Dulebian: Дулéбская Респýблика (Dulébskaya Respúblika)
Motto: Вeра и слава (Dulebian)
Faith and glory
Anthem: Песня о Pодине
(Pesnya o Rodinye)
Song of the Motherland
and largest city
|Recognised national languages||See National languages in Dulebia|
|Ethnic groups |
• Prime Minister
• Chairman of the Veche
|17th of September, 1916|
|12th of March, 1920|
• Current Constitution
|31st of January, 2001|
• Water (%)
• September 2016 estimate
• February 2017 census
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|ISO 3166 code||MB|
Dulebia (Dulebian: Дулебия, tr. Dulebiya), officially the Republic of Dulebia (Dulebian: Республика Дулебия, tr. Dulebskaya Respublika), is a country in southern Erdara. At 312,968 square kilometres (120,837.62 sq mi), Dulebia is the nth largest country in the world by area, and the 9th most populous, with about 35 million people as of 2017. Dulebia's capital and largest city, Ulich, is the largest metropolitan area in the country and one of the largest cities in Erdara; other major cities include Kamianets, Pokrovsk, Volynsk and Vishnevsk. Dulebia spans 1 time zone and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From north to southeast, it shares land borders with Hytekia, Krumlau, Sekir, Oseva, Domovinya and Brilliania.
The oldest known tribes to inhabit Dulebia where of Hesurian origin, setting on the Karsk sea coast around 2nd century BC and forming communities that would later rise into separate kingdoms. The oldest known pagan Dulebian tribe settled in the area around the current capital Ulich in 680 BC. In 861 the Dulebian tribes were united by Duke Gleb under the Principality of Ulich. The Principality was conquered and became a tributary of the Ragucin Empire in the early 14th century. The kingdom remained under Ragucin control for 60 years, between 1320 and 1380. In the same time some of the eastern duchies, most notably around the current city of Vishnevsk, were raided and for some time occupied by Krumlauvian Haemator knights, which left rich heritage in the form of fortresses and castles (most of which demolished after the communist occupation of the region in 1951). During the Ragucin rule, Dulebia became even more centrified, with Ulich formally becoming the center of trade and politics within the occupied kingdom. The Ragucin made decision in order to ease the administartion of the otherwise rebelous province, however, this decision greatly affected the future history of the new-born country.
In late 1379, during events currently known as the Trouble times, the Dulebian kingdom broke free from the Ragucin Empire, its king was killed after attempting to baptize its people, the kingdom was captured by the Ragucin again and remained under its control for three more years, until finally breaking free and establishing as an independent state in 1388. It grew rapidly, raiding and conquering neighbouring kingdoms and remnats of the Ragucin Empire, until finally setting its borders in 1611.
In 1710s under the reforms of Peter II the Tsardom was turned into an Empire that copied most of its policies from the Erdaran states. The Dulebian Empire was officially formed in 1721. It became more open to the west, signed numerous trade agreements with Erdarans and invited Erdaran and Cornicae architects, engineers, shipbuilders, and other experts to speed up the economic reforms. The Dulebian industrial revolution took place in the mid-18th century. The empire created a powerful army and navy and even held several expeditions around Gaia, including one of the first expeditions to the South Pole. Dulebia fought in a number of conflicts against its neighbours during the 19th century, most notably against the Cornicae in Domovinya and Krumlau in the northern Riliva.
During the Continental War, the Dulebian empire aligned with Hytekojuznia, Arlyon and Hallania in an attempt to occupy a bigger portion of Krumlau and completely destroy the Cornicae. After facing enormous losses and a series of defeats on the Krumlauvian theatre, Dulebia experienced instability and an armed revolution which became known as the January Revolution, which eventually led to the Dulebian Civil War and the establishment of the Dulebian Federative Socialist Republic under Viktor Shchyukin. Dulebia left the Continental war in August 1914 defeated and signed the Ulich peace treaty with Krumlau separately from the Treaty of Lehpold, which the new government never officially signed.
After the end of the civil war, the People's Republic of Dulebia was established after a series of internal conflicts in 1920. The new socialist state experienced a number of reforms and purges, after which it was quickly militarised, its industry was focused on producing military equipment for both Dulebia itself and other rising socialist sates. The Dulebian Communist patry announced the Perekovka (dul.-reforge), an attempt to organize and arm left revolutionaries and workers in other countries. In particular, the Dulebian state supported the Proletarian Republic of Mascylla during the Mascyllary Revolution, it also helped the Domoviniyan Revolutionaries in Cornicae in the late 1920s' and 1930s'. The country became one of the major arms exporters under the socialist regime, underwent a major restructuration and a big repression campaign under Konev and later Cherchesov, and a major urbanisation in the 1940s'. In 1951, it initiated a war against Krumlau in a desparate attempt to regain control over the resource-reach area around Vishnevsk, in which it initially succeeded.
The communist regime experienced a period of stagnation and later decay since 1972, and in 1990 fell. The country experienced the 90-day war of 1990. It was ruled by the right PNS (Party of National Salvation, dul. Партия Национального Спасения, tr. Partiya Natsional'nogo Spaseniya) for 3 years. In 1993 a series of events caused the orange revolution now known as the Maydan, which caused the government to resign. On the next elections, the Dulebian Socialist party, consisting mostly of old Communist party members, won the elections and holds power to this day.
Dulebia's economy ranks as the 9th largest by nominal GDP and 8th largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Dulebia is a major importer of copper, iron and aluminium, while focusing on fossil fuel, electricity and arms exports. The country is one of the recognized nuclear power users and possesses 8 nuclear powerplants, and as of 2019 it is the only nuclear powerplant possessor in Pomria and the second biggest renewable energy producer in Erdara, as well as the 4th in the world. The country is highly industrialized, however is crippled by corruption, placing itself last in the Gaian Corruption Perceptions Index in Cardia and Erdara and 11th in the Democracy index.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Prehistory and Antiquity
- 2.2 Late Antiquity and Dark Ages
- 2.3 Principality of Ulich
- 2.4 Dulebian Kingdom
- 2.5 Dulebian Empire
- 2.6 People's Republic of Dulebia
- 2.7 Dulebian Republic
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demograpics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
The name Dulebia originates from the name of the ancient tribes that invaded the Mursk Plateau and later the Central Dulebian Plain between the 6th century BC and the 2nd century CE. The name of the tribes themselves has three possible etymologies, all of which are currently recognised by the Dulebian scientific society:
- The Hesurian word deud(a)-laibaz, translating as national heritage (dul. Национальное наследие). This etymology is often critisized, as Hesurian experts point out that this word would be pronounced as tjudlebi (dul. Чулебы) in Dulebian.
- Another possibility is the Hesurian word dudl-eiba, meaning dawdle, delay (dul. Волынить). This etymology has the most supporters, as records say that a Dulebian fortress was documented by Hesurians as Dudl-eiba as early as in the 2nd century CE, a fortress that is currently known as the city of Volynsk (dul. Волынск)
- The third possibility is the Hesurian daud-laiba, meaning heritage of the dead. It was offered by Professor Simeon Korneyev, Soviet historian and linguist, in 1961, and was the official etymology until the dissolution of the People's Republic in 1990.
Prehistory and Antiquity
Late Antiquity and Dark Ages
Principality of Ulich
January Revolution and the Dulebian Civil War
People's Republic of Dulebia
Dulebia occupies a portion of the northeastern Cardia and southwestern Erdara, on the border between the two regions, bordering four countries—Brilliania to the southwest, Oseva to the south, and Krumlau and Hytekia to the north. The land borders have a total length of 3,784 kilometres (2,351.2 mi), and the coastline has a length of 821 kilometres (510.1 mi). Its total area of IDK square kilometres (IDK sq mi) ranks it as the world's Nth-largest country. The most notable topographical features are the Dnistrian Plain, the Riliva Mountains, the Central Dulebian Plain, and the Hajduski Mountains. The river Dnistr runs through the middle of the country, marking the border between Erdara and Cardia. Dnistr is the longest river in Dulebian and is located mostly on its territory.
The Riliva mountains are located in the northern part of the country, on the borders with Krumlau. The mountainous southeast has one distinct alpine range—Hajduski, which are separated by the river Dnistr from the higher and less extensive Riliva Mountains to the North. Skoparnik, at 2,216 metres (7,270 ft), is the highest point in Dulebia, and the Karsk sea coast is the country's lowest point. Plains occupy about two-thirds of the territory, while plateaux and hills occupy 21%. Most rivers are short and with low water levels.
Considering its small area, Dulebia has variable and complex climate. The country occupies the southernmost part of the continental climatic zone, with areas in the west falling within the Karsk climatic zone, while in some southwestern and southeastern zones forests evolve into steppes. The continental zone is predominant because continental air masses flow easily into the unobstructed Dnistrian and Central Dulebian Plains. The continental influence, stronger during the winter, produces abundant snowfall; the White influence increases during the second half of summer and produces warm and dry weather. Dulebia is subdivided into five climatic zones: continental zone (Dnistrian and Central Dulebian Plains and the Mursk Plateau); transitional zone (Pokrovsk Plateau, most of the Bratsk Plateau, the lower Sub-Riliva valleys); continental-Mediterranean zone (Spassovsk valley); Karsk Sea zone along the coastline with an average length of 20–40 km inland; and alpine zone in the mountains above 1000 m altitude (central Hajdushki Mountains, Riliva and Verhoyansk Mountain Plateau.).
Despite the large distance, the most important climate-forming factor is the White sea through the atmospheric circulation of a cyclone and an anticyclone in its northeastern and eastern waters, which bring cool and rainy weather in summer and relatively mild weather with abundant snowfall in winter. The influence of the Karsk Sea is strongest in the southwestern parts of Dulebia, mainly through the Karsk cyclones. The Riliva and Verhoyansk mountains isolate the country from the hot areas to the east, while the Haydushki block the way for rainclouds to Oseva to the south.
Another important factor is the relief. The Dulebian mountains and valleys act as barriers or channels for air masses coming from the north and east, causing sharp contrasts in weather over relatively short distances. The Riliva Mountains form a barrier which effectively stops the cool air masses coming from the north and the warm masses from the south, while the Verhoyansk mountains also block the movement of hoter air masses from east to west and Karsk masses from west to east. The barrier effect of the Riliva Mountains is felt throughout the country: on the average, northern Dulebia is about one degree cooler and receives about 192 mm more rain than southern Dulebia.
The mean annual temperature in Dulebia is 11.1 °C and varies from −2.2 °C at the nation's highest peak Skoparnik to 13.9 °C at the cities of Spassovsk and Chervontsy in the southwestern Dnistrian valleys. The average temperature in the Dnistrian Plain is 11.4 °C, in the Mursk Plateau – 9.9 °C, in the lower mountains – 8.1 °C and in the higher mountains – 2.4 °C. The highest absolute temperature was measured at the town of Listvyanki in 1943 – 46.4 °C; the lowest absolute temperature was measured at the town of Vrana in 1954 – –35.3 °C. The highest temperature in the lowlands and the hilly regions is in June, while in the higher mountains the warmest month is August. The lowest temperature is measured in January and February, respectively. Many valleys experience regular temperature inversions and fogs in winter. The country's lowest absolute temperature was measured during inversion in the western Dnistrian valley.
The average precipitation in Dulebia is about 720 mm. It is uneven in terms of seasons and territory. In northern Dulebia, the highest precipitation is in winter, while in southern Dulebia it is in May-June. The average amount of precipitation also varies in term of altitude – from 350–850 mm in the plains to 850–1400 mm. The lowest mean precipitation is in the southwestern Dnistrian valley and the Mursk Plateau (350 mm) and in the area around the town Murovanka (500 mm); the highest rainfall falls in the mountains – the Petrohan Pass in the eastern Hajduški Mountains and Andreevo Pass in the Riliva Mountains. The highest annual rainfall was measured in 1975 in the upper valley of the river Peshterska in the eastern Riliva Mountains (2431 mm); the highest daily rainfall was recorded in Chervontsy in the Karsk sea (342 mm) in 1915. The total annual amount of the rainfall is 318 billion km3; of them, 70% evaporates, 20% flow into the rivers and 10% soak into the soil. Most of the country is affected by droughts in June and August. The snow cover lasts from 20–30 days in the lowlands to 9 months in the highest mountains
|Climate data for Dulebia (records from all meteo stations)|
|Record high °C (°F)||29.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−35.3
From northwest to southeast the country is clad sequentially in coniferous forests (taiga), mixed and broad-leaf forests, grasslands (steppe), and dry arid semi-desert (the eastern Verkhoyansk Plateau), as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Dulebia has one of the biggest forest reserves in the area.
The interaction of climatic, hydrological, geological and topographical conditions has produced a relatively wide variety of plant and animal species. Dulebia's biodiversity is one of the richest in Erdara. It is conserved in six national parks, 15 nature parks, 10 biosphere reserves and 565 protected areas. Overall, 56,493 plant and animal species are present. Larger mammals with sizable populations include deer, wild boars, jackals, brown bears and foxes. A third of all nesting birds in Dulebia can be found in Lozenets National Park, which also hosts Arctic and alpine species at high altitudes. More than 37% of the land area is covered by forests. A total of 107 animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of Dulebia as of 1997 and are now protected. Dulebia is home to six recognised world heriateg sites.
Dulebia is raked high in the Gaian Environmental Performance Index, but scores last in Erdara in air quality, with particulate leves in the eastern part of the country being the highest in the region. Air pollution is caused by the huge number of outdated powerplants and factories, many of which lack even basic filters. Due to its geographic location, locked by mountains from three sides, and affected by a number of coal mines, factories, powerplants and automobiles, the city of Vishnevsk is notorious for being the most polluted city in the region, and poses a threat to the ecosystem of the Riliva mountains, both in Dulebia and in Krumlau.
The Dulebian military is divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force. There are also two independent arms of service: Strategic Missile Defence Force, and the Airborne Troops. As of 2017, the military comprised over 76,000 active-duty personnel, the nth largest in the world. Additionally, there are over 185,000 reservists, with the total number of reserve troops possibly being as high as 1 million. It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 20–32 to be drafted for a year or two of service in Armed Forces.
Dulebia's tank force is one of the smallest in Erdara, consisting only of 320 vehicles. It is worth to mention, however, that the tanks operated by Dulebia are one of the most expensive in Gaia, and also are often named one of the best in the world. The country is also capable of producing different types of armoured vehicles, like APC's, IFV's, and its automotive industry erected a large variety of light combat vehicles, ranging from simple light mobility vehicles and up to heavy wheeled tank destroyers.
The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported. It has been one of the world's top suppliers of aircraft since 2001, accounting for around 30% of worldwide combat aircraft and exporting them to about x countries. Domestically produced aircraft have proved to be one of the leading designs in Gaia and were used with significant success during the WAR WITH KRUMLAU, scoring an impressive amount of air kills.
The Dulebian government's official 2014 military budget is about Ћ53.08 billion (approximately US$23.80 billion), the nth largest in the world. The official budget is set to decrease to Ћ46.6 billion (approximately US$20.9 billion) by 2025. As of 2018, Dulebian military budget is lower than any other Erdaran nation.
The Dulebian Ground Forces form the biggest branch of the Armed Forces, consisting of 55% of the forces' conscript force. The army uses an indigenous conscription system, where the conscripts are called for 12 months, after the end of their duty are asked whether they wish to stay in the army for one more term of 12 months or to join the army as regular soldiers with a labour contract.
The army itself differs from the armed forces of Dulebian neighbours greatly: it doesn't rely on its numbers, instead using a wide variety of light combat vehicles and a doctrine based on outmanoeuvring its opponents, as well as hit-and-run tactics. The army has a small pool of tanks, consisting of 320 vehicles, with most of them being modernized versions of the Jaguar 3. The army operates its separate air wings of attack and utility helicopters aside from the Air force.
In terms of military doctrine, the Dulebian army is preparing only for defensive warfare against its potential enemy. Dulebian doctrine calls for fast and swift manoeuvre warfare, often on its own territory, with the usage of close air support and a limited number of troops, as well as various hit-and-run tactics. Dulebian High Command focuses on maintaining a small pool of combat vehicles that at the same time have high survivability. In recent years Dulebian officials decided to cut the military budget and the army size, instead focusing on international aid and vehicle and equipment export.
Dulebian High Command highly relies on its special early response unit: the Guards mechanized divisions. Their size is around 3 divisions, and they are integrated into the army command structure, however, they're meant to be mobilized at every moment, and can respond to any attack in a matter of 24 hours. While the Guards are not classified as ˝elite˝ by the Dulebian Command, they receive higher payments than regular soldiers, have an advanced combat training program, and often receive the most advanced equipment erected by the Dulebian arms industry or obtained from abroad. The Guards are the first frontier of defence of Dulebia and are tasked to hold the line against an advancing enemy, giving time for the main forces to mobilize.
Dulebia possesses a small fleet consisting of 58 combat vessels, including two light aircraft carriers purchased from IDK in 1992. The fleets' main task is to protect the territorial waters of Dulebia and to support international peacekeeping operations. The two aircraft carriers are also tasked to perform ground forces support in case of armed conflict on the territory of Dulebia. Most of the vessels are purchased from abroad, however, in recent years the Dulebian government initiated a program to construct the first modern destroyer in Dulebia. Dulebia also possesses 8 diesel submarines, Class 841, purchased from IDK in the '90s. On par with the main fleet, Dulebia sustains two flotillas protecting its territorial waters in the Karsk sea, as well as several small river flotillas. While the fleet is relatively small for the region, it operates pretty modern or modernized vessels for the most part. Ship construction and maintenance capabilities of Dulebia, however, are fairly limited, and the country needs foreign specialists to keep its navy afloat.
Dulebian also has several brigades of heavy naval infantry and anti-ship air squadrons, used mostly for anti-insurgency and counter-piracy operations across Gaian waters.
While both its navy and army are relatively small for the region, Dulebia operates one the largest air forces in Erdara and fields the largest number of units in the region, boasting 198 combat aircraft, ranging from light training fighters through 5th generation combat fighters and even two strategic bombers. The air force itself is one of the oldest in Gaia, it was formed in 1902 as a part of the railway troops, and consisted of six air balloons and three aircraft. The air force actively fought during the Continental war, performing the first aerial bombing mission in 1913, and was heavily supplied with foreign equipment during the socialist times. During the '20s and '30s the air industry in Dulebia grew rapidly and became a dominant sector of the country's economy. During the '60s Dulebia even designed and its own intercontinental bomber, but managed to build only 2 aircraft, operated by the air force until today.
The modern Dulebian air force is tasked to protect the airspace of the nation, to engage hostiles in its zone of control, and to perform anti-insurgency and counter-piracy activities in the Karsk sea. The air force is also tasked with various search-and-rescue operations and aerial patrols against immigrants above the Karsk sea.
The highly developed air industry of the country is sufficient enough to produce and maintain all the required equipment for a powerful air force and can even export its products abroad. The air branch itself is the only one in the armed forces of the country that did not suffer from the budget cut-offs, instead the budget of the air force is constantly rising to keep it potent.
Dulebia also fields several battalions of airborne troops, altho they act as a separate branch of the armed forces.
Dulebia has an upper-middle income mixed economy. The country is particularly rich in natural gas and coal and has notable amounts of oil. The geographical and geopolitical location of the country also benefits its economy greatly. It has the 9th largest economy in Gaia by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Since the fall of the socialist regime, the instability in the 1990s and the troublesome early 2000s, higher domestic consumption and growing political stability have bolstered economic growth in Dulebia. Still, even today the economic growth of the state is highly dependant on fossil fuel price. Compared to 1993, Dulebia's GDP per capita has experienced an almost 193%, rising from 7,180$ in 1993 to 20,993$. Dulebia's economy experienced a significant boom in the period between 2003 and 2009, mostly fueled up by rising oil and natural gas prices, with the annual economic growth reaching 21% in 2007, considered a peak year. Since 2009, with prices on energy carriers lowering significantly, Dulebian economic growth slowed, stabilizing at 3% annual growth in 2015. Currently, the country experiences another, a lot smaller economic boom, with the annual growth in 2017 set at 4%, rising to 6% and 7.2% in 2018 and 2019, respectively, and with an expected growth of 8.9% in 2020. The current growth is primarily driven by exports of machinery, energy and fossil fuels, as well as the rising domestic market. The average salary in Dulebia has experienced a similarly rapid growth in the past 30 years. Just after the collapse of the People's Republic of Dulebia and during the financial crisis of 1991-1993, the average salary was set at 284$, the lowest in the region. By 2018, the official average salary is estimated at 951$, the minimal wage is 385.75$. The Dulebian government has set a living wage for its citizens at 211.50$, the minimal amount of money a Dulebian should earn to keep himself healthy and with decent working capacity. While according to national law every citizen must earn no less than the minimum wage, reports from numerous villages across the country suggest that at least 5.2% of the population earns less than the living wage. Officially, 11.2% of the Dulebians in working capacity age were living below the poverty line, while in total 18,7% of all citizens were living in poverty as of 2009. The Dulebian government since reported decrease by 7.3%, although it is worth mentioning that in 2016 the poverty line was decreased from 275.14$ to the living wage minimum, and further to 199.4$ in 2017. Official unemployment in Dulebia stands at 4.3%. Gosstat states that 36.5% of the working population has more than one full-time workplace. The middle class in Dulebia is fairly smaller than the one of its neighbours, at 8.9%. It is growing ever since 2017 with a stable rate of 0.6% annually. The economic development of the country has been uneven historically and geographically. The industrialization of the country began in late 18th and early 19th century, however, it affected only its western part during the Dulebian Empire, while the country's east was not densely populated, and focusing in agriculture. Most societies in the eastern part of the country were considered agrarian up until the early 20th century. The rapid industrialization was mostly aimed at forming a manufacturing force in the east while transferring agriculture to the wealthier west and using it as the face of the country on the international arena. The result is that today the east is almost exclusively focused on mining and manufacturing, while the west is focused on trade, agriculture and to a lesser extent on manufacturing. Ulich is the financial heart of the country and contributes greatly to its GDP. At more than 7 million inhabitants, Ulich is the biggest city in Dulebia and one of the biggest in Erdara, and a world city and economic hub.
Inequality of household income and wealth is a major problem in the country. Dulebia is ranked relatively low by the Gini index compared to its Erdaran neighbours, with a stable increase of inequality. Another problem is the modernisation of infrastructure, especially in the eastern areas of the country. While the government has put massive invests in the modernisation of the manufacturing industry in the west of Dulebia, the east still relies on outdated equipment, some of which produced in the 1960s. Dulebia ranks as the most corrupt country in Erdara, according to the Corruption Perceptions Index. Corruption in Dulebia is perceived as a significant problem impacting all aspects of life, including public administration, law enforcement, healthcare and education.
Dulebian economy focuses heavily on fossil fuel extraction and processing, production and export of electricity, automotive, heavy, aeronautical and electrotechnical industries, chemical and woodwork industries, light industry and tourism. Energy carrier exports count for 39.5% of the country's GDP, forming the biggest sector of its economy.
Dulebia has developed automotive industry, with three big manufacturers exporting vehicles worth $54 billion annually. The country has one of the most developed aeronautics and space industry, exporting the biggest amount of passenger aircraft in Gaia, the third-biggest amount of military aircraft, and being the fourth-biggest supplier of spaceship parts, holding the leadership in liquid-fuel rocket engines. Dulebia possesses the biggest factory in Erdara producing and processing liquid oxygen-based rocket fuel.
Resource export is a focus industry for the country. Dulebia has one of the best-developed gas transition pipeline networks in Gaia. Apart from gas and oil, coal, lignite, steel, and lead form the biggest sectors of the mining industry. Dulebia also produces and exports chemicals, focusing on pharmaceuticals, household chemicals, paint and synthetic fibre.
Dulebia is an associate partner of the Erdaran Union since 2004. Between 1996 and 2002, Dulebia acted as an observer state, but since opening its economy it experienced general warming of relations with its northern neighbours. Dulebia signed the 2008 Ulich Treaty with Erdaran Union member states, giving it certain privileges on the Erdaran single market. Still, corruption does not allow Dulebia to become a full member of the Union. The Erdaran Union is currently the most important trade partner of the country, receiving more than half of its exports, especially in the energetic export.
Dulebia has historically been in warm relations with Hytekia, the latter relying on Dulebia's nature gas imports. Even since the fall of the socialist regime in Dulebia, the two countries struggled to keep their trade partnerships with each other. Hytekia is the second-biggest export market for Dulebia, and is placed third by the size of imports into the country.
The Dulebian national currency is the Chervonets (dul. червонец, symb. Ћ). It is regulated and controlled by the Tsentrobank (dul Центробанк), the central bank of the country, situated in Ulich. Since 2015, in an attempt to fight growing inflation, the currency was set in free float, pegged again in 2019 after the central bank naming the initiative "unsuccessful".
Dulebia is the 6th largest electricity producer in Gaia and the 4th largest renewable energy producer, the latter because of the well-developed hydroelectricity and thermal electricity production in the country. Large cascades of hydropower plants are built in along river Dnistr. Its central area is rich on thermal sites, and while most of them are used for recreation activities, some of the major ones are also used to produce electricity, placing Dulebia on the 4th place in Gaia in the list of thermal energy producers. The Gorlovka Basin and the southern Mursk Plateau are rich on natural gas, which the country actively exports to Erdara and Cardia.
Dulebia was the first country in the Cardia to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct Cardia's first nuclear power plant. Currently, the country is the 3rd largest nuclear energy producer, with all nuclear power in Dulebia being managed by EnergoAtom State Corporation. The sector is rapidly developing, with the aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current 21.9% to 30% by 2035. The Dulebian government plans to allocate Ћ88 billion ($35.87 billion) to a state program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About Ћ96 million ($42.7 billion) was allocated from the state budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015.
As of April 2019, Dulebia possesses 8 nuclear power plants, 11 hydropower plants, 4 thermal power plants, 15 coal power plants, 7 oil powerplants, 3 photovoltaic power stations and 2 wind farms. In addition, the government plans the reconstruction of 5 artificial lakes to hydropower stations until 2030, for which Ћ67.9 billion ($30.2) were invested from the budget for the next 5 years.
Dulebia also plans the construction of 2 new nuclear powerplants near Spassovsk and Komsomol'sk-na-Ugre together with specialists from Erdara. The planned power outcome of the stations is placed at 852 MW and 570 MW, respectively, and will supply the TBN sea coast with additional power that is often in shortage in the tourist season. Around 15% of the electricity produced at the new plants is planned to be exported. The construction is planned to begin in 2028, and the annual prize will be around $2.9 billion and $2.5 billion respectively, 78% of which will come from the state budget. Dulebia plans to make energetic deals with its Erdaran Union partners in the next 6 years.
Renewable energy use, state programs and initiatives
Dulebia is a member of the Erdaran energetic union since 2004. In October 2005, Dulebian president Alexey Volodin signed the Erdaran 2030 program, according to which the share of renewable energy sources of every member country must reach 50% by 2030. Dulebia has been rapidly developing the renewable energy sector in the late 2000s' and 2010s', and reached its targeted 40% in 2016. Currently the country is the 4th largest renewable energy producer, and widely exports it abroad, while non-renewable energy is mostly used domestically.
The Dulebian government created a number of state programs in the early 2010s' to support the construction of new renewable energy powerplants both by domestic and foreign companies. The 2016 Treaty of Chervontsy allowed foreign companies to construct, maintain and operate green powerplants within the country tax-free for the first 3 years of operation, with the Dulebian government subsising the construction. Foreign-constructed green powerplants can be operated completely by foreign companies and are not required to hire Dulebian specialists (although companies that hire Dulebians are freed from taxes for the first 5 years of operation rather than 3).
Since Dulebia is a major electricity exporter, the government has set a goal to reach 75% of renewable energy sources by 2040, while additionally increase the power output of the country to 311 TWh according to the 2040 Program.
With a gross total energy production of 215 TWh, Dulebia's total consumption in 2018 was 161.25 TWh, or 75% of the energy production. Of those 41% is consumed by the country's industry, 28% by households, 21% by traffic, and the other 10% by minor consumers.
Natural resources and agriculture
Dulebia holds one of the greatest reserves of mineral resources in the region. While some are easy to access, Dulebia's gas reserves are situated in swamp areas making them rather expensive to mine. The country is most abundant in mineral fuels. The most developed fields lie in the northern part of the country, in the Gorlovets Basin, and in eastern Riliva mountains, especially around the city of Vishnevsk. Smaller deposits are found throughout the country, most notably in the western Riliva, the Haydushki mountains, the Verkhoyansk Plateau and around the city of Volynsk. Significant oil reserves are found in the Dravichi Gulf. Scientists claim that the Karsk sea holds a significant amount of oil and potentially gas, however those deposits are only yet to be investigated. Natural gas, a resource of which Dulebia holds around eight percent of the world's reserves, can be found in the swamps of the Gorlovets basin and southern Mursk Plateau. Major coal deposits are located in eastern Riliva around the city of Vishnevsk, with some smaller deposits found around the city of Strumyan in southern Dulebia. Southern Dulebia also holds the country's biggest iron-ore reserves, and the only tin ore reserve in the area. Western Dulebia, while being relatively flat, still has some reserves of graphite, sulfur, asbestos, magnesite, and granite. Minor polimetallic ore reserves can be found in the Riliva mountains and in central and western Dulebia.
The Karsk sea coast is rich on raw materials such as potassium salts and halite, chalk, and holds minor reserves of phosphorites mostly situated on the Ohotsk islands.
Dulebia has the biggest percentage of farmable lands in Erdara, with 42% of the land used for crop farming and cultivation, 18% are used for cattle breeding and 37% are covered by woods, with the rest of the land used for other purposes. The country is one of the biggest wheat exporters in the region, benefiting from the vast amounts of chernozem in the central part of the country, mainly on the Central Dulebian and Volynsk Plains as well as on the Mursk Plateau. The state's agriculture is government-supported with credit policies, and forms 5% of the total GDP. Dulebia's main focus is crop production, as well as industrial crops (mostly cheap maltz and tobacco) and viticulture. The country's cattle breeding potential is very underutilized, forcing it to import meat products like pork and beef, mostly from its Erdaran trade partners. Forests cover a significant portion of the country, placing it realitevy high compared to its neighbours, and Dulebia is a major forestry products exporter in the region, focusing mostly on paper, chemicals and furniture production.
Due to its ownership of the Ohotsk and St. Gleb islands, Dulebia holds the biggest economic zone in the Karsk sea, controlling a solid portion of it. Thus Dulebia is a major sea product supplier for the region, especially for its southern Cardian neighbours and Krumlau. Both fish exports and imports are constantly rising in the past decade, reaching a total share of $965 million in 2019.
Erdaran countries are the biggest trade partners of Dulebia, where it exports 58% of its natural resourses and fuels, 59% of the produced food and 72% of the produced raw materials. The second-biggest trade partner is Hytekia, followed by Sekir, Brilliania and Domovinya.
Science and technology
First sights of technological development can be traced back to early antiquity. Ancient Rugian tribes were known for being excellent sailors. The first public libraries and schools were built during the Ragucin reign, but their real development was during the Golden Age of the Ulich culture in the 9th century. It is documented that Dulebian warships used liquid fire since the 9th century CE and as late as the 14th, when it was surpassed by cannons, and its receipt vanished from Dulebian records.
Science and technology in Dulebia blossomed since the Dulebian industrial and cultural revolution at the end of the 18th century, after the formation of the Dulebian Empire. The first university was opened in Ulich in 1798. In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of notable scientists and inventors.
The Dulebian physics school began with Teodosiy Kerchevskiy, known for his works on the steam engine and the first steam car, as well as heat-distribution and thermodynamics research. Dulebia played a major role in the development of the aircraft, with the aviation pioneer Andrey Efimov building the first flyable aircraft in 1901. Gun synchronizers for aircraft weapons were also pioneered by Efimov. Dulebian scientific researches played an important role in the development of the modern tank, while the Dulebian astrophysicist Nikolay Orlov is renowned for his scientific research on black holes and quasars. Vitaliy Korolyov, a renowned Dulebian engineer, is world-famous for his works on fluid-dynamic drag and fluid-dynamic lift. He also was the chief designer of various pioneering STOL aircraft designs in the '30s.
The Dulebian mathematics school was developed during the 17th century and focused mainly on non-Euclidean geometry and was heavily influenced by the Eastern Renaissance mathematicians. Dulebian scientist Stas Glinka is renowned for his development of the modern stability theory. In the 20th century Dulebian mathematicians, such as Boris Karachevskiy, Ivan Yusupov, and Sergey Zaytsev, made major contributions to various areas of mathematics.
Dulebian physicians like Kerchevskiy and Izmail Vitlyakovskiy are renowned for their works on the engineering thermodynamics and mechanics. Their researches practically gave birth to modern standardized engineering education and mechanics, their works are used in numerous universities worldwide. Kerchevskiy designed the first steam engine in Dulebia, and in 1854 he tested the first wheeled steam car in the country, that eventually would turn into the first Dulebian automobile. The most famous Dulebian biologist is Aleksandr Tsarskiy, known for his researches of bacteria in foods and the discovery of the Lactobacillus Dolebicus in the Dulebian yoghurt in 1904.
Perhaps the biggest number of inventions of Dulebias were made in the aeronautics industry. The pioneer Andrey Efimov has designed and built the first aircraft in Erdara in 1901, he also designed the gun synchronization in 1908, effectively creating the modern dogfight concept. The Dulebian scientist Iosif Ivolzhskiy is known as the inventor of the jet engine; he also constructed the first jet-propelled aircraft in 1937. His works would later lead to the construction of the first jet fighter in history, the Konev-Ivolzhskiy KIR-1, in 1942. Dulebian scientist Igor Chernyshevskiy gave a major boost in the development of helicopters. He is the pioneer of the autogyro aircraft in the 1910s and 1920s and created a series of successful prototypes, some of which were later used in the Dulebian air force. Dulebia was the first country to pioneer the carbon fibre and other composites in aircraft manufacture, leading to the creation of a series of modern aircraft designs such as the C818 and the C878 passenger jets, and the E-24 fighters. Dulebian pioneers, inspired by the flying boat designs of the early 20th century, invented the ekranoplan semi-aircraft concept that was actively used by the Dulebian navy in the late 70s and early 80s to guard its territorial waters in the TBN sea.
Famous Dulebian battle tanks include T-26, one of the most heavily produced tank designs after the Continental war, and the famous Jaguar series of main battle tanks, produced until today, which are one of the most mass-produced armoured fighting vehicles throughout Erdara. Dulebia was the pioneer in the oscillating turret and early tank autoloader designs, creating some of the oldest battle tank autoloaders in history on the successful Moskit light tank series.
The crisis of the late 80s and 90s left Dulebia in a situation where it often lacked money to fund the scientific industry. The economic and privatization reforms of the 90s even worsened the situation. Today Dulebia remains a pretty advanced economy, with one of the most potent aeronautics and defence industrial capabilities, but is often pulled down by internal instability and corruption.
Currently, Dulebia is working on it's Joint Unit Command and Navigation (GloVNaS) system that will integrate all the Dulebian forces into a singular command mechanism. The country is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter and constructing the biggest twin-engine passenger aircraft in the world.
The location at the junction between Erdara and Cardia gives Dulebia a major position in the transport system of the two regions. Dulebian road system runs from north to south for the most part, while the east-west roads are only secondary and arterial ones.
Road freight and passenger transport constitute the largest part of transport in Dulebian at 47%. First-class roads are separated into tolled highways, regional highways, and arterials. Personal cars are much more popular than public road passenger transport, which has significantly declined. Dulebia has a very high highway and motorway density compared to the Cardia average. The highway system, the construction of which was accelerated after 1968, has slowly but steadily transformed Dulebia into a large conurbation. Other state roads have been rapidly deteriorating because of neglect and the overall increase in traffic. Dulebia has developed a toll system that has sometimes been criticized for its high prices. It covers all of the Dulebian roads.
The existing Dulebian railways are out-of-date and can't compete with the motorway network. Due to this fact and the projected increase in traffic through the port of Kamianets, which is primarily transported by train, a second rail on the Dravichi-Kamianets-Spassovsk route is in the early stages of starting construction. It will connect all the Karsk shore cities of the country. With a lack of financial assets, maintenance and modernisation of the Dulebian railway network have been neglected. Due to the out-of-date infrastructure, the share of railway freight transport has been in decline in Dulebia. The railway passenger transport has been recovering after a large drop in the 1990s. The only developed rail lines are the Kamianets-Ulich-Pokrovsk-Vishnevsk fast train that is in private property. The government plans to increase the number of fast train lines by 2030 and to increase rail finance, yet for now, the rail network of Dulebia is in relatively poor condition.
The major Dulebian ports are the Ports of Kamianets and Dravichi. Kamianets is the largest Karsk sea port in terms of container transport, with almost 690,000 TEUs annually and lines to all major world ports. In addition, the maritime passenger traffic mostly takes place in Dravichi and the island port of Chervontsy. Two smaller ports used for international passenger transport as well as cargo transport are located in Spassovsk and Sinemorets. Passenger transport mainly takes place with Brilliania and Hytekia.
Air transport in Dulebia is one of the heaviest in the region, and has significantly grown since 1980. The country operates 16 international airports, placing itself in the leading positions in Gaia in terms of air transport. The state-owned Skytrain is the largest Dulebian airline. Besides from that, there are also several low-cost, regional and charter airlines, including Mura Aero, Globus, and Meridian Holidays. Skytrain is one of the biggest airlines in Gaia in terms of passenger traffic, and the biggest and most prestigious airline of Erdara. Due to the highly developed industry, all Dulebian airlines operate mostly domestically-built aircraft.
Even during the socialist times, Dulebia was fairly liberal and open for foreign tourists from the other side of the Iron Curtain. Unlike most other communist states, Dulebia had a very simplified visa acquirement process, and Karsk sea resorts were opened for international tourists in specialized hotels and sanatoriums where Dulebian citizens were not allowed. The cities and towns on the Karsk sea coast had high percentage of their population speak two or even three languages decently, mostly Hesurian, Lavarian and Arlyonish. Since the fall of the iron curtain tourism was constantly growing, interest in the country fueled up by numerous treaties by the government to remove tourist visas for a number of countries.
Tourism in Dulebia is fueled by the rich cultural heritage and great natural variety of the country. The oldest historical sights in the country are older than 40 centuries. Tourists are attracted by numerous antique and Hesurian temples, medieval kremlins and churches, classical architecture, sea and mountain resorts. Dulebia is one of the most visited countries in Cardia. Tourism counts for 11.1% of the country's GDP and is one of the strategic sectors of the Dulebian economy. Dulebia has a rather simplified visa acquirement process, where foreigners can get a one-month tourist visa only for additional payment and a small amount of paperwork which can be done at home rather than in embassies. Dulebia has also cancelled the visas for citizens of the Erdaran Union and Hytekia.
The most visited destinations in Dulebia are Ulich and Kamianets, the former and current capitals of the country, and the two biggest cities, and the only world cities in the country. Ulich, the country's capital, is also one of the oldest and biggest cities in the region. Rich palaces and parks are found in the former imperial residences in its suburbs. The city is also famous for its huge gardens, former imperial parks, built along the river Dnistr. Kamianets is often nicknamed the Gate to Erdara. The city is one of the oldest settlements in Dulebia, the biggest commercial port of the country, and it was the biggest town and a major port in the region during the Ragucin Empire, and served as the capital of the Dulebian Empire between the 17th and the 19th century. With a rich history, boasting a huge number of classical architecture, many rivers, bridges, and a rare example of classical medieval city architecture in Dulebia, located in its Old town, as well as the Kremlin, the city of Konopol is the third most-visited and famous city in the country. Volynsk, situated on the biggest plain in the country, is known as the City of the Churches. It has more than 42 churches and other temples, both Ditanist and Marist, the biggest Ditanist church complex in Dulebia and the biggest Marist school in the country. Dravichi is the city with the biggest number of Dulebian classicism, Baroque and Rococo architecture in the country. Its development was heavily influenced by neighbouring Hytekia. The cities of Pokrovsk and Vishnevsk in the eastern part of the country are examples of the socialist architecture and citybuilding scholarships of the 20th century. Both situated in resource-rich areas, they experienced rapid development during the communist era, and especially Pokrovsk is currently famous as the modernist, avant-garde and brutalist capital of the country, with its Palace of Culture being the biggest brutalist structure in Erdara.
The Karsk sea is warmed during the summer from ocean currents, making its coast a site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Spassovsk or Kercha, Dravichi and Chervontsy. The Ohotsk and St. Gleb islands are popular among tourists because of their warm climate, wine and ancient architecture. The northern islands of the Ohotsk archipelago are mostly closed for tourists as military bases, however, part of them is accessable for civilians, most notably the Denuclarisation monument on South Buryan island. The Haydushki mountains in the south contain popular ski resorts such as Lozenets. Famous natural destinations in Dulebia include the Ulyanovo and Gorlovets swamps, Madara stone columns, the lakes of Pip peak in Riliva, and eco-roads in the taiga forests of northern Dulebia. Other popular natural destinations include cruises in the Dnistr river, the famous Ulich Metro, 18th and 19th century churches in Zhdanovo and Nizhnyaya Sloboda, and the victory monument in Vishnevsk.
In the recent years, a number of cruises started to appear in the Karsk sea. While some are held as ordinary cruises on large luxurious passenger ships, there are also a number of excusrions offering access to old Dulebian nuclear arsenal test sights on the two northern Ohotsk islands. Such cruises are strictly controlled by Dulebian navy personnel, and in some spots tourists are even required to wear protective suits. The cruise also offers diving to the submarine DPK S-551 Skat submarine, which sank in 1951 after hitting an old mine. Apart from cruises exclusively between Dulebian ports, there are also lines between Dulebian, Brillianian and Hytek Karsk sea ports.
Gastronomic tourism is also very popular in Dulebia, mainly because of the wine and spirits industry of the country. Gastronomic tours are very popular in the northwestern part of the country, where most of the Dulebian premium grape sorts can be found, especially in the Karsk sea, around the city of Chervontsy, the wine capital of the country. The gastronomic tourism is rapidly growing since the 2000s, and numerous agencies specializing in it opened their offices in Dulebia in the last decade.
Ever since the dissolution of the People's Republic, Dulebia is plagued by curription, "shadow economy", organised crime covered by government officials, controversial deals, government-controlled monopolies, money laundering and recketing. According to international specialists, in 2018 money worth of one third of the total Dulebian GDP were held in offshore bank accounts of government officials. Government officials of all ranks are often caught on corruption, with the most famous case happening in august 2017, when property worth of eleven billion was found in Dulebia and several other countries, all being possessed by the wife of the finance minister Andrey Skvortsov. Only a week earlier, on an economic summit with Erdaran partners in Kamianets Skvortsov declared that the Dulebian budget is struggling to pay even the current pensions to its citizens. The resulting scandal caused several big protests in Ulich and other big cities, however, both Skvortsov and the president Volodin declined the information, leaving Skvortsov on his post.
Specialists point out that organised crime is for the most part state-controlled. There are cases when companies were forced to pay for "protection" by the law enforcement agencies like the MGB. The state created an indigenous system of laws that allow it to perform monopoly, oppress the opposition and control whole sectors of the economy. A good example is the "Counteraction to foreign agents" law pack accepted in 2015, that, in particular, allows the government to perform protectionist policies in any sector it desires, close mass media agencies, limit the funding from abroad for politicians, and establish monopolies in any sector of the economy. The law is also viewed as discriminitive, as it limits the usage of minority languages, encourages the study of Dulebian over any other national language, and puts restrictions on foreign religion schools. Such policies result in pretty unstable economic situation within the country and lower the interest of foreign investors into the Dulebian economy. Research by Erdaran specialists points out that the country lost potential profit worth 35% of its GDP from foreign investments only in 2018 due to its poor economic policies and corruption.
According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Dulebia ranks last in both Erdara and Cardia. While protests against corruption appear more and more often in the recent years, their prosecution by the Dulebian authorities became more sophisticated. Political experts point out that in the past years the state tries to compromise the protesters and opposition politicians, manipulating public opinion, rather than trying to oppress them directly. Numerous reports were made that during protests professional provocators are hired by the government and infiltrated into the protesting crowds to be publically arrested afterwards to create an illusion of agressive protests both for the Dulebian citizens and for the people watching the protests from abroad. With the usage of propaganda, laws targeted against oppositionaries, and political oppression, the Dulebian officials keep lowering the tensions within the country in their attempt to stay at power.
All those factors in the end lower the quality of life in the country. Dulebia is ranked last in Erdara and second from the bottom in Cardia in standard of living. While the country produces vast amounts of natural gas and electricity, far more than it needs, it still has some of the highest electricity and heating prices even when compared to the wealthier Erdaran neighbours.
Largest cities or towns in Dulebia
|1||Ulich||Ulich city||7,285,000||11||Spassovsk||Primosrk Oblast||720,000|
|2||Kamianets||Kamianets Oblast||3,760,000||12||Moloha||Gorlovets Oblast||668,000|
|3||Pokrovsk||Pokrovsk Oblast||1,903,000||13||Preobrazhensk||Gorlovets Oblast||601,000|
|4||Volynsk||Volynsk Oblast||1,267,000||14||Ulyanovo||Pokrovsk Oblast||540,000|
|5||Vishnevsk||Vishnevsk Oblast||1,152,000||15||Lozenets||Balkarsk Oblast||512,000|
|6||Dravichi||Severokarsk Oblast||993,000||16||Kercha||Karsk Oblast||476,000|
|7||Konopol||Konopol Oblast||899,000||17||Novocherepovets||Primorsk Oblast||423,000|
|8||Chervontsy||Karsk Oblast||878,000||18||Vyshniy Vychok||Gorlovets Oblast||365,000|
|9||Strumyan||Balkarsk Oblast||790,000||19||Ahapsk||Gorlovets Oblast||312,000|
|10||Gorlovets||Gorlovets Oblast||726,000||20||Samarsk||Kamianets Oblast||287,000|
Dulebia has a rich sporting tradition. The most popular sport in the country is football. The first professional club was established in the country in 1906, the FC Zenit Kamianets, then known as FC Akademik. The Dulebian football league was created in 1926, after the Dulebian Civil War, and is remarked as the first professional football league in the Eastern bloc. The Dulebian national football team was first formed in 1911, but was dismissed by an order of Emperor Aleksandr III after the start of the Continental war. It was formed once again only in 1926 together with the Dulebian football league by an official order of the Narkom of Sports of People's Republic of Dulebia. The national football team of the PRD participated in most world cups after 1936, winning one trophy and eaching the final three times until the dissolution of the state in 1990. Since then, the football team has participated in 3 world cups, in 1992, 1996, and 2016, reaching the semifinals in 2016. The national team is currently experiencing a rather difficult period, having swapped 3 coaches in 2 months. On national level, Dulebia hosts the Dulebian First League tournament. The team with most trophies is Zenith Kamianets, while the current champion is CSKA Ulich and the holder of the Premier Cup is Spartak Ulich. Dulebia balloted as host 3 times in its history, in 1978 (when it won), in 1996, and in 2012. The country has hosted one world football championship in its history. Dulebian football clubs participate mostly in the Erdaran championship, rarely competing in against Cardian teams in the Cardian League.
Other popular sports in Dulebia are volleyball, basketball, biathlon, tennis and athletics. Dulebia holds the most gold medals in figure skating, and has one of the strongest volleyball teams in Erdara, holding 5 gold and 7 silver medals in that discipline. Dulebia holds 3 world records in biathlon and one world record in skiing, established by Stas Vechinskiy in 1978. Since 2007, Dulebia holds the annual Tour Dulebia between Kamianets, Spassovsk, Volynsk, Moloha and Dravichi, hovewer, it currently attracts only a small amount of foreign racers. The city of Lozenets is a popular winter sport destination, it hosted a number of smaller championships since the early 2000s'. Dulebia balloted for the 2014 winter olympics but was placed third. Since the 2016 elections and the appointment of a new sports minister, Vladimir Valerin, government spending on sports has risen by 28% and three new bases were built in Chervontsy and Ulich. The country plans to ballot for the 2022 olympic games.
Hockey is an important game in Dulebia. The country holds one of the most prestigious hockey tournaments in the world, the Dulebian First League (DFL), in which 14 professional teams participate. The national hockey team of the country holds 2 gold and 5 silver medals from the olympic games (including medals won before 1990).