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Republic of Tengaria
Motto: "Нация, ред, единство"
"Natsiya, Red, Edinstvo"
"Nation, Order, Unity"
Location of Tengaria (dark green) in Euclea (light green & light grey) and in Samorspi (light green)
and largest city
|Ethnic groups||Tengarian- 91.5% |
|Religion||96.8% Episemialist |
|Government||Unitary dominant-party Presidential Republic|
|Legislature||Grand Assembly of Tengaria|
|Senate of Tengaria|
• Fall of Lenovo
|September 6, 1930|
• Resistance Movement
• Republic Established
• Current Constitution
|15 March, 1958|
|305,981 km2 (118,140 sq mi)|
• 2020 estimate
• 2014 census
|73.08/km2 (189.3/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|682.65 billion (21st)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|334.26 billion (22nd)|
• Per capita
Tengaria (Tengarian: Tангария or Tangaraiya), officially the Republic of Tengaria (Tengarian: Република Tангария or Republika Tangaraiya) is a sovereign nation situated in Western Euclea in the world of Kylaris. It is bordered by Amathia to the East, Ravnia to the West, and Minrovina to the North. Tengaria is located along the warm coastal plains and has a warm Temperate Climate, and shares both a border with Lake Min to the northeast and the Mazdan Sea to the south. The country's geography features fertile plains for farming, thick forests, coastal beaches and cliffs, and rolling hills. The wide outlet of Lake Min, the historic River Len, flows through the central valley of Tengaria, and along it is where the capital of Lenovo is located, as well as the ancient Piraean city of Istros.
The ancient home of the Tengar tribes straddled the borders of the Solarian Empire. Soon after its fall, the tribes were conquered and Sotrianized by the Empire of Arciluco, and later became an independent Grand Principality when the Empire's authority declined. Following the collapse of the Empire to the Realm of Thorns in 1385, the Grand Prince was named Vladetel by the exiled Ecumenical Patriarch, founding the Empire of Tengaria. The Empire was the intellectual center of Western Eculea for several centuries, but Tengaria began to lose its influences, eventually falling into the sphere of Soravia. During the Great War, the Empire was invaded and occupied by the Amathians. A resistance movement, led by Simeon Kovachev, fought against the occupation, and successfully restored sovereignty after the war with Soravian support. After the war a Presidential Republic was created, although it was was plagued by instability, factionalism and a rough economy, which eventually culminated in the Tengarian Civil War. After the War, Kovachev took over on a platform of National Unity and Order. Since Kovachev's reforms, Tengaria has been a Unitary Presidential Republic, well known for its strong presidential powers and centralized authority under a dominant-party system with the National Rally dominating Tengarian politics under the leadership of the Kovachev family.
Tengaria is well known for its strong patriotism and sense of national identity, highly centralized government and economy, strong infrastructure and a low crime rate. In addition, it has a rich tradition in both philosophy and literature, being considered often the beacon of Western Euclean thought. Although this reputation suffered in the later centuries, Tengaria's intellectual scene has prospered under the Kovachev family. Tengaria's unique educational system and emphasis of philosophy make it distinct and unique from other countries, although critics say that it focuses too much on outdated and antiquated philosophy. Critics have also labeled the country as "undemocratic and authoritarian", strong governmental control and use of underhanded means to keep power, including alleged incarceration and elimination of political opponents. Although Simeon's son Dimitri Kovachev loosened some of the systems in order to modernize the state, including becoming a member of Samorspi in 1984, Simeon's authoritarian system remains entrenched and strongly in control. The current President, Teodora Kovacheva, has taken measures to improve the public image and to lower abuses while maintaining the incumbent system and supporting her grandfather's ideas.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Education
- 7 Economy
- 8 Culture
Early History (before the 5th century)
The earliest known records for the region was originally inhabited by a group of tribes known as the Proto-Tengars, which are a group of tribes believed to be the ancestors of the later Tengar tribes. Little is known about the Proto-Tengars outside of the artifacts they had left behind. Eventually, they came to share a common linguistic background similar to but distinct from the Marolev tribes to their west and their north, and eventually became known as the Tengars. Piraean settlers settled in the southwest region, and also the city of independent city state of Istros along the central Southern Coast. This first coastal city first exposed the Tengars to the civilization of the Piraeans, and was the largest city in the region for many years, until it eventually began to fall into decline. The Piraean language and system of writing did spread to some of the southern tribes but the did not reach most of the tribes. Eventually, the tribes formed various kingdoms, which ruled over different portions of Tengaria for different times. However, only a few kings were able to consolidate large portions of the geographic region, and so it remained disunified.
The realms of the Tengar were located at the far borders of the Solarian Empire, and engaged in warfare with the Empire. The Empire did make several incursions into the Tengar lands and even for a time controlled a slight portion of eastern marches of Tengaria. For the most part however, this border territory was often the center of many conflicts between the Solarians and the Tengars, with the Tengar tribes sometimes making advances into Solarian territory. The Solarians first called the region "Tengaria", which the region was referred to as henceforth. Several settlements and border forts in the East made by the Solarians have been discovered, but they are sparse. While the Tengarians were exposed to Solarian culture, it did not become widespread as of that time. During the late stages of the fourth century AD, the Tengars were attacking the western borders of the Empire, contributing to its collapse in 426.
Rule by the Empire of Arciluco and Principate (5th century-1385)
Main Article: Grand Principality of Tengaria
After the decline and fall of the Solarian Empire, the Solarian rump state of the Empire of Arciluco withstood the attacks of the Tengars, and soon began to actively conquer the region, which took several centuries. The Tengar tribes were incorporated into the Empire, brought Sotrianity, civilization and written language to the Tengarians. The complicated script used by the Amathians eventually was made into the Pavaric script, which suited the Tengarian language more naturally. The Piraean and Vulgar Solarian languages did become spread, but the Tengarians still largely spoke their own tongue. Eventually, the walled villages of the Tengarians developed into towns, and Tengaria flourished and developed under the Empire of Arciluco for several centuries. However, as Tengaria developed, its language and heritage put it at odds with the Amathian state. In addition, the Empire kept on waning in power around the turn of the first millennium; and around the turn of the century, the authority of the Empire had dwindled. The borders of Tengaria were sorely beset by other Marolev tribes, and by the tenth century, things were looking difficult.
A Tengarian nobleman by the name of Vasil Silen was a general for the border forces of the Empire during the eleventh century. During this period Marolev invasions were particularly fierce, and Vasil managed to hold them off and win battle after battle. His victorious army threatened to proclaim him Emperor of Arciluco, and the Emperor, his authority already weakened, decided instead to establish the Grand Principality of Tengaria and name Vasil as the first Grand Prince, which would give de facto Independence to Tengaria, while still acknowledging the authority of and paying tribute to the Amathian Emperor. This arrangement proved satisfactory, and now Tengaria. Tengaria now was a regional power, although it was still part of the Empire. Tengaria first began to centalize into a single power during this time period, beginning to become gradually culturally distinct from Amathia.
Imperial Era (1385-1927)
Main Article: Empire of Tengaria
The Grand Principality supported the iconodule Emperor during the Amathian Civil War which resulted in the collapse of the Empire of Arciluco and the establishment of the Realm of Thorns. The exiled iconodule Ecumenical Patriarch and the royal family fled to Tengaria. After crowning the Grand Prince, St. Vasil the Great, as the next Emperor (Vladetel) and marrying him to the daughter of the last impaled Emperor, the Empire of Tengaria was formed. With the new prestige, Vasil the Great consolidated Tengarian control over the surrounding region. His reign marked the beginning of the Tengarian Renaissance, a period of intellectual and philosophic flourishing and cultural renewal. Tengaria became the major intellectual centre of Western Euclea, with the establishment the University of Lenovo as the first University in Western Euclea in 1405. The thought Xenagoras became widespread and united with Orthodox Episemialist, leading to Tengaria becoming the prominent source of Iconodule theology at the time. A great deal of philosophical and theological writings, as well as literature and stage plays, date to this time period.
As its position as nominal leader of the Episimialist world, Tengaria became involved in the Iconoclast Wars in 1408 supporting the Duchy of Pavatria against the Kingdom of Ravnia and the Realm of Thorns. During the war, it invaded Amathia and was able to conquer the western marches from the iconoclasts. However, it was never able to capture Arciluco, and it lost the lands it did gain when the iconodule Unio Trium Nationum came into power. The Ravnians were able to take the western marches of the Empire. With Ravnia's iconoclasm still remaining, the iconclasts had scored a victory, discrediting Tengaria's role as leader and causing the political decline of Tengaria's power. The Duchy of Pavatria became the prominent political power in Western Euclea, and although the Emperor of Tengaria kept his title, the title lost its old authority in the eyes of the West. However, Tengaria continued to remain a regional power and an intellectual centre for the next few centuries.
Overtime, the the power of the Empire began to diminish and decline, with gradual territoral losses to Ravnia. With the arising of the Soravian Empire, Tengaria became a minor power relegated to the sidelines. The rising power Kingdom of Amathia also saw Tengaria hemmed in other side of three great powers. Tengaria was strong enough to keep from being conquered but never enough to make itself a prominent power. Eventually, the Empire began to fall into the sphere of Soravia, and the Tengaria intellectual life began to decline and Eastern Euclean and Soravian thought began to dominate the intellectual circles. The Empire began to stagnate economically and politically. At the beginning of the 20th century, however, several signs of renewal emerged. The economy improved, infrastructure began to be established, and the Znaniya School began to change the intellectual atmosphere of the country. However, the beginning of the Great War would mark the death knell of the Empire.
The Great War (1927-1935)
The Empire entered into the Great War on the side of the Grand Alliance and Soravia. From the beginning of the war, Tengaria faced two enemies on two fronts- Ravnia to the West and Amathia to the East. Tengaria's army was relatively well trained and well supplied, and was composed of two major kinds of forces- a well trained force of mobile light infantry skilled in fighting in rough terrain, as well as its more poorly trained traditional infantry. Seeing Ravnia is the larger threat, the Imperial Army committed most of its forces to the Western Front, especially around Lake Min. It established a defensive front to keep out any Amathian incursions from the East. The War began quite well for the Tengarians, with the well trained light infantry gaining several key victories in the early part of the war against Ravnia. Ravnia's preoccupation with the Soravian Front made this possible in part, but also the spectacular victories of Simeon Kovachev, who quickly rose through the ranks despite his age.
However, the front against Amathia fared very poorly, with the Amathians breaking through the Imperial lines at several points, making significant gains. The Tengarian army was slowly but surely pushed back, and by 1929, the situation was dire. Most of the resources put on the Western front were called back to face the problems in the East. This caused the gains made in the West to be indefinsible and subsequently lost back to Ravnia. The Amathians kept on defeating the Tengarian forces, pushing them further and further back. Ravnian advances along the coast began to spell the death knell for Tengaria as the forces encroached closer and closer to Lenovo. On the 6th of September in 1930, the Amathians were finally able to sieze the city of Lenovo. By this point, the Emperor had already fled the city, and the Imperial family was divided. Some fled to Soravia, some joined with Simeon Kovachev's forces, and some stayed behind during the occupation. Empreror Dragomir III himself fled to the Imperial Navy, which attempted to sail to Soravia to get further support for Tengaria; however, the Ravnians intercepted the Tengarian Battle Fleet and destroyed it, taking the Emperor prisoner. The few remnants of the Imperial government who stayed behind capitulated, and the Amathians declared the Empire to be over.
Kovachev still was in control of Tengaria's best forces, and he retreated to the Northernmost hills of Tengaria, close to the border of Soravia and the shores of Lake Min. Many fragments of the defeated portions of the Imperial Army and volunteers joined him, forming the Tengarian National Army. With the support of several members of government who had fled the city, Simeon was proclaimed as the Head of a Provisional Imperial Government while the Emperor was imprisoned. The National Army was able to fight a Guerrilla War against the Amathian forces. With strategic support from Narzolica, local support and Kovachev's leaderhsip eventually the National Army was able to recapture key positions and pushing back the Amathians and Ravnians from Tengarian territory. Tengaria's orginal borders were restored at the conclusion of the war.
The Early Republic (1935-1955)
Simeon Kovachev continued to function as the Head of the Imperial Government for a short duration after the war. However, at Narzolica's insistence, the royal family was not invited back to restore the Empire. Instead, a Republic was declared in 1935, although Kovachev was supposed to take charge. Kovachev, a monarchist, resigned from his position in disgust. Instead, the process of forming the new republic fell into the hands of a committee of republicans, who structured it as a Presidential Republic with a President and a National Assembly as the legislature. The Imperial Senate was transformed into the upper house, while the new National Assembly took most of the legislative power. The prominent Republicans who fashioned the new government came to be called the "Renewal Party", and their candidate, Gregori Ervo, won the first Presidential Election, in part by setting up the system to favor their election. However, the Constitution lacked many ways in which the branches could check the others, which would cause considerable issues with the division of the government later.
The primary opposition party to the Renewal Party was the Restoration Party, which was largely conservative and pro-monarchy, but lacked viable support to do much of anything. However, although the Renewal Party had majorities, soon, however, the party began fighting itself. The economically conservative republicans remained in the Renewal Party, while the moderate economic reformers split into the Reform Party and the farther-left reformers split into the Labour Party. Now none of the parties had a majority in either house, although the Renewal Party had the most seats in the Senate and Reform Party did have the most seats in the National Assembly, which remained true for the next several elections. Vasil Stoychev won the 1940 elections, but no party had a majority in the National Assembly or the Senate. As a result, legislative power faltered, but not completely. Using the people's frustration to his advantage, Vladmir Vasilov was elected as President in 1945 and 1950. However, he could not accomplish much with the legislature actively working against his policies. The Partisan fighting became worse, and the parties became solidified by their area- Labour in the Presidency, Renewal in the Senate and Reform in the National Assembly. By the 1950s, the situation was becoming increasingly worse and worse. The country was in economic shambles, the government could not accomplish anything, and soon violence began erupting on the streets. No Presidential candidate since the founding of the republic had managed to secure over 41% of the popular vote, and things were looking dire.
Tengarian Civil War (1955-1957)
Main Article: Tengarian Civil War
In the elections of 1955, Dimitri Denov, a war hero of the Great War, ran on a campaign with the Restoration Party, promising to bring stability, to end the political squabbles, and to restore the Tengarian Empire. Sick with the failure of the Republic and the other parties, Denov won the election soundly, and the Restoration Party won a majority of seats in the National Assembly. The republican parties, furious at the outcome, immediately protested the election. The incumbent members of the National Assembly barred the doors from the newly elected members. The Labour unions began to strike against the new regime. And 11 days after assuming office, President Denov was assassinated. His Deputy President, Simeon Radez, immediately assumed office and tried to resume order, but it was too late. The leftist members of Senate and the National Assembly both fled Lenovo and began amassing support. On the 28th of November the new People's Republic of Tengaria was proclaimed with Rumen Santov as its president, branding themselves as the "Repulicans". They declared that they were the legitimate government of Tengaria, and that Radez's administration was unconstitutional and illegitimate. Many members of the military deserted during this time to the Republicans, although most stayed loyal to Radez under the command of Simeon Kovachev, who had remained as Commander of the Army. The Tengarian Civil War had begun.
The War would last a little under two years. Due to lack of the organized military that the Radez government possessed, the Radez government had the upper hand over the other factions. The republicans often resorted to militias and guerilla warfare to fight against the government. However, in 1956 Radez was assasinated by a Republican, throwing the Loyalist government into chaos. Declaring a state of National Emergency, Simeon Kovachev took over as head of the government until the crisis was over, and founded the National Rally to foster national unity in the wake of the crisis. This proved massively popular, and the Republicans soon found themselves both beaten back and without support. They capitulated in May of 1958. The civil war had ended.
Post Civil War Tengaria (1957-present)
In the wake of the Civil War, Simeon Kovachev was left in charge of the government as provisional head. It was clear that the first system of the Republic was a failure. He could not restore the monarchy like he wanted, due to the international backlash that would no doubt arise, especially from Tengaria's main backer and ally, Soravia. At the same time, he realized that leaving it as it was would only make things worse. To create a solution, he wrote a new constitution for the Republic, in which the Presidency was stronger and had more ability to prevent the issues which had happened in the early republic. The Constitution was based on a strong government to preserve order and unity, and to minimize the effects of civil strife and factionalism. In order to achieve this, he began actively promoting his campaign, the National Rally. The Rally was a non-partisan movement, running on a platform of establishing national stability, order, and ending partisanship. After decades of political chaos and a Civil War, the idea was massively popular. Kovachev and National Rally swept the elections under the new constitution in 1958, and he began to make reforms and to stabilize the country.
Kovachev's Presidency was remarkably successful. Tengaria saw an economic boom over the next two decades, overcoming the debt the republic had wracked up and making a surplus by 1975.
Dimitri Kovachev, Simeon's son, was elected as President after the death of his father in 1983. Less of an idealist than his philosopher and more of a pragmatist, he did not continue to develop many of the projects his father had laid the foundation for, instead trying to modernize Tengaria more and to ensure the survival of the National Rally throughout the next decades. He instituted six year terms for the Presidency, and also brought Tengaria into Samorspi.
|Template:Tengaria labelled map||23x15px Bogorodista||Bogorodista||XXXXX||North|
Tengaria is a Unitary Republic that uses a Presidential System of government, with heavy powers being granted to the nation's President. The First Constitution of the Republic, which was in place from 1935 until 1958, was overturned after issues with its structure of government and political division caused the rise in the Tengarian Civil War in 1955. Simeon Kovachev authored the Second Constitution after the Civil War, and it was approved by referendum and promulgated on the 15 of March, 1958. The Second Constitution of Tengaria is considered the prime legal document of the Nation, and was meant to provide a strong government to fix the problems with the nation under Kovachev's supervision. Dimitri Kovachev instituted several reforms to the Constitution in 1999.
The President is both the head of state and the head of government, and wields broad executive powers. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Tengarian Armed Forces, appoints the members of the Tengarian Senate, can submit or veto legislation, appoints cabinet members and justices with approval of the Senate, to determine and to implimate domestic policy and foreign policy, and has all of the ceremonial duties of a head of state. Under the original constitution, the President served for life; however, President Dimitri Kovachev reformed the limit to unlimited six-year terms as part of his constitutional reforms to bring it into more compliance with modern governments. The President is the most powerful and influential figure in the Tengarian government.
Legislative power is invested in the Grand Assembly of Tengaria, which is a bicameral legislature, consisting in the upper house, the Senate of Tengaria, and the lower house, the National Assembly of Tengaria. The Senate of Tengaria focuses on judicial oversight, presidential appointments, and cultural and ceremonial affairs of Tengaria. Senators serve for life terms or until they resign, and are appointed by the President. There are 50 seats in the Senate, and all are considered indepedent politicians, not bound to any party. Several clergy and noblemen are granted seats in the Senate. The National Assembly is the house which deals more actively in legislative affairs, and can create legislation, declare war, has power of the purse, approves treaties, and other legislative affairs. There are 380 seats in the National Assembly, serve six year terms.
The government has been dominated by the Kovachev family, who have controlled the powerful Presidency for sixty years, and the political movement they lead, the National Rally, which is socially conservative and explicitly anti-partisan, has consistently dominated the legislature by huge margins. Tengaria and its constitution is considered by most Eastern Euclean sources as undemocratic and authoritarian. Questions about the veracity of election results, combined with the promotion of the National Rally in media, literature and education, and rumors of suppression of other political movements, give it a low ranking on many international democracy listings.
Foreign Relations and International Institutions
Judiciary and Law Enforcement
Main Article: Tengarian National Army
Since the defeat of the Imperial Army during the Great War and the capitulation of the Empire of Tengaria in 1930 of the Great War, a young general named Simeon Kovachev withdrew the shattered remnants of the Imperial Army to the rural Visoclesian Hills, and reformed them into the Tengarian National Army.
Tengaria is one of the world's most religious countries, with a vast majority of the population being active participants in Episemialist Sotrianity. One of the most religious countries in Euclea and in the world, the religious unity of the populace is high, with the government placing a high priority on the faith as essential to maintaining national unity. This stems from the country's deep historic roots in Sotrianity. Currently, the Episemialist Church is openly endorsed and supported financially by the national government, and works with the Church to establish laws to foster religious and national unity. The basic principles of the Sotrian faith are mandatory to learn and are taught in Tengarian schools, and study in theology is cultivated and encouraged from a young age in many schools. Other religions are allowed, but tend to be on the outside and are looked down upon by the Episemialist populace.
The Tengar tribes were converted by Amathian missionaries in the sixth century at the same time the Empire of Arciluco began to control the region, making the Tengarians are some of the Marolev tribes who have held Sotrianity for the longest time. Sotrianity thrived and flourished for centuries, deeply imbeding its roots in the country. Churches served as centers of faith and learning to the developing Tengarian civilization. During the Iconoclast schism in the late forteenth century, Tengaria took up the banner of 'Orthodox' Episemialism, with the authority granted by the exiled Ecumenical Patriarch as the temporal leaders of the Sotrian world. This position as the intellectual 'leader' of the Episemalist world for time, although Soravia remained the dominant political power, solidified Tengaria's Sotrian heritage, with Sotrian thought mixing with the philosophy to form a unique school. For centuries, all branches of learning were intimately tied together with Episemialism. As more secular Soravian thought came to dominate Tengaria and its schools, the religion began to become removed from educational programs around the country. The Znaniya School sought to restore its place in the beginning of the twentieth century, but it was not until Simeon Kovachev took power that their plans could be brought to fruition and restored the religion's pride of place.
Education in Tengaria is a time honored tradition, dating back to the ancient Piraean city state of Istros on the Southern Coast in the third century BC. Xenagenes, disiciple of the great philosopher Xenagoras, founded a school in the city, known as the Agora. The Teleological School flourished in the city, although it became secondary to the other philosophers when the Empire of Arciluco came to dominate the region in the sixth century. Over the centuries, the Tengars came to adopt the Liberal arts education of the Solarians and Piraeans, passed on by the Amathians. In addition, the local churches established by the Sotrian missionaries provided another source of learning. The process of education was slow and gradual, as the Tengars were a rural and pastoral people, and most of the learning began to be focused in the towns and around churches. However, by the time of the Grand Principality of Tengaria, Tengaria had become more of its own state, the schools became more prominent and widespread. By the rise of the Empire of Arciluco, Tengaria had a well developed educational system and a strong philosophical and theological community. Emperor St. Vasil the Great took the educational system and reformed it, marking the beginning of the Tengarian Renaissance. He established the University of Lenovo in 1405, the oldest university in Western Euclea. The Agora school became popular once again. Tengaria for several centuries became the centre of learning in Western Euclea, and was well known for its intellectual community. The University, the Agora and soon several other insitutions became places for discussion and learning.
Eventually, Tengaria's Renaissance came to an end. The political dominance of Soravia of the region caused the educational community to fracture and to slowly decay. Although initially opposed, modern thought from Eastern Euclea began to make its way into Tengaria. Eventually those who believed in them came to positions of power, and the classics began to be put aside for the sake of the newer material. In addition, Soravian republican thought began to become prominent in the academic sphere in the late 19th century. Modern Soravian literature and Eastern Euclean scientific advancements and thought became mainstream amoung the intellectual community. Whereas before Tengaria's educational system had remained unique, it became more and more like that of other countries, with academic circles beginning to try to imitate the rest of Euclea. The old Agora school fell into neglect once again. Tengaria's education began to fall behind even its Euclean rivals. The Znaniya School was formed in part as a reaction to the state of Tengarian Education, as they sought to restore Tengaria's schools to their old heritage and strength, especially by turning back to the intellectual history and to Teleology as the means to properly educate the young. However, the academic community worked against the new school, despite its popularity, and so the schools did not have a chance to reform between the Great War.
During the Great War, higher education was suspened with the Amathian invasion and occupation. After the war, with the formation of the Republic, it was dominated by the Soravian inspired republican university staff. With the university staff now largely entering into politics, the followers of the Znaniya School began to slowly enter into the education system. However, the poorly mananged republic floundered, and the state of education was considered rather weak, as the country as a whole suffered political turmoil and economic collapse. After the Tengarian Civil War, Simeon Kovachev took power. A disciple of the Znaniya School, he viewed education as his top priority for Tengaria, as the education of the youth is vital in producing a virtuous society. He immediately worked to reform the system, dismissing unwanted teachers from positions of power, restructuring the entire Tengarian educational system, implementing a socratic liberal arts education focused on the Great Books, changing the division of the arts and sciences to a more classical system and putting heavy government oversight and funding into education. Kovachev’s system is still in use today, despite criticism from outside countries.
Tengaria has one of the world's most unique curricula, designed and implemented by Simeon Kovachev and inspired by the thought of the Znaniya School. The education harkens back to the ancient liberal arts education of Piraea and the Solarian Empire, but further and beyond this is ordered primarily by Teleological and Episemialist principles. However, it distinguishes itself from other liberal arts education in principle- whereas other liberal arts programs pursue a “humane studies” or “general education", Tengaria views the liberal arts as seven introductory disciplines which prepare the student for the more profound subjects, those that constitute the heart of a liberal education. The ultimate goal of the liberal education is the knowledge of the truth to be found by Wisdom both Divine and Natural, namely Theology and Philosophy. A liberal education is one that "frees" men by pursuing this truth, allowing them to know and pursue their proper end. The education is not ordered towards any practical end or career path, but is instead ordered to pursuit of knowledge for its own sake and for producing virtuous citizens.
For this reason, the Primary Education of Tengaria is focused on the study of the classical Trivium, namely Grammar, Logic and Rhetoric, and Quadrivium, namely Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and Music. The study and habituation of these speculative arts give the student the necessary foundation by which they can study the higher things later in the curriculum. Students study the basic principles of these arts, and habituate them by means of demonstrating propositions, giving arguments, grammatical exercises, studying the stars, listening too and giving speeches, and other methods. The students do practical exercises do not study them merely for their practical ends, but rather use these practical means for the sake of studying the speculative or scientific knowledge of these arts. When possible, works by the great authors are used. The foremost example of this is Euclid's Elements for Geometry. However, this is not always practical or possible for every subject or for every grade level, so textbooks and manuals are occasionally used.
In addition to the liberal arts, all primary school students (both upper and lower) take religious education, gymnastics (physical education), musical performance and civic virtue classes. Religious education is taught from an Orthodox Episemialist point of view, and educates the populace on the principles of the faith from an early age. Gymnastics is seen as necessary for the development of a healthy and well balanced lifestyle. All students learn how to sing and are required to study another instrument of their choice. This is required because music is seen as a means of ordering the soul towards the good, and it also habituates the students in musical experience. This is distinct from their study of music as a liberal art, which focuses on the mathematical and auditory principles of the speculative art of music. Finally, all students take Civic Virtue classes, which are classes which aim to teach ethics and national loyalty from a young age, as well as national history. All students, when studying grammar, are also taught ancient Piraean.
After successful completion of both levels of primary school, students move to secondary school, called Universal School. It is named as such because the curriculum is still focused on the study of universals and speculative knowledge, rather than particulars and practical knowledge. Students study Theology, Philosophy, Natural Science, and more advanced Mathematics. These are counted as the "Universal Studies", and are given priority in the order of studies. Theology is given primacy of place due to its divine origin; Philosophy is also very highly valued. The natural sciences, such as biology and chemistry, and more advanced courses of mathematics, such as algebra and calculus, are also considered instrumental and necessary for a complete understanding of the principles of the world. Textbooks are very rarely used; most reading takes place from the greatest works of the prominent authors. By using the books themselves, students are challenged to engage with the great conversation of the intellectuals throughout history. In addition, literature and history are also studied, along with a continuation of musical performance and civic virtue classes, but are not given as much importance as the others. Although completing Universal School is the requisite for all citizens, there are other further steps of secondary education. Students who enter into Preparatory School continue the Universal Studies until they are prepared to enter into tertiary education. Technical school diverges away from speculative knowledge and focuses on the practical studies for students who desire enter into the workforce.
The universities of Tengaria are funded for and overseen by the government, who oversee. Students who study at University pursue the core studies of the universal education, except at a much more intense and comprehensive level. The liberal arts are again approached, but now as looking back upon the principles which lead into the higher sciences, from a vantage point of experience. In addition, there are no history, music, or civic virtue classes, and University focuses on developing the intellectual life of the students. All students take the same degree, and once they graduate, they are allowed to move on to higher studies in a particular field. This uniformity is in place so that the students will have a basic understanding of universal speculative knowledge before they go on to study a narrower field of study. Tengaria is considered to have a very strong classical education, and the students come out having a wide range of knowledge.
However, the education is not without its detractors. Several international educators criticize the lack of electives and specialization options available for students, saying that it causes students from finding paths which uniquely suit their abilities and talents. Some have criticized it for being too archaic and backwards, with its classical mindset hampering the students through poor educational focus or outdated thought. Because the thought and intention behind the education is so radically different than most countries, several think the whole system is flawed. Innovators claim that a focus on learning through books and lack of technological learning and other modern developments hamper the student's abilities to thrive in the modern world. The harshest critics say that contrary to the education's goal to make the students free, the religious education and civic virtue classes constitute nothing less than "brainwashing".
|Preschool||Предучилищна (Preschool)||2 years (age: 4 to 6)||Basic Reading and Writing, Experiential Learning|
|Primary education||Нисък Училище (Lower school)||3 years (age: 6 to 9)||Grammar, Arithmetic, Geometry|
|Горен Училище (Upper school)||3 years (age: 9 to 12)||Logic, Astronomy, Music, Rhetoric|
|Secondary education||Универсален Училище (Universal school)||5 years (age: 12 to 17)||Universal Studies, Literature, History|
|Подготвителен Училище (Prepratory school)||1 or more years (age: 17 to 18 or later)||Further Universal Studies|
|Технически Училище (Technical school)||1 or more years (age: 17 to 18 or later)||Apprenticeship or other Practical Training|
|Tertiary education||университет (Bachelor's degree)||3 years||Higher Universal Studies|
|Майсторство (Master's degree)||1 or 2 years||Specialized Subject|
|Докторат (Doctorate)||3 years or more||Specialized Subject|
Stages highlighted in yellow below are compulsory.
Tengaria's educational structure shares some similarities to other countries, but also differs in the methodology and material. All schools in Tengaria are run or heavily overseen by the government, and all follow the same general structure. Tengaria has 11 years of mandatory education, from ages 6 to 17, though other levels are offered before and after. Primary and secondary education are required, with the Primary education being split into two parts. Furthermore, education is often split by sex; oftentimes, the schools are single-sex or several the classes in the school are divided by sex, even the nation's universities. By law, gymnastics and civic virtue classes are always split by sex, and can differ in focus for each sex.
Parents can send their children to designated preschools when the child reaches four years of age. This is designed to give the child early sense experience in order to foster his later education. Another important function of this lower school is to ensure that the children have some basic literacy before they enter in primary school. If the parent chooses to opt out the child from preschool, they must ensure their child has this literacy before they are allowed to enter into primary school. Primary school is divided into two parts, a lower and an upper, each lasting three years. After this, all students go into the Universal school, which lasts for five years. Every student takes the same courses, and most finish by the time they are 17 or 18. Some take longer, but students who consistently fail are sent to designated schools for students with learning issues. If deemed unable to complete the education at all, special exceptions are made.
After the completion of Universal school, students are no longer required to take any studies. Most students enter into the workplace immediately after school, or might get an apprenticeship. Those wishing to learn technical skills can go to certain government sponsored Technical schools, which are designed to give the students practical knowledge of their field of interest. For those wishing to pursue higher education, they must take an common examination. Each university has a threshold which the student must clear. The threshold is fairly high, and many do not pass the first examination. If the student does not make any threshold, he may go to a Preparatory school to study more to pass the examinations.
Tengaria has multiple institutions of higher education.
Science and Technology
Literature and Philosophy
Tengaria has a rich tradition in both Literature and Philosophy, dating back to the ancient Piraean city state of Istros on the Southern Coast. Tengarian legend holds that the great philosopher Xenagoras came to Istros and founded a school of Philosophy in the late third century BC. Most historians now agree that this claim is spurious, and that it was one of Xenagoras' disciples, Xenagenes, who founded a school in the city, who is responsible for writing several works later mistakenly attributed to Xenagoras himself, namely, the Mechanics and On Indivisible Lines. Regardless, Teleological philosophy dominated the learning of the independent city state of Istros for the next few centuries through the Agora, the school which Xenagenes, even after the school of thought was largely forgotten in the Solarian Empire and Piraea itself. After the Empire of Arciluco came to dominate the region, the Tengars were exposed to the texts of the other ancient Piraean and Solarian authors, and came to follow the classical mode of the Liberal arts education which was developed in the Solarian Empire and Piraea. In addition to Teleology, Sophism and Stoicism became more widespread and became the dominant stands of philosophy, following the influence of Arciluco. The rise of Sotrianity in Tengaria also brought Sotrian Theology into the forefront, and most Theologians took a Sophist bent. In addition to the thought of antiquity being passed on, with the advent of written script, the three great Tengarian Epics, which up to that point had been passed on orally, were written down. For the next few centuries, Tengaria's philosophic and literary scene would be largely considered just as a part of the Empire of Arciluco.
After the formation of the Grand Principality, the Tengaria's culture began to become more unique, as the writings of Xenagoras once more began to gain traction and support. However, there was still a great deal of dialogue between the two, especially with the Sophist-leaning theologians of the Empire. It was not until the collapse of the Empire of Arciluco and the rise of the Realm of Thorns, together with the rise of the Empire of Tengaria, which lead to the so called Tengarian Renaissance, which lasted from 1385 until 1550. With partial influence from famous Scholastic writings and learning of East Euclea caused the Emperor to establish the University of Lenovo as the first West Euclean University in 1405. During this time, the writings of Xenagoras became mainstream, and the Tengarian theologians, turning against the now heretical iconoclast theologians of Amathia, embraced Teleology. The Patriarch of Lenovo, St. Boris the Confessor, famously defended the writings of Xenagoras in his tract On the Unity of Wisdom, which wove together Xenagoran Philosophy with Sotrian Theology, and his work on the In Defense of the Images of God, which defended the usage of Icons. During this period, Tengaria became a center for learning and Orthodox Episemialist thought in the Western portion of Euclea. In addition, Tengarian plays, in an attempt to revive and perfect the old plays of Antiquity, saw a great revival during this period, with men such as Gregori Rumen and Dimitri Vasilev writing influential tragedies and comedies. A great deal of philosophical and theological writings date to this time period, and there was an active culture of intellectual discussion in the Tengarian Empire. The old Agora school, which had fallen into decay, was revitalized.
However, Tengaria soon began to become politically overshadowed by the nearby Soravia, and its increasing influence began to bring the Tengarian intellectual Renaissance to its end. Tengaria retained its scholarly discourse and schools of learning, but lagged behind the more modern states in terms of scientific advancement. Scholars such as Lawrence Lugin were know to come to Tengaria to access texts or engage in active philosophic discussions. Eventually, modern thought from Eastern Euclea began to make its way into Tengaria, but was often met with hostility by the intellectual community, but slowly modern thought began to make more progress. With Soravia's influence on the Empire and the formation of the Republic in 1861, Soravian republican thought began to become prominent in intellectual circles. The focus transferred from the classics to modern Soravian literature and Eastern Euclean scientific advancements and thought. The academic circles began trying to imitate the other places of Euclea.
At the turn of the twentieth century, an Teleological resurgence began to come again with the famous Znaniya School, which was a group of scholars together at the Agora. At the head of this movement was Ivan Istina, a philosopher, scientist and Polymath who attempted to united Xenagoras' thought with modern advancements in science and Sotrian teachings. With him were Archbishop Aleksandar Dilov, who was a prominent Theologian who published several important works the nature of grace and divine providence from Episimialist tradition, as well as other many popular tracts; Gregori Renev, an author and political theorist who wrote several works of literature, including the Golden Sun, which is considered the landmark work of Tengarian literature; and Stanislav Kozlek, a poet who transformed Tengaria's poetical landscape, and wrote the epic poem, the Vasilad. The school included other scholars as well. The school was known for supporting the reestablishing of the Tengarian national identity, support of the Empire, and reforming the educational system to refocus on the classics, especially Tengarian works, and on Epsimiliast thought. The school was ostracized by the current academics at the time, although they attracted many other Tengarians, including Simeon Kovachev. Disaster would strike the school during the Great War, when many marched off to fight in the war. Many died, including Istina and Kozlek, during the war, and those who were too old to serve were at points killed by the Amathian occupiers for the danger which they poised.
With the collapse of the Empire and the establishment of the Republic, civil discord undermined the philosophic and literary scene. Many who led the new republic were the scholars themselves, as they tended to have the strongest republican sentements and knowledge of how to operate a republic. However, they quickly clashed amoung themselves, and soon the universities began to flounder as the faculty diminished, most serving in public office. In addition, the economic downturn and political chaos saw the decline of the Tengarian university system, with fewer and fewer students enrolling. When Simeon Kovachev took power in the wake of the civil war, he instituted his educational reforms, done in the model of the Znaniya school. With the implementation of the model, the ideas of the Znanya school- revitalized Teleology, Epismialist Theology, and emphasis on the classics and developing citizens of virtue, has changed the philosophical and literary scene in Tengaria. However, ideas from Soravia and other Euclean idealogies does exist as well. Currently, Tengaria is considered a leader in the field of classical studies, historical philosophy, and Episimialist theology.
Cinema, animation and media
Tengaria was relatively late to the cinematic scene, only recieving Soravian filming equipment after the end of the Great War. The Tengarian film industry was dominated by the stage acting community, and its first movies were filmed productions of the great Tengarian plays. Many cinematic directors did not get idealogically along well with the Republic, and so the film industry floundered for two decades. During the Tengarian Civil War, however, the film industry first was sponsored by the government to make movies to support the government's side during the conflict. Having a chance to shine, the film industry finally began to grow. At the conclusion of the Civil War, Simeon Kovachev helped to sponsor the production of the very ambitious and high-cost epic film of Vasil the Great. This film was supposed to mark the beginning of the new Tengaria, and utilized the story of the first Emperor to do so. It premiered at the 1958 Montecara Film Festival and secured a Béco Aùreo in the 1958. With this, the Tengarian film industry began to expand and continued to develop. However, it is noticeably different than most other film industries, in that the government tends to keep an eye on the various films and approve and sponsor the ones with strong moral messages and positive attention, while heavily discouraging films which criticize the government or promote vice. This means that the Tengarian film industry tends to be far more conservative than its worldwide counterparts, as in order to secure government funding and recognition the studios tend to censor ideas which are hostile to the government or scandalous.
In addition to the cinematic scene, Tengaria in recent years has begun to develop television shows and cartoons. Television only took off slowly during the 20th century, only in the later stages with Dimitri Kovachev began to develop it as a means of informing the public with state news broadcasts and with athletic events. Programming eventually increased as it became more popular, however, the government still influences the same degree of control over the creation and airing of TV shows. Several foreign shows are made available in Tengaria through television, but ones with questionable content are not permitted to be aired on live television. In addition, the state tends to discourage young children from watching too much television, so out of the few options in terms of television watching for young children, all are very heavily regulated The television industry has grown but is still small in comparison to other countries. In recent years, new ideas have been explored, such as an animated cartoon done in a Senrian style which included an epsiode about President Kovacheva herself, however still portraying her as a positive role model and an ideal leader.
Most of the news and journalistic corporations in Tengaria are state sponsored. The primary means the news media uses are printed and electronic newspapers and television broadcasts to inform the populace of events going on both locally, nationally, and internationally. In addition to these, the news and government agencies also have begun to use various forms of social media and online platforms to get their message across. Freelance journalists and newspapers, while not illegal, are discouraged by the government, and defamation laws are heavily enforced and can result in the shutdown of an independent news source, especially during Dimitri Kovachev's presidency. This has lead to criticism of the Tengaria as lacking freedom of the press, and is one of the countries in Euclea with the lowest ranks in press freedom.