; nevertheless, the works of these authors became widely popular.
Tengaria's literary scene was greatly altered by the Great War and the political turmoils of the early republic; this saw a certain literary style emerge which focused on dark and dismal themes, or disillusionment of the world. These authors tended to view society in a very negative light, or were idealists jaded by the failure of the early republic. Many of these also tended to be political radicals, and thus many supported the Republicans during the Tengarian Civil War, causing some to die but others to flee into exile, while the rest saw their influence dwindle. After the Civil War, Kovachev included literature as an important aspect of his cultural and educational reform, and incorporated many of the most important texts from throughout Tengaria's history, and gave pride of place in modern literature to the Znaniya School authors. Since the establishment of the Kovachev regime, most authors have kept largely within the tradition of the Znaniya school and their predecessors; some current notable figures in Tengaria's literary scene are Tsvetanka Dimov, author and a winner of the Foirbeis Award in Literature for her novel The Voice of Truth and Stefan Krasimirev, poet laureate and literary critic.
Main Article: Music of Tengaria
Tengaria has a rich musical tradition. The Kaloí tribes were known for their wide variety of cultural music for all kinds of events and customs, which in part led the Piraeans to give their name to the civilization. This made the foundation for Tengarian folk music, which is still preserved in certain forms today all across the country, although it has grown and changed greatly over the centuries. Tengarian folk music is wide and varied, often varying by region. It often has unique features such as asymmetrical rhythms, wide usage of modes and tunings differing from most modern instruments, drone accompaniment, and unique blend of harmony and unison. Folk instruments include the gadulka (bowed instrument), gaida (bagpipe), tambura (lute), kaval (rim-blown flute) and zurna (oboe). Both men and women generally tend to participate in folk music, but often men would be the main singers and musicians while women would more often be the main dancers. to value and prize lower voices, although the range of music is wide.
Knowledge and theory of Piraean Music and the musical ratios of Pythagoras came to the city of Istros. Legend holds that Xenagoras, which was more likely his pupil Xenagenes, taught about the importance of music in the moral education of the youth and how proper and well-ordered music orders the passions, and made music, and the Teleological scholars of Istros made note how deeply music was woven deep into the tribes of the Kaloí. Through Istros the word of the music of the Kaloí was spread to the rest of the Piraean world, and entered into the early music theory, giving the name to one of the classical modes of music, called the Kaloían mode. This mode was reputed to build a noble and serious character in the listener. In addition to its practical and moral character, the scholars of Istros also embraced the Pythagorean idea of the importance of music as a speculative mathematical study. Music theory was an important part of the Agora school in Istros. When the Tengar tribes invaded and overran the Kaloí, they brought their own music, but incorporated the music of the conquered peoples into their own, creating a new fusion of music during the periods of conquest that would further impact the future folk music of the country.
When the region was conquered by the Empire of Arciluco, music began to become more formalized and studied by Arcilucan scholars. In addition, with the country's conversion to Sotirianity, music was an important part of the Divine Liturgy. It was in the Liturgy that Tengarian music really began to become more developed and codified. After the formation of the Grand Principality of Tengaria and the establishment of the autocephalous Tengarian Patriarchate, Tengaria began to form a unique vocal tradition for their Divine Liturgies. It developed a unique monodic (one-voice) singing style which fused together the traditions of Arciluco and yet brought together elements of Tengarian folk music, bar the instruments. Chant together with droning became common usage in Liturgies. The music of the Tengarian Church played a part in the formation of the Episemialist Octoechos system of tones. However, it did not always follow this system exactly, and it made itself unique in several ways, most notably in the way it preserved some of its more ancient modes in its music.
With the proclamation of the Empire of Tengaria in 1385 and the beginning of the Tengarian Golden Age, Tengaria began to develop choral polyphonic (many-voices) music in its Divine Liturgies. A vast quantity of pieces were composed during this time; many have been lost, but still many remain. During this time, music became a prominent speculative study as it had under the days of the Piraean scholars in Istros. The work of the Tengarian musicians soon became the primary source work for polyphonic Episemialist music in the following centuries. Since the Arcilucan music had been mostly based off of the ancient Piraean mode Diatonic Genus, the musical system developed in Tengaria during the Tengarian Golden Age developed distinctly from but with many of the same conclusions of Eastern Euclean music scholars of the later Renaissance reached. As the Tengarian Golden Age declined, so did the production of music in Tengaria, and more influence began to enter into Tengaria from its neighboring countries, bringing in more instruments and expanding Tengarian music from just choral music to instrumental symphonies as well.
A prominent classical composer was Radomir Ervo, who composed the hymn How Admirable is Thy Name in the Whole Earth in 1754, which was a patriotic song associated with the monarchy and used for coronations before it was adopted as the Anthem of Tengaria in 1958. After's Ervo's death, Tengarian composition began a period of decline, which was only stopped in the late nineteenth century, when several musicians and composers variously associated with the Znaniya School began a revitalization of Tengarian music, blending together the rich musical traditions of Tengaria with western notation and tuning systems. Of these composers, one of the most famous included Vasil Silenov, a choral composer, especially for his pieces Do not Cast me Off in My Old Age and Salvation is Created. Ever since, Tengaria has been a place of prominent composition and musical production, mostly featured in choral or instrumental pieces. Tengaria has produced such world-renown singers such as Ventsislav Yavorev, who is considered one of the greatest bass singers of the twentieth cenutry. Yavorev won the country's only Euclovision title in 1964 with his rendition of Дълбока река Лен, or Deep River Len.
Since the beginning of the Kovachev regime, music has had a special pride of place, mostly using the principles of the ancient authors. Simeon Kovachev claimed that "good music is necessary to incline men towards good moral action; hence bad music, which inclines men towards bad moral action, is harmful to the good of the state." As such, the government plays an active role in promotion of what it sees as "good" music, such as giving government subsidies or sponsorships to composers and musicians it deems worthy. Music is an integral part of the educational system, and every student is required to pursue some form of musical study for at least six years. Conversely, the Kovachev regime has been very strict on music it considers to be "bad". Since 1960, most contemporary popular music of eastern Euclean styles have been restricted and regulated in various forms, such certain concerts being made illegal, restrictions on music sales and broadcasts, and heavy government oversight over the Music industry. As such many modern pieces from around the world are considered as Underground music. The government has also sponsored the development of Tonos, a music streaming service which focuses on choral, classical, and folk music, as an alternative to other unapproved music streaming services.
Due to the country's position on most contemporary music, Tengaria has had a difficult relationship sometimes with the music scene of the world. This was most pronounced with the Euclovision Song Contest, where Tengaria has been historically one of the worst performers. The country joined the contest alongside Soravia in 1964, mostly to act as a country supporting Soravia. However, Tengarian won during its debut contest due to Yavorev's innovative performance, but very soon the relative novelty of Tengaria's more traditional submissions failed to resonate with the audiences and judges of the contest, and Tengaria was ranked lowest in the competion for seven out of the next 10 performances it performed in. This poor international reception, combined with very low viewing and internal popularity, caused Tengaria to withdraw from the contest in 1975, with West Miersa taking its role as Soravia's supporter.
Theatre and Dance
Cinema and Animation
Tengaria was relatively late to the cinematic scene, only recieving major Soravian filming equipment after the end of the Great War. Several smaller scale films had been made in the final days of the Empire, but tended to focus mostly on newsreels or straight records rather than the development of movies. In its early days, the Tengarian film industry was dominated by the stage acting community, and its first movies were filmed productions of the great Tengarian plays. Because many of the artists and directors of the stage community were supportive of the Znaniya School, the many of the cinematic directors did not get ideologically along well with the authorities in the Republic. This, combined with the economic collapse leaving no money for major private investors to seriously invest in film, caused the film industry to flounder for two decades. Movies from this time period tend to be fairly minimalist and low-budget, due to the lack of funding. Several more avant-gard directors during this time began to attempt to produce works during this time, but were unable to be widely scaled due to the lack of funding and money. With the film industry remaining small, movie theatres were not widely built, and so the movies produced only tended to be spread on a smaller scale.
During the Tengarian Civil War, however, the film industry first was sponsored by the government to make movies and propaganda films to support the government's side during the conflict. With new funding, the film industry finally began to grow and to expand. At the conclusion of the Civil War, Simeon Kovachev helped to sponsor the production of the very ambitious and high-cost epic film of Vasil the Great. This film was supposed to mark the beginning of the new Tengaria, and utilized the story of the first Emperor to do so. It premiered at the 1958 Montecara Film Festival and secured the country's first and only Béco Aùreo, and even became a popular international success. The movie jumpstarted the Tengarian film industry, which began to expand and quickly developed. However, the circumstances of its development resulted in the industry being noticeably different than most other film industries due to government involvement. The Tengarian government monitors the various films in production and approves and sponsors the ones with strong moral, philosophical or pro-government messages, while at the same time heavily discouraging films which criticize the government or promote vice. Almost all Tengarian filming companies utilize government subsidies for their movies, and so this allows the government to effectively minimize undesirable films. This means that the Tengarian film industry tends to be far more conservative than its worldwide counterparts, as in order to secure government funding and recognition the studios tend to censor ideas which are hostile to the government or scandalous. In addition, most film critics are part of the government sponsored Tengarian Film Association, which oversees film and television awards, as well as which nominates the movie to go to the Montecara Film Festival.
Television only took off slowly during the 20th century after film, as most households did not have access to television during the early republic or Simeon Kovachev's reign, although small-scale television did exist in Tengaria during Kovachev's presidency. The Presidency of Dimitri Kovachev saw the government begin to develop a government-run television industry as a means of informing the public with state news broadcasts and about major athletic events. Dimitri saw this as another means of spreading the government's message directly to the people. Thus television was from its beginnings a public industry. As the use of television increased in Tengaria, programming itself increased as it became more popular, as people began to use television for entertainment purposes as well. Because it was a public industry, the government was able to exercise a good degree of control over the creation and airing of TV shows, ensuring that like the films they are not too scandalous or critical of the government. In addition, the state tends to be particularly careful with children's media, so out of the few options in terms of television watching for young children, all are very heavily regulated. The television industry has grown but is still quite small in comparison to other countries. Several foreign shows are made available in Tengaria through television, but ones with questionable content are not permitted to be aired on live television. The rise of international streaming services allowed many to circumvent these rules, leading to the government to take certain measures against what the streaming services could show.
In recent years under President Teodora Kovacheva, the film and television industry have seen more government sponsorship and development, leading to what Tengarian film critics are referring to as the "Tengarian film golden age". This has seen a number of successful and well-recieved television shows and movies arise. In 2016, a show called Find the Truth became popular both throughout the country and internationally, which is a talk-show about Philosophical topics, and Philosophers from all over the world are invited to come and speak either with the host or with other philosophers. To attract international viewers, it is filmed in Gaullican but a Tengarian dub is always broadcast in Tengaria. Increasingly popular among the younger audiences is Senrian anime style of media, which has led to producers around the coutnry scale begin to utilize the style. In 2018, an anime cartoon done about President Kovacheva, called Kovacheva, also became popular at a countrywide and international level. This show really marked the first time which animation had seen success in Tengarian media. The 2020 film From the Depths was well critically acclaimed and found favorable at the 81st Montecara Film Festival, leading to both a countrywide and international release. The long awaited Joy in the Silence, a film detailing the lives of the monks of Monastery of the Incarnate Logos, is expected to debut82nd Montecara Film Festival.
Entertainment and Gaming
Mass Media and Broadcasting
Main Article: Solarni Novini
There are several news and journalistic corporations in Tengaria, who distribute information to citizens through various means. Print journalism is dominated by Tengaria's oldest print and online newspaper, the Solarni Novini, which dates back to the early 18th century, making it one of the longest running papers in Western Euclea and the world as a whole. The Novini publishes in four languages, and has the vast majority of the country's journalistic structure and funding. However, the Novini, although privately owned, is known for having prominent ties to the government and having a significant degree of media bias. Although there were historic newspapers which rivalled the Novini, such as the Lenovo Novini, many of them were shuttered or reformed vastly after the events of the Tengarian Civil War because of their association to the Republican movement. Although the Novini does not have any major competitors, there exist a variety of smaller newspapers throughout the country, mostly representing localities or special fields such as sports. Most newspapers rely heavily on the resources and stories form the Novini for major events.
In addition to print and online news sources, there also several broadcasting organisations for both radio and television. The Tengarian Ministry of Communications runs a state-run television and radio channel for official state announcements and programming, in addition to the government channels dedicated to entertainment. These public channels are controlled by Tengarska Televiziya and Tengarsko Radio respectively. Besides these, there exist several private broadcasters from certain other organisations for both television and radio, but most of these broadcast entertainment or music. Solarian Media, the corporation which runs the Novini, runs country-wide news broadcasts for both radio and television which are not the only widespread option not run by the government or local channels, limiting the options for country-wide news from other sources. Local stations both for television and radio are broadcast to localities and deal with local or regional news, traffic and train delays.
Freelance journalists and newspapers, while not illegal, can be cracked down on the government if their position becomes too hostile, on account of heavily enforced defamation laws which can result in the shutdown of an independent news source. In addition, due to the de facto monopoly of news into the hands of the government and friendly private corporations, it is nearly impossible for any upstart news organisation to acquire the resources to succeed on a large scale. These factors have lead to criticism of Tengaria as lacking true freedom of the press, and Tengaria is one of the countries in Euclea with the lowest ranks in press freedom. During Dimitri Kovachev's presidency, crackdowns on independent news sources were particularly notorious, with several journalists being imprisoned for criticism of the government's regime.
Although Tengaria is more commonly known for its intellectual pursuits, it nonetheless does have professional sports and athletics. Gymnastics, in its classical sense of bodily exercise, is considered an important part of the development of the country's youth, as Theocritus made clear in his Republic. It is featured in the education of every Tengarian student in the lower and upper portions of Primary School. Students often also pursue sporting events while in universal school as side activities. However, Tengaria's universities lack official sports teams so that the students who go there pursue the intellectual life fully. As such it is usually after graduating universal school that most Tengarians who go into athletics as a profession begin their career or go to special training schools to do so. Many people do sports simply for as recreation as well. Tengaria has many sporting clubs, some serious, and some more recreational, and most of which encompass a variety of sporting groups and events. It works in sports together with its allies Samorspi, but due to its warmer climate it generally pursues different sports than its northern neighbors.
Tengaria joined the Invictus Games in 1898, and has competed in each of the Invictus Games since, being one of the few countries to do so, having the same Invictus Committee under both the Empire and the Republic. Tengaria won the bidding to host the 1918 Summer Invictus Games in the city of Istros, being the sixth iteration of the Invictus Games, which was its most successful year in the games. Although financial difficulties saw Tengaria's performance at the games fall significantly short in the years following the Great War, Tengaria began to put more funding and interest following the Civil War, and had its best period in the summer games from 1966 to 1974. Since 1998, Tengaria has not seen a year where it has not won a medal at the summer games. In the Winter Games, Tengaria does not send many athletes, and usually only competes in biathlon and cross-country skiing, and has a significantly lower medal count.
The most ancient sports still widely practiced in Tengaria are Athletics and Wrestling. These events were brought to Tengaria both through the city of Istros and the Empire of Arciluco, and became repopularized when Tengaria joined the Invictus Games in 1898. By far the most popular sport in Tengaria is athletics, as has a strong emphasis on athletic events, particularly at longer distances or encompassing all the practices. The most prestigious and highly competitive sport is the decathlon, as it is seen as a universal sport and a mastery of many things. Each of its component parts is also highly valued, and so Tengaria places great interest track and field tradition as well. In addition, Tengaria has a strong marathon and more recently ultramarathon community. Tengaria has been the most successful at the Invictus Games at athletics, particularly in the Decathlon, having won the gold medal for the decathlon a record 9 times, and is has by far more medals for athletics than any other sport. Boris Radoslavev, widely considered to be Tengaria's greatest athlete, is the only person to have won three decathlon gold medals in the history Invictus Games. Tengaria is also home to many famous internationally recongised athletic competitions, including the Lenovo Marathon, the Izdrŭzhlivost Meeting, the Len River Ultramarathon. For wrestling, young men are encouraged to wrestle with others in order to increase their strength and because it is seen as a healthy masculine activity, and are included for male gymnastics classes in the education. Various clubs and tournaments are held locally, regionally, and throughout the country each year, and Tengaria has seen success in the Invictus Games in this sport. These sports are generally dominated by men, as it is often seen as being more improper to women.
The primary organized sport of Tengaria is that of Volleyball. There are both men and women who play professionally in Tengaria, and this is the primary sport which women athletes do, as it seen as more acceptable. As such, focus and coverage of the sport tends to focus more on the female side, and also because the women tend to be better on the international level. There are two professional leagues, the Tengarian Volleyball League being the women's league and the Tengarian Volleyball Association being its male counterpart. On average, the women's league gets higher viewership than the men, although in other sports the men always get higher ratings. The teams associated with both are often also associated with the multi-sport clubs. In addition to the professional level, volleyball is a popular recreational sport, having clubs across the country, as well as being a very popular pick-up game. As the nation's primary team sport, Tengaria is also competitive internationally, both in the men's and women's divisions, and regularly compete at a high level in the Invictus Games, and Tengarian teams have won gold medals in the sport 7 times.
Towards the very end of the nineteenth century, Tennis was imported from Eastern Euclea and became a popular sport in Tengaria, particularly of the upper class. Unlike athletics and wrestling, it became popular for both women and men, and various clubs were formed for the sport. The predominant courts used in Tengaria are clay courts, but hard courts also exist as well. One of the people sent to the first Invictus Games in 1898 was a tennis player. Tennis has continued to remain a popular sport, but it is usually only done by the wealthier citizens of the country. Recently, the sport has grown more popular with the success of several players, one of which, Radoslav Lyubomirev, a singles gold-medal Invictus winner who is considered one of the best male tennis players of all time and is the current number 1 ranked male tennis player in the world. In addition, Tengaria has seen several women succeed in the sport to reach the number 1 spot, such as Nikolina Antoneva and Gloria Rumenova. Tengaria is also home to the Lenovo Open, which although not a Grand Slam is one of the primary tournaments of the Masters Series.
Other popular sports in Tengaria include Zadany and Basketball, and to a far lesser extent Football and Rugby. Zadany was the historic sport of the upper class, who had the access to horses necessary to do it, but in the last century the audience for it greatly expanded and the sport became more popular. There are a variety of clubs dedicated to the sport around Tengaria, and there exists a devoted fandom to the international Zadany scene. Tengaria ranks highly internationally in this sport, as the teams it fields at the international level are of fairly high caliber. Tengaria has won 11 medals in the Invictus Games for Zadany, in part due to the fact that it is only popular in certain countries. Basketball is popular throughout Samorspi, and while Tengaria's teams are rarely as good as Soravia, they can usually compete well with other countries, and Tengaria has won three Invictus medals in the sport. Most basketball teams are organized by the various sporting clubs around the country, and several prominent players have gone to play in international professional leagues. Finally, Tengaria has clubs for both football and rugby, but these tend to be often behind their Euclean counterparts, as neither are as popular as the other sports, and do not draw much attention in Tengaria.
Tengaria has thirty officially recognised holidays. Of these, twenty-four of these are classed as public holidays, whereby all workers and students in Tengaria are entitled to paid days off of labour. The remaining six cultural holidays, although they are not paid public holidays, are still recognized as important days and many localities or businesses observe them. Most holidays in Tengaria are religious in nature, including all but four of the public ones, due to Patriotic Union's focus on promoting the Episemialist Faith. Twelve of the public holidays coincide with the twelve Great Feasts of Episemialist Church, together with a higher thirteenth, the great feast of Pascha. The other holidays are days of other kinds of significant importance, such as Unification Day, which marks the signing of Tengaria's second constitution, and President's Day, which celebrates the Presidency and is held on the day which the politicians take office after an election. President's Day used to be on the day when Simeon Kovachev was born but was changed in early 2021, when Kovachev was proclaimed a Saint to not overlap with the new feast day. Several holidays are both religious and cultural holidays, namely the feasts of the patron Saints of Tengaria, which in addition to Saint Simeon's Day also includes St. Mihail's Day and St. Vasil's Day, among others. Until the 20th century, Tengaria followed the old calendar which Soravia still uses, which was thirteen days off from when they are around the rest of the world, but the Patriarchate of Tengaria followed Arciluco and adopted the revised calendar for its feasts.
Tengaria has two major holiday seasons, one in late December and January around the Theophany and the other in the spring centered around Pascha. The Theophany Season begins on the first of January with the Forefeast to the Nativity, continues through the joint Feast of the Circumcision of Christ and St. Vasil the Hierarch, and finally culminates in the Great Feast of the Theopany of Our Lord, finally ending on January 15th with the conclusion of the Afterfeast of Theophany. Theophany is the primary feast of the season, and is usually accompanied with great dancing and celebration not associated with the other two feasts. On Theophany, the cleansing of the waters is a Tengarian tradition, where a Cross is cast into a body of often icy-cold water, then requiring men to retrieve it. Gift-giving is a popular custom on the Feast of the Circumcision, particularly with the joint patronage of the Theotokos and Saint Joseph as gift-givers. Because of this, gift-giving is traditionally done on the part of individual families, in particular parents to children, but in recent years the expansion of gift-giving has extended to others more generally. This is often done as Tengarians have grown to recognize Nativity with gift-giving as well, due to its common association with gift-giving around the rest of the world; Nativity is seen by some as the days to get presents for friends and lovers, while family gifts are reserved for the Circumcision.
The Pascha holiday season begins on Lazarus Saturday at the very end of the Great Lent, which marks the beginning of Holy Week, which has within it important feasts such as Palm Sunday, one of the Great Feasts; Holy Thursday, which traditionally features both a rite of anointing and of washing of the feet; and Good Friday, one of the three days of the year at which the Royal Hours are sung. Although the Great Lent is over, nevertheless Holy Week is also marked with fasting and penitential observances culminates with the solemn celebration of Paschal Vigil and Pascha Sunday. This marks the height of the liturgical year. After Pascha Sunday, the generally celebrated season continues on for all of Bright Week until Thomas Sunday, where the doors of the Iconostasis are left open to celebrate Sotirias's triumph over the grave and daily processions happen after each Divine Liturgy. However, the forty-day afterfeast of Pascha continues on until the Feast of the Ascension of Jesus. Various traditions are done throughout this season; Lazaruvane celebrations, which primarily feature young women dressed brightly and celebrating, are common on Lazarus Sunday, while on Good Friday it is customary to have a large but silent Procession with the Cross through the streets. Red painted Eggs are given on Pascha to the faithful to represent the new life and end of the fasting while also calling to mind the blood of Sotirias.
Tengaria also has Sunday laws in place which restrict Sunday shopping on all Sundays and religious public holidays of the year, whereby most stores and busisnesses are banned from opening on Sunday. On Sundays and religious public holidays, most businesses are required to give workers time off and are not allowed to be open. Exemptions are made for emergency workers, such as police and emergency responders, and for certain "necessary" work, such as designated businesses which function to serve travelers, or an individual's private work. Workers are also required by law to have at least five work weeks or 25 days of paid leave, though some businesses give more, because most businesses operate on a five-day work week. In addition, the worker will get additional days of paid leave depending on the amount children they have, with three days for one child, six days for two children, twelve days for more than two children. On public holidays which fall upon a Saturday, the public holiday is celebrated on Friday, and with those which fall on Sunday, are celebrated the Monday after. Women can also get paid maternity leave for up to 52 weeks, but men do not get any paid paternity leave. Many businesses also give additional paid or more often unpaid leave, usually around the Theophany and Pascha seasons. Tengaria's laws on leave and labour were largely put in place by Simeon Kovachev, who was opposed to excessive focus on work, and believed that leisure was important for culture as well as the moral well-being of the population, as a source of both intellectual and spiritual renewal.
|January 1||Circumcision of Christ||The combined feast of the Circumcision of Jesus and St. Vasil the Hierarch. Start of the new calendar year.|
|January 6||Paramony||Eve of the Theophany. A day of strict fast and special liturgical functions.|
|January 7||Theopany of Our Lord||Celebration of the Baptism of the Lord. Third highest feast of the year.|
|February 2||Presentation of the Lord||Celebration of the Presentation of the Lord in the Temple.|
|March 4||Liberation Day||Celebration of Liberation from Amathian Occupation.|
|March 15||Unification Day||Anniversary of the signing of Tengaria's Second Constitution.|
|March 25||Annunciation||Celebration commemorating the Annunciation and Incarnation.|
|moveable Saturday||Lazaruvane||The day before Palm Sunday.|
|moveable Sunday||Palm Sunday||One week before Pascha.|
|moveable Friday||Good Friday||Two days before Pascha.|
|moveable Saturday||Holy Saturday||Day before Pascha.|
|moveable Sunday||Pascha||Celebration of the Resurrection of Sotirias, highest feast of the Year.|
|moveable Thursday||Ascension||Forty days after Pascha. Feast of the Ascension of Sotirias.|
|moveable Sunday||Pentecost||Fifty days after Pascha. Feast of the Descent of the Holy Spirit and second highest feast of the year.|
|April 17||St. Simeon's Day||Formerly President's day, changed with proclamation Simeon's of Sainthood in 2020.|
|April 23||Saint George's Day||Feast of Saint George as celebrated by the Tengarian Church.|
|July 10||St. Mihail's Day||Feast of the Apostle to the Tengars, St. Mihail|
|August 6||Transfiguration||Celebration commemorating the Transfiguration of Sotirias.|
|August 15||Dormition of the Theotokos||Celebration of the Falling Asleep of the Holy Theotokos.|
|September 1||Indiction||Start of the liturgical year.|
|September 8||Nativity of the Theotokos||Commemoration of the Birth of the Holy Theotokos.|
|September 9||Army Day||Day celebrating the Tengarian Army.|
|September 14||Elevation of the Holy Cross||Celebration of Saint Helen finding the True Cross. A day of strict fast.|
|October 10||St. Hristofor's Day||Feast of St. Hristofor the Holy, Emperor of Tengaria.|
|November 6||St. Vasil's Day||Feast of the first Emperor of Tengaria.|
|November 14||President's Day||Celebration of the Presidency of Tengaria. Moved from April 17th in 2020.|
|November 21||Presentation of the Theotokos||Commemoration of the Theotokos's entrance into the Temple.|
|December 24||Nativity's Eve||Day before the Nativity.|
|December 25||Nativity||Celebration of the birth of Jesus Sotiras.|
|December 31||Vigil of the Circumcision||Day before the Feast of the Circumcision.|