|Location of Txotai in Namor|
Location of Txotai in Namor
and largest city
|Ethnic groups||Kannei (51%)|
|Religion||Apostolic Catholicism, Txoism|
|Government||Autonomous Republic of Namor|
• Vice President
• President of the Regional Council
• President of the Regional Supreme People's Court
|40,336 km2 (15,574 sq mi)|
• 2015 census
|ISO 3166 code||TX|
Txotai, officially the Autonomous Republic of Txotai (Namorese: Тщотаи Чиджигукa tr. Txotai Chijiguka, Luziycan: Pravilosamo Respublika i Zotay) is an autonomous republic in northwestern Namor bordered by Luziyca to the north and the Namorese district of Shanpei to the south. It is one of two Namorese territories geographically located in West Borea, the other being Riro. As of 2015, it has a population of over 11 million people.
First populated by the Argillians, Txotai was home to several Argillian city-states before it was incorporated into the Lysandrene Empire. After the Lysandrene Empire fell, Argillians remained the majority in Txotai until the Slavic migration of the sixth century, during which Slavs entered the region in large numbers and formed the Otekian Confederacy. The appointment of Luther II as the first Otekian Patriarch of Gusev in the year 584 formally marked the beginning of Otekian Slavic rule in Txotai.
An attempt by the Otekians to break away from the Apostolic Catholic Church resulted in their conquest by the Peivet in 1131, and Txotai became a province of the Jidu dynasty. Following the disintegration of the Jidu dynasty, Txotai was controlled by the Solomonic Jidu, a remnant of the former Jidu, until 1720, when it was annexed by the Hao dynasty.
In 1899, Txotai was annexed by Luziyca as a result of the First Namo-Luziycan War. Luziyca helped establish the First Republic of Oteki, which lasted until 1925 when the People's Republic of Namor sent troops to Txotai, bringing the region back under Namorese sovereignty. As part of a compromise between Namor and local Otekians, parts of Txotai came under the control of the Otekian Self-Administration. However, the compromise eventually fell apart as relations between Namor and Otekian authorities deteriorated. In 1941, Otekian separatists proclaimed the Second Republic of Oteki, leading to the Txotai War which ended with the Namorese government retaking control of Txotai in 1945.
From 1945 to 1991, Txotai was ruled by a military government that led the region's reconstruction, although fighting with separatist militants continued. Following a thaw in Namo-Luziycan relations, civilian rule was restored and the Autonomous Republic of Txotai was established.
Txotai is the most economically developed region in northern Namor, having a higher GDP per capita than any other northern district. The reopening of Txotai's ports to international trade and massive infrastructure projects in the 1960s helped kickstart growth, leading some to coin Txotai's achievements as the "Miracle on the Gulf." Politically, Txotai has transitioned to democracy since the end of martial law in 1991. A regional state of emergency announced in 1992 in the name of curbing separatism was terminated in 2018. Parts of the region remain under military control.
- 1 Names
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Governance
- 5 Society
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture
Txotai (Zotay in Luziycan) is the name used by Namor to describe the region.
The name has its roots in the 18th century when the Hao dynasty purchased the region from the Duchy of York. Lacking an alternative name for the region, Namorese officials negotiating the purchase first called the purchased territories "South Kraya" (Gai Đông), which appeared on the Tuhaoese version of the purchase agreement. During his return trip to Namo, chief negotiator Trúc Dũng Quyền (Tu Lonkan) stopped by Lagania Lake. Amazed by the serenity of the lake, he composed a poem in which he praised the "peace of the surroundings" (周泰, Chu Thái). Chu Thái was transliterated to Txotai in Namorese and became the official Namorese for the region.
Oteki is the historical name for present-day Txotai. The name is officially used by the Luziycan government, overseas Otekian groups and some Otekians within Txotai to describe the region.
Derived from the Luziycan language, Oteki means "home," denoting Otekians' view of the region as their ancestral homeland. Use of Oteki was not controversial until the mid-20th century, when Otekian separatists started promoting it as the sole official name of the region as opposed to Txotai, which they viewed as a name imposed by the Namorese. After the Txotai War, Namor suppressed the use of Oteki to describe the geographical region of Txotai.
Since the lifting of martial law, some have tried to redefine Oteki by associating it with areas within Txotai with a majority Otekian population.
Civil war erupted in 1129 after five of the thirteen Otekian tribes in Txotai rebelled against Timeus II, the Patriarch of Gusev, and declared independence from the Apostolic Catholic Church. Timeus II fled to neighboring Shanpei and asked for assistance from the Jidu dynasty in restoring the Church's authority over Txotai. Heeding Timeus' call, the Jidu invaded and annexed Txotai. The five rebelling tribes were exterminated, while the eight loyalist tribes were rewarded with positions in the local government.
The Otekians received preferential treatment under Jidu rule due to their association with Saint Luther, whom the Peivet also venerated. Many Otekians were conscripted into the military and participated in the Jidu conquest of Namor Proper, and the Jidu allowed Otekians to settle to the south of the Gulf of Gelyevich to replace Kannei Namorese settlements.As a result, Otekians were among the most loyal subjects of the Jidu. But following Pope Adrian VIII's excommunication of the Jidu in 1203, the Jidu broke away from the Apostolic Catholic Church and expelled Patriarch Timothy I from Txotai. Timothy was allowed back into Txotai after the Jidu rejoined the Church, having won concessions from the Church on the worship of Txoist deities and ancestors.
Following the death of the last Jidu king, Samuel, in 1262, the Jidu dynasty began to disintegrate. Txotai came under the control of Solomon, Samuel's third eldest son and a contender to the Jidu throne, whose rule marked the beginning of the Solomonic Jidu dynasty. Solomon established a close relationship with the Patriarch of Gusev out of necessity, as it needed support from the Apostolic Catholic Church and protection from the non-Christian Dan dynasty to the south. Thus, unlike the greater Jidu dynasty that preceded it, the Solomonic Jidu strictly adhered to Apostolic Catholicism without localizing it to accommodate non-Christians. Several invasions by Dan Namor resulted in the Solomonic Jidu losing territory south of the Gulf of Gelyevich; by the 15th century, it only controlled Txotai.
The Solomonic Jidu formed an alliance with the Hao dynasty to defeat Dan loyalists based in northern Namor. In return, the Hao agreed to respect the Solomonic Jidu's sovereignty.
In 1719, an Otekian uprising overthrew the Solomonic Jidu. Upon the request of Abishai, the last monarch, the Hao invaded Txotai and put down the rebellion. But instead of restoring Abishai's rule, the Hao annexed Txotai and put the Patriarch of Gusev in power, hoping such a move would appease both the Otekian population and the Apostolic Catholic Church. Like other provinces of the Hao empire, Txotai had a governor appointed by the emperor, but because power rested in the Patriarchate, the governor did little besides reporting developments in Txotai to the emperor on a yearly basis. To accommodate the Otekians, the Hao appointed an Otekian governor.
Hao dynasty rule saw thousands of non-Christian Kannei migrate to Txotai, raising tensions with the Apostolic Catholic Church, which pressured the Patriarch of Gusev to prevent pagan traditions from "staining" the territory. In 1737, Patriarch Pasha III ordered the destruction of all Txoist temples in Txotai and banished Governor Rostislav Vladislav for refusing to follow the edict. The Hao intervened by sending an envoy to strike a compromise with the Patriarch, resulting in Pasha rescinding his edict and the Hao agreeing to dismantle all Txoist temples in Txotai.
In 1741, the Hao emperor was recognized as a Christian monarch by Pope Honorius V and given the power to veto appointments by the Church, establishing a tradition where the Namorese government has a say in determining the Patriarch of Gusev.
First Republic of Oteki
Following the First Namo-Luziycan War, Namor ceded Txotai to Luziyca in 1899. That same year, Luziyca amended its constitution to allow the Otekians to secede due to their "civilized nature." Two years later, the First Republic of Oteki was established. A theocratic republic, the First Republic recognized God as the head of state, the Patriarch of Gusev as the head of government, and an elected President as a "liaison" between the government and the people.
Though nominally an independent state, the First Republic of Oteki was heavily influenced by Luziyca, which sustained it with large amounts of economic aid. Consequently, Luziycan influence permeated the politics of the First Republic. Under the First Republic, elections were held in Txotai for the first time, though suffrage was initially restricted to property-owning Christian Otekian males over the age of 21. After Luziyca extended suffrage to women in 1919, the First Republic followed, extending suffrage to all Christian Otekian women over the age of 21.
A strongly exclusivist state, the First Republic denied rights to non-Christians as well as non-Otekians on the grounds that Christianity was the one and only true faith and Otekians were the rightful owners of the land. Discrimination against Kannei Namorese, most of whom were non-Christians, spurred many Kannei to leave Txotai. However, the First Republic cut back on its exclusivist attitude in the 1920s as support for immigration as a means of improving the economy grew. The practice of non-Christian religions was decriminalized, though non-Christians had to pay a special tax in order to receive protection from the state.
Otekian Self-Administration and Txotai War (1925 - 1945)
The rule of the First Republic ended in 1925, shortly after the foundation of the People's Republic of Namor and the end of the Namorese Civil War. The Liberationists, who viewed Txotai as one of the last outposts of Luziycan imperialism in Namor, deployed troops to Txotai. To prevent Namor from imposing direct rule, the leaders of the First Republic met with Antelope Yunglang in Namo, where they signed a treaty recognizing Namorese sovereignty over Txotai. In turn, Namor agreed to give the Otekians autonomy. The Otekian Self-Administration (OSA), led by First Republic officials who were conciliatory towards Namo, consequently replaced the First Republic as the government of Txotai.
However, the establishment of the OSA failed to quell anti-Namorese sentiment among Otekian separatists who believed the First Republic could have withstood a Namorese invasion. There was also mutual distrust between Namor and the OSA — Namor suspected the OSA was secretly mobilizing support for eventual independence, while the OSA suspected that Namor was eroding Txotai's autonomy.
On July 4, 1941, the separatists, led by Gregory Kudyev, overthrew the OSA in a coup and declared the establishment of the Second Republic of Oteki, which quickly received recognition and support from Luziyca. The declaration of independence sparked a four-year-long war that resulted in the Namorese government regaining control of Txotai. Many supporters of independence, including Patriarch Georgy III, were captured and executed by the Namorese. Surviving members of the separatist leadership fled to Luziyca along with millions of other Otekians, forming the Otekian government-in-exile.
Martial law (1945 - 1991)
Postwar Txotai came under military administration. Though martial law was declared as early as 1941, it wasn't until 1946 when Txotai and all territories south of the Namo-Luziycan border located within a 100-kilometer radius were formally incorporated into the Northern Frontier Administration (NFA). From the creation of the NFA until 1991, Txotai came under the rule of several military governors who were appointed by the President-General.
The first governor of the NFA, Lan Fu, administered Txotai from 1946 until his death in 1954, presiding over continued fighting with Otekian separatist insurgents. His successor, Yung Tzainan, was a staunch supporter of Antelope Gelai's policies, particularly his support for economic openness, which Yung considered to be the most effective weapon against Otekian independence. During his 19-year rule, Yung reopened Txotai's ports to foreign trade, though trade with Luziyca remained forbidden. In 1958, he launched the New Housing Movement, destroying traditional villages and moving villages to new settlements built by the government. The movement was credited with improving the standard of living in Txotai, though it was also accused of forcing Otekians to live under closer surveillance. In 1964, the Kaltan-Shanpei Tunnel, the first artificial passage between Txotai and mainland Namor, was built.
As part of the central government's Northern Development program, millions of people from southern Namor moved to northern Namor. Txotai's demographics shifted in favor of the Kannei Namorese, who made up most of the migrants. In 1950, ethnic Kannei made up less than 5% of Txotai's population; by 1970, they made up over 25%.
Yung was assassinated by militants belonging to the Knights of Saint Luther in 1973 and was succeeded by No Veiguk. In 1977, amid nationwide demonstrations against President-General Su Shui's proposal to conduct intelligence tests to screen potential voters, protests calling for an end to martial law broke out in Txotai. In response, the NFA allowed elections at the local level, leading to partial civilian rule. In 1978, No stepped down as governor, and Han Banan succeeded him.
In 1983, the assassination of Volya Aleksei, the Archbishop of Txotai, sparked unrest across the region that lasted several months. Though the unrest was eventually put down, it dampened public support for military rule. In 1985, Patriarch Mikhail of Gusev died in exile, and the Apostolic Catholic Church entered talks with the Namorese government. Both sides agreed to let the Patriarchate return to Txotai, and in turn, the Namorese government would have the final say in determining the Patriarch. Under this arrangement, Ivan III became the first Patriarch to reside in Txotai since the execution of Georgy III.
Following the normalization of Namo-Luziycan relations in 1990, President-General Lan Xuân Hường announced her intention to lift martial law in most of Txotai while securing the border. On May 1, 1991, the martial law that was declared in 1941 came to an end. Control over most of the region was transferred to the Autonomous Republic of Txotai, while some "strategically sensitive" areas came under the control of the Frontier Civil Administration (FCA), the successor to the NFA.
Autonomous Republic (1991 - present)
Vang Lan, an independent candidate who served as mayor of Kusef under martial law, was elected President of Txotai in 1991 and reelected for a second term in 1996. During and after its first general election, Txotai experienced an increase in political activity. But after the June 28 attacks, Vang Lan proclaimed a regional state of emergency in the name of curbing Otekian separatism. The state of emergency gave the President more control over the regional paramilitary and police forces.
In 1995, mass unrest broke out for the first time since the end of martial law after Vang introduced the Regional Security Law, which restricted public assemblies, authorized the government to exercise prior restraint, and allowed authorities to bypass the legal process in apprehending those suspected of supporting separatism. Both the Namorese and Txotai governments accused Luziyca and the Otekian government-in-exile of fomenting unrest, though Patriarch Ivan said the protesters had legitimate concerns. Ultimately, the unrest did not prevent the Regional Council from passing the law.
Breuvi Chikmurdof, leader of the Knights of Saint Luther and mastermind of the June 28 attacks, was killed in 1999. Though the operation leading to his death was largely organized by national security forces, public support for the Txotai government rose, enabling Vang Lan to leave office in 2001 with a high approval rating. Vang Jun, son of Vang Lan and Governor of Lagania Prefecture, succeeded his father as President and served two terms in office. In 2007, the fatal shooting of an Otekian man by a Kannei police officer triggered the second wave of unrest since the lifting of martial law.
Vang Jun stepped down in 2011 and was succeeded by Vei Sang. Vei supported reconciliation with Otekian exiles who did not support separatism, and in 2015 entered talks with the Otekian National Coalition (ONC), an exile group that advocated for increased autonomy for Txotai. Though both Vei and the ONC condemned violence and acknowledged the right of return for some Otekians, they failed to reach an agreement on which exiles qualified to return and whether returning exiles could continue advocating Otekian independence.
In 2015, Luziyca charged the leaders of the Otekian government-in-exile — including president Valeriy Anisim and former president Yorskov Lhego — with tax evasion, and extradited them to Txotai, where they were charged with separatism and sentenced to life in prison. The extradition became controversial due to the lack of evidence behind Luziycan authorities' allegation that the government-in-exile had committed tax evasion.
In 2016, Vei was defeated in the presidential election by Radoslava Yulia, a former regional prosecutor. Yulia became the first Otekian and the youngest person to assume the presidency. In April 2018, Yulia proclaimed an end to the regional state of emergency, which by then had become the longest state of emergency issued by any government in Namor.
Txotai is a mountainous region where most of the region's north consists of mountains and hills while lowlands are located near the southern coast.
Mountains have played a significant role in Txotai's culture and history. Ancient travelers often used significant peaks as markers. Mount Kovdor, the highest point in the region, is said to be where God instructed Saint Luther to convert the Otekian tribes to Christianity. The mountain became the border between the Otekian tribes and Luziyca; in the present, it is situated between Namor and Luziyca.
Txotai is home to two major rivers - the Tuman River in the west and the Lagania River in the east. From north to south, the Tuman River begins in the northern mountains and makes it way southward before dumping into the Gulf of Gelyevich. The Lagania River begins in Lagania Lake, Txotai's largest lake and freshwater supplier in the region.
|Administrative divisions of Txotai|
|Prefecture||Namorese name||Luziycan name|
As an autonomous republic of Namor, Txotai has significant jurisdiction over its internal affairs, while the central government is responsible for the region's defense and foreign affairs. The Constitution of Txotai is the governing document of the region which outlines the structure of the regional government as well as the rights that Txotai's inhabitants have.
The legislature of Txotai is the Regional Council (RegCo), an 85-member body that is elected every five years. Each county is represented by a deputy, while the special city of Kusef is represented by five deputies, each representing a district within the city. Besides enacting legislation, the RegCo can pass constitutional amendments, elect the President of Txotai, and impeach all officials of the executive branch, including the President.
The President is the head of state of Txotai. The regional constitution requires the President to be at least 35 years old, a permanent resident of Txotai, a natural-born Namorese citizen, and unaffiliated with any political party. A presidential term lasts five years and is renewable once. If the President dies or is unable to exercise the duties of the office for whatever reason, he or she is succeeded by the Vice President, who serves for the remainder of the President's term. The President has the power to promulgate laws, appoint officials, and declare a state of emergency. Txotai is the only autonomous republic in Namor where the President and Vice President are independents, a legacy of deliberationization in Namor. However, Presidents have campaigned for endorsements from political parties in order to win elections.
The judiciary of Txotai consists of the Regional Supreme People's Court (RSPC) of Txotai and lower courts. The RSPC consists of the President and four Vice Presidents. In addition to the RSPC, there are 85 county-level courts and nine courts of appeal (one in each prefecture and one in Kusef). Article 25 of the Namorese Constitution grants autonomous republics the right of final adjudication, meaning Txotai's is the final arbitrator of legal issues in the region, including disputes that involve the regional and national constitutions. The Supreme People's Court (SPC) may only hear cases involving Txotai if the RSPC defers to the SPC or if the case involves a resident of Txotai and a resident of Namor Proper, which is under the direct jurisdiction of the SPC. Under the latter circumstance, the SPC does not need authorization from the RSPC to hear the case.
The ethnic makeup of Txotai's population has undergone significant changes in the last several decades. For centuries, the population of Txotai was solidly Otekian. However, since the end of the Txotai War, millions of people have migrated from Namor Proper to Txotai. The migration has been further facilitated by relaxed border controls between Txotai and Namor Proper after the lifting of martial law. In 2005, Otekians made up a plurality of the population for the first time in Txotai's history. As of 2015, no ethnic group in Txotai constitutes a majority and Otekians remain the largest ethnic group.
Considered the native inhabitants of the region, Otekians are a Slavic people closely related to Luziycans and Katranjians. Many historians assert that Otekians are descendants of Txotai's first inhabitants, who populated the area after escaping a massive flood in Luziyca. In Txotai, the Otekians developed a culture that was somewhat distinct from Luziyca's, dividing themselves into tribes and relying on hunting and gathering for food. In the 1940s, millions of Otekians left Txotai for overseas as a result of the Txotai War, forming the overseas Otekian community. Most overseas Otekians reside in Luziyca, where the state of Chayevsky hosts many Otekian organizations such as the Otekian National Coalition and the now-defunct Otekian government-in-exile. Attempts to return overseas Otekians back to Txotai have been largely unsuccessful.
Kannei Namorese are the fastest-growing ethnic group in Txotai. While Txotai has always had a small Kannei population since antiquity, it wasn't until the 1960s when the Kannei population in Txotai began to grow exponentially. Under the Namorese government's Northern Development program, millions of people from Namor Proper moved northward in search of new opportunities; as part of the program, millions settled in Txotai. At present, most Kannei reside in southern Txotai. Cities have an especially large Kannei presence since most of them were built or expanded to accommodate migrants from Namor Proper.
The Peivet are the third largest ethnic group in Txotai. Most Peivet are descendants of Solomon's followers who took control of Txotai following the breakup of the Jidu dynasty, although a few came along with the Kannei after the Txotai War.
Txotai's population is predominantly Christian. The region is very significant to Christians as it is where the first conversion to Christianity took place in the year 177.
Most Christians in Txotai are Apostolic Catholics. Txotai is home to the Patriarchate of Gusev, considered by Apostolic Catholics to be the second-most important patriarchate after Bethlehem. The Patriarch of Gusev is regarded as the successor of Saint Luther, the patron saint of Gusev, and wields significant influence in Txotai society. While the Patriarch was formerly appointed by the Pope, an agreement between the Apostolic Catholic Church and Namor changed the appointment rules in order to give the Namorese government a greater say in the process. The Church compiles a list of candidates deemed acceptable for the position, while the President-General appoints the Patriarch by choosing from the list and the Central Council confirms the appointment.
Txotai is home to a number of holy sites. These include the iconic Saint Luther's Cathedral in Kusef, where the Patriarchate of Gusev is headquartered, the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Kovdor, where successive Patriarchs including Saint Luther are buried, and the Tuman River, where Saint Luther is said to have defeated forces loyal to the Chieftain of Gusev with the help of the fog of God.
Txotai is a bilingual region, with Namorese and Luziycan recognized as the official languages. Although both languages nominally enjoy equal status, the use of each language varies by setting. Namorese is primarily spoken in regional legislative and court proceedings, while Luziycan is spoken locally, particularly in areas dominated by ethnic Otekians. Txotai's education system is not perfectly bilingual — in places with a majority Kannei Namorese population, almost all classes are taught in Namorese though Luziycan is a required course. In places with a majority Otekian population, most classes are taught in Luziycan except for mathematics and science, which are taught in Namorese.
The knowledge of Namorese and Luziycan varies by ethnic group. Over 95% of Otekians and 40% of Kannei in Txotai can communicate in Luziycan at an intermediate level, while 80% of Otekians and 99% of Kannei can communicate in Namorese.
Most Otekians speak a variation of Luziycan called Otekian Luziycan. Most differences between Otekian Luziycan and Luziycan in Luziyca lie in vocabulary; Otekian Luziycan tends to use words antiquated in Standard Luziycan and loanwords from Namorese.
Beginning in the 1950s, the military government of Txotai joined coastal mainland Namor in opening its port cities to foreign trade; additionally, it attracted migrants from the mainland and rebuilt its infrastructure, causing a boost in its war-ravaged economy. Txotai's economy grew at an average of over 15% per year before cooling down in the 1980s. Txotai's per capita GDP as of 2015 is $24,386, which is higher than the northern districts of Shanpei, Arra, and Riro, but lower than the national GDP per capita of $28,668.
Txotai's economy is traditionally reliant on the timber and fishing industries, though in recent years the construction and electronic industries have grown in prominence.
As a territory of Namor, Txotai observes the nine nationally-recognized public holidays. In addition, Txotai observes six public holidays of its own. Most holidays in Txotai are religious by nature due to the influence of Christianity in the region, with the exception being Establishment Day, which is entirely secular.
|Moveable feast||Good Friday||Commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus|
|Moveable feast||Easter Monday||Celebrates the resurrection of Jesus|
|May 1||Establishment Day||Celebrates the end of martial law in Txotai and the founding of the Autonomous Republic of Txotai|
|October 18||Saint Luther's Day||Commemorates Saint Luther|
|December 24||Christmas Eve||Day before Christmas|
|December 25||Christmas Day||Celebrates the nativity of Jesus|
The lifting of martial law was followed by a boom in the Txotai media industry, with new local and privately-owned media challenging the role of traditional media. Many newspapers and television stations formed after 1991 are directed at either Kannei Namorese or Otekian audiences and are thus monolingual. The Txotai Sibo (Txotai Times), formerly owned by the Liberationist Party, is Txotai's most circulated Namorese-language newspaper, followed by the Kusai Yubo (Kusef Post). Segodna (Today), established in 1993, is the most popular Luziycan-language newspaper by readership.
Under NFA administration, Txotai only had one radio and television broadcaster — the Frontier People's Broadcasting System (FPBS), which was controlled by the military. In 1991, FPBS was transferred to the civilian government of Txotai, which renamed it Txotai Radio-Television (TRT). As a public broadcaster, TRT broadcasts in both Namorese and Luziycan.
Winter sports are popular in Txotai because of the climate. The region boasts some of the most prominent ski resorts in Namor, including the Vanmingsan Ski Resort in Korkino and the Lanse Resort in Lagania.
Txotai is the only region in Namor to have an ice hockey team, the Kusef Killjoys.
Sports such as association football and baseball are popular during the spring and summer.