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Republic of Tengaria
Motto: "Нация, ред, единство"
"Natsiya, Red, Edinstvo"
"Nation, Order, Unity"
Location of Tengaria (dark green) in Euclea (light green & light grey) and in Samorspi (light green)
and largest city
|Recognised national languages||Savader|
|Ethnic groups||Tengarian- 91.5% |
|Religion||95.7% Episemialist |
1.5% Other Sotirian
|Government||Unitary dominant-party Presidential Republic|
|Legislature||Grand Assembly of Tengaria|
|Senate of Tengaria|
• Fall of Lenovo
|September 6, 1930|
• Resistance Movement
• Republic Established
|15 March, 1958|
|305,981 km2 (118,140 sq mi)|
• 2020 estimate
• 2014 census
|73.08/km2 (189.3/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|682.65 billion (21st)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|334.26 billion (22nd)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2020)|| 29.9|
|HDI (2020)|| 0.859|
|Patron saint||Saint Vasil |
Tengaria (Tengarian: Tангария or Tangaraiya), officially the Republic of Tengaria (Tengarian: Република Tангария or Republika Tangaraiya) is a sovereign nation situated in Western Euclea in the world of Kylaris. It is bordered by Amathia to the East, Ravnia to the West, and Vynichia to the North. Tengaria is located along the warm coastal plains and has a warm Temperate Climate, and shares both a border with Lake Min to the northeast and the Achelonian Sea to the south. The country's geography features fertile plains for farming, thick forests, coastal beaches and cliffs, and rolling hills. The wide outlet of Lake Min, the historic River Len, flows through the central valley of Tengaria, and along it is where the capital of Lenovo is located, as well as the ancient Piraean city of Istros.
The ancient home of the Tengar tribes straddled the borders of the Solarian Empire. Soon after its fall, the tribes were conquered and Sotrianized by the Empire of Arciluco, and later became an independent Grand Principality when the Empire's authority declined. Following the collapse of the Empire to the Realm of Thorns in 1385, the Grand Prince was named Vladetel by the exiled Ecumenical Patriarch, founding the Empire of Tengaria. The Empire was the intellectual center of Western Eculea for several centuries, but Tengaria began to lose its influences, eventually falling into the sphere of Soravia. During the Great War, the Empire was invaded and occupied by the Amathians. A resistance movement, led by Simeon Kovachev, fought against the occupation, and successfully restored sovereignty after the war with Soravian support. After the war a Presidential Republic was created, although it was was plagued by instability, factionalism and a rough economy, which eventually culminated in the Tengarian Civil War. After the War, Kovachev took over on a platform of National Unity and Order. Since Kovachev's reforms, Tengaria has been a Unitary Presidential Republic, well known for its strong presidential powers and centralized authority under a dominant-party system with the National Rally dominating Tengarian politics under the leadership of the Kovachev family.
Tengaria is well known for its strong patriotism and sense of national identity, highly centralized government and economy, strong infrastructure and a low crime rate. In addition, it has a rich tradition in both philosophy and literature, being considered often the beacon of Western Euclean thought. Although this reputation suffered in the later centuries, Tengaria's intellectual scene has prospered under the Kovachev family. Tengaria's unique educational system and emphasis of philosophy make it distinct and unique from other countries, although critics say that it focuses too much on outdated and antiquated philosophy. Critics have also labeled the country as "undemocratic and authoritarian", strong governmental control and use of underhanded means to keep power, including alleged incarceration and elimination of political opponents. Although Simeon's son Dimitri Kovachev loosened some of the systems in order to modernize the state, including becoming a member of Samorspi in 1984, Simeon's authoritarian system remains entrenched and strongly in control. The current President, Teodora Kovacheva, has taken measures to improve the public image and to lower abuses while maintaining the incumbent system and supporting her grandfather's ideas. Tengaria is a member of the Community of Nations and Samorspi.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Education
- 7 Economy
- 8 Culture
The first recorded name of the land currently known as Tengaria was Evgenikía, named by the Piraean settlers when they first discovered the region. This is derived from the Piraean word evgenís, meaning "noble" or "gentle", on account of the peacefulness and music of the people they met there. Later the Solarians called it Evgenicia The current name Tengaria is derived from the Marolev Tengar tribes who have occupied the region after the fall of the Evgenikoí tribes, and is the name given to the region by the late Solarians referring to the "Land of the Tengars". The name of the Tengars is based upon the word Tenger in the native to the tongue of the Tengars, and comes from an ancient word for sea, in reference to them being the Marolev tribes which were located closest to the southern Achelonian sea. This may also have to do with the fact that the Tengars were across the other side of the largest inland body of water in Lake Min from the north Marolevs, or perhaps also in reference to their settlement around the River Len and the Coastal Plains which connected them to the Sea.
Early History (before the 5th century)
Archeological records of settlement around the Len River Valley date back thousands of years. The earliest known records for the region was originally inhabited by a group of tribes known as the Evgenikoí, who were related to other tribes of Dytikoí and Satrio-Euclean origin, a name first recorded by the Piraean settlers. Little is known about the Evgenikoí outside of the artifacts they had left behind and accounts given by the Piraeans and later the Solarians. They were described by such as a mostly peaceful people, and were well known for their songs and music. They kept mostly to rural farming communities, however, the tribes were known to still wage war against one another or against migratory groups. Although they left no written records, they did have their own language, worship their own gods, and had a common culture, leaving behind burial chambers, settlements, and religious artifacts. They are also credited with developing the fighting style of the Peltast, which spread through Istros to the rest of the Piraean world. Piraean settlers settled in the southwest region, and also the city of independent city state of Istros along the central Southern Coast. This first coastal city first exposed the Evgenikoí to the civilization of the Piraeans, and was the largest city in the region for many years.
The Piraean language and system of writing did spread to some of the southern tribes but the did not reach most of the tribes. Around 450 BC, many various tribes of the Evgenikoí were united under one King, Peirous, who formed the Kingdom of Evgenikía. This Kingdom only encompassed the southern and central region of modern Tengaria, focused around the Len River Valley and the Coastal Plains. To the Northwest the linguistically related but geographically seperated Armonic culture began to grown and thrive, and eventually city states formed the Armonic League in Visoclesia. Although there were kings, very few cities were built, save for a city on the banks of the Len which eventually came to be Lenovo. Other distinct Evgenikoí tribes remained outside of the Kingdom as well, especially upon the Western hills. When the Solarians first conquered Amathia, some of the Priedan tribes fled to Evgenikía as a means of escape. Now the realms of the Evgenikoí were located at the far borders of the Solarian Empire, and engaged in warfare with the Empire. The Empire did make several incursions into the Evgenikoí lands and even for a time controlled a slight portion of eastern marches of Tengaria. For the most part however, this border territory was often the center of many conflicts between the Solarians and the Evgenikoí, sometimes making advances into either's territory. Several settlements and border forts in the East made by the Solarians have been discovered, but they are sparse.
While the Tengarians were exposed to Solarian culture, it did not become widespread as of that time. However, Sotrianity is regarded as spreading to Istros in the region in the first few centuries. Despite being in conflict with the Solarian Empire in the initial centuries, the Evgenikoí eventually began to make alliances with the Solarians, hiring themselves as mecenaries. When Marolevs eventually invaded the land from the West and North, the Evgenikoí were driving either towards the Sea, into the Visoclesian Hills, or into Solaria itself. The remaining Evgenikoí became foederati of the Amathians. Many Marolevs passed through the land on their way to Solaria. The ones which stayed in the region were known as the Tengars. Once they had come dominate the region during the waning days of the Empire, the Solarians first called the region "Tengaria", which the region was referred to as henceforth. Eventually the Western Empire collapsed in 426, but the Empire of Arciluco continued to hold on in the East. The Tengars assimilated the remaining Evgenikoí into their peoples, and came to dominate the region.
Rule by the Empire of Arciluco and Principate (5th century-1385)
Main Article: Grand Principality of Tengaria
After the Marolevic invasions of Solaria began to cease, the Tengars slowly began to take the land which had once been theirs again. However, the power to the East, the Empire of Arciluco, looked to expand its borders Westward. Over the next two centuries, Arciluco conquered most of current day Tengaria, barring Visoclesia, into the Empire. The Tengar tribes were incorporated into the Empire over time, and at the end of the sixth century Saint Mihail of Tengaria, a missionary from Arciluco, brought Sotrianity to the Tengar tribes, becoming the first Archbishop of Istros. In addition, soon civilization and written language to the Tengarians by the Amathians. The Piraean and Vulgar Solarian languages were spread to a certain exten, but the Tengarians still largely spoke their own tongue although some did learn Vulgar Solarian for official buisness with the Empire. Eventually, the walled villages of the Tengarians developed into towns, and Tengaria flourished and developed under the Empire of Arciluco for several centuries. However, as Tengaria developed, its language and heritage put it at odds with the Amathian state. In addition, the Empire kept on waning in power around the turn of the first millennium; and around the turn of the century, the authority of the Empire had dwindled. The borders of Tengaria were sorely beset by the Visoclesians, and by the tenth century, things were looking difficult.
A Tengarian nobleman by the name of Vasil Silen was a general for the border forces of the Empire during the eleventh century. During this period Visoclesian invasions were particularly fierce, and Vasil managed to hold them off and win battle after battle, eventually turning the tide of the war and himself conquering the tribes of Visoclesia under his rule. His victorious army threatened to proclaim him Emperor of Arciluco, and the Emperor, his authority already weakened, decided instead to establish the Grand Principality of Tengaria and name Vasil as the first Grand Prince, which would give de facto Independence to Tengaria, while still acknowledging the authority of and paying tribute to the Amathian Emperor. This arrangement proved satisfactory for Vasil, and now he could govern his people and yet be removed from the dangerous Imperial politics taking place in Arciluco. Thus in about 1000 AD (although scholars contest that this was the exact date, saying it might be a few years off), Tengaria finally became unified under a Prince, although it was still subject to Arciluco.
Over the next few centuries, Tengaria began to develop, as it continued to grow under the Empire yet in its own unique ways. Although Istros was the historic city of prominence, growth began to prosper around the central valley of the River Len. Around 1300, the capital was transferred to the city of Lenovo, and it remained the capital ever since. Tengaria grew in strength, although it was still part of the Empire, and could not shake out of its control; a revolt by Geto II ended in disaster for the Prince when Imperial loyalists betrayed it in 1199. Tengaria first began to centralize into a single power during this time period, beginning to become gradually culturally distinct from Amathia, yet still assisting it in its wars and struggles.
Imperial Era (1385-1927)
Main Article: Empire of Tengaria
The Grand Principality supported the iconodule Emperor during the Amathian Civil War which resulted in the collapse of the Empire of Arciluco and the establishment of the Realm of Thorns. The exiled iconodule Ecumenical Patriarch and the royal family fled to Tengaria. After crowning the Grand Prince, Vasil V, as the next Emperor (Vladetel) and marrying him to the daughter of the last impaled Emperor, the Empire of Tengaria was formed. With the new prestige, Vasil the Great consolidated Tengarian control over the surrounding region. His reign marked the beginning of the Tengarian Renaissance, a period of intellectual and philosophic flourishing and cultural renewal. Tengaria became the major intellectual centre of Western Euclea, with the establishment the University of Lenovo as the first University in Western Euclea in 1405. The thought Xenagoras became widespread and united with Orthodox Episemialist, leading to Tengaria becoming the prominent source of Iconodule theology at the time. A great deal of philosophical and theological writings, as well as literature and stage plays, date to this time period.
As its position as nominal leader of the Episimialist world, Tengaria became involved in the Iconoclast Wars in 1408 supporting the Duchy of Pavatria against the Kingdom of Ravnia and the Realm of Thorns. During the war, it invaded Amathia and was able to conquer the western marches from the iconoclasts. However, it was never able to capture Arciluco, and it lost the lands it did gain when the iconodule Unio Trium Nationum came into power. The Ravnians were able to take the western marches of the Empire. With Ravnia's iconoclasm still remaining, the iconclasts had scored a victory, discrediting Tengaria's role as leader and causing the political decline of Tengaria's power. The Duchy of Pavatria became the prominent political power in Western Euclea, and although the Emperor of Tengaria kept his title, the title lost its old authority in the eyes of the West. However, Tengaria continued to remain a regional power and an intellectual centre for the next few centuries.
Overtime, the the power of the Empire began to diminish and decline, with gradual territoral losses to Ravnia. With the arising of the Soravian Empire, Tengaria became a minor power relegated to the sidelines. The rising power Kingdom of Amathia also saw Tengaria hemmed in other side of three great powers. Tengaria was strong enough to keep from being conquered but never enough to make itself a prominent power. Eventually, the Empire began to fall into the sphere of Soravia, and the Tengaria intellectual life began to decline and Eastern Euclean and Soravian thought began to dominate the intellectual circles. The Pavaric script became the norm, replacing the old Amathian script in official usage. The Empire began to stagnate economically and politically after the reign of Vasil IV. The economic situation continued to worsen, which created worsening unrest, kept in check by the Imperial Army. In 1848 the Simeon III came to the throne, and in after repressing several revolts instituted a noiminal constitution in several Imperial Acts from the dates of 1851 to 1855, as well as other amendments from later in his reign. Among other things, these acts included codifying the Senate of Tengaria, a historic body of Nobility which met upon occasion previously, into a permanent body; and establishing the National Assembly of Tengaria as a popular assembly, creating the two as the Grand Assembly of Tengaria. He first began to bring modern elements to Tengaria, and commissioned the completion of the famous Tengarian Assembly Building in Lenovo. He worked to bring in modern infrastructure and industrialization from Eastern Euclea, and laid the groundwork for much of Tengaria's later achievement.
All of this laid the groundwork for a renewal which began to emerge during the reign of St. Hristophor "the Holy", which saw a kind of rebirth in Tengarian civilization and national identity and economic prosperity. As it began to modernize, Hristofor's promotion of the faith and works of charity and kindness made him widely popular among the lower classes; however, the intellectual elite and some of the nobility despised him for his charity and generosity, or simply for his power as monarch. During the reign of his nephew, Dragomir II, the Znaniya School of Philosophy and Literature arose and became widely popular and began to change the intellectual atmosphere of the country against the influence of the more progressive thought of the contemporary Intelligentsia. In addition, during the reigns of these monarchs, a rebirth of architecture and music was seen in Tengaria, especially focusing on the ideals of beauty and order. Dragomir II's policies also helped avert some of the damage of the Great Collapse, and Tengaria fared better than most countries, but still suffered somewhat. Resentment among the intellectual community and like minded people began to grow, however, and the period of growth and rebirth was cut short by the outbreak of the Great War in 1927.
The Great War (1927-1935)
The Empire entered into the Great War on the side of the Grand Alliance and Soravia. From the beginning of the war, Tengaria faced two enemies on two fronts- Ravnia to the West and Amathia to the East. Tengaria's army was relatively well trained and well supplied, and was composed of two major kinds of forces- a well trained force of mobile light infantry skilled in fighting in rough terrain, as well as its more poorly trained traditional infantry. Seeing Ravnia is the larger threat, the Imperial Army committed most of its forces to the Western Front, especially around Lake Min. It established a defensive front to keep out any Amathian incursions from the East. The War began quite well for the Tengarians, with the well trained light infantry gaining several key victories in the early part of the war against Ravnia. Ravnia's preoccupation with the Soravian Front made this possible in part, but also the spectacular victories of Simeon Kovachev, who quickly rose through the ranks despite his age.
However, the front against Amathia fared very poorly, with the Amathians breaking through the Imperial lines at several points, making significant gains. The Tengarian army was slowly but surely pushed back, and by 1929, the situation was dire. Most of the resources put on the Western front were called back to face the problems in the East. This caused the gains made in the West to be indefinsible and subsequently lost back to Ravnia. The Amathians kept on defeating the Tengarian forces, pushing them further and further back. Ravnian advances along the coast began to spell the death knell for Tengaria as the forces encroached closer and closer to Lenovo. On the 6th of September in 1930, the Amathians were finally able to sieze the city of Lenovo. By this point, the Emperor had already fled the city, and the Imperial family was divided. Some fled to Soravia, some joined with Simeon Kovachev's forces, and some stayed behind during the occupation. Empreror Dragomir III himself fled to the Imperial Navy, which attempted to sail to Soravia to get further support for Tengaria; however, the Ravnians intercepted the Tengarian Battle Fleet and destroyed it, taking the Emperor prisoner. The few remnants of the Imperial government who stayed behind capitulated, and the Amathians declared the Empire to be over.
Kovachev still was in control of Tengaria's best forces, and he retreated to the Northernmost hills of Tengaria, close to the border of Soravia and the shores of Lake Min. Many fragments of the defeated portions of the Imperial Army and volunteers joined him, forming the Tengarian National Army. Simeon by this point had already been named as Regent by Emperor Dragomir III and was the effective Head of State of Tengaria for the next five years while the Emperor was imprisoned. The National Army was able to fight a Guerrilla War against the Amathian forces. With strategic support from Soravia, local support and Kovachev's leaderhsip eventually the National Army was able to recapture key positions and pushing back the Amathians and Ravnians from Tengarian territory. Tengaria's orginal borders were restored at the conclusion of the war.
The Early Republic (1935-1955)
Simeon Kovachev continued to function as the Head of the Imperial Government for a short duration after the war. However, at Narzolica's insistence, the royal family was not invited back to restore the Empire. Instead, a Republic was declared in 1935, although Kovachev was supposed to take charge. Kovachev, a monarchist, resigned from his position in disgust. Instead, the process of forming the new republic fell into the hands of a committee of republicans, who structured it as a Presidential Republic with a President and a National Assembly as the legislature. The Imperial Senate was transformed into the upper house, while the new National Assembly took most of the legislative power. The prominent Republicans who fashioned the new government came to be called the "Renewal Party", and their candidate, Gregori Ervo, won the first Presidential Election, in part by setting up the system to favor their election. However, the Constitution lacked many ways in which the branches could check the others, which would cause considerable issues with the division of the government later.
The primary opposition party to the Renewal Party was the Restoration Party, which was largely conservative and pro-monarchy, but lacked viable support to do much of anything. However, although the Renewal Party had majorities, soon, however, the party began fighting itself. The economically conservative republicans remained in the Renewal Party, while the moderate economic reformers split into the Reform Party and the farther-left reformers split into the Labour Party. Now none of the parties had a majority in either house, although the Renewal Party had the most seats in the Senate and Reform Party did have the most seats in the National Assembly, which remained true for the next several elections. Vasil Stoychev won the 1940 elections, but no party had a majority in the National Assembly or the Senate. As a result, legislative power faltered, but not completely. Using the people's frustration to his advantage, Vladmir Vasilov was elected as President in 1945 and 1950. However, he could not accomplish much with the legislature actively working against his policies. The Partisan fighting became worse, and the parties became solidified by their area- Labour in the Presidency, Renewal in the Senate and Reform in the National Assembly. By the 1950s, the situation was becoming increasingly worse and worse. The country was in economic shambles, the government could not accomplish anything, and soon violence began erupting on the streets. No Presidential candidate since the founding of the republic had managed to secure over 41% of the popular vote, and things were looking dire.
Tengarian Civil War (1955-1957)
Main Article: Tengarian Civil War
In the elections of 1955, Dimitri Denov, a war hero of the Great War, ran on a campaign with the Restoration Party, promising to bring stability, to end the political squabbles, and to restore the Tengarian Empire. Sick with the failure of the Republic and the other parties, Denov won the election soundly, and the Restoration Party won a majority of seats in the National Assembly. The republican parties, furious at the outcome, immediately protested the election. The incumbent members of the National Assembly barred the doors from the newly elected members. The Labour unions began to strike against the new regime. And 11 days after assuming office, President Denov was assassinated. His Deputy President, Simeon Radez, immediately assumed office and tried to resume order, but it was too late. The leftist members of Senate and the National Assembly both fled Lenovo and began amassing support. On the 28th of November the new People's Republic of Tengaria was proclaimed with Rumen Santov as its president, branding themselves as the "Repulicans". They declared that they were the legitimate government of Tengaria, and that Radez's administration was unconstitutional and illegitimate. Many members of the military deserted during this time to the Republicans, although most stayed loyal to Radez under the command of Simeon Kovachev, who had remained as Commander of the Army. The Tengarian Civil War had begun.
The War would last a little under two years. Due to lack of the organized military that the Radez government possessed, the Radez government had the upper hand over the other factions. The republicans often resorted to militias and guerilla warfare to fight against the government. However, in 1956 Radez was assasinated by a Republican, throwing the Loyalist government into chaos. Declaring a state of National Emergency, Simeon Kovachev took over as head of the government until the crisis was over, and founded the National Rally to foster national unity in the wake of the crisis. This proved massively popular, and the Republicans soon found themselves both beaten back and without support. They capitulated in May of 1958. The civil war had ended.
Post Civil War Tengaria (1957-present)
In the wake of the Civil War, Simeon Kovachev was left in charge of the government as provisional head. It was clear that the first system of the Republic was a failure. He could not restore the monarchy like he wanted, due to the international backlash that would no doubt arise, especially from Tengaria's main backer and ally, Soravia. At the same time, he realized that leaving it as it was would only make things worse. To create a solution, he wrote a new constitution for the Republic, in which the Presidency was stronger and had more ability to prevent the issues which had happened in the early republic. The Constitution was based on a strong government to preserve order and unity, and to minimize the effects of civil strife and factionalism. In order to achieve this, he began actively promoting his campaign, the National Rally. The Rally was a non-partisan movement, running on a platform of establishing national stability, order, and ending partisanship. After decades of political chaos and a Civil War, the idea was massively popular. Kovachev and National Rally swept the elections under the new constitution in 1958, and he began to make reforms and to stabilize the country.
Kovachev's Presidency was remarkably successful. Tengaria saw an economic boom over the next two decades, overcoming the debt the republic had wracked up and making a surplus by 1975.
Dimitri Kovachev, Simeon's son, was elected as President after the death of his father in 1983. Less of an idealist than his philosopher and more of a pragmatist, he did not continue to develop many of the projects his father had laid the foundation for, instead trying to modernize Tengaria more and to ensure the survival of the National Rally throughout the next decades. He instituted six year terms for the Presidency, and also brought Tengaria into Samorspi.
Largest cities or towns in Tengaria
Tengaria is a Unitary Republic that uses a Presidential System of government, with heavy powers being granted to the nation's President. The First Constitution of the Republic, which was in place from 1935 until 1958, was overturned after issues with its structure of government and political division caused the rise in the Tengarian Civil War in 1955. Simeon Kovachev authored the Second Constitution after the Civil War, and it was approved by referendum and promulgated on the 15 of March, 1958. The Second Constitution of Tengaria is considered the prime legal document of the Nation, and was meant to provide a strong government to fix the problems with the nation under Kovachev's supervision. Dimitri Kovachev instituted several reforms to the Constitution in 1999, approved by referendum.
The President is both the head of state and the head of government, and wields broad executive powers. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Tengarian Armed Forces, appoints the members of the Tengarian Senate, can submit or veto legislation, appoints cabinet members and justices with approval of the Senate, to determine and to implimate domestic policy and foreign policy, and has all of the ceremonial duties of a head of state. Under the original constitution, the President served for life; however, President Dimitri Kovachev reformed the limit to unlimited six-year terms as part of his constitutional reforms to bring it into more compliance with modern governments. The President is the most powerful and influential figure in the Tengarian government. The President also appoints the Deputy President, who serves as speaker of the National Assembly and becomes active President if the President dies in office. In addition, the President also appoints the Cabinet of Tengaria to assist them in affairs of state. The current President is Teodoroa Koacheva, who was elected to office in 2014 after the death of her father and re-elected in 2018; upon her second term, she appointed Imre Király as her Deputy President.
Legislative power is invested in the Grand Assembly of Tengaria, which is a bicameral legislature, consisting in the upper house, the Senate of Tengaria, and the lower house, the National Assembly of Tengaria. The Senate of Tengaria focuses on judicial oversight, presidential appointments, and cultural and ceremonial affairs of Tengaria. Senators serve for life terms or until they resign, and are appointed by the President. There are 50 seats in the Senate, and all are considered independent politicians, not bound to any party. One can still be a member of the National Rally, but all Senators are encouraged to function as independents. Several clergy and noblemen are granted seats in the Senate, including the claimant to the defunct throne of Tengaria, Vasil VI. The National Assembly is the house which deals more actively in legislative affairs, and can create legislation, declare war, has power of the purse, approves treaties, and other legislative prerogatives. There are 380 seats in the National Assembly, and Assembly members serve six year terms. Seats are divided among the 11 Provinces by population.
The government has been dominated by the Kovachev family, who have controlled the powerful Presidency for sixty years, and the political movement they lead, the National Rally, which is socially conservative and explicitly anti-partisan, has consistently dominated the legislature by huge margins. Tengaria and its constitution is considered by most Eastern Euclean sources as undemocratic and authoritarian. Questions about the veracity of election results, combined with the promotion of the National Rally in media, literature and education, and rumors of suppression of other political movements, give it a low ranking on many international democracy listings. In 2020, Tengaria scored 46 out of 100 on the International Freedoms and Civil Liberties Report in 2020, and is tied for lowest in Euclea with West Miersa, and is classified as an "Obstructed Democracy". It was the lowest in Euclea for some time, only recently being tied with West Miersa.
Foreign Relations and International Institutions
Main Article: Foreign Relations of Tengaria
Judiciary and Law Enforcement
Main Article: Tengarian Judiciary
Since the defeat of the Imperial Army during the Great War and the capitulation of the Empire of Tengaria in 1930 of the Great War, a young general named Simeon Kovachev withdrew the shattered remnants of the Imperial Army to the rural Visoclesian Hills, and reformed them into the Tengarian National Army.
Main Article: Provinces of Tengaria
Tengaria is divided into eleven provinces, called Oblasts, based upon the historical regions of Tengaria. Each Province is further divided into municipalities. As a Unitary state, these provinces and municpalities are all answerable to the National government, but are designated responsibility by the National government to maintain the common good for the local areas. Each province is considered equal in status, and each has its own government, consisting of an elected Assembly, consisting of 75 members each, and a Governor appointed by the President. Municipalities are run by a magistrate, appointed by the provincial governor, and have a locally elected Council to oversee local affairs. Provincial assemblies and municipal counils also generally serve six year terms, corresponding with the elections of the President and the National Assembly. Tengaria's government is highly centralized, and the regional governments ususally have to rely upon the central for funding, support, and other means.
Tengaria's population was estimated to be 22,359,980 people at the beginning of the year 2020. This means that the country's population density is 73.08 people per square kilometer, one of the lowest density figures in Euclea. Most of the population is concentrated in the cities, with 13,563,920, or 60.7%, of the population living in the country's twenty largest cities. The most heavily populated area is the valley around the city of Lenovo, which contains in short distance the cities of Isen and Rhŭn, as well as its proximity to other cities. in the surrounding provinces. Population centres are mostly found around the River Len, as the primary waterway of the nation, or the coasts, either on the sea or of Lake Min. Outside of the urban areas, most of the communities are rural and not as densely populated, especially in the hills to the north of the country. Urban areas tend to be more developed and have lower birthrates, while the rural areas tend to have higher birthrates and are less developed. Tengaria has one of the highest birthrates in Euclea, with a total birth rate at 2.12 women per child, just above the replacement rate but only barely. However, this figure has been dropping as the country has continued to develop, and is expected to fall below the replacment rate by 2023. Population censuses in Tengaria are taken every 10 years, with the last one being done in 2012 and the next one scheduled for the year 2022.
Main Article: Svoboda
According to the 2012 census, 91.5% of the population identify as Tengarian, 3.4% as Svoboda, and 5.1% as other. The main ethnic group of Tengaria share the common name with the nation, and descend from the Tengar tribes, who share an affinity with the Marolevs of Western Euclea. The Tengars took their name from dwelling in the land between the "seas" of the Achelonian Sea and Lake Min. Piraeans settled on the southern coast of modern Tengaria, but eventually intermarried and became united with the peoples of the region. The Tengars also had heavily influence from the Amathian peoples of the Empire of Arciluco, and eventually the tribes were united under the Grand Principality of Tengaria, which began to solidify each as a part of the Tengarian people. The Visoclesian tribes, which seperated from the Tengars, later were reunited, and have ceased being their own seperate group over centuries of reunification. Many died during the Great War, and many also left after the Tengarian Civil War, creating the Tengarian diasporia.
Tengaria's most prominent minority is the Svoboda people, who are more commonly called Savaders in Estmerish or as Szabadok in their own tongue, who have had a long and complicated relationship with the people and political authorities of Tengaria. They have lived in Tengaria since before the time of written records, and so their origins are mostly found in legends. They say they were driven from the North by hostile tribes. They say the Tengars initially welcomed them, as the Tengars preferred the hills, coasts and river valleys, leaving them some of the plains towards the west of the country. A migratory people, they occupied the coastal plains to the southwest of the country for centuries, although they travelled around the other parts of the area. One Tengaria began to centralized after 1000 AD, they continued to populate the open plains where they could, ususally avoiding the main cities, and waged war against the Grand Princes if their rights were being infringed upon, which led to several purgings of the Svoboda peoples. Under St. Vasil I, the first Emperor, they were officially placed under the personal protection of the Emperor, and were formally given land of their own to settle or to graze, but were to be called into military service when need. This situation for the most part worked, however, several Emperors staged persecutions of them, or small groups were persecuted locally with no repurcussions. During the early stages of the Republic, the government siezed their lands, but they were returned under the Kovachevs. There are still those who despise or do not like them, but National Rally's focus on cultural and not ethnic nationalism have resulted for the large part into their integration, as long as they are loyal to the political system. They are officially recognized as the Svoboda people by all official sources; however, people use the Soravian term Kosak either out of custom or as a pejorative slur.
The statistics of the census claim that Svoboda make up 3.4% of the population, but the actual number could be anywhere from 760,240 to 800,000. Regardless, Tengaria is said to have the second highest amount of Svoboda in the world. The Svoboda are split into two main groups- the Vándorlás, or those who still retain their migratory lifestyle; these can be found all over Tengaria, in to be in smaller numbers. Many of these historically or currently have left the life of wandering to intermarry with Tengarians they; and so many Tengarians have some kind of Svoboda descent. The government has designated grazing lands for them, most commonly in the province of Krasiv in the West of the country. The second group are the Változatlan, who have settled down and formed communities with other Svoboda or who live among the Tengarians but keep their ethnic heritage. There is a substantial community in Lenovo, but most are also located in the western portion of the country. Several of these have risen to positions of high power, such as Imre Király, the current Deputy President of Tengaria.
As for the 5.1% who identify as other than the two main groups, there are substantial groups of Amathians, making up 1.7% of the population, and Ravnians, making up 0.9% of the population, who generally live close to the western and eastern borders of the country, corresponding to where the borders changed over the centuries. In addition, expatriates from other Marolev countries, such as Soravia, also live in Tengaria, comprising 0.8% of the population. The remaining 1.6% of the population is comprised of migrants from other parts of Euclea and the world, such as those from Coius who migrate for a better life.
Main Article: Tengarian Language
The primary language spoken in Tengaria is the primary native tongue, the Tengarian language. Tengarian is a Marolevic language which developed from both the Marolevic languages but also was deeply influenced by the Amathian language in its developement during the middle ages. Originally written in the Amathian script, it changed to Soravian script during the 19th cenutry as the country fell under the sphere of Soravia. It is the official language of Tengaria, used for all official legislative procedures, legal proceedings, laws and official announcements. The vast majority of the country, over 95%, speak it as their mother tongue. It is the the mandatory language taught in all schools throughout Tengaria.
The other significant spoken mother tongue is Savader, spoken mainly among the Svoboda people, although most of the Svoboda community also learns Tengarian alongside or learns to speak it in school. About 2.5% of the population speak it as a mother tongue. It is officially recognized as a National Language of Tengaria, and there are several societies to promoting its revival and use in the Svoboda communities. This language has a rich oral tradition which is passed down among the various communities. As a whole, it is spoken almost exclusively amoung the Vándorlás Svoboda in their own communities. Other mother tongues include Amathian or other languages of the ethnic minorities living in Tengaria.
The only other language taught in mandatory schooling is Ancient Piraean. However, only a handful actually take it to the point of speaking, as most only learn enough to be able to translate the works of Xenagoras or Theocritus or other ancient authors in the original language. In addition, many do not foster the development beyond their years in school, instead
Main Article: Religion in Tengaria
Tengaria is one of the world's most religious countries, with a vast majority of the population being registered participants in Episemialist Sotirianity. According to government statistics, the percentage of Episemialist Tengarians in nearly 96% of the country. The primary Episemialist Church in Tengaria is the Tengarian Episemialist Church, comprising 89% of the population, an Autocephalous Church headed by the Archbishop of Lenovo and Patriarch of All Tengaria, currently Vladimir IV. There are also Amathian and Soravian Episemialists, about 4% and 2% respectfully The religious unity of the populace is high, with the government placing a high priority on the faith as essential to maintaining national unity. This stems from the country's deep historic roots in Sotirianity and current promotion of the faith among the populace. There is no formal restictions upon other religions or forms of Sotirianity or even non-religion, but tend to be on the fringes of society and are generally looked down upon by the vast majority Episemialist populace. Irreligious takes the second place with 2% of the population, and non Episimelialist forms of Sotirianity such as Solarian Catholicism and uniate Tengarian Catholicism, as well as Ravnian Iconococlasm, comprise 1.5% of the population. Finally, less than 1% of the population comprises members of other religions.
Although Tengaria ranks the highest in Euclea in terms of registered religious believers and religious homogeneity, the percentage of active members are lower than registered believers. This is for a variety of reasons. Irreligion is heavily frowned upon, and is seen by some as unnatural and detrimental to the common good of society for not believing in a Divine Authority. In addition, those who advocate secularism are associated with the disasterous old republic, having ties to the rebels who began the Tengarian Civil War and as opposing the reign of the Kovachev family. Thus the number of people who are irreligious in practice or belief is actually higher, but many choose to identify as Sotirian to avoid social conflict and stigma, further inflating the numbered of registered Sotirians. Thus only around 50% of the Sotirians in attends church regularly, although this is still much higher than the standard averages found in Euclea. As such, Tengaria remains the first in all of Eulcea in terms of religious unity and church attendance.
Tengaria's has a rich and deep religious tradition. The Tengar tribes were converted by Amathian missionaries in the sixth century at the same time the Empire of Arciluco began to control the region, making the Tengarians are some of the Marolev tribes who have held Sotrianity for the longest time. Sotrianity thrived and flourished for centuries, deeply imbeding its roots in the country. Churches served as centers of faith and learning to the developing Tengarian civilization. In the eleventh century Lenovo became the seat of the Patriarch of the Church in Tengaria, becoming Autocephalous in the year 1033, in recognition of the Grand Principality's friendship with the Empire and in gratitude for remaining loyal. During the Iconoclast schism in the late fourteenth century, Tengaria took up the banner of 'Orthodox' Episemialism, with the authority granted by the exiled Ecumenical Patriarch as the temporal leaders of the Sotirian world. Although not every Emperor took this position seriously, religion stood at the very heart of the reason why the monarchs had become Emperors, and so even vicious Emperors often still followed the trappings of religion to maintain their legitimacy and promoted it to the public. This position as the intellectual 'leader' of the Episemalist world for time, although Soravia remained the dominant political power, solidified Tengaria's Sotrian heritage, with Sotrian thought mixing with the philosophy to form a unique school. For centuries, all branches of its learning were intimately tied together with Episemialism. As more secular Soravian thought came to dominate Tengaria and its schools, the religion began to become removed from educational programs around the country. The Znaniya School sought to restore its place in the beginning of the twentieth century, but it was not until Simeon Kovachev took power that their plans could be brought to fruition and restored the religion's pride of place.
Kovachev reformed the whole country's educational system, making religion a mandatory part of the studies of every student. He actively invovled the Church in politics, making laws in conformity with the Church's teaching and basing the social policies of the National Rally around them. Dimitri Kovachev did not make many new policies to support the Church, but maintained most of his father's policies in order to appease the religious base of the National Rally. Teodora Kovachev has been a strong supporter of her grandfather's ideals, and has rekindled close ties between the government and the Church. Currently, the Episemialist Church is openly endorsed and supported financially by the national government, and works with the Church to establish laws to foster religious and national unity. Episemialist doctrine is mandatory to learn and are taught in Tengarian schools from a young, and study in theology is mandatory in the later stages and seen as the capstone of the entire education.
Immigration and Emigration
Main Article: Education in Tengaria
Education in Tengaria is a time honored tradition, dating back to the ancient Piraean city state of Istros on the Southern Coast in the third century BC. Xenagenes, disiciple of the great philosopher Xenagoras, founded a school in the city, known as the Agora. The Teleological School flourished in the city, although it became secondary to the other philosophers when the Empire of Arciluco came to dominate the region in the sixth century. Over the centuries, the Tengars came to adopt the Liberal arts education of the Solarians and Piraeans, passed on by the Amathians. In addition, the local churches established by the Sotrian missionaries provided another source of learning. The process of education was slow and gradual, as the Tengars were a rural and pastoral people, and most of the learning began to be focused in the towns and around churches. However, by the time of the Grand Principality of Tengaria, Tengaria had become more of its own state, the schools became more prominent and widespread. By the rise of the Empire of Arciluco, Tengaria had a well developed educational system and a strong philosophical and theological community. Emperor St. Vasil the Great took the educational system and reformed it, marking the beginning of the Tengarian Renaissance. He established the University of Lenovo in 1405, the oldest university in Western Euclea. The Agora school became popular once again. Tengaria for several centuries became the centre of learning in Western Euclea, and was well known for its intellectual community. The University, the Agora and soon several other insitutions became places for discussion and learning.
Eventually, Tengaria's Renaissance came to an end. The political dominance of Soravia of the region caused the educational community to fracture and to slowly decay. Although initially opposed, modern thought from Eastern Euclea began to make its way into Tengaria. Eventually those who believed in them came to positions of power, and the classics began to be put aside for the sake of the newer material. In addition, Soravian republican thought began to become prominent in the academic sphere in the late 19th century. Modern Soravian literature and Eastern Euclean scientific advancements and thought became mainstream amoung the intellectual community. Whereas before Tengaria's educational system had remained unique, it became more and more like that of other countries, with academic circles beginning to try to imitate the rest of Euclea. The old Agora school fell into neglect once again. Tengaria's education began to fall behind even its Euclean rivals. The Znaniya School was formed in part as a reaction to the state of Tengarian Education, as they sought to restore Tengaria's schools to their old heritage and strength, especially by turning back to the intellectual history and to Teleology as the means to properly educate the young. However, the academic community worked against the new school, despite its popularity, and so the schools did not have a chance to reform between the Great War.
During the Great War, higher education was suspened with the Amathian invasion and occupation. After the war, with the formation of the Republic, it was dominated by the Soravian inspired republican university staff. With the university staff now largely entering into politics, the followers of the Znaniya School began to slowly enter into the education system. However, the poorly mananged republic floundered, and the state of education was considered rather weak, as the country as a whole suffered political turmoil and economic collapse. After the Tengarian Civil War, Simeon Kovachev took power. A disciple of the Znaniya School, he viewed education as his top priority for Tengaria, as the education of the youth is vital in producing a virtuous society. He immediately worked to reform the system, dismissing unwanted teachers from positions of power, restructuring the entire Tengarian educational system, implementing a socratic liberal arts education focused on the Great Books, changing the division of the arts and sciences to a more classical system and putting heavy government oversight and funding into education. Kovachev’s system is still in use today, despite criticism from outside countries.
Tengaria has one of the world's most unique curricula, designed and implemented by Simeon Kovachev and inspired by the thought of the Znaniya School. The education harkens back to the ancient liberal arts education of Piraea and the Solarian Empire, but further and beyond this is ordered primarily by Teleological and Episemialist principles. However, it distinguishes itself from other liberal arts education in principle- whereas other liberal arts programs pursue a “humane studies” or “general education", Tengaria views the liberal arts as seven introductory disciplines which prepare the student for the more profound subjects, those that constitute the heart of a liberal education. The ultimate goal of the liberal education is the knowledge of the truth to be found by Wisdom both Divine and Natural, namely Theology and Philosophy. A liberal education is one that "frees" men by pursuing this truth, allowing them to know and pursue their proper end. The education is not ordered towards any practical end or career path, but is instead ordered to pursuit of knowledge for its own sake and for producing virtuous citizens.
For this reason, the Primary Education of Tengaria is focused on the study of the classical Trivium, namely Grammar, Logic and Rhetoric, and Quadrivium, namely Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and Music. The study and habituation of these speculative arts give the student the necessary foundation by which they can study the higher things later in the curriculum. Students study the basic principles of these arts, and habituate them by means of demonstrating propositions, giving arguments, grammatical exercises, studying the stars, listening too and giving speeches, and other methods. The students do practical exercises do not study them merely for their practical ends, but rather use these practical means for the sake of studying the speculative or scientific knowledge of these arts. When possible, works by the great authors are used. The foremost example of this is Euclid's Elements for Geometry. However, this is not always practical or possible for every subject or for every grade level, so textbooks and manuals are occasionally used.
In addition to the liberal arts, all primary school students (both upper and lower) take religious education, gymnastics (physical education), musical performance and civic virtue classes. Religious education is taught from an Orthodox Episemialist point of view, and educates the populace on the principles of the faith from an early age. Gymnastics is seen as necessary for the development of a healthy and well balanced lifestyle. All students learn how to sing and are required to study another instrument of their choice. This is required because music is seen as a means of ordering the soul towards the good, and it also habituates the students in musical experience. This is distinct from their study of music as a liberal art, which focuses on the mathematical and auditory principles of the speculative art of music. Finally, all students take Civic Virtue classes, which are classes which aim to teach ethics and national loyalty from a young age, as well as national history. All students, when studying grammar, are also taught ancient Piraean.
After successful completion of both levels of primary school, students move to secondary school, called Universal School. It is named as such because the curriculum is still focused on the study of universals and speculative knowledge, rather than particulars and practical knowledge. Students study Theology, Philosophy, Natural Science, and more advanced Mathematics. These are counted as the "Universal Studies", and are given priority in the order of studies. Theology is given primacy of place due to its divine origin; Philosophy is also very highly valued. The natural sciences, such as biology and chemistry, and more advanced courses of mathematics, such as algebra and calculus, are also considered instrumental and necessary for a complete understanding of the principles of the world. Textbooks are very rarely used; most reading takes place from the greatest works of the prominent authors. By using the books themselves, students are challenged to engage with the great conversation of the intellectuals throughout history. In addition, literature and history are also studied, along with a continuation of musical performance and civic virtue classes, but are not given as much importance as the others. Although completing Universal School is the requisite for all citizens, there are other further steps of secondary education. Students who enter into Preparatory School continue the Universal Studies until they are prepared to enter into tertiary education. Technical school diverges away from speculative knowledge and focuses on the practical studies for students who desire enter into the workforce.
The universities of Tengaria are funded for and overseen by the government, who oversee. Students who study at University pursue the core studies of the universal education, except at a much more intense and comprehensive level. The liberal arts are again approached, but now as looking back upon the principles which lead into the higher sciences, from a vantage point of experience. In addition, there are no history, music, or civic virtue classes, and University focuses on developing the intellectual life of the students. All students take the same degree, and once they graduate, they are allowed to move on to higher studies in a particular field. This uniformity is in place so that the students will have a basic understanding of universal speculative knowledge before they go on to study a narrower field of study. Tengaria is considered to have a very strong classical education, and the students come out having a wide range of knowledge.
However, the education is not without its detractors. Several international educators criticize the lack of electives and specialization options available for students, saying that it causes students from finding paths which uniquely suit their abilities and talents. Some have criticized it for being too archaic and backwards, with its classical mindset hampering the students through poor educational focus or outdated thought. Because the thought and intention behind the education is so radically different than most countries, several think the whole system is flawed. Innovators claim that a focus on learning through books and lack of technological learning and other modern developments hamper the student's abilities to thrive in the modern world. The harshest critics say that contrary to the education's goal to make the students free, the religious education and civic virtue classes constitute nothing less than "brainwashing".
|Preschool||Предучилищна (Preschool)||2 years (age: 4 to 6)||Basic Reading and Writing, Experiential Learning|
|Primary education||Нисък Училище (Lower school)||3 years (age: 6 to 9)||Grammar, Arithmetic, Geometry|
|Горен Училище (Upper school)||3 years (age: 9 to 12)||Logic, Astronomy, Music, Rhetoric|
|Secondary education||Универсален Училище (Universal school)||5 years (age: 12 to 17)||Universal Studies, Literature, History|
|Подготвителен Училище (Prepratory school)||1 or more years (age: 17 to 18 or later)||Further Universal Studies|
|Технически Училище (Technical school)||1 or more years (age: 17 to 18 or later)||Apprenticeship or other Practical Training|
|Tertiary education||университет (Bachelor's degree)||3 years||Higher Universal Studies|
|Майсторство (Master's degree)||1 or 2 years||Specialized Subject|
|Докторат (Doctorate)||3 years or more||Specialized Subject|
Stages highlighted in yellow below are compulsory.
Tengaria's educational structure shares some similarities to other countries, but also differs in the methodology and material. All schools in Tengaria are run or heavily overseen by the government, and all follow the same general structure. Tengaria has 11 years of mandatory education, from ages 6 to 17, though other levels are offered before and after. Primary and secondary education are required, with the Primary education being split into two parts. Furthermore, education is often split by sex; oftentimes, the schools are single-sex or several the classes in the school are divided by sex, even the nation's universities. By law, gymnastics and civic virtue classes are always split by sex, and can differ in focus for each sex.
Parents can send their children to designated preschools when the child reaches four years of age. This is designed to give the child early sense experience in order to foster his later education. Another important function of this lower school is to ensure that the children have some basic literacy before they enter in primary school. If the parent chooses to opt out the child from preschool, they must ensure their child has this literacy before they are allowed to enter into primary school. Primary school is divided into two parts, a lower and an upper, each lasting three years. After this, all students go into the Universal school, which lasts for five years. Every student takes the same courses, and most finish by the time they are 17 or 18. Some take longer, but students who consistently fail are sent to designated schools for students with learning issues. If deemed unable to complete the education at all, special exceptions are made.
After the completion of Universal school, students are no longer required to take any studies. Most students enter into the workplace immediately after school, or might get an apprenticeship. Those wishing to learn technical skills can go to certain government sponsored Technical schools, which are designed to give the students practical knowledge of their field of interest. For those wishing to pursue higher education, they must take an common examination. Each university has a threshold which the student must clear. The threshold is fairly high, and many do not pass the first examination. If the student does not make any threshold, he may go to a Preparatory school to study more to pass the examinations.
As part of it's proud educational tradition, Tengaria has multiple institutions of higher education. The most famous of these is the University of Lenovo, which is the oldest University in Western Euclea. Inspired by the scholastics of Eastern Euclea, St. Vasil the Great founded the University in 1405 to be the centre for higher learning and to augment and enhance the liberal education already present from the Empire of Arciluco. Although there were schools prior to this, such as the Agora School and the higher learning of institutions of Arciluco, the University was the first one of its kind based upon the model of university found in the East. Since then, several other universities were established, but the University of Lenovo was always seen as the top and primary institution of learning in Tengaria. The universities gave students a higher degree of learning in the liberal arts and theology and philosophy, before allowing for the student to become a master of a subject. However, as education in Eastern Euclea and Soravia began to change in the twentieth centuries, the universities began to slowly adapt to their methods as well. After the Great War, the university system was in shambles. As part of his reforms during the 1960s, Simeon Kovachev changed the structure and format of the university system, reflecting the older traditions of the universities and also putting a greater focus on liberal education.
There are three levels of tertiary education. The first and primary one is simply called "University", reflective of the universal curriculum which it pursues. All university students take the same undergraduate curriculum, studying at a higher level the universal studies which they pursued in universal school. Theology and philosophy are given the primary importance, but mathematics and the natural sciences are all rigorously studied. All classes are discussion based and directly based on the great books. Supplementary lectures available for interested students. The education is known for being very intense and difficult, and is ordered to developing the intellectual life of the students rigorously. This level lasts for three years. For international students who wish to study the Tengarian education but are not prepared, several universities offer a four-year less intense and more basic approach to liberal education for all who are interested in getting a liberal education. For Tengarian nationals and qualified international students, the three-year university is common to all other undergraduate students. All those who pass are granted a degree in Liberal Arts, which is held as equivalent to a Bachelor's Degree with majors Theology and Philosophy and minors in Mathematics and Natural Science in other schools.
Having completed University, students then have the opportunity to progress on to a Master's Degree or a Doctorate; at this level, the person begins to specialize in the field of their choice, and the length of the degree depends on what they choose to study. Medical and students who study particular natural and physicals sciences usually spend longer on their degrees. Graduate level studies in Philosophy are internationally renowned. Tengaria's schools are usually not focused on research study, but pedagogical studies instead, as the profession of educator is one given great prestige in Tengaria. However, top-tier university have researched based graduate programs. All teritary level education is free for Tengarian citizens and paid for by the government; however, it is not free for International Students, although the Tengarian government also gives grants to international students to encourage them.
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Literature and Philosophy
Main Article: Literature and Philosophy of Tengaria
Tengaria has a rich tradition in both Literature and Philosophy, dating back to the ancient Piraean city state of Istros on the Southern Coast. Tengarian legend holds that the great philosopher Xenagoras came to Istros and founded a school of Philosophy in the late third century BC. Most historians now agree that this claim is spurious, and that it was one of Xenagoras' disciples, Xenagenes, who founded a school in the city, who is responsible for writing several works later mistakenly attributed to Xenagoras himself, namely, the Mechanics and On Indivisible Lines. Regardless, Teleological philosophy dominated the learning of the independent city state of Istros for the next few centuries through the Agora, the school which Xenagenes, even after the school of thought was largely forgotten in the Solarian Empire and Piraea itself. After the Empire of Arciluco came to dominate the region, the Tengars were exposed to the texts of the other ancient Piraean and Solarian authors, and came to follow the classical mode of the Liberal arts education which was developed in the Solarian Empire and Piraea. In addition to Teleology, Sophism and Stoicism became more widespread and became the dominant stands of philosophy, following the influence of Arciluco. The rise of Sotrianity in Tengaria also brought Sotrian Theology into the forefront, and most Theologians took a Sophist bent. In addition to the thought of antiquity being passed on, with the advent of written script, the three great Tengarian Epics, which up to that point had been passed on orally, were written down. For the next few centuries, Tengaria's philosophic and literary scene would be largely considered just as a part of the Empire of Arciluco.
After the formation of the Grand Principality, the Tengaria's culture began to become more unique, as the writings of Xenagoras once more began to gain traction and support. However, there was still a great deal of dialogue between the two, especially with the Sophist-leaning theologians of the Empire. It was not until the collapse of the Empire of Arciluco and the rise of the Realm of Thorns, together with the rise of the Empire of Tengaria, which lead to the so called Tengarian Renaissance, which lasted from 1385 until 1550. With partial influence from famous Scholastic writings and learning of East Euclea caused the Emperor to establish the University of Lenovo as the first West Euclean University in 1405. During this time, the writings of Xenagoras became mainstream, and the Tengarian theologians, turning against the now heretical iconoclast theologians of Amathia, embraced Teleology. The Patriarch of Lenovo, St. Boris the Confessor, famously defended the writings of Xenagoras in his tract On the Unity of Wisdom, which wove together Xenagoran Philosophy with Sotrian Theology, and his work on the In Defense of the Images of God, which defended the usage of Icons. During this period, Tengaria became a center for learning and Orthodox Episemialist thought in the Western portion of Euclea. In addition, Tengarian plays, in an attempt to revive and perfect the old plays of Antiquity, saw a great revival during this period, with men such as Gregori Rumen and Dimitri Vasilev writing influential tragedies and comedies. A great deal of philosophical and theological writings date to this time period, and there was an active culture of intellectual discussion in the Tengarian Empire. The old Agora school, which had fallen into decay, was revitalized.
However, Tengaria soon began to become politically overshadowed by the nearby Soravia, and its increasing influence began to bring the Tengarian intellectual Renaissance to its end. Tengaria retained its scholarly discourse and schools of learning, but lagged behind the more modern states in terms of scientific advancement. Scholars such as Lawrence Lugin were know to come to Tengaria to access texts or engage in active philosophic discussions. Eventually, modern thought from Eastern Euclea began to make its way into Tengaria, but was often met with hostility by the intellectual community, but slowly modern thought began to make more progress. With Soravia's influence on the Empire and the formation of the Republic in 1861, Soravian republican thought began to become prominent in intellectual circles. The focus transferred from the classics to modern Soravian literature and Eastern Euclean scientific advancements and thought. The academic circles began trying to imitate the other places of Euclea.
At the turn of the twentieth century, an Teleological resurgence began to come again with the famous Znaniya School, which was a group of scholars together at the Agora. At the head of this movement was Ivan Istina, a philosopher, scientist and Polymath who attempted to united Xenagoras' thought with modern advancements in science and Sotrian teachings. With him were Archbishop Aleksandar Dilov, who was a prominent Theologian who published several important works the nature of grace and divine providence from Episimialist tradition, as well as other many popular tracts; Gregori Renev, an author and political theorist who wrote several works of literature, including the Golden Sun, which is considered the landmark work of Tengarian literature; and Stanislav Kozlek, a poet who transformed Tengaria's poetical landscape, and wrote the epic poem, the Vasilad. The school included other scholars as well. The school was known for supporting the reestablishing of the Tengarian national identity, support of the Empire, and reforming the educational system to refocus on the classics, especially Tengarian works, and on Epsimiliast thought. The school was ostracized by the current academics at the time, although they attracted many other Tengarians, including Simeon Kovachev. Disaster would strike the school during the Great War, when many marched off to fight in the war. Many died, including Istina and Kozlek, during the war, and those who were too old to serve were at points killed by the Amathian occupiers for the danger which they poised.
With the collapse of the Empire and the establishment of the Republic, civil discord undermined the philosophic and literary scene. Many who led the new republic were the scholars themselves, as they tended to have the strongest republican sentements and knowledge of how to operate a republic. However, they quickly clashed amoung themselves, and soon the universities began to flounder as the faculty diminished, most serving in public office. In addition, the economic downturn and political chaos saw the decline of the Tengarian university system, with fewer and fewer students enrolling. When Simeon Kovachev took power in the wake of the civil war, he instituted his educational reforms, done in the model of the Znaniya school. With the implementation of the model, the ideas of the Znanya school- revitalized Teleology, Epismialist Theology, and emphasis on the classics and developing citizens of virtue, has changed the philosophical and literary scene in Tengaria. However, ideas from Soravia and other Euclean idealogies does exist as well. Currently, Tengaria is considered a leader in the field of classical studies, historical philosophy, and Episimialist theology.
Main Article: Music of Tengaria Tengaria has a rich musical tradition. Knowledge of Piraean Music and the musical ratios of Pythagoras came to the city of Istros is the days of its founding. Legend holds that Xenagoras (more likely his pupil Xenagenes) taught about the importance of music in the education of the youth and how proper and well-ordered music orders the passions, and made music The Tengar tribes themselves were known for singing war songs before going into every battle and having a wide variety of tribal music, and the Teleological scholars of Istros made note how music was woven deep into the tribes of the Tengars. This made the foundation for Tengarian folk music, which is still preserved in certain forms today, although it has grown and changed greatly over the centuries. Tengarian folk music is wide and varied, often varying by region. It often has unique features such as asymmetrical rhythms, wide usage of modes and tunings differing from most modern instruments, drone accompaniment, and unique blend of harmony and unison. Folk instruments include the gadulka (bowed instrument), gaida (bagpipe), tambura (lute), kaval (rim-blown flute) and zurna (oboe). Both men and women generally tend to participate in folk music, and tend to value and prize lower voices, although the range of music is wide.
Later under the Empire of Arciluco, music began to become more formalized and studied. In addition, with the country's conversion to Sotirianity, music was an important part of the Divine Liturgy. It was in the Liturgy that Tengarian music really began to become more developed. After the formation of the Grand Principality of Tengaria and the establishment of the autocephalous Tengarian Patriarchate, Tengaria began to form a unique vocal tradition for their Divine Liturgies. It developed a unique monodic (one-voice) singing style which fused together the traditions of Arciluco and yet brought together elements of Tengarian folk music, bar the instruments. Chant together with droning became common usage in Liturgies. Although it adhered to the Episemialist Octoechos system of tones, it made itself unique in several ways.
With the proclamation of the Empire of Tengaria in 1385 and the beginning of the Tengarian Renaissance, Tengaria began to develop choral polyphonic (many-voices) music in its Divine Liturgies.
Theatre and Dance
Cinema, animation and media
Tengaria was relatively late to the cinematic scene, only recieving Soravian filming equipment after the end of the Great War. The Tengarian film industry was dominated by the stage acting community, and its first movies were filmed productions of the great Tengarian plays. Many cinematic directors did not get idealogically along well with the Republic, and so the film industry floundered for two decades. During the Tengarian Civil War, however, the film industry first was sponsored by the government to make movies to support the government's side during the conflict. Having a chance to shine, the film industry finally began to grow. At the conclusion of the Civil War, Simeon Kovachev helped to sponsor the production of the very ambitious and high-cost epic film of Vasil the Great. This film was supposed to mark the beginning of the new Tengaria, and utilized the story of the first Emperor to do so. It premiered at the 1958 Montecara Film Festival and secured a Béco Aùreo in the 1958. With this, the Tengarian film industry began to expand and continued to develop. However, it is noticeably different than most other film industries, in that the government tends to keep an eye on the various films and approve and sponsor the ones with strong moral messages and positive attention, while heavily discouraging films which criticize the government or promote vice. This means that the Tengarian film industry tends to be far more conservative than its worldwide counterparts, as in order to secure government funding and recognition the studios tend to censor ideas which are hostile to the government or scandalous.
In addition to the cinematic scene, Tengaria in recent years has begun to develop television shows and cartoons. Television only took off slowly during the 20th century, only in the later stages with Dimitri Kovachev began to develop it as a means of informing the public with state news broadcasts and with athletic events. Programming eventually increased as it became more popular, however, the government still influences the same degree of control over the creation and airing of TV shows. Several foreign shows are made available in Tengaria through television, but ones with questionable content are not permitted to be aired on live television. In addition, the state tends to discourage young children from watching too much television, so out of the few options in terms of television watching for young children, all are very heavily regulated The television industry has grown but is still small in comparison to other countries. In recent years, new ideas have been explored, such as an animated cartoon done in a Senrian style which included an epsiode about President Kovacheva herself, however still portraying her as a positive role model and an ideal leader. In recent years, a Tengarian television show has become popular, called Find the Truth, which is a talk-show about Philosophical topics, and Philosophers from all over the world are invited to come and speak either with the host or with other philosophers; it is broadcast in Gaullican but a Tengarian dub is always broadcast in Tengaria.
Most of the news and journalistic corporations in Tengaria are state sponsored. The primary means the news media uses are printed and electronic newspapers and television broadcasts to inform the populace of events going on both locally, nationally, and internationally. In addition to these, the news and government agencies also have begun to use various forms of social media and online platforms to get their message across. Freelance journalists and newspapers, while not illegal, are discouraged by the government, and defamation laws are heavily enforced and can result in the shutdown of an independent news source, especially during Dimitri Kovachev's presidency. This has lead to criticism of the Tengaria as lacking freedom of the press, and is one of the countries in Euclea with the lowest ranks in press freedom.
Although Tengaria is more commonly known for its intellectual pursuits, it nonetheless does have professional sports and athletics. Gymnastics, in its classical sense of bodily exercise, is considered an important part of the development of the country's youth, as Theocritus made clear in his Republic. It is featured in the education of every Tengarian student in the lower and upper portions of Primary School. Students often also pursue sporting events while in universal school as side activities. However, Tengaria's universities lack official sports teams so that the students who go there pursue the intellectual life fully. As such it is usually after graduating universal school that most Tengarians who go into athletics as a profession begin their career or go to special training schools to do so. Many people do sports simply for as recreation as well. It works in sports together with its allies Samorspi, but due to its warmer climate it pursues different sports than its northern neighbors.
The most ancient sports still widely practiced sports in Tengaria are Wrestling and Track and field. These events were brought to Tengaria both through the city of Istros and the Empire of Arciluco. Many young men are encouraged to wrestle with others in order to increase their strength and because it is seen as a healthy masculine activity, and are included for male gymnastics classes in the education. Running and other field events are also encouraged and promoted for both the health of the body and to promote competition. In Tengaria, this sport is primarily dominated by men, as it is often seen as being more improper to women. Various clubs and tournaments are held locally, regionally, and nationally each year, and Tengaria often sends competitors from these fields to international events such as the Invictus Games.
The primary organized sport of Tengaria is that of Volleyball. There are both men and women who play professionally in Tengaria, but focus and coverage of the sport tends to focus more on the female side. This is the primary sport which women athletes do, as it seen as more acceptable for women to do. There are two professional leagues, the National Volleyball League being the women's league and the National Volleyball Association having its male counterpart. On average, the women gets higher viewership than the men, although in other sports the men always get higher ratings. As the nation's primary team sport, Tengaria is also competitive internationally, both in the men's and women's divisions, and regularly compete at a high level in the Invictus Games.
Other popular sports in Tengaria include Basketball, Tennis, Zadany, Football, and Rugby. Basketball is popular throughout Samorspi, and while Tengaria's teams are never as good as Soravia, they can usually compete well with other countries. Tengaria has the Tengarian Basketball Association, a professional league for basketball. Zadany is the historic sport of the upper class, who had the access to horses necessary to do it, but does not have wide appeal amoung the lower classes. There are various different Tennis clubs around Tengaria, and it is the second most popular of the individual sports after the primary two. Tengaria has several players who rank highly in the world in this sport. Finally, Tengaria has clubs for both football and rugby, but these, although not bad, tend to be often behind their Euclean counterparts.
Tengaria has 27 officially recognised national holidays. Of these, 23 of these are classed as public holidays, whereby all workers and students in Tengaria are entitled to days off. However four of the national holidays are not public holidays, but many localities or buisnesses obvserve them anyways. Most national holidays in Tengaria are religious in nature, inlcuding all but four of the public ones, due to National Rally's focus on promoting the Episemialist Faith. 12 of the public holidays coincide with the 12 Great Feasts of Episemialist Church, with the 13th, Pascha, being the greatest of all of them. The other holidays are days of significant national importance, although one of them, President's Day, was changed in early 2021 to correspond with the proclamation of Simeon Kovachev as a Saint, becoming his feast day and thus a religious holiday.
|January 1||New Year's Day||Celebration of the new year.|
|January 6||Nativity's Eve||Day before the Nativity.|
|January 7||Nativity||Celebration of the birth of Jesus Sotiras|
|January 19||Theopany of Our Lord||Celebration of the Baptism of the Lord.|
|February 15||Presentation of the Lord||Celebration of the Presentation of the Lord in the Temple.|
|March 4||Liberation Day||Celebration of Liberation from Amathian Occupation.|
|March 15||Unification Day||Anniversary of the signing of Tengaria's Second Constitution.|
|moveable Sunday||Palm Sunday||One week before Pascha.|
|moveable Friday||Good Friday||Two days before Pascha.|
|moveable Saturday||Holy Saturday||Day before Pascha.|
|moveable Sunday||Pascha||Celebration of the Resurrection of Sotirias, Highest Feast of the Year.|
|moveable Thursday||Ascension||Forty days after Pascha. Feast of the Ascension of Sotirias.|
|moveable Sunday||Pentecost||Fifty days after Pascha. Feast of the Descent of the Holy Spirit.|
|April 7||Annunciation||Celebration commemorating the Annunciation and Incarnation.|
|April 17||St. Simeon's Day||Formerly President's day, changed with proclamation Simeon's of Sainthood in 2020.|
|May 6||Saint George's Day||Feast of Saint George as celebrated by the Tengarian Church.|
|July 10||St. Mihail's Day||Feast of the Apsotle to the Tengars, St. Mihail|
|August 19||Transfiguration||Celebration commemorating the Transfiguration of Sotirias.|
|August 28||Dormition of the Theotokos||Celebration of the Falling Asleep of the Holy Theotokos.|
|September 9||Army Day||Day celebrating the creation of the Tengarian National Army.|
|September 21||Nativity of the Theotokos||Commemoration of the Birth of the Holy Theotokos.|
|September 27||Elevation of the Holy Cross||Celebration of Saint Helen finding the True Cross. A day of strict fast.|
|October 10||St. Hristofor's Day||Feast of St. Hristofor the Holy, Emperor of Tengaria.|
|November 6||St. Vasil's Day||Feast of the first Emperor of Tengaria.|
|November 14||President's Day||Celebration of the Presidency of Tengaria. Moved from April 17th in 2020.|
|December 4||Presentation of the Theotokos||Commemoration of the Theotokos's enterance into the Temple.|
|December 31||New Year's Eve||Day before the new year.|