Gaullican: République Béhèraise
Rahelian: الجمحرورية البحيرية
Anthem: الله أكبر
"God is the Greatest"
|Official languages||Gaullican |
|Recognised national languages||Tamazight|
|Recognised regional languages||Beja |
|Sadid Bassou Sharifi|
|Bizar Basim Ziani|
|3rd century BCE|
• Independence from Werania
|June 15, 1953|
|October 1, 1960|
|November 9, 2001|
|955,414 km2 (368,887 sq mi)|
• December 2021 estimate
• 2018 census
• Per capita
• Per capita
|Currency||Beheran dinar (BHD)|
Behera (Rahelian: البحيرة, Al-Buhayra, Gaullican: Béhère), officially the Beheran Republic (Rahelian: الجمحرورية البحيرية, al-Jumhūriyyah al-Buhayriyyah, Gaullican: République Béhèraise) is a landlocked nation located in north central Coius. It shares land borders with six countries; x to the northeast, Bamvango to the east, Yemet to the southeast, Mabifia to the south, Zorasan to the southwest, Tsabara to the west, and Sohar to the north. At over 955,000 square kilometres, Behera is the largest landlocked nation in the world. It has a diverse population of 16.8 million inhabitants from nine different ethnic groups according to the 2018 census. A significant proportion of the inhabitants reside within the capital and largest city, Amassine.
Inhabited since Neolithic times, much of northern Behera was inhabited by nomadic peoples, predominantly Amazigh whose domain consisted of the northern half of what is today modern Behera. One of the longest-lasting polities was the Kingdom of Afrara, centred on the city of the same name in the north-eastern part of Behera on the Khasiba River, which lasted from the third centiry BCE into the seventh century CE, when the northern semi-arable savannas of the north began to suffer from increasing desertification. During this period, Afrara traded with the Atudites and later, Solarians, with Solarian coins found in northern and northeastern areas of Behera.
Between the 7th and the 12th centuries CE, Behera was ruled by a series of disjointed polities, with the former Kingdom of Afrara broken up into areas ruled by warlords in almost perpetual conflict against the spread of Rahelian settlements across northern and central Behera. Southern Behera came under the influence of traders and polities of the razzia states in northern and central Mabifia, and it was from here that Irfan became firmly established within Behera. Local polities such as the Kingdoms of Daira and Minamare gradually coalaesced into a larger entity, forming the Muharamite Confederation, the name derived from the class of warrior priests to spread Irfan among the other people groups to the north, having conquered most of Behera by the 7th century. The Muharamites consolidated their power and became one of the first great polities of Behera. The Confederation was highly decentralised and trade flourished among them, as well as the neighbouring hourege states within western Bahia. Although lacking any central authority, the Muharamites created a period of stability and growth within Behera which lasted for over eight and a half centuries, until a civil war between rival clans destroyed the Muharamites and resulted in the ascension of the Amassinids.
The Amassinids, named from the ruler who emerged from the civil war that ended the Muharamites, Amessan II, resulted in the first polity that spanned all of Behera with a central authority and control over most of its territory. It was also the first time that the country came under rule by the Amazigh since antiquity. The Amassinids positioned themselves as facilitators of trade, occupying crucial trade routes between Bahia in the southeast and east, Rahelia in the west, and northern Coius. Through this, the Amassinids became very wealthy, but were subject to various wars and invasions from neighbouring polities seeking to control the important trade routes of the Amassinids. The city of Afrara was rebuilt and became the centre of learning and political power within the kingdom, and one of the centres in north-central Coius. With the advent of the Amassinids came the Rule of the Three Dynasties, with Amassinid rule lasting until 1612, when King Ayrad V was overthrown and replaced with the first king of the Irnuhani dynasty, Irnuhani I. Little changed under the Irnuhanis, although Behera began to lose influence as a political and economic force within central Coius, hastened by the rise of the Usemid dynasty in western Behera, who grew enough to directly threaten and overthrow the Irnuhanis. Behera would enter into a period of significant decline as the centre of the continent began to become
The Usemid dynasty was named after King Usem I, who quickly laid claim to the lands to the east and south under the rule of the Irnuhanis. Usem I claimed to be the rightful ruler of all Beheran lands and those territories controlled by the Irnuhanis. Usem I would die in 1636 and replaced by his son, Usem II. It would take half a century until the first Rahelian king, Abdellah I, challenged the Irnuhani rule. Although the First Dynastic War was inconclusive, the Irnuhani's control over central Behera was challenged. Several more conflicts were fought, before the Irnuhanis were finally defeated in 1774 under King Qamar I. Under Qamar, the capital was moved to Amassine in north-central Behera, as it was closer to Afrara and also enabled the better control over the predominantly Amazigh north. Amassine also lay at the centre of Behera's trade network. Ammassine was redeveloped with large palaces and other important government buildings, which took several decades. Although Qamar I would die before his capital was completed, his son Qamar II would finish the work. The Usemids would also continue to influence western parts of Bahia, participating in the slave trade throughout the final period. Qamar II would also popularise the use of the term sultan to refer to himself, and future rulers of Behera would use the term into the modern era. A caste system would develop throughout the unified period under Usemid rule, with Rahelians concentrating political power and wealth in themselves, and non-Rahelians forming the majority of the workers, peasants, and artisans who helped the sultanate function. The Amazigh were regarded as himji, or "wild", and the subject of a number of costly subjugation campaigns.
Euclean influences and interests in the region grew considerably during the late 18th century and early 19th century, with both Estmere and Gaullica competing for influence in northern Coius. Behera had lost much of the wealth and influence it had enjoyed in earlier dynasties, and thus was initially passed up by Estmere in terms of concentration. Gaullica did not make many inroads into Behera, preferring to instead utilise Behera as a buffer state between it's Bahian and Rahelian possessions and Estmerish colonies to the north. As the colonies developed, Gaullica took a particular interest in Behera as a more direct pathway for the Trans-Bahian Railway. The Beheran sovereign, Qamar VI, resisted outside interference and influence within the kingdom, with the Gaullicans forging a series of incidents along the border between Beheran and Gaullican colonial forces. This precipitated the War of the Desert, in which a Gaullican army invaded from the west, supported by incursions and expeditions from Gaullica's Bahian colonies. The War of the Desert lasted for three years between 1887 and 1890 and resulted in the establishment of a new puppet regime led by Amzîn ait Ibrahim Ahmadi, founding the Ahmadi sultanate in 1890.
The Ahmadi Sultanate was nominally a protectorate of the Gaullican Empire, but due to its location acted almost independently. The Sultan essentially ruled with impunity, supported by Gaullican colonial forces based at important installations and forts along the Trans-Bahian Railway, in addition to colonial soldiers based in the neighbouring colony of Hamada. This state of affairs continued until the Great War in 1936, when Behera was invaded and occupied by Estmerish colonial forces. After the war, Werania was granted the mandate over Behera, although Behera still enjoyed significant autonomy.
Beheran regulars and auxiliaries would fight alongside Etrurian colonial soldiers in the Solarian War, with fighting taking place in the border regions in the north and northwest. Behera's involvement resulted in tighter controls being placed on the government as well as across wider Behera, which prompted the outbreak of simultaneous revolts against the Rahelians and colonial authorities in the Hajjar and Ténéré regions, prompting the deployment of Weranian soldiers to assist the sultanate in maintaining control. Following the Kirenian-Weranian War, Werania sought to reduce it's overseas commitments and pulled out of Behera, leaving the local government to fend for itself against both increasing violence in the north of the country and a sustained communist insurgency following Behera's involvement in the First Urí Margidda War between 1952 and 1953. In a precarious position financially and in terms of internal stability, the military lead by Ghumer Safar, overthrew the sultanate on October 1, 1960 in the October Revolution.
The October Revolution lead to the creation of the Socialist Republic of Behera was the second socialist state established in the broader Rahelia region, after Tsabara, and quickly formed close relationships with the Tsabaran and Mabifian socialist states. The period between 1960 and 1978 became known as the National Development Era, in which the state instituted singificant land and economic reforms. Unusually, these reforms included a free and regulated market in which workers cooperatives could compete, the country seeing substantial economic growth as well as improvements in literacy, healthcare, and standards of living. It also saw a resolution to the end of the Shioua conflict, and a return to peace and stability in Behera. It also lead to the creation of Behera's ethnic autonomous regions, many of which surrounded enclaves of linguistic and ethnic groupings.
Safar was overthrown in 1978 due to his favouring of Amazigh and Rahelians at the expense of other of Behera's people groups, and was replaced with an interim military leader, before Ismail Ali Hamadou assumed power in February 1979. Hamadou restored aspects of the former socialist republic, and adopted a new constitution, allowing for limited democratic reform, in addition to guaranteed representation within the People's Assembly of Behera's ethnic and religious minorities. The republic faced its most significant crisis with the beginning of the Djafra Uprising in 1992 that contributed to the downfall of Hamadou, and a return to military government. A civil war broke out between largely Kushitic peoples in the northeast and south of Behera and the central government, which was backed by Zorasan and other states. Although a ceasefire was arranged, and a peace agreement by the principal groups signed in 2001, an insurgency continues within Behera to this day.
Behera is a member of several supranational organisations, including the Community of Nations, and has participated in a number of peacekeeping missions and initiatives within northern Coius. It is also an observer or member of several regional economic, political, and cultural organisations. Behera has been noted throughout its history for its authoritarian rule and low civil liberties.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Prehistory
- 2.2 Antiquity
- 2.3 Independent Kingdoms
- 2.4 Muharamite Confederation
- 2.5 Amassinid Dynasty
- 2.6 Irnuhani Dynasty
- 2.7 Usemid Dynasty
- 2.8 Ahmadi Sultanate
- 2.9 Protectorate
- 2.10 Great War
- 2.11 Mandatory Behera
- 2.12 Solarian War
- 2.13 Independence
- 2.14 Jabali conflict
- 2.15 October Revolution
- 2.16 Shioua conflict
- 2.17 Socialist Republic
- 2.18 Djafra Uprising
- 2.19 Modern History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transport
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
Following the surrender of Beheran forces in late 1934, the country remained under Gaullican colonial protection until the full occupation of Behera by Allied colonial soldiers could be complete. On December 5, 1934, Said II travelled to Adunis in occupied Tsabara to meet with the Allied commanders in Rahelia in order to discuss terms separately before final treaties could be settled, believing that as Gaullica's surrender had given him de jure powers to negotiate on the behalf of Behera independently. Said II was refused an audience with any of the Allied commanders, and as a result, had to contemplate returning to Amassine without any kind of separate status agreement. This had a significant effect on the Sultan's domestic standing, having been snubbed by Allied commanders. He faced a dissatisfied Army that had also surrendered but not yet demobilised, and a colonial administration unwilling to intervene in domestic affairs. As a result, Said II resisted returning to Behera but instead, travelled to Povelia instead, hoping to raise the issues with Beheran representation and the future of its status with the Etrurian government. While he was refused, the Etrurians allowed him to remain in the city until the Army had completely demobilised.
Behera itself had avoided significant destabilisation owing to the use of both Beheran soldiers to garrison important towns, as well as a small number of Allied soldiers that began taking over the garrisons of Gaullican soldiers. Small scale rebellions occurred in the north of the country, particularly in the Jabali region in which local Amazigh tribes launched small scale revolts against the imposition of more Euclean colonial forces on traditional tribal lands. This revolt, which soon spread to neighbouring Shioua, quickly convinced both Estmere and Werania of the necessity of both putting in greater numbers of soldiers into Behera, and the speed at which this should be completed. With the assistance of aircraft, order had been restored to Jabali and Shioua by September 1935.
As part of the post-war reorganisation of Gaullican colonies and protectorates, Behera came under the broader control of Werania. Weranian officials met Said II in Amassine to discuss their proposals for the structure of the new mandate. The Weranian government at the time understood that the challenges of full imposition and maintenance of Weranian control over Behera were significant, with the government in Westbrücken explicitly mandating an agreement that avoided Weranian entanglement in any additional conflict or rebellion, especially one so far from the closest Weranian controlled port, as the Beheran capital was closer to Westbrücken than the port of Ibabitema in modern day Maucha. The rebellion in 1935 reinforced this need to avoid entanglements. Said II wished to retain his power and influence within Behera, as well as also have protection from any potential threats to his reign domestically. The Treaty of Amassine granted more or less the same level of autonomy Behera had under the previous Gaullican protectorate. As some nominal protections for the Sultan, the Weranians drafted a constitution for the Sultan to approve, which formed the creation of a government lead by a Prime Minister, and for control over the majority of the military to be put under that Prime Minister, who in turn, could be appointed by the Sultan. In addition, the Sultan retained full control over the Royal Guard, who acted independently of the military, despite being funded and trained by them. Behera was allowed to maintain a military on the basis that the Weranians felt it less of a threat to their control, as well as much easier to deal with domestic problems. As a result, Weranian officers and military staff would train and administer the reformed armed forces until 1940, and provide the equipment and technical expertise for the new army.
The new administrative arrangements caused problems for Beheran trade, as Behera had long exported its goods through Tsabaran ports, particularly Adunis, through the Trans-Bahian Railway. However, the closest Weranian-controlled ports were more than 1,500 kilometres to the east at the port of Ibabitema in the colony of Silberküste. This arrangement was considered to be problematic both by the Beherans and the Weranian corporations that came into the country to exploit its natural resources. In 1940, as the National Bloc country became politically closer to the Etrurians, Beheran trade was allowed to travel through the Etrurian colonies in Rahelia and be exported through the port of Qufeira. The Treaty of Povelia also affirmed the creation of a new railway that would link Behera and the Sea of Mazdan, with eventual plans to have a railway that linked Qufeira and Ibabitema. Behera had no say in the treaty negotiation process, but was nonetheless a beneficiary of access to Etrurian ports in the west.
Behera became home to the burgeoning Rahelian nationalist movement throughout the 1930's and 1940's, as Behera was more or less the only autonomous state with a substantial population of Rahelians. Amassine became the centre of Rahelian nationalism and an important locale in its development. During this period, Rahelian nationalism transitioned into its modern form, becoming a liberationist movement and adopting secularist attitudes towards the role of Irfan in society. As Behera also hosted secret underground movements for Rahelian and Bahian socialist movements, these two groups often intermixed, and created Rahelian liberationist movements and groups such as the Committee for the Liberation of Rahelia, the predecessor for a number of Rahelian socialist parties that would govern independent Rahelian states from the late 1940's onwards. Weranian and Etrurian authorities were aware of these movements, and while they were repressed in their respective colonies, they were used to undermine authority in areas where Estmere had been granted mandates, particularly in Sohar and Tsabara.
Behera remained stable politically following its establishment as a Weranian mandate with the Treaty of Amassine. On February 15, 1936, Said II appointed Rasil Kamal Ghallab as Prime Minister, who in turn, appointed a cabinet of politicians largely associated with Rahelian nationalist and socialist movements, including a number of foreign-born politicians, as the new constitution did not explicitly prohibit foreign born politicians from serving in the government. Despite the socialist leanings of the government, Ghallab was considered to be pro-Etrurian, seeing the radical government in Povelia as a useful tool to secure Rahelian liberation from Euclean colonial powers. Ghallab pursued an authoritarian but secular domestic policy, investing in schools, hospitals, and infrastructure to modernise and develop Behera. Many civil servants were sent overseas to Etruria, Gaullica, and Werania to learn better management of government departments and projects. He also pursued a more positive relationship with both the Weranian National Bloc government and that of Etruria, firmly placing Behera within the functionalist-nationalist axis that began to form prior to the Solarian War. In 1941, Ghallab secured an unusual agreement which saw both the Etrurian government and Behera collaborate on military affairs within the region, affirming Etrurian military assistance and support for the Beheran military.
At over 955,414 square kilometres, Behera is the largest landlocked state in the world. It is geographically varied, ranging from mountains which receive snow and are the source of numerous streams and rivers, to low lying tropical savannahs and deserts that the country is famous for.
Running through the centre and west of the country are the Hajjar Mountains which run from the northernmost extension in western Sohar south through Behera, before expanding into the vast Makanian Plateau which is predominantly found south of the border in Mabifia. Here are a variety of flat to rolling lands and hill ranges brought about by tectonic activity, some of which is still active and associated with the collision of the Great Northern Plate and the Mazdani Plate. The principal range of mountains is located in the west, while the vast uplands in the south were created through tectonic uplift and volcanic activity. These form part of the Hajjar Volcanic Province, which stretches from the Makanian Plateau into Sohar. Here are found a number of hill ranges and volcanoes, including the Jabel Tameṭṭut where Behera's highest point, a prominence on the rim of the Agutamekkast Caldera, is found. The Hajjar Mountains prevent much of the rainfall from the Gulf of Parishar from reaching Behera, but provide the sources for many of Behera's rivers.
Behera contains the westernmost portions of the Gonda Basin, through which the Gonda River flows from its source in northeastern Behera. The Gonda is the longest river to flow through Behera, and is culturally and economically important. Contained within Behera are two distinct areas within the Gonda Basin; the Upper Gonda Valley in the north, and the Eastern Lowlands in the south, with both areas along the border region with Yemet. These two areas are separated by the Jebel Aswad, a range of hills and eroded volcanic peaks that extends from central Behera eastwards into Yemet. The Upper Gonda Valley is the most important part of Behera, containing a number of important cities, including the capital and largest city, Amassine, as well as other historically important cities such as Afrar, the latter named after the longest river that flows completely within Behera, the confluence of which is the location of Behera's capital. It is a densely populated region, containing significant agricultural and urban development. The Eastern Lowlands in Behera are less densely populated and contain a number of regionally important cities and towns.
The Makanian Plateau in southern Behera has been an important economic and cultural link between Rahelia and Bahia and is the sight of significant cultural interactions. The terrain is conducive to agriculture, with ample rainfall and freshwater supplies from underground springs and aquifers. Despite being more conducive to human settlement, the Makanian Plateau is one of the least densely populated parts of Behera, and is largely undeveloped.
Northern Behera lies on the southernmost portions of the North Coian Massif, a vast area of uplands that covers much of Rahelia and northern Coius. The terrain mostly consists of vast stony deserts interspersed with rocky outcrops and rugged hills. Like the Makanian Plateau to the south, the North Coian Massif contains a vast aquifer underneath that not only gives rise to most of the region's major rivers, but also underpins a larger number of oases and some permanent watercourse wadis that are supplemented by occasional heavy rains.
Western Behera along the border with Tsabara is one of the wettest places in the country, with the western slopes of the Hajjar Mountains down onto the lowlands as well as the Baïn Massif located largely in eastern Tsabara. Here, seasonal monsoon rains create some of the lushest greenery in Behera, with the water flowing through narrow canyons and valleys to the Gulf of Parishar. This part of Behera also has an extensive and largely unexplored cave network due to erosion from the seasonal rainfall.
Officially outlined in the Constitution of Behera, the country is governed as a unitary presidential republic with a bicameral national legislature and separation of powers between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Behera is known for its long history of political and civil repression and has a poor human rights record, ranking low on metrics such as political rights, freedom of expression, and freedom of the press.
Executive power is vested in the President of Behera, a position established following the October Revolution in 1960. The office is the most powerful in the country, with significant powers over legislation as well as government and military appointments. The President is the ultimate authority of every government department in Behera and can influence or directly involve themselves in the decision-making and administration of these departments. Although officially there is a separation between the branches of government, in practice, the President typically appoints pro-government and pro-incumbent judges and other officials, as well as controlling which legislation is passed through both houses of Parliament for approval. The President serves for a term of five years, and can be re-elected multiple times. The incumbent President is Sadid Bassou Sharifi.
The Vice President of Behera was created with the ratification of the 2001 Beheran constitution following the end of the civil war. The role of Vice President is to serve in the place of the President if the President is absent in office or out of the country, and automatically succeeds the President if the President resigns, dies, or is otherwise incapacitated. Unlike other similar positions, the Vice President of Behera also has similar powers to the role of a prime minister, and is essentially responsible for the daily administration of the Cabinet of Ministers and the functioning of government. The Vice President is an appointed position, and each Vice President serves at the will of the President.
The Parliament is the bicameral legislature of Behera, composed of two houses; the People's Assembly and the National Council. The People's Assembly is the lower house of Parliament and has 150 elected members. The role of the People's Assembly is to introduce, debate, and amend legislation. Representation is guaranteed to Behera's non-Rahelian minorities, with ten seats allocated specifically for each ethnicity recognised by the government, while other members are elected from electoral districts spread around the country. The National Council is the upper house of Parliament and has 40 elected members and eight appointed ethnic representatives. Created in 2001 as a means of having accountability over the lower house, the National Council debates, amends, and approves legislation from the People's Assembly as well as votes on constitutional matters.
Behera's judicial system is officially composed of courts that are secular, but often operate in accordance with Irfanic, tribal, and customary laws in different areas of the country. Behera functions as a mixed law jurisdiction, maintaining both code of laws as well as affording magistrates the freedom to interpret those laws and establish legal precedents, particularly when it comes to non-secular laws. Because of this, the country maintains secular courts and special courts to separate the differences in law, although in practice, lower courts often settle secular, cultural, religious, and tribal issues with the same interpretations and rulings. At the centre of the secular court system sits the Court of Cassation, which is the highest court in the country. It is composed of a panel of twelve judges who hear appeals cases passed to them by the lower courts, both secular and non-secular. In addition to appeals courts, the secular court system consists of the Labour Court, which deals with disputes between employers and employees, and the Land Court, which deals with disputes on individually owned and common properties. Magistrates courts at the regional and lower levels of the justice system function as both secular and non-secular courts, with magistrates and lawyers required to have a knowledge of both secular and religious law. Religious laws, tribal customs and cultural matters are enforced outside of the judicial system, often as ad-hoc tribunals composed of local religious and tribal or cultural leaders. These often preside over small disputes, although occasionally engage in trials of more serious crimes outside of the judicial system. Behera has no right to trial by jury, with cases heard within the judicial system by one individual judge or a panel of judges.
Since 2001, elections have been held in Behera to determine the composition of both houses of Parliament, with elections for Parliament held every four years and for President every five years. Legislative elections are organised by regional offices of the [[Ministry of the Interior (Behera)|Ministry of the Interior, who approve candidates and political parties, with the offices approving candidates for presidential elections. Legislative elections use the single transferrable vote method for voting, while presidential elections use two-round instant runoff voting. Despite these democratic systems in place, it's votes are widely regarded as unfree by international organisations owing to strong central government control over approval of candidates and political parties, and the continued dominance of the Beheran National Congress over Beheran politics.
Beheran music is divided between the traditional folk music of its numerous people groups and more mainstream music genres dominated by genres from elsewhere, with Rahelian influences dominating. In addition, among the Bahian peoples there are influences from Bahian music movements and artists.
Among traditional instruments used for rituals and music include the gumbe, dondon, molo, and goge among the Djenné and Houmbouri peoples in the north of Behera. Other peoples like the Kurtey and the Masa also have traditional instruments which are used as part of traditional dances and rituals. In addition to Behera's Bahian peoples, the Amazigh of northern Behera also have a long musical tradition, with their own styles of singing as well as instruments. Amazigh music and artists are well known in Behera and internationally, with traditional songs, music, and poetry often performed by travelling musicians and musical groups known as kalimeẓẓan. The introduction of Euclean instruments and influences in the 20th century has given rise to a small number of unique genres, including assouf, or "desert blues", chaabi, a combination of folk and urban music, and raï, the latter becoming a foundation for contemporary Beheran pop music.
Prior to the 20th century, Behera had comparatively few musicians and bands that were known outside of Behera, owing to the largely insular nature of the country and the peoples that inhabited it. Technology enabled Beheran musicians to record and preserve their music in a way they had not been able to do previously. One of the greatest periods of musical development came after the October Revolution in 1960, which ushered in the arrival of Western-influenced music styles to Behera. Pop and rock music grew alongside other genres, with various forms of disco becoming popular in the 70's. The rise of hip-hop in the 90's as well as the maturing of contemporary pop music meant that Beheran artists saw success overseas for the first time. This success has made its way to other ethnic groups outside Amazigh and Rahelians, and include Bahian people groups and bands.
Well known musicians and bands from Behera include Abdelhamid Jamal Khatibi, Mohammed Fadel, Selima Makhloufi, as well as bands like Amgalaten and Azzaman.