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Union of Zorasani Irfanic Republics

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Union of Zorasani Irfanic Republics

Emblem of Zorasan
Emblem
Motto: 

National ideology: Sattarisim
Anthem: 
Zorasan in blue, Coius in light blue and claimed territories in dark blue
Zorasan in blue, Coius in light blue and claimed territories in dark blue
CapitalSattarishar, UTC
Largest cityZahedan
Official languagesRahelian
Pardarian
Recognised regional languagesKexri
Syriati
Yanogu
Ethnic groups
See Ethnicity
Religion
State religion:
Irfan (Arta and Hasawi)
Constitutionally recognised minority religions:
Maronite Catholicism, Atuditism, Zoroastrianism, Druze
Demonym(s)Zorasani (common)
Sattari (official)
GovernmentFederal Sattarist single-party state
Rahim Ali Haftar
Gafur Qahhor
Sadavir Hatami
Adavazdar Golzadari
Ibrahim Al-Fahim
LegislatureSupreme Assembly of the Union
Established
10 December 1979
• Established
1 January 1980
• Turfan
February-July 2005
13 July 2008
Area
• Total
5,471,003 km2 (2,112,366 sq mi)
• Water (%)
1.3%
Population
• 2021 estimate
Increase 206,285,225
• 2012 census
195,369,278
• Density
38.21/km2 (99.0/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.847 trillion (13th)
• Per capita
$13,802
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.070 trillion (9th)
• Per capita
$10,035
Gini34
medium
HDI0.784
high
CurrencyToman ()
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+39

Zorasan, officially known as the Union of Zorasani Irfanic Republics is a Sattarist federal one-party state located in northern Coius. It is bordered by Tsabara and Behera to the north, Mabifia and Dezevau to the east, Shangea to the south, Ajahadya and Gulbistan to the west and is bound to the northwest by the Gulf of Parishar. Zorasan is the third largest country in the world with 4,692,920 km2 (1,811,950 sq mi) in land area, and with 206.28 million ihabitants as of 2021, it is the third most populous country in the world, though with a population density of 36.88/km2 (95.5/sq mi). Its capital and largest city is Zahedan, while other major urban areas include Borazjan (Pardarian UR), Faidah (Khazi UR), Sadah (Irvadi UR), Ad-Daydh (Ninevahi UR) and Izidhar al-Mina (Riyadhi UR).

Zorasan is the site of ancient civilisations, some the oldest in the world. The first recorded organised civilisation to emerge in the 5th century BCE was the Galdian civilisation, which inhabited the area now known as Ashkezar in northwestern Pardaran. The world's first written language in the form of Cuneiform emerged in modern-day Khazestan through the Ebtarian civilisation in 3,200 BCE. The Pardarian kingdoms would first be united in 2,100 BCE by the Sorsanid Empire which expanded to become one of the largest empires in early history and seized much of modern-day Zorasan. The empire would be succeeded by the Arasanid Empire in around 600 BCE, which would later see the emergence of a new monotheistic faith in the form of Irfan in the 320s BCE, and was ultimately overthrown in 300 BCE by the prophet Ashavazdar Fereydun, who established the First Heavenly Dominion, which expanded militarily to reconstitute the Sorsanid's territory and spreading the faith. In 50 BCE, the Second Heavenly Dominion succeeded the first and continued the Irfanic conquests across much of northern Coius and into parts of Bahia and Satria, itself forming one of the largest empires in history, under the Second Heavenly Dominion, the Irfanic world underwent a golden age of scientific and cultural discovery. The Third Heavenly Dominion succeeded the Second in 953 AD and would be marred by external invasions, decline and internecine violence before being overthrown by the Gorsanid dynasty, which reconstituted an imperial monarchy for the first time since the Arasanid Empire.

The Gorsanid Empire would rule over what would form modern-Zorasan for five centuries until it was defeated by various Togoti warlords in the 17th century, who established the Togoti Khaganate who would rule much of modern Zorasan until their own overthrow by the Khardarid Khaganate. During this time, the region underwent significant decline in culture, economic output and development, though this would be turned around in 1703 with the Gorsanid Restoration. However, the Togoti domination coupled with the Gorsanid inability to modernise fundamentally weakened the Empire in relation to its growing Euclean rivals, who began several colonial efforts to gain control over the empire's resources and key trade routes. Beginning the 1820s, the Etrurian conquest of Zorasan through several conflicts and forced unequal treaties eventually led to the empire's collapse and the partition of its territory by Etruria under the Treaty of Povelia, which established several colonial dominions, protectorates and treaty ports. Under Etrurian colonial rule, there would be several localised and regional uprisings and by late 19th century a resurgence in nationalism, though in often competing forms. In 1918, the Khordad Rebellion began and would last until 1922, though defeated the rebellion gave way to the Pardarian Revolutionary Resistance Command under the leadership of Mahrdad Ali Sattari, who authored Sattarism and was the most prominent advocate for the reunification of the former Gorsanid Empire. Zorasan would serve as a front in the Great and Solarian wars during the 1930s and 1940s, suffering extensive destruction. In the latter stages of the Solarian War, the Greater Solarian Republic was forced to conduct a full-scale withdrawal from Coius, abandoning its colonial possessions, within the power vacuum, several states would emerge out of the former colonies and protectorates - the Kexri Free Republic, Emirate of Irvadistan, Kingdom of Khazestan and the Emirates of Riyadha, while Pardaran was divided between the former protectorate Sublime State of Pardaran, the Pardaran Revolutionary Resistance Command, the Ashkezar Republic and numerous local warlords. In 1950, the Pardarian Revolutionary Resistance Command defeated its rival factions in the Pardarian Civil War, this was swiftly followed by the Khazi Revolution and in 1952, the two countries united to form the Union of Khazestan and Pardaran marking the beginning of Zorasani Unification. This three-decade long effort was marked by ideological tensions, terrorism and two major conflicts, the First and Second Rahelian wars, which pitted the UKP against first the Zubaydi Rahelian Federation, though the Federation was overthrown in a socialist revolution, establishing the United Rahelian People's Republic. In 1976, the UKP and URPR went to war and after thirteen months of conflict, the URPR was defeated and the UKP established the Provisional Revolutionary Government of Irvadistan and Riyadha, this was followed in 1979 by the Union Republic Referendum which would lead to a victorious vote for the establishment of the Union of Zorasani Irfanic Republics, which was officially founded in 1980.

The UZIR was established under a one-party system governed by the National Renovation Front and throughout the 1980s, was forced to focus primarily on repressing various revolts and uprisings against Zorasani unification within Irvadistan, as well as rebuilding a country that suffered near forty-years of conflict and instability. Through unification however, Zorasan quickly became the world's largest producer of oil and other hydrocarbons which enabled rapid reconstruction. In 1990, a reformist Front administration took power, heralding the Saffron Era in which the economy, governance and culture were liberalised. From 1990 to 2003, Zorasan recorded on average 10% GDP growth and over 90 million people were lifted out of poverty, while the population boomed from 111 million to 195 million by 2012. In 2000, the NRF government led by Ekrem Dalan began enacting broader and more reckless reforms that caused severe disruption to the economy and exacerbated the worsening crisis of inequality and social tensions. These issues erupted into civil unrest in 2005 and worsened by the manipulations of the Zorasani military who opposed the reform agenda. The Dalan-led government was removed from office in a constitutional coup and was replaced with the Interim Governing Authority which held power until 2008 during which time it re-wrote the national constitution. Many reforms were rollbacked and economic growth returned to high rates. In 2015, a new administration took power which continued steady reforms of the economy maintaining growth. In 2021, this administration was removed from office for corruption following a brief political crisis.

Today, Zorasan is considered a major power with significant economic, military, cultural and religious influence. Due to being the site of the world’s largest proven oil reserves and its high production, Zorasan is considered an energy superpower. Zorasan is a founding member of the Irfanic Cooperative Congress, the International Forum for Developing States, the Rongzhuo Strategic Protocol Organisation and a member of the Community of Nations, GIFA and the ITO.

Etymology

The roots of the name Zorasan can be traced back to the Middle Pasdani "Xwarāsān", meaning "Land of the Sun." It was first used to denote the expanse of territories under the Arasanid Empire, when in 325 BCE, Shah Farrokhan II proclaimed his empire to be the "greatest expanse under the Sun" in a series of poems written in that year. His coining of the term was adopted by the First Heavenly Dominion during the Rise of Irfan, when the Prophet Ashavazdar, declared his intention to "free all Zorasan from the bounds of ignorance." The term from its inception until the Pardarian Civil War in the late 1940s, was rarely used to denote a singular polity, but rather a geographical region, under the Arasanids it denoted the imperial heartlands, which corresponded mostly to the modern bounderies of Zorasan, while under the Heavenly Dominions, "Zorasan" was used to denote the entirety of the Irfanic World, often due to the metaphorical comparison of the Sun to Khoda. Its relationship with the rise and spread of Irfan, alongside the definable boundries of Zorasan provided by the Shahs enabled the term to become culturally and political engrained in both the Pardarian and Rahelian peoples.

The use of "Zorasan" as a geographical term continued under the post-Dominion Pasdani empires and would see continued use by Etruria following the Conquest of Zorasan. The dismemberment of Gorsanid Zorasan in 1860 by the Etrurian colonial authorities saw "Zorasan" fall out of official use as the Etrurians sought to identify their colonial posessions independently of one another to deter a unified uprising. Between 1860 and 1946, the Etrurian colonies in Zorasan were collectively referred to as the "Southern Dominions" (Vespasian: Domini Meridionali), while the various underground anti-colonial movements maintained the use of Zorasan illicitly.

Following the de-colonisation of Zorasan in 1946, in wake of the Solarian War, the term's use fell exclusively to political figures in Pardaran, as the Rahelian states emerging out of the Etrurian colonies strove to secure independent national identities. However, the term Zorasan remained highly popular among the rural and urban poor classes, who saw Zorasan as a moniker for a pre-colonial time of prosperity, unity and independence. The Pardarian Civil War and rise of Renovationism in wake of the Khazi Revolution resulted in Zorasan's useage returning to the norm and was subject to considerable propaganda, fuelled by Pan-Zorasanism and Zorasani unification. The completion of unification in 1980 saw "Zorasan" be adopted as the official name of the unified country.

History

Prehistoric

Classical antiquity

Rise of Irfan

Heavenly Dominions

Medieval

Early modern period

Khaganates

Gorsanid Restoration

Etrurian conquest

Modern

Colonial Zorasan

Zorasani unification

Since unification

Geography

Zorasan has a total area of 5,471,003 km2 (2,112,366 sq mi), making it the third largest country in world and the second largest in Coius after Shangea. Zorasan borders Tsabara, Behera to the north-north-east, Mabifia to east, as well as Devezau where the border is also demarcated by Lake Zindarud, one of the largest lakes in the world. To the south, it borders Shangea via the Kharkestar Corridor. To the west it borders Ajahadya and Gulbistan. To the direct north is the Gulf of Parishar, where Zorasan also possesses the Khazal Islands. Northwestern Zorasan has a coastline along the Acheolian Sea.

Zorasan consists of four distinct geographical areas, the Ashkezar Plain in the northwest, the Great Steppe, from which comes the Tinnin Plateau, the Hamun-e Faravani Plain and the foothills of the Hajjar Mountains, located along the country's northeastern borders with Mabifia and Behera. The most populous areas of Zorasan are the Ashkezar Plain and the Tinnin Plateau both of which are located in Pardaran. It is the rugged hills that emerge out of the Great Steppe that form the majority of Zorasan's mountainous regions in the form of the Tinnin Plataeu which contains Mount Fereydun, the highest point in the country at 5,615m (18,421 ft). The second highest point in Zorasan is Mount Kassoun, in Irvadistan and is located in the lower Hajjar Mountains, standing at 3,210m (10,531 ft). Much of Zorasan is dominated by vast tracts of open savanna plains, deciduous forests and shrublands. Northern Irvadistan transitions into arid and desert terrain, and is marked by the Almarana Depression which is 19,605 km2 (7,570 sq mi) is total area and on average 60m (200ft) below sea-level. The Great Steppe which constitutes most of southwestern Pardaran is a vast flat plain and rests at a higher altitude of 1,000m (3,280ft) above sea-level.

Zorasan's most prominent rivers include the Fiḍḍa River (2,394km) which is sourced from Lake Sattari and bisects Irvadistan from south to east-to-west before entering the Gulf of Parishar at Khadal. This is followed by the Abzâr River (2,102km) which is formed through the conjoining of the Qashanrud and Sabar rivers, both of which flow from the Great Steppe, the Abzâr deposits in the Acheolian Sea via Dahanesar.

Zorasan is also the site of three major lakes, Lake Zindarud which it shares a maritime border with Dezevau is one of the largest in the world, with a total area of 143,503km2 (55,406 sq mi), followed by Lake Jahandar at 20,070km2 (7,749 sq mi) and Lake Sattari at 7,902km2 (3,050 sq mi). However, Lake Jahandar is believed to have lost over 80% of its volume since 1980 owing to over-exploitation, poor water management and climate change.

Climate

Biodiversity

The Coian Lynx is one of the most culturally iconic animals in Zorasan.

Zorasan boast significant biodiversity both terrestrial and marine species, some of which are endemic solely to Zorasan present or historically. Terrestrial species present in Zorasan today include, foxes, gray wolves, bears, boars, wild pigs, jackals, lynxes and panthers. Non-predatory animals include water buffaloes, mountain goats and Satrian Elephants, who were introduced to the forested north-west in the late 15th century. Zorasan was historically home to the largest population of Coiatic Cheetahs, which went extinct in the late 1990s according to the World Institute for Wildlife Protection. Zorasan is also home to populations of Pasdani Leopards and Gilustani Tigers, however, both these species are considered endangered and under serious threat of extinction by the 2030s. Avian species native to Zorasan include falcons, pheastants, eagles and Sparrowhawks.

A Dugong native to the Harat Delta.

The marine wildlife of Zorasan differs greatly, with the Gulf of Parishar being home to a wide variety of large mammals such as minke whales, humpback whales, bottle-nose dolphins and along the Harat Delta region, populations of dugongs have been recorded. The establishment of several Marine Life Protected Areas has enabled the return of a permanent population of hunchback dolphins. To the south, Lake Bakhtegan is home to a wide variety of freshwater fish, including large species of sturgeon. The presence of sturgeon stocks has resulted in Lake Bakhtegan being a major source for beluga caviar.

The situation regarding wildlife in Zorasan is ranked as one of the most serious to numerous NGOs and international charity groups. Over 80 species are on red lists for possible extinction. According to the WIWP, Zorasan has lost over 56% of its native wildlife since the early 20th century. Efforts by Zorasani state governments to regulate the protections of wildlife are regularly overridden by federal legislation that fast tracks the exploitation of mines and other subterranean resources without the input of Zorasan’s National Wildlife Institution or the Union Ministry for Environmental Protections. As of 2020, the final regulations demanding studies of local wildlife to assess the impact of human development was scrapped.

Environmental issues

The natural environment in Zorasan has come under severe strain since the mid-20th century. The rapid development and industrialisation process beginning in the 1970s has caused irreparable damage to the natural world in some regions according to Zorasani and International environmentalist groups. The effect on wildlife has been profound with the loss of 56% of endemic species, while the country also faces water scarcity, poor air quality and rapidly expanding deserts, in what has been described as the “most severe case of desertification” in modern times.

Despite the wide consensus that climate change is playing a role in Zorasan’s environmental crises, most international and Zorasani groups agree that most of its crises are self-inflicted and man-made. The issue of water scarcity has been blamed on mismanagement of water resources and over-use by industry and agriculture. The over-development of agricultural land in both the Ashkezar and Hamun-e Faravani regions has in turn, played a key role in the instigation of desertification. Air quality worsens as the Zorasani government either disregards the need for regulation or active repeals what limited regulations are already in place. Zorasan has lost over 300,000 square kilometers of forest since 1990 and the pace of deforestation has worsened in some areas, while numerous waterways and rivers have been unsuitable for human consumption due to pollutants and toxicity.

Desertification

Deforestation

Water scarcity

Pollution

Government and politics

Zorasan according to its constitution is a federation of nine Union Republics under a one-party state. However, in reality since the 2008 constitution, it functions as a highly centralised hybrid one-party-military state. It is self-described as a “revolutionary union guided and defined in its activities by Sattarist National Renovationism and the legacy of the Union Fathers.” Alongside the constitution, Zorasan is also governed by the Six Articles of Union and Unification, which establishes the standards of individual and collective behaviour and actions of Zorasanis. The National Renovation Front is the ruling political party and sole legal political entity, it is estimated to have 18.6 million members, making it one of the largest parties in the world and is one of the two dominant features of politics and every day life.

The Zorasani constitution defines the state as comprised of three branches, the Central Authority coalesced around the Central Committee of State, Council of Union Ministers, Supreme Council of the Armed Forces and the State Commission for Administration. The second is the Supreme Assembly of the Union and the third, the Supreme Committee for Irfanic Affairs.

The constitution identifies Zorasan as operating a trifecta of “state officers” who wield considerable executive and state power. State President of the Union, who also holds the titles of ; head of state, Secretary-General of the National Renovation Front and Co-Chairman of the Central Committee of State. The incumbent State President is Rahim Ali Haftar. The head of government is the First Minister of the Union, who also serves as the Chairman of the Council of Union Ministers, Secretary-General of the State Commission for Administration and Chief Representative to the Supreme Assembly of the Union. The incumbent First Minister is Gafor Qahor. The third office of the executive is the First Marshal of the Union, the country’s highest ranking military officer who also serves as Co-Chairman of the Central Committee of State, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Revolutionary Armed Forces and Supreme Commander of the Revolutionary Armed Forces.

The Supreme Assembly of the Union is the unicameral parliament of Zorasan.

The Central Authority is centred around the Central Committee of State, which is the highest decision-making body within the country. Its members are drawn from the highest-ranking officials of the NRF and the SCRAF. It is charged with deliberating and devising state policy and direction and has the final say on all matters. Though the Central Committee holds jurisdiction over all branches of government it is widely seen as the apex of executive power. Directly subordinate to the Central Committee is the Council of Union Ministers (the cabinet of Zorasan), which is chaired by the First Minister and holds 24 ministers and five State Commissioners, the President of the Union Central Bank, the Chairman of the National Economic Coordination Committee and the Chairman of the National Academies. The State Commission for Administration, also headed by the First Minister is the body tasked with overseeing and guiding the civil service at the federal and state level, it is comprised of the First Minister, Governors of the Union Republics and two State Commissioners, the SCA is also subordinated directly to the Central Committee. The Supreme Council of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (SCRAF) is the body of the most senior uniformed leaders within the Union Ministry of National Defence, that advises the government on military matters. However, the SCRAF also wields political power, with the constitution mandating that SCRAF members also serve as the Union Ministers for Defence, Defence Ordinance Production and for State Intelligence and Security. The SCRAF also appoints officers to serve as heads of the State Commissions for Societal Defence, Popular Security and for Spiritual Mobilisation. The third element to the Central Authority is the Supreme Committee for Irfanic Affairs, which is headed by the Supreme Custodian of the Faith, Zorasan's highest ranking Irfanic cleric and a number of subordinate clerics chosen by them. The SCIA is tasked with producing social and moral policies, directions and guidance, as well as observing and directing the Irfanic court system.

The Union Quarter of Sattarishahr is the seat of every major Zorasani political and party institution.

The legislative branch of Zorasan is formed through the unicameral Supreme Assembly of the Union (SAU). It has 540 members, of which 130 are elected by state legislatures (10 from each Union Republic, Union Municipality and Union Territory), the military appoints 200 members and a further 200 are appointed by the Central Committee on the basis of their contributions to society. Its members are appointed or elected every five years following the Revolutionary Command Congress and how unlimited term limits. Under the country's constitution, the Assembly is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to legislate and oversee the daily operations of the government, the supreme court, special committees, the Union Procuratorate, the State Commissions and hold ministers to account through bi-monthly hearings and reviews. Notably, the Assembly lacks the power of the purse and limited legislative initiative powers. However, the Assembly can propose legislation in certain policy areas, while international treaties, declarations of war and constitutional amendments require majority votes by the Assembly to come into force.

National Renovation Front and armed forces

Since the Turfan and the new constitution adopted in 2008, the basic law of Zorasan declares, “the foundation of the Union is the leadership of the National Renovation Front and the preservation of the Sattarist National Renovationist way of life through the guardianship of the Armed Forces.” The 2008 amendments constitutionalised the one-party state together with the considerable role afforded to the military, leading many to describe Zorasan as a totalitarian one-party militaristic hybrid regime. The amendments also constitutionalised the collective leadership of the NRF and state by declaring the Central Committee of State the “ultimate holder and purveyor of power and authority over all state and government.”

The military plays a prominent role in political and daily life within Zorasan.

The Zorasani political system through the NRF is notably lacking in any form of popular democracy, while being pyramidal in structure, only registered party members may engage in secret ballots to elect members of the local party offices and committees. From the local level up toward the national, political office is filled via appointment by the level above on the basis of merit and record. The promotion and elevation of officers through the party ranks is vetted and overseen by the Party Office for General Management and Record, who may veto the decisions of party committees. The NRF's structure is devised to mirror the political structure of Zorasani federalism, with party structures at the local, district, provincial, Union Republic and national levels, each is subordinate to the one above, with the national level theoretically subordinating all others below it, negating the Zorasani constitutional claim of operating federalism.

The Zorasani military alongside the NRF is present in all areas of political and daily life and retains considerable control and influence over the political system, often to such a degree that many argue that the NRF is in fact subordinate to the military. Military personnel below the rank of Brigadier General are prohibited from being party members, those at that rank and above are often found on key committees both at the state and national levels. The military’s control of the Union Ministry of State Intelligence and Security, together with AKHID, the National Security and Protection Service and the Popular Security Directorate affords the military unmatched power in the realms of domestic security and repression. The NRF for its part only retains control over the Union Directorate for Law Enforcement (police) and the Union Office for Political Security.

National ideology

The Zorasani constitution declares “Sattarist National Renovationism as the foundation upon which the nation is built.” It is viewed as the embodiment of the Sattari people and the manifestation of the shared spirit of the country and provides the means to “preserve, protect and unleash the national potential.” While the ideology predates the Union, having been formulated in the 1920s by Mahrdad Ali Sattari and the leaders of the Pardarian Revolutionary Resistance Command, it was adopted and enshrined within the constitution in 1980 upon the foundation of the Union of Zorasani Irfanic Republics. Its core principles are collectivism, militarism, nationalism and the pursuit of modernisation. Throughout the 1980s, a series of “Ideological and Political Reaffirmations” were announced, establishing the role of private business and capitalistic policies. Since the 1980s and specifically 2008, Sattarism has evolved, seeing a decrease in state control over the social elements of everyday life, it still provides the groundwork for austere behaviour, self-sacrifice, discipline and the erosion of individualism for the greater whole, within the greater framework of a neo-mercantilist and state capitalist totalitarian state.

Notably, compared to other authoritarian states in Coius and elsewhere, ideologically speaking Sattarism does not provide space for a unifying singular head or leader, rather its commitment to collectivism both socially and politically elevates the state as a whole as the ultimate entity within political life. As living standards and wealth has increased since unification in 1980, the degree in which collectivism is promoted has increased in lock step. While the state advocates and supports the imposition of a profit-seeking economic model, it has endeavoured to do so by celebrating the collective contribution of citizens to that success. This includes the continued use of mass events, rallies and national holidays and the continued promotion of Ettehâd, the central tenet of Sattarist collectivism.

Foreign relations

The official goal of the government of Zorasan is to establish a new world order based on world peace, global collective security, and international equality. Since the time of the Second Rahelian War, Zorasan's foreign relations have often been portrayed as being based on four strategic principles; eliminating outside influences in the immediate region, maintaining Zorasan as the leading power of northern Coius, securing Zorasani unification and pursuing extensive diplomatic contacts with developing and non-aligned countries, primarily in the wider Irfanic World (Rahelia and Bahia specifically). Zorasani foreign policy since 2008 has also been driven by principles of South-South cooperation and the abandonment of zero sum gain, especially in dealing with fellow developing nations.

Zorasan maintains close relations with Mabifia, Yemet, Sohar, Nise and to a lesser extent Behera. Since the outbreak of the Tsabaran Civil War, its relations with the Tsabaran government have collapsed into outright hostility. Due to Zorasan's political system and its status as a revisionist power, the country operates often antagonistic relations with the Euclean Community and its member states, primarily Estmere, Gaullica and Werania.

State President Rahim Ali Haftar with Shangea's State Chairman Yuan Xiannan in 2022.

Zorasan's closest relations are with Shangea, these ties are sufficiently deep in the political, economic and social realms that bi-lateral relations are often referred as the Rongzhuo-Zahedan Axis. Ties between Zorasan and Shangea are believed to date back to 1,200 BC, with regular contact and trade through the Shaleago Mountains and the Spice Road. It was not until the 20th century that relations began to become more formal and close. The hosting of the Pardarian Revolutionary Resistance Command in the 1920s by Shangea and the support provided to the group during the Pardarian Civil War, as well as to the Union of Khazestan and Pardaran during Zorasani Unification established the groundwork for the eventual emergence of the Axis. In regards to Shangea, following the Corrective Revolution when Ma Renzhong met Mahrdad Ali Sattari in 1957 both countries began to foster close political and economic ties as both countries were ruled by one-party governments intent on regional hegemony. Close cooperation between both governments became more prominent under Sun Yuting and Ghassan Ali Ghaddar, and have since Vahid Isfandiar and Yuan Xiannian held office seen a dramatic revival of ties. The government of Xi Yao-tong has furthered this policy, signing significant trade deals with Zorasan in 2016 and 2017, and an increase in military cooperation. Zorasan meanwhile has provided military and technological cooperation with Shangea, most prominently during the Third Duljunese-Shangean War. Together, Zorasan and Shangea have established multiple bodies including the Rongzhuo Strategic Protocol Organisation, the International Forum for Developing States and the Bank for United Development.

Zorasan is a member of the Community of Nations, Irfanic Cooperative Conference, GIFA, NAC and the ITO.

Law enforcement and internal security

Zorasan operates an eclectic legal system, which draws inspiration from multiple sources, notably civil law, Irfanic law and Sattarist legal theory. The Zorasani court system is divided into three formations, the Esafkar courts (Irfanic law), State Courts and Security Tribunals. The Esafkar court system is the only judicial branch to be entirely independent of the state and oversees the implementation of Irfanic law in social and moral matters only. The State Court system is the principal judicial branch, these matters and procedures are handled by the Supreme Court of the Union (highest court of appeal), provincial, municipal courts and popular courts. The Popular Courts are the lowest level within the system and operate in cities, towns, districts and urban districts. The Security Tribunals deal with political and military matters only.

With the exception of Irfanic judges, all legal officers in Zorasan are appointed by the state, through the Union Procuratorate and Union Ministry of Justice. Due to the penal code being based upon the principle of nullum crimen sine lege, the Zorasani penal code is one of the largest in the world, though Zorasan is known to extensively use ex post facto laws to criminalise individuals. The separated court system also corresponds to a “dual prison system” in which criminal and Irfanic offenders are incarcerated in the general prison system, those sentenced by the Security Tribunals are sentenced to the Habsedar, a network of labour camps throughout the country.

Officers of the Union Directorate of Law Enforcement.

Law enforcement in Zorasan is managed and directed by the Union Ministry of Internal Affairs, which oversees the Union Directorate of Law Enforcement (police, border controls and the coast guard) and the general prison system. In 2008, the Union Ministry of State Intelligence and Security was subordinated to the Supreme Council of the Revolutionary Armed Forces is tasked with domestic security and counterintelligence. This operates alongside the military’s intelligence service, AKHID, which is also tasked with domestic and foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, and the management of the Habsedar prison network. The military also manages the National Security and Protection Service which is tasked with protecting key facilities and sites and the Popular Security Directorate which is tasked with combatting drug, arms and human trafficking as well as organised crime.

Zorasan also operates two distinct popular grassroots organisations for enforcement of law and state repression, the largest being the Wolves, which also includes the Gorgan Guidance Patrol (morality police) as well as community-based organisations tasked with policing political and ideological loyalty. The other organisation is the network of Sar-Parast Aghtar or (Zone Wardens), these are NRF party members that operate in apartment blocks or pre-determined urban areas and are widely believed to serve as informants as well as managing the day-to-day political behaviour of their zone. The security apparatus in Zorasan is extensive, exerting influence and control over residences, travel, employment, family life and public behaviour. Zorasan’s security services are known to operate mass surveillance, informants and monitoring digital and cellular communications.

Human rights

Zorasan is widely perceived and accused of having among the worst human rights records in the world. While the degree of violations has decreased in severity since 1980, there remains “extensive abuses, restrictions and violations at a significant scale” according to the Community of Nations. There remain significant restrictions on the freedom of speech, expression, association, and movement, while arbitrary detention, torture, extrajudicial killing and excessive use of capital punishment remain.

In 2019, Liberty House conducted a study and argued that, “while social life may now be the freest it has been since unification, this is countered by the expansive use of disappearances, torture, arbitrary detention and the reliance upon the Graded Citizenry System, in which citizens are ranked publicly by their past and present behaviour in relation to the state.” In 2019 alone, an estimated 6,000 people were forcibly disappeared and likely sentenced to hard labour or prison time without due process or a trial.

The Union Ministry of State Intelligence and Security (UMSIS) together with AKHID are the principal violators of human rights in Zorasan. Both are known to extrajudicially apprehend and imprison individuals accused of political crimes, often without due process. Those individuals, together with perceived critics of the government, military and “Anti-Unity figures”, such as Badists and select ethnic minorities are often deported to the Habsedar prison camps. The Habsedar network includes hard labour camps, prisons and more notorious institutions such as Siyâh-ye Darre where tortue and ill-treatment is well-documented, including emotional, physical, psychological and sexual abuse.

According to Sergėtojai International, the Habsedar network’s labour camps often subject their inmates to harsh work, notably logging. In a joint study with the World Environmental Alliance, an estimated 60% of forest clearances in Zorasan are conducted by forced labourers. This work is often done in deplorable conditions, such as limited food and water rations, physical and emotional abuse by guards and the withholding of medical treatment in the event of accidents. Sergėtojai International estimates that between 3,500 and 5,000 people die a year within the Habsedar system.

In 2012, the Zorasani government introduced the Graded Citizenry System. The system categorises citizens into three classifications (red, yellow and green as seen on state issued ID cards), Green Citizens have no more restrictions upon their liberty than the law provides, Yellow Citizens are limited in movement and employment opportunities, while Red Citizens are those likely to have served prison time for political crimes, they are all but limited in movement to their immediate district and are essentially ostracised from society, having to rely upon menial state employment and being disbarred from accessing social venues such as cafes, restaurants and cinemas. A citizens’ grade must be presented in virtually every aspect of every-day life, while businesses and the state may access the national database at will, greatly affecting citizens’ ability to secure employment if not graded green.

Military

The Zorasani military operates four branches and is the largest military in the world.

The armed forces of Zorasan, officially the Zorasani Irfanic Revolutionary Army (ZIRA), comprises of 1,741,828 active and 2,100,000 reserve and paramilitary troops, making it the largest military in the world by total personnel. The ZIRA consists of the Zorasani Irfanic Revolutionary Land Forces (ZIRFL), Zorasani Irfanic Revolutionary Air Force (ZIRAF), Zorasani Irfanic Revolutionary Navy (ZIRN), the Zorasani Irfanic Revolutionary Airborne Troops (ZIRAT) and the National Protection Forces (NPF). The ZIRA also operates several "Inter-Service Commands", including the Central Air Defence Command (army-air force) and the Central Coastal Defence Command (army-air force-navy). Zorasan is unique in that neither the head of state or government are the commander-in-chief, this position is held by the Supreme Commander of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, a role afforded to the First Marshal of the Union, the highest ranking officer in the armed forces. The Zorasani military in political affairs and its relations with the government is conducted through the Supreme Council of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, the chiefs of staff. While under the constitution, the authority to declare and deploy the armed forces rests with the Supreme Assembly of the Union, both can be requested by the SCRAF. Under the 2008 constitution, the Zorasani parliament is widely perceived to be a rubber-stamp for SCRAF requests, including the deployment of Zorasani military forces outside the country’s borders.

Of the branches of the ZIRA, the Land Forces are the largest, consisting of 1,180,000 active personnel and 1,900,000 in reserve. It operates around 6,000 tanks, 11,000 armoured personnel carriers, 8,000 artillery pieces and 150-200 unmanned aerial vehicles. The Land Forces constitute the largest army in northern Coius and one of the largest in the world. The Air Force is also one of the largest in the world, operating 1,500 aircraft, of which 789 are combat aircraft, these include airframes from Soravia, Chistovodia, Shangea as well as domestically produced craft such as the SAI GR-7 Imam Ardashir, SAI Āzaraxš and SAI Tondar bomber. The ZIRAF also operates one of the largest drone fleets in the world, with numbers ranging from 200 to 350 drones of varying size in service. The Navy operates 311 vessels, including 38 submarines and two light aircraft carriers, the Mahrdad Ali Sattari and Javad Jahandar. The ZIRAT, is one of the world’s largest dedicated paratrooper forces, consisting of 50,000 active personnel and 30,000 reservists.

Since unification in 1980, the Zorasani government has invested heavily toward developing its own military industry, enabling since the 1980s to produce its own tanks, armoured personnel carriers, missiles, submarines, military vessels, air defence systems, radar systems, helicopters, and fighter planes. Since the 2000s, this effort has also moved toward the development of ballistic missiles such as the Fateh-110, cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles, notably the SAI Zamboor-2 and SAI Zamboor-3.

Every fit male Zorasani citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from a year to three years, dependent on education and job location. Zorasan does not recognise conscientious objection, but does provide for non-combat orientated roles, such as logistics and maintenance, though these roles are within the military.

Officially, Zorasan spends 4.1% of GDP on defence, estimated at $84.87 billion annually. The Zorasani military however, operates a business empire estimated to be worth over $350 billion, including majority shares in chemicals, steel, textiles and even hotel chains. The military also operates a 10% share in Zorgen, the state-owned petrochemical company. These corporate interests are managed through the Greater Soldier Foundation, there is little to no public record of how much revenue the military draws from its corporate holdings or how it is utilised, though studies by analysts believe that the Zorasani military operates a budget of $120 billion per annum, one of the highest in the world. This economic influence runs parallel to its significant political power and influence.

The Zorasani government supports the military activities of its allies in Yemet, Garambura, Ajahadya, Sohar and Nise with military and financial aid. Zorasani military forces have also contributed soldiers and equipment to Community of Nations Peacekeeping Missions, and since 2020 has been engaged in the Second Yemeti Civil War. It is long accused of being actively involved in the Tsabaran Civil War, supporting the separatist Irfanic Liberation and Resistance (ILR) forces, though this is denied.

Economy

As of 2019, Zorasan had the 9th largest economy by GDP nominal, with $1.809 trillion and the 13th largest economy by GDP PPP with $2.250 trillion. The Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs classifies Zorasan as a newly industrialised nation and a middle-income economy. The country operates an economic model many have described as state capitalist, with heavy state intervention and ownership alongside private businesses. Following initial pro-market reforms beginning 1985 and more expansive reforms throughout the 1990s, the Zorasani economy became one of the fastest growing in the developing world, with GDP growth remaining above 6 percent from 1991 to 2001, before growing consistently above 8 percent from 2009 onward. The most prominent sectors of the Zorasani economy are Industry, 41.45%, petrochemicals 29.5%, services 25% and agriculture 4.05%.

The Pashtaran refinery is the largest oil refinement facility in the world.

Since 1980, the structure and nature of the economy has changed considerably. Upon the Union's founding 1980, its newly unified economy was dominated by agriculture and petrochemicals, owing to both the reliance on petrochemicals for revenue of pre-unification states and their shared aims of promoting agricultural self-sufficiency. The degree of development varied between the states, though all were historically recognised as rentier economies. Following the completion of unification and the inescapable need to rebuild entire regions owing to near thirty-years of warfare saw a significant shift in economic planning and strategy. In 1980, the Zorasani government recognised the limitations of oil-dependency and sought to dramatically diversify the economy, both as a means of escaping rentier status and to provide greater means of improved living standards for the entire population. Throughout the 1980s, high oil prices and the consolidation of the unified oil industries - turning Zorasan into the largest producer of petrochemicals in the world, supplied the government with the necessary capital to invest into manufacturing and services. The industrialisation process was aided by urbanisation, which further fuelled diverisification and infrastructure development. Progress continued throughout the 1990s, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 9.1%. As a result, the official poverty rate fell from 60% to 15%. Reduction of trade barriers from the mid-1990s made the economy more globally integrated. A series of pro-market reforms in the late 1990s expanded competitiveness and hastened diversification, however, more radical reforms in the early 2000s caused a sharp economic shock, combined with privatisation of ineffecient state owned enterprises threw the economy into recession, which was deepened by the onset of the 2005 Global Recession. Political instability between 2005 and 2006 slowed recovery, before growth returned to its 9% average in 2007, which has been maintained since.

The Union General Steel and Iron Corporation is the largest producer of steel in Zorasan.

Today, the diversification has been widely praised and documented by leading global economists. Zorasan is one of the largest producers of steel, industrial and electrical parts and its shipbuilding industry is one of the fastest growing, while it has also established itself as one of the larger shipbreakers. Zorasan is the leading economy in Irfanic Finance, it has risen to be one of the largest producer textiles, with an estimated 1.9 million workers in the textile industry alone. Zorasan has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, copper, gold, bauxite and aluminium, while agriculture produces fruits, nuts, flowers and rice. However, with the exception of oil and natural gas, the most prominent exports are manufactured goods; textiles, electronics, electronic parts, industrial equipment, steel and chemicals. In recent years, Zorasan's automotive and locomotive industries have grown to boast some of the largest producers, with Zorasan ranking as the 3rd largest producer of city buses and coaches and the 5th largest producer of locomotives and high-speed train units. Xiaodong, the Euclean Community, Ajahadya are Zorasan's largest trading partners. The country's armed forces are unique in that it owns and operates a sizeable business empire in its own right, according to the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, the Zorasani military owns or holds significant voting shares in twelve of the largest Zorasani companies, which it manages through the Great Soldier Foundation holding company.

Zorasan is one of the world's leading producers of ships.

Energy

Zorasan has the world's largest proved oil reserves, with an estimated 354,103,000 barrels, it is also the world's largest producer. Zorasan also ranks XX in proven natural gas reserves, with 15.3 trillion cubic meters and is the Xth largest producer. It is LOPS's largest oil producer and is widely considered to be the pre-eminent energy superpower. As of 2019, Zorasan's production of oil averaged 11.55 million barrels per day (XXX m3/d), a marked increase from the average of 6.8 million barrels throughout the 2000s. Zorasan spends €5.5 billion on maintainence, research and development and modernisation within its oil industry, while a further €3.5 billion is spent on exploratory wells, expansion of existing wells and improving extraction processes. 111 exploratory wells were drilled between 2005 and 2008. Between 2006 and 2012, Zorasan spent €1 billion on developing clearner fuels.

The country's long held program for diversification from oil-reliance, while not dimimishing the country's production or output has resulted in the establishment of alternative energy sources. The country is one of the largest consumers of coal in Coius and operates an estimated 26 coal and gas-fired power stations. In 2000, the Zorasani government announced plans to reduce domestic oil use by 35% by 2030, this included plans for the full-adoption of solar, geothermal, hydroelectricity and wind power. Between 2003 and 2005, significant reforms to the country's long-time ineffecient and fraudulent energy subisidies succeeded in reducing domestic use of fuel. In 2003, the country's fourth nuclear power plant was activated at Qufeira, Irvadistan. In 2016, the world's second largest solar farm was opened near Kashdar in central Pardaran, the Kashdar Solar Park produces 850 MWp of energy. The rapid development of various dam projects, while increasing non-oil energy, has had a serious and adverse effect on the country's water supply, exacberating the Zorasani water crisis.

Zorasan is the fourth largest automobile producer in Coius.

Tourism

Science and technology

STRDC is the leading agency for developing science, technology and innovation policies in Zorasan. STRDC is the umbrella semi-autonomous government agency charged with overseeing and directing scientific studies and activities in Zorasan and is subordinate to the Union Ministry for Science and Technological Development and under some oversight by the Central Command Council. STRDC directs both state agencies and private research and development bodies. Among STRDC's major subordinate bodies is the Zorasani Space Research Organisation, the country's official space agency. Supporting to the ZSRO is Zorasani Aerospace and Atmospheric Industries (ZAAI), which plays a pivotal role in the development and production of satellites, including a series of global observation satellites for reconaissance. ZAAI has been the most prominent producer of satellites launched by ZSRO for commercial, military and scientific purposes.

Zorasan ranks amongst the top 10 for number of university graduates and the top 5 for doctorate degrees, primarily in medicine, engineering and physics. The country operates over 100 universities and 26 academies, the most presitigous include the Abdolreza Mandarani University, the Mazdavand Medical University and the Faidah Metropolitan University for Disease.

Zorasan also hosts several of the largest pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, in 2007, Zorasani scientists at the Imam Ardashir Centre for Life Studies successfully coloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. A study in 2010 by the International Council for Bio-Medicine, found that stem cell research in Zorasan is amongst the top 5 in the world. Zorasan also scores high in rankings of nanotechnologies. Zorasan's history in medical research has produced several breakthroughs, including the collaborative success in inventing and developing the first artificial cardiac pump, the precursor of the artificial heart.

The Zorasani nuclear program was launched in the 1970s. Zorasan became the Xth country to produce uranium hexafluoride in 1990, and controls the entire nuclear fuel cycle.

Infrastructure

As of 2018, there were 104 airports in Zorasan, including 24 international airports. The most busiest in the country, Zahedan Mahrdad Ali Sattari Airport is the 10th busiest in the world, serving 39,569,204 passengers between January July 2017. Plans for a new and third international airport of Zahedan will see it become one of the more busier in the world, with a capacity to serve 165 million passengers per year. Air Zorasan is the flag carrier and serves the country alongside other national carriers. As of 2020, there are plans a 18 new regional airports to link the less developed frontier regions with the highly urbanised coast.

Port of Bandar-e Parvadeh

As of 2018, the country has a roadway network of 115,888 kilometres (72,09 miles). The total length of the rail network was 19,991 kilometres (12,421 miles) in 2017, including 6,133 kilometres (3,810 miles) of electrified and 1,457 kilometres (905 miles) of high-speed track. The Union General Railways started building high-speed rail lines in 2001. The Zahedan-Faidah line became operational in 2008, while the Faidah-Qufeira line entered service in 2015. In 2018, the Zahedan-Karandagh-Saravan line became operational, followed in 2019 by the Zahedan-Mazdavand line. Construction of the Faidah-Ad Dayhd and the Qufeira-Khiyara lines are on scheduel for completion in 2023 and 2024 respectively. The most ambitious high-speed rail line under construction of the Zahedan-Rongzhuo line, which will travel an estimated 1,100 miles through the Kharkestar Corridor, to connect two of the largest cities in the world. The line is estimated to be completed by 2026. Zorasan also boasts several of the largest ports in the world, with Bandar-e Parvadeh being the second largest on the Solarian Sea after Accadia. Other majors ports include Bandar-e Hussein, Safwan and Chaboksar.

Many natural gas and oil pipelines span the country's territory. The Kharkestar Stream pipline, the second longest oil pipeline in the world, was inaugurated on 3 May 2002 and serves to export Zorasani petrochemicals to Kumuso and Xiaodong, the Ajad Stream pipeline serves Southeastern Coius and the Mabifia-Extension pipeline connects Zorasan to Bahia, but also permits the reselling of Mabifian oil and gas to Euclea. Plans for the Solarian Stream pipeline, connecting Zorasan to southern Euclea through Galenia and Etruria has been hold since 2016.

Zorasan's internet, which has 100.3 million active users, holds a 'Not Free' ranking in Liberty House's index. Zorasan's government has constantly blocked websites such as social media sites, news sites and online educational wikis. According to some references, Zorasan is the leading nation in social media censorship. The internet in Zorasan has been known to be used as a tool for repression, both through the spread of misinformation, propaganda and its uses a trap for dissidents and critics of the regime.

Demographics

Languages

Ethnicity

Education

Healthcare

Urbanisation

Culture