History of Great Nortend
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The country has been settled since antiquity by a group of Ethlorek tribe in mostly disparate populations, including the Hoes to the north and the Erebes to the south of the rugged and desolate Monmorians, the large mountain range nowadays separating Hambria from Nortend whose name comes from the Latin name for the ranges, Mons Mortis. Most of these Ethlorekoz lived in fairly stable settlements near water sources such as rivers or wells and cultivating their lands on a subsistence basis. They held pagan beliefs with a major feature being the reverence towards certain trees and plants, with sheep being considered sacred animals.
The population fluctuated greatly, however by 300 BC, a distinctive mix of Erebic culture had emerged in the south, speaking mostly a variety of Erebbonic, a variety of the North Ethlorek language. The Erebbonic lands below the Monmorians that are now the civil province of Nortend were Christianised by the spread of the early Christian church, and developed into a nation, with the largest settlement and hub of commerce the prosperous riverine city of Lendartus, speaking a mix of Latin and Common Erebbonic.
The lands of the Hoebric people, however, in the northern region of the islands remained isolated from the Erebes.
Early Middle Ages
The Erebes nation had peaked in its unity by the 2nd century and by the 3rd century, had become increasingly factionalised. By this time, Barardian and other Erbo-Latinate languages had begun to develop within the country, though not fully ousting the Erebbonic tongues.
Lured by the fertile lands and breakdown of common structure and unity, the Arlethian tribes of the Nords, Sexers and Cardes from what is now Noordenstaat landed on the shores of Lesser Erbonia and settled. Originally, there were only sparse settlements however in the late 3rd century, an increasing number of Nords and Cardes arrived.
By the late 4th century, the Arlethians had settled in various areas, mainly with the northern regions by the Sexers, north-eastern and western by the Cardes and the southern and central by the Nords, displacing and killing many of the native Erebes peoples in what has been termed the Clearing of Blood.
Around eight major kingdoms were formed in the country by this time, which were, roughly from north to south: Bissex; Norsax; Cardoby; Barardia; Iscardes; Lanorts; Suthnorts; Dunricia. Smaller kingdoms included Almede around modern-day Heymeadshire and Almeshire, and Wennord in the west of Lesser Erbonia. Whilst the Cardes and Sexers settled in what is now the Nortan portion of Greater Erbonia, the Nords, later known as the Norts, almost completely took over the entirety of Lesser Erbonia.
The three Nortan kingdoms of Lanort, Wennord, Suthnorts and Dunricia were united to form the Kingdom of Nortenland in 512 by Ærulthea, King of the Lanorts, the leader of the richest and most powerful kingdom in Lesser Erbonia.
The King of Cardoby attempted to increase their lands by invading the Kingdoms of Barardia and the Iscardes, which requested urgent help from the Kingdom of Nortenland in 523, leading directly to a period of warfare, known as the Wars of Barard. The Norts under King Edred won the war against Cardoby in 527 and took the Gardolian throne as Lord, forming the Kingdom of Nortenland and Cardoby. The Kings of Barardia and Iscardes were, however, indebted towards Nortenland, and thus were forced to accept heavy taxes levied thereby. Drained of resources, Barard was conquered by the Norch in the 7th century anyway, quickly followed by Almede which had been a vassal state thereof.
Bissex, the northern-most Sexer kingdom, at this time was beginning to wage wars against the even more northernly Hambrian tribes in an eﬀort to conquer their lands. This resulted in little more than defeat. The Sexers themselves were conquered by Nortenland in 698, now ruled by Freowun II, who styled himself as the King of All Norts and Lord of Cardoby.
The Christian missionary, St Laurence, arrived on the shores of Nortenland in 744 during the reign of Egbert, by order of the Pope Zachary I, in a quest to convert the Kingdom. Though Christianity had first been introduced during the XXX Empire, the old pagan religions still held sway over the invading tribes. Egbert, desiring the support of the greater military power of the Church, agreed for St Laurence to start proselytysing the people, he himself being baptised on his deathbed in 753 after being mortally wounded by an arrow during battle with the Hambrians. St Laurence founded Sulthey Cathedral on the Isle of Sulthey in 749, the year which is now generally considered the start of the Roman Christian Church in Great Nortend, and served for over thirty years as the Apostle to All Nortend.
From the late 7th to 8th centuries, the Hoebric people of the Wignod and Tunel tribes had grew to recognise the King of the Cothens as suzerain, and the King of Cothens began to style himself as King of the Hoes. Egbert had left no heir to the throne, and it was Ætheldid, of the House of Mure, the heir to the erstwhile Kingdom of Cardoby, that was eventually proclaimed King of Nortend and Lord of Cardoby in 756 after the Interregnum period where no King was on the throne, having agreed to convert to Christianity.
Under the rule of the Christian Edmund the Good, who styled himself with the more modern King of Nortend and Lord of Cardoby, the Nortan Kingdom progressively conquered the remaining kingdoms of Iscardes and Norsax, until the entire country south of the Monmorians was united in one single Christian Kingdom of Nortend and Cardoby. Edmund the Good died in the Battles of the Monmorians, in 894, ﬁghting the Cothens of Hoebrideland, and was recognised almost immediately as a martyr of the church.
The House of Barmast took the throne in 973 under Gerulf the Peaceful
Late Middle Ages
11th and 12th centuries
The eleventh century brought much warfare in the northern regions of Nortend during the Peasant's Rebellion from 1034 to 1036 against increasingly high royal taxes. Jane, Queen of Nortend, ordered the execution of peasant villagers as punishment for their tax resistance; however, her barons and the Church refused to kill their tenants, as it would lead directly to their loss of income. Jane relented, and reduced taxes, however has since then always been known as Jane of Janus.
Her heir, Edward I, in 1052 first swore the Carta Erboniæ Libertatum, which promised certain rights and liberties to subjects. By the twelfth century, new trade laws and statutes had opened up the economy. The country prospered financially and the population increased. Lendert became a large port for the trade of especially Nortan wool, but also of corn, linen, wax and dyestuffs.
13th and 14th centuries
The House of Dester claimed the throne with the coronation of Eltbald, after Edmund IV of the House of Barmast died in 1267 during the Battle of Rodchester. By the form of the Charter sworn to by Eltbald upon his accession in 1268, Eltbald by oath 'voluntarily' disclaimed his power to create laws in certain privileged matters without the advice and consent of the Curia Regis. Though he still had the power to create laws, and to issue writs, commissions &c. in other matters, this provision in the Charter severely restricted the independence of the King to create laws without the consent of his courtiers and powerful officers of state.
15th and 16th centuries
Frustrated in his attempts to pass legislation, Charles I, increasingly began to summon all of his barons (rather than only the more powerful) and representatives of the clergy, commons and boroughs to his court, to override the increasingly stubborn and rebellious Curia Regis. As assent was obtained them by the vote of all suitours actually present, the increased number of commoner suitours wishing to curry favour with the Crown allowed Charles to enact legislation without breaking his oath.
This enlarged Curia Regis, was known as the Magnum Consilium or 'Great Council'.
The Destern period was marked by the Battle of Travlesea in 1455, when two factions of the House of Dester, lead by Abern and David respectively, claimed the throne after the passing of King Charles II in a hunting accident. Though Abern's forces vanquished David's, Abern II being crowned in 1456. By his reign, the clergy, barons, prelates and commoners had gained almost all of the privileged legislative powers of the Curia Regis and had begun to sit in much the same fashion as the modern-day Parliament.
The reign of the House of Dester ended when King Albert died in 1518 without any legitimate heirs. He had been highly unpopular owing to a series of failed military campaigns and lavish spending which had seriously drained the coffers of the Treasury and resulted in the necessary levying of excessive taxes by the Parliament.
The title of king thence passed to Edmund V, of the House of Anthord, crowned in 1519, in a transfer of power which involved numerous interested parties. Edmund began to appoint the senior or esteemed members of the Curia to his Privatum Consilium or 'Privy Council', to advise him privately on matters of state. They soon gained powers to act on the Sovereign's behalf. The House of Anthord remains to this day the ruling house of the Kingdom.
16th and 17th centuries
Beginning in the 16th century, Nortend increased in size her army and navy in principle, developing stronger merchant shipping fleets with the newly discovered New World. In 1536, the House of Stonebridge was deposed by the House of Castletown in Aswick. Though the deposed king fled to Aquitayne, a cadet branch of the family took refuge farther away, in Great Nortend. In exchange for their support in maintaining the rule of the House of Anthord, they were granted the Barony of Parrum in Hertslow as Earl, containing the important fort of Castle Parrum. The Anthordian kings were great patrons of the arts. Research into history and the sciences increased with the founding of the King's Circle, the King's Society and the Royal College.
In 1571, the future Charles III married the queen regnant of Hambria, Clenancy of Rhise, of the House of Cothens, which had ruled effectively the entirety of Hambria since the 8th century. After Charles III's death in 1599, Clenancy became Queen Dowager of Nortend and Cardoby, whilst remaining Queen of Hambria. Clenancy died in 1623 and her son, the then Alexander I of Nortend and Cardoby, became King of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria.
In 1614, Alexander I rejected the supremacy of the Pope, to the consternation of the Privy Council, and established the Church of Nortend as an independent national church in the Erbonian tradition and mirroring the establishment of the Nikolian Catholic Church. It is said that the King and the then Archbishop of Sulthey heard during the same night from God, urging him to persuade the King to establish a new church. It is believed that God said to the King, 'The church shall be cloven away and set upon this rock and ye shall I make governour and vicar of my flock', arguably referring to the Isle of Sulthey. The King appointed himself, being the King by the Grace of God, as the Supreme Governour of the Church Mundane. Legislation to formally effect the rejection was only obtained in 1620.
After eighteen years of personal union, the Kingdom of Nortend and Cardoby, and the now established Kingdom of Hoebrideland were joined in the Acts of Cleaving of 1642, when the Curage (a corruption of Curia Regis) of Rhise joined the Houses of Lords in the Nortan Parliament, in return for financial support after numerous failed harvests and famine.
Though the famine lifted soon after, there was growing discontent amongst the peasantry of Hambria over the imposition of taxes of 5 per cent on tithable revenues by Lendert. The so-called Hambrian Rebellion culminated in the Battle of Borlockton in 1646, with the Nortan Army and peasants of Hambria fighting on the fields near Borlockton in Marcastershire; however, the Nortan Army subdued the peasants, and the rebellion ended with the signing of the Treaty of Rhise granting power to the old Hambrian Curage of Rhise, still operating from Lendert, for the setting of taxes and other matters. The Nortan Army was granted the title 'Royal' to commemorate this occasion.
In 1665, the Magnanimous Revolution of Albeinland forced the exile of Edmund III to Great Nortend. There, he was received by the now elderly Alexander I, who granted him refuge from the conflict in Albeinland. Along with Edmund III came other wealthy and powerful Albish families and their households, retainers and officers. Edmund III was made the Lord Constable of the Castle of Scode and granted the Earldom of Scode in 1665, a position the Crown now holds again since the 5th Earl of Scode's marriage to Queen Mary in 1742, 77 years later.
Early Modern period
The Early Modern period beginning in the 18th century saw the influence of the Kingdom expand in its region. The tiny islands of St. Parth and Hastica were colonised by Great Nortend as well, to this day remaining the only colonies of the Kingdom.
The industrial revolution spread across Great Nortend slowly during the end of the 18th century and throughout the 19th, initially with the rapid building of canals and digging of coal mines with railways in the mid-19th century. The various Combination Acts ended the historical system of feudal open strip-farming for much of Great Nortend by establishing conterminous fields under the control of a single tenant, thereby increasing efficiency and yields significantly, as well as reducing the number of people required for agricultural purposes from nearly 90 per cent of the population to less than two-thirds.
Though trade grew increasingly domestic, coal became a dominant export, although wool and grains still remained important. Nortend's plentiful anthracite, however, was prohibited for export and instead was and is still to-day kept for domestic use. The continuation of the legal doctrine of no-fault liability severely hambered further economic and industrial growth in the increasingly dangerous workplace. Hence, steam power never fully supplanted wind and water power in factories, however became widespread in use the collieries and mines for draining water more effectively, replacing the windmills used thitherto. Water power continued to power the village blacksmiths' trip hammers, though mass production of iron and steel stock developed strongly in centralised smelters.