Norsund

Norsund

Flag
Flag
Motto: "ᚱᛅᛏᛏ ᛟᚷ ᛋᚨᚾᚾᛁᛝ" (Ellandic)
"Justice and truth" (English)
Anthem: Norsund, kära Fosterjorden
Norsund, dear Fatherland
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Map of Norsund - in the Vismar Commonwealth and the Hellonian Realm (green)
Map of Norsund
- in the Vismar Commonwealth and the Hellonian Realm (green)
CapitalKristianshamn
Official languages
Recognised national languages
  • German
  • Vistrasjorder
  • Feinan
  • Naq'tua
  • Pusjnaqua
  • Ma'karn
  • Tsi'quak
  • Nukjokten
  • Lutanese
  • Kalaak
  • Niskiaak
Ethnic groups
(1950)
47.3% Indigenous peoples
37.7% Hellonic Norsunders
15% Others
Demonym(s)Norsunder
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• King
Kristoffer of Hellona
• Minister-Governor
Arske Ik'tua
LegislatureBundsdag
Establishment
• Hellonians begin to inhabite Norsund
950
• Integration within Hellona
1816
• Gained home rule
1869
Population
• 1888 estimate
35.075.200
CurrencyHellonian krona (HEK)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
ISO 3166 codeNRS
Internet TLD.hl, .nr, .tri

Norsund is a constituent country of the Hellonian Realm located on Novallonda. It is the most sparsely populated country on Novallonda and in the entire Hellonian Realm. The capital and largest city is Kristianshamn, which together with surrounding areas are home to over two-thirds of the population.

According to Hellonian myths, settlement started at around 900, when Hellonian traveler Avnar Helgurson became the first permanent settler. In the next few centuries, settlers came from all over Hellona. This meant settlers could be of both Ellandic and Hellonic origin. Due to the large-scale immigration of Hellonians to Norsund, the indigenous people adopted many Hellonian and Ellandic customs and much of its culture. Eventually the number of Ellandic settlers exceded the amount of Hellonic origin, often due to the inequality between the eastern provinces such as Elland compared to the western Hellonic provinces. Due to this large amount of Ellandic migration, the most commonly spoken language of the colony became Ellandic, rather than Hellonian. When Norsund gained home rule in 1869, the official languages were named Ellandic and Hellonian. With the decentralisation to a federal state, the indigenous languages were declared official in the corresponding Special Region.

Due to this history, Norsunder culture is a mixture of Hellonic, Ellandic and indigenous cultures. The country also enjoys the tightest relations between itself and its former motherland, Hellona, due to its cultural ties. Together with the Menako Islands, it is said that these three countries form the core of the Hellonian Realm and the Hellonian cultural area.

Norsund has a open economy and has a rather low tax rate compared to Hellona, but maintains the same Nordic model standards as its colonizer and provides universal health care and tertiary education for all its citizens. Norsund has been a economically and socially stable country for some time, growing to become economically independent from Hellona starting from 1895.

Etymology

The name Norsund is a composition of the words meaning "north" and "sound", in this case meaning a water strait. The original name given to the land by Hellonian settlers was "Noortsond", literally meaning northern sound. This was translated into Ellandic as "Norsund", which later became the most commonly used form of the name in both Ellandic and Ellashian. This was directly translated into the two indigenous Vismaric languages, Vistrasjorder and Feinan, as "Nordrsund" and "Neursond" respectively.

The adoption of the name by indigenous tribes ended up differing between tribes and nations. This resulted in names being either full translations of entirely different names for the country. For example, the Naq'tua and Pusjanqua name for Norsund is "Avan'q aqusineq"; means northern way or strait and is a direct translation. A similar direct translation is used in the related Ma'karn and Tsi'quak langauges, "Afa'q aqun'q". The name in Nukjokten is "Elkjokten Nor", meaning Great Northern Lands, with a similar name found in Lutanese "Alsoktän Norur". The Kalaak and Niskiaak languages use the name "Nulaak Ankiaak", meaning "the land of many men".

History

Early cultures and pre-Hellonic era

In prehistoric times, Norsund was inhabitated by Norsundish natives. Tribes on the western side of modern-day Norsund, were largely nomadic and unorganised, while tribes at the coast are known to have created governments, or at least tribal councils to organise themselves. These coastal societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; hunting and fishing were also important. These societies are not known to have used any monetary unit, and likely redistributed goods based on ownership of land or goods. The Anta'qinuuk, the oldest most complex known tribe, flourished along the coast around 4.000 years before Cody.

It is known that around 200 before Cody, Vismaric peoples arrived at Novallonda, and established settlements. This earlier wave of Vismaric immigration led to the development of several cultures and languages. These tribes came to inhabit most of the coastal area and a small part of the hinterland and drove already settled tribes further west.

The Vistrasjorder settlement grew to become a large community in the north, and grew to become a dominant power in the region. In the south, the Naq'tua became large, and mastered agriculture in colder areas.

Hellonian settlement

One of the last remaining buildings from the first settlement of Hellonics in Norsund

Hellonians found the Norsundish colony around 950, around modern-day Kristianshamn, but never intended to colonize the area. They peacefully traded with both the Naq'tua and Vistrasjordlings. It was not until 1069 when Hellonian really settled on the land, with Avnar Helgurson being the first permanent settler. Small settlements were founded on the east coast and southern coastal areas. The biggest being the Nyland settlement, around which the modern city of Kristianshamn came to be. The areas were mostly populated by Ellandic settlers, which often intermixed with the local people. With cultural mixing assuring safety around the hinterland, people began moving southwards to create new settlements. The Nyland settlement began to grow, becoming the economic centre of the new colony of Hellona. Kristianshamn became the economic and cultural hub for both internal relations in the colony itself and outside relations with Hellona.

Colonization and expansion

Starting from the Hellonian settlements around Nyland, Hellonian expanded their control to the neighbouring hinterlands. Due to cultural ties and easier communication between the Vistrasjordlings and Hellonians, they reached a settlement on their pressences. The Vistrasjorder territories would be integrated within the Nyland colony, with special status granting them certain rights. Other groups at the borderlands were pressured into moving westwards. This led to the establishment of the realm colony of Norsund in 1302.

The slow expansion of Hellonians westwards agitated indigenous tribes, leading to widescale action against the colonization. This eventually led to the Norsunder wars between Hellonian colonizers and Norsunder natives, starting in 1431 and ending in 1482. The overwhelming strength of the Hellonians, together with the spread of Veterran deceases unknown to Norsund meant the wars would end in the complete subjugation of most tribes in the western borderlands. The tribes agreed to control under the Norsunder colony, but their rights were heavily limited.

In 1689, the remaining native populations were granted voting rights in colonial affairs. In 1725, all remaining restrictions on the native populations were lifted and they were granted equal rights.

In the year 1816, Norsund was declared integral Hellonian territory. This would integrate Norsund in the Hellonian unitary state as a province and the centralisation of power within the Hellonian Ryksdag.

Home rule

Hendrik Segersson, first Minister-Governor of Norsund after gaining home rule in 1869

Around 1840, a small movement started centred around the idea of home rule. The Ryksdag expanded almost every year in order the accomodate the integration of new territories. Although these integrated territories were given electoral and democratic rights from the moment of integration within the unitary state, the voting bloc of Hellona heavily outnumbered any of the other overseas territories. The inequality between the territories meant Norsunders had little power over their own matters, leading to the growth of this movement for home rule in the following years.

The centralised form of Hellona was later deemed too unstable and the demand for decentralisation began to also arrise in Hellona itself. This would lead to the establishment of the Hellonian Realm and the reorganisation of Hellonian territories. Each territory would be granted home rule with its own unicameral parliament. In order to continue the enactment of pan-realm policy, the Aldag was established serving as a secondary chamber for all constituent countries. The first territory to be granted home rule in this way was Norsund in 1869. Foreign affairs and the military are decided on this federal level. In 1870, Ellandic was declared the official national languages, with Hellonian and German acting as secondary languages on a national scale.

In 1879, several native languages were declared as official secondary languages. The Constitutional Act on Realm Lands, adopted in the same year, lead to the reorganisation of Norsund into a federal state. The country was henceforth organised into five provinces and ten Indigenous Special Regions, shortened to IRS. This meant greater autonomy to the various indigenous tribes of Norsund.

In 1902, Prince Avgust, the brother of reigning Queen Amalia, was shot by Norsundish seperatists, wounding him heavily and eventually resulting in his death. The short revolt was put down by the Norsundish Special Guard, with five people being convicted of an assasination attempt. The event deepened divides relatively young Hellonian Realm. In order to try to appease Norsunders, the government of Hellona proposed a referendum on independence to be held. The Norsundish parliament, however, voted against it, quoting the economic dependency of Norsund on Hellona. Relations between both nations in the Realm were rather tense for the few years after the event. It is still widely regarded as one of the darkest moments in recent Hellonian history.

Cooperation with Hollweg

When Hellona and the United South German States established a political union, the Germano-Hellonian state, in 1886, Norsund pushed for further cooperation with Hollweg. This lead to several agreement integrating both constituent territories with one another. The two most important pieces of legislatures abolished al passport and other means of border control between the two nations, acting as one border area. Further agreements increased the means of transportation through both countries. This lead to the realisation of the Northern Way Railroad, a high-speed railway which runs from the west coast to east coast of Novallonda.

Geography

Norsund occupies most of Novallonda, sharing borders with its only neighbouring country, Hollweg. Due to its location close to the polar zones of Ullar, the whole country has a cold climate. Average winter and summer high temperatures can vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and northern provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C, but can drop below −30 °C with severe wind chills. Due to these low temperatures and the possibility of snow coverage for half of the year, these interior regions are rather sparsely populated. In these areas, most of the ISRs are also located, due to the traditional living areas of these tribes and the forced migration during early colonization. Coastal areas have a much more temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. This means high temperatures lie around 20s °C. In contrast to the interior, these regions are densely populated. The coastal areas are also divided mostly by the Hellonic provinces. Kristianshamn is the main population centre of the country, among other cities and towns hidden among the coastal fjords.

Due to the warm Danonian current around the eastern coastal regions, these enjoy higher annual temperatures than other places of similar latidue in the world. The north, however, has cold ocean currents besides its coast, leading to coastal areas freezing over through winter. Snowafall is thus more common in the north, where in the most extreme areas permafrost exists, than the south.

Norsund has extensive boreal forest through most of its country. These are centered around the hinterlands of the coastal fjords up to the north-eastern coastline. The interior parts of the country, the Highlands, are extensive grasslands with little to no forests. The artic regions are covered by snow and permafrost for most of the year.

The highest air temperature recorded was 31 °C on 22 June 1887 at Ildeborg on the southeastern coast. The lowest was −37 °C on 22 January 1789 at Uustinuuk in the north.

Bio diversity

Vismaric horse in the plains of Norsund

Most mammals on Norsund have been imported, like the Vismaric horse. The only mammals before humans from Vetterra came were muskoxen, polar foxes, polar bears and seals. Killer whales and Norsundish whales are the only marine mammals. There are no native or free-living reptiles and only 1,800 known species of insects are known living in Norsund.

The animals of Norsund include Norsundish sheep, cattle, chickens, goats, the sturdy Vismaric horse, and the Vismaric Husky-dog, all descendants of animals imported by Veterrans. Wild mammals include the Arctic fox, mink, mice, rats, rabbits and reindeer. Polar bears are common in the north, together with seals. Marine mammals include the grey seal and harbor seal. Many species of fish live in the ocean waters surrounding Norsund, and the fishing industry is a major part of Norsund's economy, accounting for approximately half of the country's total exports. Birds, especially seabirds, are an important part of Norsund's animal life. Vismaric seagulls, Norsundish Pengabird, and kittiwakes nest on its sea cliffs.

Politics

Constitutional framework

Current Minister-Governor of Norsund, Arske Iq'tua

As Norsund is a constituent country of the Hellonian Realm, its highest legislative and executive powers lie in the Aldag and its council of ministers. In practice, it delegates only its control over military and the monetary policy to this Realm-wide parliament. Starting from 1877, the constitution of Norsund is based on several documents: the Home Rule Act of 1869, the Constitutional Act on Freedoms and Rights, the Constitutional Act on Realm Lands and the Charter of the Realm. These can only be changed by a two times two-thirds majority in the Bundsdag, separated by a general election, or in case of the Charter for the Realm, an absolute majority in the Aldag.

Norsund has a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with King-Exalt Kristoffer acting as the current head of state. The role of the monarch within the actual politics of Norsund is extremely limited to ceremonial and representative functions. By extension, the King-Exalt of Hellona also acts as the monarch of the entire Hellonian Realm. The monarch does not send a representative in his place, with the executive power of the monarch being invested in the Minister-Governor. The monarch and the Royal Family undertake a variety of other unofficial representative duties in Hellona, the Realm and abroad. The monarch also acts as head of the Asatru faith, hence the title of King-Exalt. Officially both titles are seen as separate and only held by the same person.

Government

The outside of the parliament building of Norsund, the Bundsdag

Legislative power in Norsund is vested in the unicameral Bundsdag and its 500 members. General elections are held every four years. Legislation may be initiated by either the Government or members of the Bundsdag. Members are elected on the basis of party-list proportional representation with a chance for a preferential vote for a certain member to a four-year term. The workings of both the Government and the legislature are regulated by the Constitutional Act on Realm lands.

The Government consists of the Minister-Governor, which is chosen by a formateur. This often means the leader of the majority or plurality party in the Bundsdag is chosen to form a government. The Minister-Governor proceeds to form a cabinet with ministers from his choice. In this government lies the supreme executive power, and it is responsible for the actions of the Bundsdag and following legislature.

Norsund has a multi-party democracy where often no one party manages to achieve a majority in the Bundsdag, meaning coalitions between political parties are necessary for the formation of governments. Currently 7 parties and one parliamentary group are seated in the Bundsdag. These are the People's Party, the Independence Party, the Enviromentalists, the Centre, the Liberal Democrats, the Initiative Party, the Democrats and the Independent Native Alliance, a parliamentary grouping.

Provinces and special regions

Norsund has a federal structure, in which government responsibilities are divided between federal and regional governments. Norsund is divided into five Hellonian Provinces and 10 Indigenous Special Regions (ISR). All of these structures have their own unicameral parliament, acting similarly to the Bundsdag. The ISR have special rights granted to them by the Constitutional Act on Realm Lands, meaning they have the right to designate their own language as the official language of the region, are granted exemptions from certain legislature and have a greater say on regional taxation than the Hellonian provinces. Each state has its own assembly, called a Provincial Thing (Hellonian: Gewestelijk Ding, Ellandic: Landskapsting) for the Hellonic provinces and a Nation Thing (Hellonian: Volksding, Ellandic: Folksting) for ISRs.

Hellonic Provinces

Flag Province Capital Largest city
Flag of Chiba, Chiba.svg Kristianshamn Kristianshamn Kristianshamn
Flag of Sakai, Osaka.svg Sälhörnet Vl. Kajsson Esteräng
Flag of Numata Gunma.JPG Kvekät Brökarna (Breukelen) Brökarna (Breukelen)
Flag of Kobe.svg Blomsdalarna Närvall Närvall
Flag of Urakawa, Hokkaido.svg Trollkusten Sydhamn Sydhamn

Special Regions

Flag Province Capital Largest city
Pine Ridge Flag.svg Vistrasjorder Region Vistrasstän Vistrasstän
Flag of Chiba, Chiba.svg Feinänger Region Feinborg Feinborg
Flag of Northern Cheyenne.svg Naq'tua Region Yuquato'aa An'ninu
Flag of Fukui Prefecture.svg Nukjokten Region Skajänn Skajänn
Flag of Iwate Prefecture.svg Lutanen Region Nokmäk Nokmäk
Flag of Hiroshima Prefecture.svg Tsi'quak Region En'Wa En'Wa
Flag of Kagawa Prefecture.svg Kalaak Region Lukaak Lukaak
Flag of Miyazaki Prefecture.svg Niskiaak Region Baliaak Baliaak
Flag of Yamaguchi Prefecture.svg Pusjnaqua Region Di'qua Di'qua
Flag of Fukuoka City.svg Ma'karns Region Ma'horn Ma'horn

Judicial system

The judicial system of Norsund is largely based on that of Hellona. This means two different system exist for courts, a general court for civil and criminal cases and an administrative court for disputes between citizens and the authorities. In the four Hellonian provinces, there are four layers to each system: local courts, provincial courts, the Supreme Court and the Realm Court.

The Supreme Court of Norsund is the final layer to laws appertaining to Norsund. It only takes cases which may set precedents and as such does not convene often. The Supreme Court consists of 12 Justices, appointed by the Government but neither the Government nor the Bundsdag is able to interfere with the decisions of the court.

The Realm Court is the highest court in the Hellonian Realm and handles court cases based on constitutional issues in each constituent country and the Charter for the Realm and mediates conflicts between constituent countries, when the case is of interest as a precedent. The Realm Court consists of 18 justices, two from each constituent country appointed by the Government of each and the Government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court.

The ISR replace the provincial courts with special regional courts, named differently in each ISR. This court upholds the constitutions and laws of the ISRs and take up cases that may set precedent in the region.

Military

Free Warrior Soldiers training in the Highlands
Two Leopard 1A1 tanks participating in an exercise

The Hellonian Realm Armed Forces is a government agency reporting to the Ministry of Defence of Hellona and the Aldag of the Hellonian Realm. While the main focus of the Armed Forces nowadays is peaceful interventions overseas, it remains dedicated to uphold the ability to refocus on the defence of the entire Hellonian Realm in times of war. Due to Hellonas long-term neutrality and the waning risk of war in the region, conscription has been abandoned and the military is now purely professional. The Armed Forces are divided into several divisions.

First off, the entirety of the Armed Forces is split into several divisions. The four continental divisions of the Realm Armed Forces (Krygsmachten des Ryks) are based on geographic location within the Realm. When all individual divisions are combined, they form the entirety of the Hellonian Realm Armed Forces. The total capability of the Armed Forces, however, has rarely been used. It was in high alert during the Great War, during which conscription was enforced to prepare for potential invasion.

The four Continental Divisions are:

  • ᚻᛖᛚᛚᚨᚾᚦᛖᚱ Kᚱᛉᚷᛋᛗᚨᚷᛏ Hellander Krygsmagt (HKM), Hellonian Armed Forces - Hellona
  • ᚾᛟᛟᚱᚦᛖᛚᛉKᛖ Kᚱᛉᚷᛋᛗᚨᚷᛏᛖᚾ Noordelyke Krygsmagten (NKM), Northern Armed Forces - Norsund, the Menako Islands
  • ᚦᚱᛁᛖᛋᛈᛁᛏᛋᛖᚱ Kᚱᛉᚷᛋᛗᚨᚷᛏ Driespitser Krygsmagt (DKM), Tirpitzer Armed Forces - Tirpitz, the Ebure Isles
  • ᛚᛁᛚᛟᛏᚢKᛁᛋᚷᛖ Kᚱᛉᚷᛋᛗᚨᚷᛏᛖᚾ Lilotukisge Krygsmagt(LKM), Lilotukan Armed Forces - Lilotuka Island

Each of the divisions is composed of three to four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koniŋklyke (Royal) and in case of the Northern Armed Forces to which Norsund belongs together with the Menako Islands, the prefix Noordelyke (Northern):

  • KᛟᚾᛁᛝKᛚᛉKᛖ ᚾᛟᛟᚱᚦᛖᛚᛉKᛖ ᛚᚨᚾᚦᛗᚨᚷᛏ Koniŋklyke Noordelyke Landmagt (KL), the Royal Northern Army
  • KᛟᚾᛁᛝKᛚᛉKᛖ ᚾᛟᛟᚱᚦᛖᛚᛉKᛖ Zᛖᛖᛗᚨᚷᛏ Koniŋklyke Noordelyke Zeemagt (KZ), the Royal Northern Navy, including the Naval Air Service and Marine Corps
  • KᛟᚾᛁᛝKᛚᛉKᛖ ᚾᛟᛟᚱᚦᛖᛚᛉKᛖ ᛚᚢᚷᛏᛗᚨᚷᛏ Koniŋklyke Noordelyke Lugtmagt (KLu), the Royal Northern Air Force
  • KᛟᚾᛁᛝKᛚᛉKᛖ ᚻᛖᛚᛚᚨᚾᚦᛖᚱ VᚱᛉKᚱᛉᚷᛖᚱ ᛟᚱᚦᛖ Koniŋklyke Hellander Vrykryger Orde (KHVO), the (voluntary-only) Royal Hellonian Free Warrior Order (Military Police), tasks include protecting the royal family, military police and border control. This is a branch exclusive to the Hellonian Armed Forces and is Realm-wide.

The Northern Armed Forces are especially adapted to cold-weather warfare, owing to both countries colder climate than mainland Hellona and the other constituent countries of the Hellonian Realm. This specialization lead to these troops being deployed in interventions in colder countries in the past.

Demographics

Demographics of Norsund
  Indigenous (47.3%)
  Hellonic Norsunders (37.7%)
  Other ethnicities (15%)
Naq'tua woman with child

Although indigenous peoples were opressed during most of Norsunder history, later reconciliation has improved their living in the last two centuries. Although settlement of the coastal areas by Hellonians was successful, the interior remained inhabited by indigenous people. This has led to Norsund having a large indigenous population, especially compared to other former colonial nations. Currently, 47.3% identify as of indigenous origin. 37.7% identify as Hellonic Norsunders; mainly Ellandic-speaking, with them mainly being concentrated in the coastal provinces. 15% are ethnically different peoples.

Of the indigenous groups, the Naq'tua, who mainly live at the northern coast in the Naq'tua Region, form the largest group. 25% of indigenous peoples identify as Naq'tua; the second biggest group being the Vismaric Vistrasjordlings, with 23% of the native population identifying as such.

Though there are many different tribes and indigenous populations; many can be grouped as ethno-linguistic groups. The Nukjokten and Lutanen peoples are related and form the Kjokten ethno-graphic group. The Naq'tua, the Tsi'quak, Ma'karns and Pusjnaqua together descend from the Quatal. Last, the Kalaak and the Niskiaak make up the Iaak group. The Vistrasjordlings and the Feinängers form the only pre-Hellonian Vismaric ethnic groups in Norsund.

Languages

Languages in Norsund
Languages percent
Ellandic
44%
Indigenous
43%
Hellonian
8%
German
2%
Other
3%

When Norsund was granted home rule, Ellandic and Hellonian became the main official languages. Later all standardized indigenous languages as well as German were declared official as well. Each indigenous language is the primary official language in its equivalent Indigenous Special Region, with secondary being either Hellonian or Ellandic. Hellonian and mainly Ellandic is, in practice, still in use for a lot of administration. A majority of the population is as such bilingual or trilingual. There is a continuing trend of promoting indigenous language in the Indigenous Special Regions. This has increased knowledge of these languages substantially.

Currently, 44% of inhabitants have Ellandic as their first language. In total 87% of the population can speak Ellandic as a secondary language. Hellonian is the secondly most used language. While the percentage of native speakers is only around 8%, it is spoken by around 71% of all inhabitants. 43% of first languages are one of the many indigenous languages, while 5% is of foreign origin.

Religion

Based on Article 2 of the Constitutional Law on Rights and Freedoms, Norsund has full religious freedom.

The largest religious group is of Asatru faith. This faith originally came from Hellona and is the most common religion among Hellonian Norsunders. It has also come to be adopted by the pre-Hellonian Vismaric Vistrasjordlings and Feinan, this is in large part due to their former beliefs systems being similar enough to integrate into the Asatruic faith. In total, 48% of Norsunders identify as Asatru believers.

The various indigenous tribes have differing religious systems and beliefs, with 35% of the Norsunder population declaring they adhere to one of these indigenous beliefs. Most of these belief system are polytheistic in nature and have a nature-based ideology.

The third largest group is irreligious, with around 15% of the total population declaring themselves to be non-religious. This includes both people who are generally spiritual (8%) and atheists (7%). The smallest group are adherents to the Faith of the Trident, with around 2% of the population.

The Hellonian, and by extension the Norsunder, royal family is associated with Asatru beliefs. Any monarch of Hellona is required to be an adherent to the faith and also acts as the head of the Asatru faith in the country. Although the monarch of Hellona officially fulfills the highest position in the faith, there is no organised branch the monarch belongs to.

Economy

Norsunder exports

  Mineral products (mainly crud petroleum) (28%)
  Transportation (mainly vehicles) (12%)
  Machines (8%)
  Basic metals (9.5%)
  Chemicals (5.4%)
  Raw vegetables (2.1%)
  Plastic and rubber products (8%)
  Paper goods (4.4%)
  Food goods (3.7%)
  Precious metals (3.2%)
  Animal products (2.7%)
  Wood products (2%)
  Instruments (1.5%)
  Textiles, animal by-products and others (9.5%)

Norsund has a mixed-economy, having developed wider industries from its former industrial and mineral extraction past. Starting from the 19th century, Norsund's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the country from a largely rural economy to an urbanized and industrial one. Like other countries in the Empire of the Trident, the economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs over half of the country's workforce. While the economy of Norsund has diversified in the last few hundred years, the primary sector remains an important aspect of the Norsunder economy, in which the forestry and petroleum industries are two of the most prominent components.

Statistics on the export of natural resources in Norsund show its a net exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, platinoids, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal, lead, copper, molybdenum, cobalt, and cadmium. The mining industry is one of the reasons for towns being able to survive in harsh conditions. Norsund also has a sizeable manufacturing industry, with automobiles representing an important industry.

Energy

Norsund has been a net exporter of energy since the 20th century. Owing largely to its favourable location and geography, Norsund has vast deposits of natural gas and oil reserves. Although this makes up a large percentage of its exported production and energy, Norsund itself is largely dependent on renewable forms of energy. This is due to the focus of the Hellonian Realm on renewable energy, leading to projects for renewal of the Norsunder energy market. The government of Norsund has been investing in hydropower and nuclear energy. Hellonian state-owned company Stroom and the Norsunder state-owned company Elsmida currently dominate the market, with smaller private energy companies competing with them.

Out of the total electricity production, 22% was won from hydropower, 38% from nuclear energy, 10% from windpower and 30% from biofuels and oil. While this means most of its production is renewable, Norsund is still more dependent on fossil fuels than other parts of the Hellonian Realm. This has led to the adoption of indirect taxation in order to curb fossil fuel use.

Transport

Transportation is an important facet of the Norsunder economy. Through the use of transportation, the country is able to sustain its large mining and energy industry, while also serving its inhabitants. An important aspect of Norsunder transport is the railway system, owned and operated by state-owned Norväg. Freight is handled by its subsidiary Norfrakt. The high-speed Northern Way Railroad connects Norsund to its neighbour Hollweg.

Around half of all trips are made by car, 5% by bike, 30% by public transport and 15% by walking.

Kristianshamn International Airport, south of the capital, is the main international airport. The flag carrier airline is the Royal Air Hellona, due to it being a part of the Hellonian Realm.

Culture

Norsunder culture draws upon those of its constituent nationalities, resulting in a blend of Hellonian and indigenous Norsunder culture. Today, this aspect of pluralism and multiculturalism forms the basis of Norsunder culture, with emphasis being put on inclusiveness and equality. Through their language, art and music the three main nations of Norsund continue to influence and change Norsunder culture. Due to the programme of reconcilitation by the Norsunder government, the indigenous cultures are promoted and preserved in the 20th century. The wider Norsunder culture has adopted certain traditions and artforms from the indigenous peoples and these still function as inspiration to many Norsunders.

Although the basis of Norsunder culture lies in its plurality and diversity, there is still a strong national identity based on the unifying aspects of its constituents. Through the harsh conditions the Novallondan continent experiences, Norsund has established a strong sense of community within its inhabitants. Furthermore, egalitarianism and equality are to this day an important part of Norsunder life.

Ceremonial Aq'jup mask of the Naq'tua
The Jack Pine, by Eduard Tomsson, an example of Hellonian-style Norsunder art

Visual arts

The visual arts in Norsund combine the cultural traditions of Hellonian and indigenous peoples. The development of unifying Norsunder painting can be traced to the movement for home rule, starting in the 18th century.

Before the arrival of Hellonians, the indigenous peoples of Norsund had already established their own cultures. As might be expected, art traditions vary enormously amongst and within these diverse groups. One thing that distinguishes Indigenous art from Hellonian and Veterran traditions is a focus on art that tends to be portable and made for the body rather than for displays, although even this is only a general tendency. Indigenous visual art is also often made to be used in conjunction with other arts, for example masks and rattles play an important role in ceremonialism that also involves dance, storytelling and music.

As'waak, an art installation combining Veterran and indigenous art traditions

With the arrival of Hellonians and the establishment of the Norsunder colony, Veterran art traditions arrived with them. This also meant the introduction of oil painting, which revolutionised art on the continent. While Hellonian Norsunders continued painting in Veterran traditions, the indigenous peoples of Novallonda experimented with the new medium for creating art. The adoption of oil paints by indigenous cultures was the first instant of cross-cultural exchange.

During the 18th century, the arrival of the movement for home rule led to a romantiscist nationalist art movement. Everything about Norsunder life that set it apart was exalted and glorified. Due to this focus on the unique aspects of Norsunder cultural life, indigenous art began the basis of much of the movement. During this time, the first instants of indigenous art influencing traditional Hellonian art are found. Hellonian Norsunders began crafting masks in the style of indigenous peoples and began recording their way of life and visual arts in their communities. This blend of Hellonian and indigenous arts are the basis of Norsunder visual art to this day.

Architecture

Pre-colonial architecture varried wildly between the different nations of Norsund. The structures the different nations inhabitated differed due to their different ways of living, ranging from semi-nomadic to stationary. The formerly semi-nomadic peoples of the Nukjokten and Lutanen lived in wigwams, domed dwellings that could be quickly made from easy to find materials. The Niskiaak and Kalaak peoples of the far north developed innovative and unique architectural styles. Due to the scarcity of wood, these nations built structures called igloos, a domed structure made of snow, which has highly insulative properties. In the summer months, when these igloos melted, tents made of seal skin, or other hides, were used. The permanent settled nations of the Naq'tua, Tsi'quak and Pusjnaqua built wooden structures and farms. The Vistrasjordlings and Feinan built houses remarkably similar to pre-historic Hellonian settlements, probably due to their Vismaric origin.

Festerborg slott, an example of baroque colonial architecture (left). The Public Library of Kristianshamn, an example of contemporary Norsunder architecture (right.

With the permanent arrival of Hellonians in 1069, new architectural styles from Veterra were introduced in Norsund. Initial settlements would be based mostly on defense and survival, both against indigenous peoples and the climate. Buildings of early settlements often imitated the style of houses where the original settlers hailed from. This meant early houses built were wooden houses. Due to scarcity of wood in the interior and north, houses there were often built out of stone, which was unusual for Hellonian houses until 1200. In the main economic centre of Kristianshamn, larger houses and public buildings imitated the popular Aldstyl of Hellona starting from the 16th century. These used more locally available products and had an overall simpler appearance.

Standardized designs became common for early planned settlements in Norsund, with buildings largely following a template set out by the colonial or city government. Train stations that were built in later centuries continued this trend due to their necessity.

The arrival of minimalist and functionalist architecture, Norsunder architecture developed quicker and more diverse than Hellonian architecture. It began a widescale adopter of these new waves of architecture and became the basis of most new cityscape planning. Several important and famous structures in Norsund can find their basis in modernist architecture, which found its basis in these earlier movements. The use of local materials is important and emphasised. When the Bundsdag decided on building a new parliament house after the former colonial Parliament House became to small for the administration attached to the parliament, it was decided it would follow suit in these traditions. The new Bundsdag combined local indigenous traditions with a minimalist architectural style, and is a prime example of modern Norsunder architecture.

Music

Norsunder music combines elements from Hellonian and indigenous music, and includes folk and pop traditions. Although its music scene is rather small, it has been successful both within and outside Norsund. Notable Norsunder bands and artists include the alternative and indie rock bands Er'anua and Uuk (classical rock), jazz band Lovsången and pop artists such as Rasmus Hendriksson, Aisja Wahlgren and Bärsja. Due to its low population, independent music is rather popular. There exists a culture around small experimental pop groups that use unorthodox instruments and soft vocals called Nerpop. The music culture of Norsund also includes traditional indigenous music, largely revolving around singing and drums.

The national anthem of Norsund is Fjordarna i östen, the music was written by Olav Gerritsse based on a poem of the same name by Ulrikke Pavelby. It tells mostly of the natural beauty of Norsund and the heroic deeds of its inhabitants without favouring one ehtnic group over the other. The lyrics are usually sung in Ellandic, but versions of it exist in other languages.

Cuisine

Norsunder cuisine is simple, based on the availability of certain types of produce. As such, much of Norsund's cuisine is based on fish, lamb and dairy products. The relatively harsh climate of Norsund made the growth of vegetables and fruit difficult until the 18th century, when methods of producing these products in colder climates became available. Traditional coastal Norsunder food staples includes the yoghurt-like cheese skyr, cured ram, dried fish and different types of bread such as dark rye bread.

Suaasat, traditional soup made from seal meat

Breakfast is based around coffee, dairy products and bread, though fruit, cereal and pancakes are increasingly common. Lunch is often simply bread with a variety of simple toppings. The main meal of the day is dinner, which usually involves fish or lamb as the main course. Due to its colder climate, most common ingredients came from the ocean. Fish is especially important to Norsunder cuisine, particularly cod and haddock but also salmon, herring, and halibut. It is often prepared in a wide variety of ways, either smoked, pickled, boiled, or dried. Lamb is by far the most common meat. Additionally, boiled or mashed potatoes, pickled cabbage, green beans, and rye bread are prevalent side dishes.

Indigenous meals relied on seafood. Meat from marine mammals, game, birds, and fish play a large role in the indigenous diet. Soups or stews were and remain the most common of traditional indigenous meals, made from seal or whale meat.

Like Hellona, coffee is a popular beverage and is drunk at breakfast, after meals or during coffee breaks. Although coffee culture is not as important as it is in Hellona, the country is experiencing a rise in popularity of the beverage.

Sports

Norsund has excellent conditions for skiing, fishing, snowboarding, ice climbing and rock climbing, although mountain climbing and hiking are preferred by the general public. Due to these conditions, Norsund has become a popular destination for skiing and snowboarding. As such, it has hosted world championships and tournaments for skiing and snowboarding several times. Although these sports are often seen as one of the most important and traditional, they only account for a small part of the sports played by the entire population of Norsund.

The most popular sport for both playing and entertnainment remains football, which it has taken over from Hellona. The highest level of the national football league is the Bundsliga.

The small Norsunder national football team has not managed to qualify for any major international competitions yet, but their results have been improving. Norsunder players have also played for the Hellonian national team several times and is seen as a logical step in a Norsunder player's carreer.

See also

Further reading

Geography and environment
  • Ak'sen, Paul Compact Geography of Norsund (1905)
  • Kaljuleed, Hendricka Landscapes of the Land of Fjords and Ice, Norsund (1898)
History
  • Frederiksse, Jeltse A National History of Norsund (1908)
  • Pajloon, Al'tsua Norsunder Culture and its History (1895)