This article belongs to the lore of Kylaris.

Cassier

Republic of Cassier

République de Cassier
Flag of Cassier
Flag
Coat of Arms of Cassier
Coat of Arms
Motto: "A Mari Usque Ad Mare" (Solarian) "From Sea to Sea"
Anthem: Ô Cassier
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Cassier orthographic NEW.png
Capital New Rayenne
Largest cityAndade
Official languagesGaullican
Demonym(s)Cassien
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Jean Tremblay
• Executive Minister
Samuel Cloutier
LegislatureNational Assembly
Chamber of Deputies
Chamber of Representatives
Independence from Gaullica
• Confederation
July 1, 1757
• Declaration of Independence
October 14, 1936
Area
• 
9,405,868 km2 (3,631,626 sq mi)
Population
• 2018 census
Increase 39,889,032
• Density
4.24/km2 (11.0/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.952 trillion
• Per capita
Increase $48,946
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.627 trillion
• Per capita
Increase $40,788
Gini (2021)Positive decrease 33.8
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.929
very high
CurrencyCassien denier (Ð) (CAD)
Time zoneUTC+7 to +12
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd
Driving sideright
Calling code+3
ISO 3166 codeCA
Internet TLD.ca


Cassier, officially the Republic of Cassier (Gaullican: République de Cassier), is a country in northern Asteria Superior. Extending over an area of 9,405,868 square kilometres (3,631,626 sq mi), it is the largest country in Kylaris in terms of geographical area, divided amongst its eight provinces and two territories. Cassier is situated between the Vehemens and Florian Oceans to the west, the Lumine Ocean in the east, and the Boreal Ocean to the north. It borders two countries in Asteria Superior; Rizealand and Chistovodia. The majority of Cassier’s 39,889,032 inhabitants live south of the 45th parallel north, generally within large and medium-sized urban areas. Cassier's capital is New Rayenne and its largest metropolitan areas are Andade, Sainte-Marie, and Bellevue.

Indigenous cultures inhabited Cassier for thousands of years before Euclean discovery and colonization. The first confirmed explorer from the Old World was Rahelian navigator Assim Asteris, who landed on Île-du-Édouard, Terre-Belle in 1488. Gaullica came to to control much of western Cassier during the 16th century, establishing colonies in a region they named “New Gaullica" (Gaullican: Nouvelle-Gaullica). In 1757, the Continental Decree unified the colonies of New Gaullica into a single dominion within the Gaullican Empire known as the Domain of Cassier. Beginning in the 18th century, Cassier began expanding eastward across Asteria Superior and eventually reaching its present-day size. As its politics and culture increasingly diverged from Gaullica's, Cassier obtained increasing amounts of autonomy and authority to govern itself. These developments eventually culminated in Cassier's declaration of independence from Gaullica on October 14, 1936 and the establishment of its current republican government.

Cassier is a parliamentary republic and a liberal democracy, with three branches of government and a president who acts as head of state and an executive minister who serves as the head of government. It is a leader in global metrics such as education, economic freedom, personal and civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. Cassier’s complex history with other nations has had a significant impact on its economy, politics, and culture. Immigration from many other countries and a resurgence of indigenous influences has made Cassier one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations.

Cassier is a highly developed country with an advanced economy. It ranks above average economically, having the fifteenth-largest economy by gross domestic product, and the seventeenth-largest by purchasing power parity. Cassier is highly reliant upon the exportation of natural resources, its scientific and technological sectors, and commerce over well-developed international trade networks. A founding member or supporter many intergovernmental institutions such as the Community of Nations and the International Federation of the Blue Crystal Movement, Cassier has historically been a major contributor for international peacekeeping, humanitarian efforts, and sustainable development. Cassier is a member several international organizations such as the Gaullophonie, OAN, and NVO, amongst others, and has recently pursued closer ties with other Asterian and democratic nations.

Etymology

Cassier is generally accepted to be derived from the St. Marcus Ganonsyoni word Kaska; a borrowing for the Casca-Dena people from the Dene Zágé language. The indigenous inhabitants near what is now Sainte-Marie used it while directing explorer Rogerin Dumont, who interpretted it as Cassia in order to describe the eastern interior of New Gaullica. Cartographers gradually altered its location towards the St. Marcus River, as well as adjusting its modern orthography to "Cassier".

Cassier entered official use after the partition of the St. Marcus colony into Upper Cassier and Lower Cassier in 1671, collectively known as the Cassiers. During this period "Cassier" exclusively referred to the area surrounding the St. Marcus River and did not include others such as Chicadia. The Continental Decree of 1757 formalized Cassier as the official name for the confederation of New Gaullican colonies and conferred the word "domain" as its title. After its independence from Gaullica in 1936 the nation would adopt the Republic of Cassier as its official legal title.

History

Indigenous peoples

Linguistic areas of Cassien Indigenous peoples at the time of Euclean contact

The original inhabitants of Cassier encompass a broad assortment of different groups and cultures. Several nouns are commonly used in Cassien legal documents or in popular speech such as “aboriginal”, “indigenous”, and “native” which describe Cassier’s original inhabitants collectively and are used interchangeably. Meanwhile, First Nation, Borealian, and Metis refer to a specific group of indigenous peoples and are not used interchangeably.

The indigineous population at the time of Euclean discovery is estimated to have been between one and four million. Colonization directly contributed to a dramatic decline of Cassier’s indigenous population by as much as eighty percent. This is attributed to several factors including the transfer of diseases, conflicts with Euclean settlers or other indigenous groups, and a loss of self-sufficiency due to land seizures by the colonial and later Cassien governments.

Euclean interactions with indigenous peoples were relatively peaceful during the initial period of colonization. Indigenous aid and assistance was highly sought after by Eucleans, particularly among fur traders during the 16th and 17th centuries. Unions between Eucleans and indigenous women resulted in the first Metis; individuals with mixed-race heritage. Borealian groups were isolated from early Euclean settlement due to geographic distance and the harsher enviroment they inhabited. In what is widely considered to be a genocide colonial and Cassien authorities actively sought the assimilation or elimination of Cassier's indigenous peoples. First Nations, Metis, and Borealians were subjected to widespread sterilization, mass relocations to reservations, and cultural suppression which continued until as recently as 1988. Though indigenous languages and cultures have seen a resurgence in the 21st century widespread discrimination continues to be an issue into the contemporary.

Euclean colonization

The first Eucleans to settle in Cassier were Ghaillish mariners from Caldia who established seasonal outposts along the west coast in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. These settlers were confined to short lived seasonal settlements and forts along the coast due to Cassier’s harsher environment and geography compared to other lands further south. The first major Euclean settlements were be established shortly after Gaullican explorer Rogerin Dumont’s first expedition to Cassier. Upon discovering the St. Marcus River in 1534, Dumont would erect a 10 meter cross bearing the words “Long Live the Queen of Gaullica” and claiming the land he named New Gaullica for Queen Anne the Financer.

Dumont returned to Cassier in 1535 and founded a fort near present-day Monbec City. Other forts and settlements were established throughout New Gaullica during this period such as Bellevue and Sainte-Marie. Geographical barriers and differences in lifestyle led to the development of three distinct Gaullican groups in the latter half of the 16th century; Cassiens near the St. Marcus River, Chicadians throughout the Gulf of Chicadia and Terre-Belle, and a third group comprising mostly of fur traders and missionaries on the fringes of New Gaullica. Euclean activity of New Gaullica intensified following Nathan de Beaumont’s attempt to cross the continent in 1603. While unsuccessful, Beaumont’s discoveries of gold deposits and of Lake Beaumont increased the number of settlers arriving to New Gaullica. As the Euclean population grew colonial governments such as the St. Marcus colony were founded. In 1640, many indigenous groups were embroiled in a myriad of conflicts collectively known as the Fur Wars, resulting in the further decimation of indigenous populations. The Great Settlement of Sainte-Marie brought an end to the Fur Wars in 1699, however fighting between and against indigenous peoples would continue until as late as the early 20th century.

Map of Gaullican territorial claims in Asteria Superior in 1710. Possessions of New Gaullica (blue), Estmere (red), disputed territory (purple)

With a climate unsuitable for growing cash crops, New Gaullica's economy was dominated by mining, timber, agriculture, the fur trade, and other related industries. Although its population was steadily increasing a census conducted by Gaullican officials in 1675 reported a population of roughly 30,000; far smaller compared to the other Euclean colonies in the Asterias. In response Gaullica implemented the Land Act of 1680 which encouraged colonists to have larger families and granted land to aspiring settlers. While successful in increasing New Gallica’s population and economic growth the colonies still lagged behind, leading to other Euclean powers to contest Gaullica's holdings. Gaullica's victories in Gilded Wars and the Pereramonic Wars greatly benefitted the New Gaullican colonies as Gaullican asserted its hegemony over much of the continent.

In 1753 King Louis VI summoned representatives from New Gaullica to Verlois with the goal of reorganizing the colonies into a single political subject that could be better controlled by the crown. A final meeting known as the Verlois Conference culminated in the Continental Decree in 1757 which confederated the colonies of New Gaullica into the Domain of Cassier. The confederation of the New Gaullican colonies into Cassier was viewed as both a practical measure and as a logical step in the progression of Gaullican imperialism in the region. It allowed Gaullica to focus more resources elsewhere while creating a subject government capable of resolving disputes and deadlocks between the former colonial governments without Gaullican intervention. Amongst the colonists of New Gaullica, particularly Cassiens, there was widespread support for a state that would be a bulwark of Gaullican language and culture in Asteria Superior.

Although the decree was initially celebrated many quickly grew dissatisfied with the domain. The replacement of the colonial system by provincial legislatures that were modelled after those in Gaullica severely curtailed citizen involvement and fostered a common belief that the new government was inherently corrupt and infringed on their rights. This mentality was especially pervasive among Chicadians who feared having their political and economic interests relegated within the majority-Cassien nation. Unrest continued to build as colonists resisted new taxes and legislation until culimating in local uprisings such as the Maraux Rebellion that openly challenged Gaullican authority. The failure of Cassien and Gaullican officials to address the situtation in Cassier finally resulted in the overthrow of the provincial government of New Sylvagne when republican militias seized the city of Bellevue and marking the beginning of the Patriote Rebellion.

The Patriotes were a coalition of Chicadians and other rebel groups Asterian War of Secession that were unified under the belief that the Gaullica and the government of the Domain of Cassier had irreparably violated their rights. The original extent of the Patriotes' goals differed among its supporters until eventually coalescing under the idea that the colonists of Chicadia and Cassier should separate from Gaullica as independent republics. Unlike the other revolutionary movements taking place to the south however the Patriotes critically lacked widespread public support. Although disgruntled with the policies and legislation imposed by the Domain of Cassier, most Cassiens vehemently opposed independence and viewed the Patriotes as a Chicadian movement. The central figure of the Patriote rebellion was general Vivien Gérin-Lajoie, a notable military commander and politician. Under his leadership the Patriotes were able to make significant gains by successfully capturing important cities and forts throughout Chicadia. The climax of the war took place at the Battle of Louiseville in 1769 which saw Lajoie’s Patriote Army engage a hastily assembled force of loyalists led by Michel Rousselle. Though numerically superior, the Patriotes were decisively defeated following Lajoie’s sudden death during the battle. The defeat at Louiseville marked the turning point of the war in Cassier. The arrival of Gaullican reinforcements at Monbec and the capture of Bellevue forced most Patriotes to flee Cassier. The Patriotes continued to struggle against Gaullica throughout Asteria Superior, but by late 1770 the Patriotes no longer posed any credible threat to Gaullican rule in Cassier.

Painting of Julia Belle warning Cassien officers of [name] movements during the Second Beaver War

Cassier would ultimately be retained by Gaullica following a secessionist victory in 1771, however the period Gaullican hegemony in Asteria Superior was over. In 1783 the newly independent nation Rizealand launched a succesful invasion of Cassier in the First Beaver War which brought a large portion of Upper Cassier under their control. Alarmed by a second Rizean victory and the outrage it generated Gaullica assented to major reforms to the domain's political and economic systems, most notably the restoration of the rights revoked following the Continental Decree and the establishment of responsible government. A second Rizean invasion in 1810 was successfully repulsed by Gaullo-Cassien forces, and the several treaties signed between after began an era of peace between Cassier and Rizealand that extends to the present.

Expansion and industrialization

An influx of roughly 70,000 to 95,000 Gaullican Asterians known as Exiles (Gaullican: Exils) fled to Cassier in the wake of the Asterian War of Seccession. The arrival of the Exils caused a significant demographic shift in Cassier, with the Exils coming to supplant Chicadians as the second largest Gaullican group in Cassier. Most chose to settle on plots of land offered by the Gaullican government in the eastern interior in Upper Cassier and Beaumont. Settlement in the eastern interior created a need for an alternate domestic route to Lake Beaumont, culminating in construction of the Rousselle Canal in 1811. The canal provided a navigable route to Cassier’s frontier and connected the population centres of the St. Marcus River to Lake Beaumont. The canal’s completion caused a major spike in Euclean immigration to Cassier and caused the domain’s population to increase by over 1.5 million by 1850. Settlement of the interior expanded its territory across the breath of the continent until reaching its greatest current territorial extent upon Gaullica’s relinquishment of the Dummont Bay Company to Cassier in 1870.

Asteria Superior’s first transcontinental railway was completed in 1873 which further opened more of the Cassien interior for settlement and eased Cassier’s industrializing cities’ access to the east’s vast natural resources. Settlement in the prairies during this era drastically altered the landscape Cassier’s interior as large farms came to dominate the region. The decimation of the wild Asterian Bison and Old World diseases devastated the indigenous population, forcing their relocation to reservations with relief efforts set up by the Cassien government. The Native Peoples Act was put into place during this time, beginning a period of intense political and cultural oppression that would last until its complete rescendment in 1992. The completion of the transcontinental railway would be the beginning of the era of optimism (Gaullican: L'ère de l'optimisme); a period of prosperity and loyalist sentiment which characterized Cassien culture, economics, and politics for the next three decades.

A majority of Gaullo-Cassiens actively supported the continuation of their status as subjects, viewing themselves as a natural part of the Gaullican empire. King Albert III granted Cassier new privileges, increases in autonomy, as well as the formalization of its liberal-democratic institutions throughout his reign. Though legally tied to Gaullica, by 1899 Cassier handled a majority of its domestic affairs with little Gaullican interference. Externally Cassier also began to create its own semi-official relationships internationally by utilizing Gaullica’s extensive diplomatic network to promote its political and commercial interests abroad.

Early 20th century

The first half of the 20th century would decisively alter Cassien politics and culture. The era of optimism would come to an abrupt end following the Weisstadt Stock Exchange and the onset of the Great Collapse. Cassier was hit especially hard by the 1913 depression due to its export-driven economy., experiencing a downturn in gross national product and employment worse than its neighbours in Asteria Superior. In a demoralizing turn of events the westernmost province of Terre-Belle formally left the domain and returned to direct Gaullican control in 1915, with its departure increasing public fears that the domain may collapse entirely. A landslide victory in the 1916 general election would see the Liberal Party led by Wilfrid Édouard implement sweeping domestic programs and reforms that led to Cassier’s economic recovery. The worst of the depression would finally pass in Cassier by late 1919, just as a new rift between Cassier and Gaullica quickly took its place as the foremost issue for Édouard’s government.

The rise of Rafael Duclerque and the functionalist Parti Populaire in Gaullica was viewed with concern in Cassier. A majority of Cassiens were strongly opposed to Duclerque and functionalism, viewing it as incompatible with Cassier’s liberal ideology. Cassier briefly sheltered Albert III and other politicians following the functionalist seizure of power in October 1920, though most would flee for Caldia before the start of the Great War. Although Albert III was warmly welcomed in Cassier, his imperial decree which proclaimed Cassier's independence shortly before his abdication became a major source of controversy and placed Cassier in a difficult position. Trending a fine line, the Cassien government would acknowledge Albert’s decree in a non-literal sense, viewing it as an affirmation of Cassier’s highly autonomous and unique political status rather than a declaration of total sovereignty.

Contemporary period

Geography and climate

Cassier's territory extends from the Vehemens and Florian Oceans in the west; to the Lumine Ocean in the east; and to the Florian Ocean in the north. Other nearby areas includes George Ruset Land and Marchenia. Controlling 9.405 million square kilometers, Cassier is the largest country in the world in terms of territorial area. It also the longest coastline in the world at xxx,xxx kilometres.

Cassier is home to one of the Asteria Superior's northernmost settlements, Cassien Forces Station Balise, on the northern tip of Daucourt Island – the second closest point to the North Pole. Much of the Cassien arctic is widely covered by ice and permafrost due to polar ocean and air currents, creating a much colder climate than other nations at similar latitudes.

Since the end of the last glacial period, Cassier's landscape has been dominated by distinct forest regions. The majority of land acreage in Cassier consists of forests and comprises the world's largest portion of forested land; made up mostly of spruce, poplar and pine. The Cassien government estimates that there are upwards of 3 million lakes in Cassier, several hundred of which are greater than 100 square kilometers (39 sq mi). Among these freshwater bodies is Lake Beaumont; the largest body of freshwater in the world. There are numerous also fresh-water glaciers in Cassier's mountain ranges and northern islands.

Cassier is geologically active, having many earthquakes and active volcanoes due to its position near two major tectonic plates. Among these volcanoes are Mount Carpentier, Mount Bérengère, the Mount Brunelle massif, and the Mount Constance volcanic complex. The last major eruption in Cassier occured when Mount Rousselle erupted in 1980, which caused a major economic and ecological disruption that was felt across Asteria Superior.

Average temperatures across Cassier vary from region to region. Winters are generally cold and snowy while its summers are mild and humid. Most of Cassier experiences a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills during the winter. Snow can cover the ground for most of the year in the interior or at higher altitudes, or persist year-round. The east coast has a temperate climate, with mild and rainy winters. Coastal regions in general experience moderateky high temperatures; generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while areas further inland see summer highs from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F). Average summer temperatures rarely exceed 40 °C (104 °F).

Politics and Government

Cassier is described as a "full democracy", that has traditionally followed a moderate liberal and egalitarian political ideology. The government is responsible in upholding the laws and rights outlined in the Consitution of Cassier. An emphasis on social justice and the promotion of public welfare has been a distinguishing element of Cassier's political culture which can be connected to the original principles of peace, order, and good government declared within the 1757 Continental Decree. Cassier is a parliamentary democracy within the context of a republic, divided into legislative, executive, and judicial branches that are each accountable to each other.

Executive

Cassier's head of state is President David Tremblay who acts as the Commander in Chief of the Cassien military and the head of Cassier's foreign policy. The President is elected by Cassien citizenry once every six years by a popular vote. Although every serving president in Cassier's history has been affiliated with a political party in the National Assembly, theoritically any Cassien citizen can run and be elected to the office. The power of the president is largely ceremonial, with the president usually acting under the advice of the Prime Minister of Cassier and other ministers within the Cabinet. The president does have various powers such as the rights to issue pardons, as well as proposing and vetoing bills.

Following general elections MPs and political parties will negotiate on forming a cabinet, where the bulk of executive power is exercised. It is headed by the Prime Minister, whom is nominated by the president and approved by the National Assembly, acts as the head of government. After appointment, the Prime Minister then nominates a list of ministers; representitive of the current parliament; for various cabinet position to the president for approval.

National Assembly

Cassier's parliament; called the National Assembly (Gaullican: Assemblée nationale); is divided bicamerally into upper and lower houses. The lower house is the Chamber of Representatives (Gaullican: Chambre des représentants) consisting of 400 elected MPs, whom serve for four years. Seats are assigned by population, with the each seat accounting for roughly 100,000 citizens as of 2018. The upper house of the National Assembly is the Chamber of Deputies (Gaullican: Chambre des députés) and is comprised of 30 deputies, whom serve for six years. Seats are assigned based on population, with provinces with less than two million inhabitants electing a minimum of 2 deputies and provinces with more electing up to 7. Cassier's two territories are represented by 1 senator each.

Cassier is dominated by three parties at the federal level; the far left Labour Party, the centre-left Liberal Party, and the centre-right Conservative Party. The historically dominant Liberal Party positions itself at the centre of the Cassien political spectrum, whilst the Conservative and Labour parties are oriented to the right and left respectively. A total of five political parties had representatives elected in the 201X election; the Liberal Party; who currently hold a majority; the Conservative Party; who are the official opposition; and the Labour, Libraterian, and Green Parties. Far left or right parties have rarely been a prominent force in Cassien politics, with functionalist or socialist parties only gained minor support within Cassier's federal politics.

Military

Foreign Relations

Provinces and territories

Flag, name, and abbreviation Cities Confederated Population Area (km2) Representation
Capital Largest Land Water Total Representatives Deputies
Breloux BR Andade July 1, 1757 13,000,000 821,882.88 130 7
New Sylvagne NS Bellevue July 1, 1757 7,543,062 148,395.52 75 4
Monbec MC Monbec City Sainte-Marie July 1, 1757 6,000,000 525,468.16 60 4
Montagne MT Val Albert Barnier September 12, 1861 4,600,000 1,191,303.68 46 3
Katepas KA Saint-Élie Armeins May 11, 1858 4,000,000 1,059,591.68 40 3
Beaumont BT Andade January 24, 1793 2,200,000 602,237.44 22 3
Chicadia CH Chiboctoc July 1, 1757 1,983,563 105,118.78 19 2
Terre-Belle TB Porte-Calme July 1, 1757 519,685 2,278,492.16 6 2

Economy

Energy

Industry

Infrastructure

Transport

Demographics

The 2016 Cassien Census indicated a total population of 39,889,032, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure. The main driver of population growth in Cassier is predominately immigration, with over a million immigrants arriving in Cassier between 2011 and 2016.

Cassier has one of the highest immigration rates per-capita in the world, spurred by economic policies. The general public, as well as the major political parties, have been supportive of the current level of immigration. Immigrants to Cassier have originate from a variety of different regions and countries, with most arriving from Coius and Asteria Inferior. The recent waves of immigrants settled mostly in major urban areas such as Andade, Sainte-Marie and Barnier.

Cassier's population density, at 4.25 inhabitants per square kilometre, the lowest in the world. About four-fifths of the population lives within 200 kilometres either Cassier's southern borders or coastlines. The most densely populated part of the country is the Saint Marcus Corridor in the provinces of Monbec and Breloux, residing mostly within the Saint Marcus river basin.

Largest urban centers by population

Downtown from Ward's Island (11741021983).jpg
Andade
Panoramic Boston.jpg
Belleview

# Settlement Population # Settlement Population

Montreal August 2017 05.jpg
Sainte-Marie
Concord Pacific Master Plan Area.jpg
Barnier

1 Andade TBD 11 Verlois TBD
2 Sainte-Marie TBD 12 Saint-Célestin TBD
3 Bellevue TBD 13 Cheboctoc TBD
4 Barnier TBD 14 Dummontville TBD
5 Armeins TBD 15 Kennebago TBD
6 New Rayenne TBD 16 Lavelle TBD
7 Bougainville TBD 17 Keeseekoose TBD
8 Monbec TBD 18 Val Albert TBD
9 Nanowin TBD 19 Saint-Élie TBD
10 Rougemont TBD 20 Senneterre TBD

Education

Religion

Culture

Music and Art

Cuisine

Sports

The roots of organized sports in Cassier date back to the 1770s. Cassier’s official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse. Other sports such as golf, soccer, baseball, tennis, skiing, badminton, volleyball, cycling, swimming, bowling, rugby union, canoeing, equestrian, squash and the study of martial arts are widely enjoyed by much of the population recreationally.

Cassier shares several major professional sports leagues with its neighbours. Cassien teams in these leagues include nine franchises in the Asterian Hockey League, as well as several !Major League Soccer teams and the Cassier men's national soccer team, at least one team in !Major League Baseball, and the !National Basketball Association. Other popular professional sports in Cassier include football, which is played in the Cassien Football League, National Lacrosse League lacrosse, and curling.