The Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria
Anthem: "Rex lætabitur in virtute tua"
"The King shall rejoice"
|Recognised national languages||English|
|Ethnic groups||86% Arlethian|
|The 8th Duke of Limmes|
|Legislature||The Royal High Court of The Parliament|
|House of Lords|
|Houses of Commonsa|
|190,542 km2 (73,569 sq mi)|
• 2017 estimate
• Per capita
|Currency||Pound marten (GNR)|
|Time zone||UTC+0:30 (DMT)|
The Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria, commonly known as Great Nortend or only Nortend, is an island nation at the northern tip of the Mederano Peninsula, adjacent to Nikolia, in Astyria, comprising the three civil provinces of Nortend, Hambria and Cardoby.
The main landmass of the Kingdom is formed of the islands of Greater and Lesser Erbonia. The country has a population of around 32 million inhabitants and still predominantly pastoral with large swathes of woodland and uncultivated land. The largest island in the Kingdom excluding the two main islands, is Cardoby, located oﬀ the coast of north-eastern Nortend. Great Nortend is considered to be mostly self-sustaining in terms of food production with net exports of corn.
- 1 Names and Gentilics
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Œconomy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
Names and Gentilics
The formal name for the country is the Kingdom of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria. The Kingdom's short name for diplomatic and formal purposes is Erbonia, which also refers to the islands of the archipelago as a whole, is from the Latin, Erbonia, a backformation of the longer Insulæ Erbonicæ, which literally means the 'Erebian Islands'. Great Nortend is a common general term for the entire country, encompassing the entire kingdom and inclusive of all islands and isles separate from the two main landmasses.
Nortend is derived from the Erebian name, Nordenland, meaning 'land of the Nords', the Nords being one of the major tribes that migrated from what is now Noordenstaat, along with the Cardes and Sexers. It thus could be said that both Noordenstaat and Nortend share the same name. The name 'Nortend' is often used to refer to what is really Great Nortend in error
Cardoby is too derived from Erebian, meaning the 'island of the Cardes', as the island was the location of a Gardolian kingdom of the Cardes.
The name Hoebrideland derives from the Erebian name for the former Kingdom of Hambria, Hoembride, which means literally, 'The kingdom (in the) mountain valleys', a corruption of the Hoebric words for 'mountain' (perme) and 'valley' (bul) with the Erebian suffix for 'kingdom' (ride). The modern Latin name for the province, Hambria, is a mediaeval Latinisation of Hoembride.
A person from the province of Nortend is known as a Norchman. Nortan is an adjective relating to Nortend. The gentilics of Hambria are Hambrian as an adjective and Hoebridman as a noun referring to persons. The adjectival form of Cardoby is Gardolian whilst a person from Cardoby is known as a Cardman. The gentilic of Great Nortend is informally Nortan to refer to people as well as used as the adjective; however, the formal gentilic for persons, as well as the adjective, is Erbonian, as seen in the Sovereign's formal diplomatic title, His Erbonian Majesty.
Great Nortend has been settled since antiquity by groups of Ethlorek tribes, which spread throughout the island in mostly disparate populations including the majority Hoes to the north and the Erebes to the south of the Monmorians, the large mountain range which separate modern-day Hambria from Nortend.
The population of the islands fluctuated greatly, however by 300 BC, a distinctive mix of Erebic culture had emerged in the south, speaking mostly a variety of Common Erebbonic, a variety of the North Ethlorek language. The Erebbonic lands below the Monmorians that are now the civil province of Nortend were Christianised by the spread of the early Christian church around the 1st century AD, and developed into a nation, with the largest settlement and hub of commerce the prosperous riverine city of Lendartus (now Lendert-with-Cadell), speaking a mix of Latin and Common Erebbonic.
The lands of the Hoebric people during this time remained isolated from the Erebes owing to the difficulty in penetrating the Monmorians.
Early Middle Ages
The Erebbonic nation had peaked in unity in the 2nd century and by the 3rd century, had become increasingly factionalised.
Lured by the fertile lands and breakdown of loss of a centralised system of power, the Arlethic tribes of the Nords, Sexers and Cardes from what is now Noordenstaat landed on the shores of Lesser Erbonia and settled. Originally, there were only sparse settlements however in the late 3rd century, an increasing number of Nords and Cardes arrived. By the late 4th century, the Arlethians had settled in various areas, mainly with the northern regions by the Sexers, north-eastern and western by the Cardes and the southern and central by the Nords, displacing and killing the native Erebbonic tribes.
Around eight major Arlethian kingdoms were formed in the country by this time, which were, roughly from north to south: Bissex; Norsax; Cardoby; Barardia; Iscardes; Lanorts; Suthnorts; Dunricia. Smaller kingdoms included Almede around modern-day Heymeadshire and Almeshire, and Wennord in the west of Lesser Erbonia. Whilst the Cardes and Sexers settled in what is now the Nortan portion of Greater Erbonia, the Nords, later known as the Norts, almost completely took over the entirety of Lesser Erbonia. Over the next few centuries, owing to poor military tactics on the part of others, the Kingdom of the Norts, comprising the Lanorts, Suthnorts and Dunricia, managed to take control of nearly the entire country excepting a few small kingdoms which stood fast their ground. By this time, the Arlethic tongues of the invading tribes had coalesced into varieties of Old Erebian (not to be confused with Common Erebbonic, the Ethlorek language of the Erebes).
The Christian missionary, St Laurence, arrived on the shores of Nortenland in AD 744 during the reign of Egbert, by order of the Pope Zachary I, in a quest to convert the Kingdom. Though Christianity had been widespread in Erebbonic peoples, pagan religions now held sway over the Arlethian kingdoms. St Laurence founded Sulthey Cathedral on the Isle of Sulthey in 749, the year which is now generally considered the start of the Roman Catholic Church in Great Nortend, and served for over thirty years as the Apostle to All Nortend.
From the late 7th to 8th centuries, the Hambrian people of the Wignod and Tunel tribes had grown to recognise the Prince of the Cothens as de facto suzerain, and the Prince of the Cothens began to style himself as King of the Hoes.
Under the rule of the Christian Edmund the Good, who styled himself with the title of King of Nortend and Lord of Cardoby, the Nortan Kingdom progressively conquered the remaining kingdoms of Iscardes and Norsax, until the entire country south of the Monmorians was united in one single Christian Kingdom of Nortend and Cardoby. Edmund the Good died in the Battles of the Monmorians, in 894, ﬁghting the Cothens of Hoebrideland, and was recognised almost immediately as a martyr of the church.
Late Middle Ages
By the twelfth century, new trade laws and statutes had opened up the economy and meant the country prospered financially. Lendert became a large port for the trade of especially Nortan wool, but also of corn, linen and dyestuffs. The House of Barmast took the throne in 973 under King Gerulf the Peaceful; however, in the Battle of Rodchester, the House of Dester gained the throne.
Charles I began to summon all of his barons as well as proctors, knights and burgesses from the land to his court, forming the Magnum Consilium. The summoned body formed the first parliaments and met in Lendert-with-Cadell. The parliament was permitted to propose new statutes to the King for assent, and evolved into the modern Parliament.
By this time, Erebian had spread into much of Hambria, replacing Hoebric as the language of the elite. Hoebric continued to be spoken by the peasantry though mixed in the towns and the southern counties to an increasing degree with Erebian and Latin such that by 1410, the Bishop of Corring and Fivewells ordered priests in his diocese to cease celebrating the mass in Erebian as a more understandable alternative to a purely Latin rite. By the end of the century, however, a distinctively Hambrian variety of Erebian (with a strong Hoebric influence albeit) had become widespread amongst all classes throughout most of Hambria, except the resolutely Hoebric-speaking western counties.
The Destern period was marked by the Battle of Travlesea in 1455, when two factions of the House of Dester, lead by Abern and David respectively, claimed the throne after the passing of Charles II in a hunting accident. Though Abern's forces vanquished David's, Abern being crowned in 1456, the reign of the House of Dester ended when King Albert died in 1518 without any heirs.
The title of king thence passed to King Edmund V, of the House of Anthord, crowned in 1519. The House of Anthord spoke the then minority language of Middle English, owing to their Albish roots, and influenced the shift from Erebian to the vaguely similar Middle English and afterwards, to Early Modern English. The House of Anthord remains to this day the ruling house of the Kingdom and English the de facto language.
Early Modern Ages
Beginning in the 16th century, Nortend increased the size of her army and navy, developing greater merchant shipping fleets. In 1536, the House of Stonebridge was deposed by the House of Castletown in Aswick. Though the deposed king fled to Aquitayne, a cadet branch of the family took refuge farther away, in Nortend. In exchange for their support in maintaining the rule of the House of Anthord, they were granted the Barony of Parrum in Hertslow as earl, including the important military fort of Castle Parrum. To this day, the Kings of Aswick pay homage to the Sovereign of Great Nortend upon accession.
The Anthordian kings were great patrons of the arts. Research into history and the sciences increased with the founding of the King's Circle, the King's Society and the Royal College. In 1571, the future Charles III married the Princess of the Cothens, Clenancy of Rhise of the House of Rudder which had ruled as the kings and queens of Hambria since the late 7th century. After Charles III's death in 1599, Clenancy became Queen Dowager of Nortend and Cardoby, whilst remaining Queen of Hambria. Clenancy died in 1623 and her son, Alexander I, hitherto of Nortend and Cardoby, became King of Nortend, Cardoby and Hambria. Despite the personal union, Hambria continued to function separately from Nortend and Cardoby, with its own currency, weights and measures (the pound of Rhise or libra Cothenorum), social customs, languages (Erebian and Hoebric in the west), legislature (the Curage of Rhise) and judicial system.
In 1614, Alexander I rejected the supremacy of the Pope and established the Church of Nortend as an independent national church. The King appointed himself as the Supreme Governour of the Church Mundane. It was an incredibly controversial decision amongst the clergy and pious, but relatively popular amongst the nobility and common man who had long resented the siphoning of money away to Rome.
After eighteen years of personal union, the Kingdom of Nortend and Cardoby, and the Kingdom of Hambria were joined in the Acts of Cleaving of 1642 whereby Nortan legal and governmental institutions replaced or subsumed the existing Hambrian counterparts. Rebellion in Hambria ensued after the excessive taxes of 5 per cent on tithable revenues were levied by Lendert. The so-called Hambrian Rebellion culminated in the Battle of Borlockton in 1646; however, the Nortan Army subdued the peasants, and the rebellion ended with the signing of the Treaty of Rhise granting power to the old Hambrian Curage of Rhise, still operating from Lendert, for the setting of taxes and other matters.
The Albish Revolution in 1665 led to the flight of the then Albish King of the House of Oln to Great Nortend. He was recognised and received by Alexander I and made the Earl of Scode, of the important Castle of Scode in Barminstershire. A century later, the 5th Earl of Scode's marriage with Queen Mary would precipitate the Olnite Matter.
High Modern period
The High Modern period beginning in the 18th century saw the influence of the Kingdom expand in its region. The tiny islands of St. Parth and Hastica were colonised by Great Nortend, to this day remaining the only colonies of the Kingdom.
The industrial revolution spread across Great Nortend slowly during the end of the 18th century and throughout the 19th, initially with the rapid building of canals and digging of coal mines with railways in the mid-19th century. The various Combination Acts ended the historical system of feudal open strip-farming for much of Great Nortend by establishing conterminous fields under the control of a single tenant, thereby increasing efficiency and yields significantly, as well as reducing the number of people required for agricultural purposes from nearly 90 per cent of the population to less than two-thirds.
Though trade grew increasingly domestic, coal became a dominant export, although wool and grains still remained important. Nortend's plentiful anthracite, however, was prohibited for export and instead was and is still to this day kept for domestic use. The continuation of the legal doctrine of no-fault liability severely hampered further economic and industrial growth in the increasingly dangerous workplace. Hence, steam power never fully supplanted wind and water power in factories, however became widespread in use the collieries and mines for draining water more effectively, replacing the windmills used thitherto. Water power continued to power the village blacksmiths' trip hammers, though mass production of iron and steel stock developed strongly in centralised smelters.
Great Nortend remains lethargic in technological development since the early 20th century, hampered by the continuation of the doctrine of no-fault liability in tort and the general lack of societal desire for change. The economy of Great Nortend went into a serious decline after its hey-day in the early 19th century, and has only regained some of its losses in the last few decades. Electricity is slowly gaining ground in the country, being widely generated by specialised generator mills or as a side product of traditional water and wind mills. The majority of electrical use in the cities and towns is for lighting, the telephone, and the wireless, with electric appliances quite rare. Villagers often still rely on oil lamps and even candles and rushlights in the remotest regions.
Compared with modern, highly-industrialised countries, Great Nortend is very traditionalist. It uses the Catherinian system of weights and measures rather than the metric SI system, as well as a non-decimal currency, with twelve pennies to a shilling and twenty shillings to a pound, along with numerous other denominations, as well as 'wetch' as well. Having no national electrical grid, access to the Internet is restricted and thus the telegramme, telephone and postal networks remain heavily used and contribute a significant portion to the domestic economy.
The landmass of the archipelago of Erbonia, including all attached islands, and isles, has a total area of approximately 190,542 square kilometres, 64,423 square Catherinian miles or 73,569 square Imperial miles. The country has no land borders with any other nation, but is separated from Nikolia by the Yarron Strait. It is located off the main land-mass of Teudallum, specifically the Mederano Peninsula, and is to the west of the northern end of the Putin Strait.
Erbonia is the general name for all of the islands and isles that make up the domestic realm or dominion of Great Nortend, excluding the colonial islands of St Parth and Hastica. Of the around twenty-three islands and isles thereof, the three major islands are Lesser Erbonia, Greater Erbonia, and Cardoby.
Approximately 35% of Erbonia's land is forested, of which 32% is managed woodland. Around 3·5% is built-up, with the rest being either cultivated or uncultivated land such as pastures, alpine meadows, hay meadows, wetlands, peat bogs and marshes. Erbonia's only substantially mountainous areas lie above the area known as the Medden lowlands in Greater Erbonia, including the Monmorians, Elps and Hambrian uplands. A smaller latitudinal hilly belt in the centre of Lower Erbonia is known as the Central Welds; however, it is mainly characterised by steeply rolling hills. The rest of isles is mostly arable or forested lowlands, with areas of polderland in the south in Walecester and Swent.
The Monmorians are a mountain chain spanning the width of Greater Erbonia, where they separate the civil province of Nortend from Hambria. They include the highest peak in Great Nortend, Gorblanhail, which is 8,792 ft (2,625 m) above sea level. The chain is part of the larger mountainous alpine region of the Elps.
In terms of geological resources, Erbonia has rich coal deposits, mainly in Lesser Erbonia and south-eastern Greater Erbonia. Lead, copper and tin are found in some regions too. Hambria possesses, uniquely, emerald-bearing rock in some regions of the Elps.
The majority of Great Nortend has a cool-temperate oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), influenced by its geography as a collection of islands. The upland regions surrounding of the Monmorians and highlands north thereof have a subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfc) whilst the mountain ranges themselves have a subarctic climate (Köppen: Dfc) with polar tundras at their peaks (Köppen: ET). There is a significant temperature difference between the seasons, and snowfall is very common during winter, especially in Hambria. Much of Great Nortend is known for its habitual 'sun-showers', wherein light rain falls during an otherwise sunny day. There is an average monthly precipitation level of around two inches.
The isles of Erbonia have a wide range of vascular plant species. Both islands of Lesser and Greater Erbonia have a large number of native or historically introduced trees, including alder, apple, ash, beech, birch, box, cherry, chestnut, cyprus, elm, hawthorn, lime, maple, oak, pear, poplar, sycamore and yew. A number of these are important wood, coppicing or orchard species. The broad elm is the most common species of tree in Great Nortend, with a wide range spreading across the country below the Monmorians. It is the oak, however, which is considered the national tree.
The islands also has a wealth of wildflower species, widespread across the entire country. Compared to highly industrialised nations where the use of weedkillers and pesticides are common, the 'natural' agricultural methods employed are conducive for the continued proliferation of species such as cornflowers, poppies, clover, daisies, tulips, foxgloves, violets, heather, gorse, buttercups, primroses, daffodils, anemones, orchids and more.
Great Nortend is split into three civil provinces, being the Province of Nortend, the Province of Hambria and the Lordship of Cardoby. These are administrative regions and should not to be confused with the ecclesiastical provinces.
Each province is divided up into a varying number of counties, which are known as duchies in Cardoby and as marches on the border between Nortend and Hambria, owing to their status as counties palatine where a duke and marquess hold power. Other current counties palatine include Sulthey and County Yeartey wherein the Archbishop of Sulthey and the Bishop of St Cleaves hold certain powers.
Counties in the Province of Nortend
|County||Abbreviation||County Town||Additional information|
|Aceshire||AX||Acingham||Largest county by area. See AXE, AXN and AXS|
|Durmenshire||DU||Durmen on the Sands|
|Eastannering||AXE||Yettergate||See AX, AXN and AXS|
|Heymeadshire||HY||Heymead||See HYN and HYS|
|Larkshire||LA||Limmes||Contains exclave in SP|
|Leaton||LE||Downingham||Smallest county by area|
|Northannering||AXN||Acingham||See AX, AXE and AXS|
|North Heymeadshire||HYN||Oxley||See HY and HYS|
|Southannering||AXS||Gibbingham||See AX, AXE and AXN|
|South Heymeadshire||HYS||Southeymead||See HY and HYN|
|Sulthey||SU||Sulthey||County palatine of the Archbishop of Sulthey|
|Swent||SW||Lostwin||Split into 4 Fathings|
|County Yearty||YE||Quarry on Sea||County palatine|
Duchies in the Province of Cardoby
|Duchy||Abbreviation||Duchy Seat||Additional information|
Counties in the Province of Hambria
|County||Abbreviation||County Town||Additional information|
|Ganningshire||GG||Rhise||Contains the capital city|
Counties and divisions are divided into hundreds, also known as wards or hathings. A hundred is a grouping of a number of parishes, usually around 10, and owned by the same person, and corresponds to a deanery in the ecclesiastical sense. Most hundreds in Great Nortend have passed into private ownership of earls and viscounts, however there remain a number owned outright by the Crown. Hundreds are subdivided into parishes. Parishes, which are also known as manors, are controlled by the parish vestry which has a large remit of administrative responsibility. They are often further subdivided locally into tithings, also known as borows, boroughs and borgows, which is a grouping of around ten households.
The three counties of Larkshire, Teyshire and Enley are known as the 'Close Counties' as they enclose and fully surround Lendert-with-Cadell.
Great Nortend is a unitary parliamentary democratic monarchy. The state is embodied in the Crown, which is represented by the Sovereign, who is currently Alexander II, King of Nortend and Hambria and Lord of Cardoby. The Sovereign by convention takes a less active in the day-to-day policy-making and smooth running of the country, the government whereof is headed by the Lord High Treasurer, who is appointed by the King from the ranks of peers. The position is commonly known as the Prime Minister, being the minister with the most effective power and primus inter pares amongst the Cabinet.
The functioning executive of Great Nortend consists of the King and the Cabinet, headed by the Lord High Treasurer. The Privy Council, consisting of the King and his Privy Counsellours, is the formal executive body of the Kingdom, but in practice, this executive power is mostly delegated to the Ministry which includes Cabinet ministers as well as the Utter Ministry, save for certain serious matters and ceremonial purposes..
The most important officers of state in Great Nortend are the seven Lord Officers of State. These form the ceremonial core of the Privy Council and Cabinet and are either hereditary, indicated with an asterisk, or appointments for life. They are, in order of precedence, the:
- Lord High Steuard*: The speaker of the House of Lords and the senior-most judge under the King, deputising for the King in the Court of the King-in-Council, as well as presiding in impeachment cases in the Court of the Noble Lords. Held by The Earl of Barminster.
- Lord High Chancellour*: The deputy speaker of the House of Lords and head of the Court of Chancellery and the Court of the Noble Lords. Administratour of church lands and funds and Keeper of the Great Seal of the Realm, and responsible for administrating the courts. Held by the Bishops of Chepingstow, who appoints a Vicar-General to manage his ecclesiastical and religious duties.
- Lord High Chamberlain*: The head of the Royal Household, and in charge of the Royal palaces and castles, as well as organising ceremonial occasions such as state visits and weddings, and also serves as the King's representative in the House of Lords. Also serves as the Chief Justice of the Court of the Ermine Office. Held by The Earl of Godsucham.
- Lord High Treasurer: The controller and official head of the King's Treasury and Exchequer, and Prime Minister of the Government. Held by The Duke of Limmes.
- Lord High Admiral: Political and professional head of the Navy Royal. Held by The Duke of Derham
- Lord High Constable and the King's Marischal*: Originally the commander of the royal armies. Nowadays, the Chief Justice of the King's Marischal and Constable's Court, and Field Marshal of the Royal Army. Held by The Marquess of Lasmere
- Lord Master of the Horse: Responsible for the running of the Royal Mews, hound kennels, stud farm, coaches, carriages and all other equine matters. His remit has expanded into the realm of trade and transport infrastructure in general, and is also ex officio the Lord Master of Trade. Held by The Baron de Stanfield. He appoints a deputy, the Gentleman of the Horse, to manage the day-to-day running of the Royal Mews.
All eight are cabinet level positions and holders are always Privy Counsellours and peers. Other senior political Government cabinet-level positions are listed below.
- Comptroller of the Exchequer: Deputy to the Lord High Treasurer, he is in charge of the Exchequer, that is, of collecting taxation, duties and levies, raising revenue for the Treasury. Nowadays, he also controls the fiscal policy of the Government. Held by the Rt. Hon. Peter Hofton.
- King's Clerk: Minister in charge of home affairs, policing, national security, fire brigades, the constabularies and other domestic matters, who heads the Clerk's Department. Held by the Rt. Hon. Sir Aaron Billings.
- Attorney-General: Chief law advisor to the Crown, and also has control over most prosecutions by the Crown, and heads the Attorney-General's Office. Held by the Rt. Hon. Sir Peter Finch.
- Foreign Clerk: Minister in charge of foreign affairs and foreign diplomacy, who heads the Foreign Office. Held by the Rt. Hon. Sir George Drachington.
- Secretary at War: Minister in charge of the administration and organisation of the Royal Army, who heads the War Office. Held by the Rt. Hon. Frederic Hondel.
- Postmaster-General: Minister in charge of the running of and the head of the General Post Office. Held by the Rt. Hon. Sir Lachlan James.
- Master of the Board of Education: Responsible for schools, universities, educational standards and colleges who heads the Board of Education. Held by the Rt. Hon. Dr Thomas Wolfuller.
- Lord Master of the Board of Agriculture: Responsible for management of agricultural practice, enclosure and surveys parishes by productivity. Held by the Rt. Hon. The Lord Baker.
- Master of the Board of Railways: Responsible for the railways, and Second Lord of Trade. Held by the Rt. Hon. Sir William Gouldon.
- Master of the Board of Health: Responsible for health services, hospitals, nursing and social care. Held by the Rt. Hon. James Kinson.
- Surveyour-General of Forests and Woods: Responsible for the administration of Crown land and the Royal Forests who heads the Surveyour-General's Office. Held by the Rt. Hon. Jonathan Hall.
Parliament, known formally as the Royal High Court of the Parliament, is the common law-making body and most supreme court in Great Nortend. It is theoretically a tetracameral legislature, including the King and four houses: the House of Knights, comprising the knights-of-the-shire sent from each county or county equivalent district; the House of Burgesses, comprising burgesses sent from certain chartered borough towns and cities; the House of Clergy, comprising of clergymen elected by their peers to represent their diocese; and the House of Lords, comprising the peers of the realm, archbishops, bishops and senior abbots. Additional members include the Scholars of Commons, attached to the House of Burgesses, and the two MPs representing the Armed Forces. The House of Clergy only has jurisdiction over theological issues relating to the canon law.
The Parliament sits at the Castle of the Lerdenstone, located between the Calbend, the River Hame, South Street and the Little Ditch Street within the Inner Ward of Cadell. Therein, the two Houses of Commons sits in the Common Hall, a large chamber which dates from the 13th century and was originally the library of the Royal Council, which became the present Library of Commons. It is distinctive having a blue ceiling, blue carpet and dark wood panelling and cabinetry with ornate plasterwork. The House of Lords meanwhile meets in the Great Chapel, a larger, more decorative chamber officially named the Chapel of St Giles, with a scarlet or sanguine and gold colour tone with rich mahogany panelling and woodwork. The House of Clergy meet in the Chapter House of St Giles, a semi-circular stone room. It is also the location of where the chapter of the College of St Giles meet. The speaker for the House of Clergy is the Dean of St Giles, the Very Rev'd John Wenland.
Bills are presented to both houses for debate and voting, and must be assented to by a majority in the combined Houses of Commons and by a majority in the House of Lords before they may be presented to and then assented to by Sovereign in order to become law. The ceremony of Assentus Regis, or Royal Assent, is held in the House of Lords' chamber and occurs eight times a year.
Law and criminal justice
The law of Great Nortend is founded upon a mixture of customary law, regular law and statute law, and administered by courts on both a feudal seigneurial authority as well as upon the authority of the Crown and Church. The system differentiates between criminal law, common or civil law, admiralty law, martial law and ecclesiastical or canon law.
The military is split into two branches, being the Navy Royal (NR) and the Royal Army (RA) respectively relating to naval (and air) warfare and land or terrestrial warfare. The Navy Royal is considered to be the superior service, owing to its more illustrious history, yet the Royal Army is larger in size by far.
The manpower of the armed forces of Great Nortend is mainly supplied by conscription and impressment. All male Erbonian subjects over the age of 17, having finished their secondary education and found fit for duty, are required to serve a minimum one year of national service followed by a ten year obligation in the reserve militia.
The Navy Royal is the senior service of Erbonian military. It comprises of two divisions, being the Sea division and the Air division. The latter serves as the equivalent in Great Nortend of an air force.
The Sea Division has around 10,234 sailors and officers, including national servicemen, and 13,234 naval reservists, most of whom are seamen and officers in the merchant navy. The Air Division has 1,563 ordinary airmen and officers and 134 reservists, most being pilots for Royal Airways, the national flag carrier. The Navy Royal presently has 40 commissioned ships, 36 aircraft and numerous other smaller water craft and vessels.
The Royal Army is by far the largest service of two. Its manpower is around 24,388 regular soldiers, 10,482 officers, 620,140 national servicemen and militia reservists, and 2,760 reserve officers on half pay. There are 54 infantry regiments, 14 artillery regiment, 23 cavalry regiments, 14 engineer regiments, and a number of other auxilliary or administrative corps.
The National Service scheme requires most Erbonian male subjects over the age of 17 to enter either the Royal Army or Navy Royal as a national serviceman, if they do not enlist already voluntarily. National Service involves three to four months of initial training and then posting within the country or abroad for eight months, with two half month breaks around the important holidays. National Service can be deferred until a man's 23rd birthday, after which criminal proceedings may be brought. This is common for those undertaking an apprenticeship and automatic for those studying for a degree at university.
Though national servicemen are usually assigned to a regiment of the Royal Army, the Navy does accept a limited number of national servicemen, mainly from coastal towns and villages, as well as those persons with existing links to the Navy Royal or merchant navy.
Regular national servicemen enter the armed forces as a private or seaman after completing basic training. Those persons who excelled in the General Examinations, or have otherwise have been able to secure the privilege, are able to attend the Royal Army College at Marse Dartson or the Royal Naval College at Canesea to be commissioned as an officer.
After their active service, national servicemen are required to remain on the militia or naval reserve lists for at least nine years, being recalled at least three times yearly for training.
The œconomy of Great Nortend is heavily agrarian, which provides the livelihood for around half of the population, and localised, with a domestic semi-regulated market œconomy favouring isolationist mercantilism. Agriculture is well-developed to early-modern levels, with the highly fertile soil, temperate climate and plentiful rainfall providing excellent cropping for numerous small mixed farms. Great Nortend grows a wide variety of produce, and is effectively entirely self-sufficient in terms of food.
The local œconomies in Great Nortend are mostly centred around the county and hundred, especially the market towns established under charter. Weekly or fortnightly markets held in these towns form the backbone of local agricultural œconomies along with the commercial sector of tradesmen and merchants. More locally, parochial rates raised from the populace are used to further the parish's infrastructure, services and development.
Greater mobility through cheap railway travel have been tempered by complicated feudal and tenure restrictions on the transfer and conveyancing of property leading to less of the rise of cities and large towns than in other countries. This is further controlled by the national policy of advocating for a replacement rate of births, with two children recommended per family, in an attempt to control overpopulation of the country.
Œconomic growth in the commercial and trade sectors is slow, owing to isolationist policies and low levels of imports. The Government's policy is to levy high tariffs on incoming goods whilst levying lower tariffs on exported goods, which are mainly raw materials in the form of wool, linen, cloth and some grain and meat, which is well-regarded by many. Imports are mainly of iron ore, steel, copper and sand, as well as petroleum fuels and pharmaceuticals. Another growing focus is on tourism, which is becoming increasingly popular owing to the scenic natural landscapes the Erbonian countryside offers, as well as historical cities, towns and villages. As a result, the Erbonian œconomy has been most self contained, with injections of foreign currency from exports and tourists, and with a constant outflow of money to pay for those goods which Great Nortend is unable to produce by itself.
The nominal gross domestic product in the 2017-2018 tax year (same as the civil year) was around £1,600,000,000, though the PPP GDP is considered to be somewhat greater. The nominal GDP is broken down into £1,025 million in private household consumption, £158 million in private investment, £300 million in government spending, £231 million in exports and minus £108 million in imports. The GDP per capita for the 32 million subjects is around £50 or approximately 6,000 US dollars however does not reflect that general unemployment of married women in Great Nortend, and of non-monetary compensation for many domestic servants.
Unemployment of working-age able-bodied men of the lower and middle classes is low, at around 1·04 per cent. Average annual income of the lower and middle classes is in the region of £200 in the lower end and £400 in the higher end. Around 31 per cent of the population live in large towns and cities, with a majority of people residing in agrarian communities and around 40 per cent directly involved in the agricultural industry.
As of the census survey taken in 2018, the estimated population of Great Nortend is 32,102,002, a mere 0·3 per cent increase from 2015. This is a result of the official Government policy as to generational replacement, taken in the 1980s to ensure the continued viability of the Erbonian way of life. The vast majority of the population, over 65 per cent thereof, live outside of borough towns or cities, and over 40 per cent are engaged directly in the agricultural industry. The largest city is Lendert, along with its surrounding urbanised region, having a population of 4·33 million people.
The predominent language spoken in Great Nortend is English, which is the de facto national language. Over 95 per cent of the population hold English as their mother tongue, with less than 5 per cent claiming some proficiency with other languages.
The English used in Great Nortend is known as Erbonian English and slowly became widespread after the rise of the House of Anthord to the throne in the 16th century. Even nowadays, Erebian is spoken by people in the provinces of Cardoby and Hambria, as well as the counties of County Yeartey, Igoddal and Towshire in Nortend. Erebian, which like English is an Athlethic language, is to an extent mutually intelligible with English. Its vocabulary is a base of Arlethic with a large number of Latin words interposed to a far greater extent than in English, retaining in many cases forms of the Latinate declensions and conjugations.
Court Latin is another important language in Great Nortend, being the official language used by the Church of Nortend, as well as being used in various other contexts in government and society. Around 42 per cent of people claim some ability to understand the language, the skill being higher in males than in women. Over the years, the use of Latin in the official church liturgy has declined drastically, but in more recent years there has been a shift back to the greater use of liturgical Latin.
The Church of Nortend is the established state church of Great Nortend following an Orthodox-Catholic-Protestant blend of Christianity known as Cardicanism. It is consequently the largest church in Great Nortend, with over 90 per cent of Erbonian subjects in communion at least nominally with it. Other religions in Great Nortend are quite minor, and include to an extent other Protestant denominations, Judaism and Roman Catholicism and Judaism. Atheism or irreligiosity is extremely low, and is estimated to afflict less than 2 per cent of the population.
The state church enjoys special privileges in Great Nortend, and being a Cardican is a prerequisite for many public occupations and offices. The Sovereign of Great Nortend is by law the Supreme Governour Mundane of the Church and titled the Vicar of Christ.
Great Nortend prohibits the practice of certain religions under the Prohibitions Act, 13 Cath. II.. These include Islam and Scientology, which have been deemed 'heretical cults'. Recent changes in the law have made the practice of the former permissible in certain cases.
Education in Great Nortend is compulsory and effectively universal for children aged between six and fourteen, normally through either a state or independent junior school and senior school. Schooling through tutelage, known as private schooling, with a governess is relatively common for the upper classes during the younger years; however, schooling in the regimented public schooling system (c.f. private schooling) is de rigeur over around the age of twelve. The system is split between state schools and independent schools, which are further split into the common schools, cathedral schools and new schools.
Primary education ideally begins at the age of five and ends at the age of eleven. The year levels in most schools are termed Infants, Lower or Bottom Junior, Second Junior, Third Junior and Upper or Top Junior respectively, corresponding to Reception to Year Six in another countries.
The recommended curriculum produced by the Board of Education includes studies in mathematics, English, history, geography, art and music, with introduction to Latin and French by Third Junior for boys and girls respectively. In all state schools and in most independent schools, attendance at chapel is compulsory at least once a week, usually on Wednesdays, and is taken by the local parson if possible. Religious instruction occurs usually during chapel services. Organised sports and games are also considered an important part of primary education.
Secondary education begins typically at the age of twelve in what is known at most state schools as First Form. Thence, pupils progress form by form until Fifth Form. The state secondary school system practises grade retention, meaning pupils who have failed to master the prescribed studies in the end-of-year examinations risk being unable to advance form unless he passes at the start-of-year examinations.
The recommended curriculum for secondary education includes more advanced subjects such as algebra, trigonometry, calculus, ancient history, literary exegesis, rhetoric, theology &c. whilst continuing studies in music, art, Latin and French. Service in the cadet corps is often compulsory for boys from Second Form to Third Form. At the end of Third Form, pupils choose their supplementary subjects for the General Examination, which is held at the end of Fifth Form. Girls conclude their studies in Fifth Form whilst boys wishing to attend university will continue on for another years or two in the Lower and Upper Sixth Forms.
The tertiary education sector is made up of sundry and varied providers, including the three ancient universities, various teaching and practical colleges, apprenticeships and informal on-the-job training.
The cuisine of Great Nortend is strongly influenced by its agrarian pastorality, which led to the development of the cookery traditions of the country. There tends to be an emphasis on meats over the more humble vegetable, with the focus of most dishes being on a type of meat with vegetables used to enhance the flavour of, or to complement the main meat dish.
The most common meats are pork, beef, mutton or lamb and chicken, in order of popularity. Pork is the most extensively used meat, and nearly the entirety of the pig is used as a component of some dish. Traditional cooking methods include roasting, baking, braising, stewing, boiling and frying, often with the liberal use of fragrant vegetables, herbs and spices. Preservation techniques have also lent a distinctive character to the Nortan culinary culture, with sausages, hams, puddings, pies and potted meats being particularly popular.
Sports in Great Nortend are mostly home-grown, albeit with a presence of international sports such as football and cricket. The alpine regions in the Monmorians are well-suited to alpine skiing, known in country as skedding, during the winter season.
The two most popular team sports in Great Nortend are stinning and cricket. The former is a form of football and similar somewhat to rugby union, played with two teams on a round, oval-shaped turfed pitch known as the green with goal-posts at either end, split into three sections longitudinally. Cricket is played in Great Nortend in accordance with the international Laws of Cricket, and the domestic laws as promulgated by the Royal Causildon Club, which manages both stinning and cricket in Great Nortend.
Traditionally, stinning is played in the winter and cricket in the summer on the same green, by the same team, both sports having 11-a-side teams.
Other popular team sports include Allord game, whelts, rowing (boating) and rounders, as well the other competitive games such as (lawn) bowls, real tennis and athletics. Great Nortend has a long tradition of horse-back riding as well, intimately connected with the widespread use of horses in everyday life.
This page is written in Erbonian English, which has its own spelling conventions (colour, travelled, centre, realise, instal, sobre, shew, artefact), and some terms that are used in it may be different or absent from other varieties of English.