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Republic of Cassier
République de Cassier
Motto: "A Mari Usque Ad Mare" (Solarian) "From Sea to Sea"
|Government||Federal parliamentary republic|
• Executive Minister
|Chamber of Deputies|
|Chamber of Representatives|
|Independence from Gaullica|
|July 1, 1757|
• Declaration of Independence
|October 14, 1936|
|9,351,991.04 km2 (3,610,823.93 sq mi)|
• 2018 census
|4.24/km2 (11.0/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2021 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2021)|| 33.8|
|HDI (2021)|| 0.929|
|Currency||Cassien denier (Ð) (CAD)|
|Time zone||UTC+7 to +12|
Cassier, officially the Republic of Cassier (Gaullican: République de Cassier), is a country in northern Asteria Superior. Extending over an area of 9,351,991 square kilometres (3,610,823.93 sq mi), it is the largest country in Kylaris in terms of geographical area, divided amongst its eight provinces and two territories. Cassier is situated between the Vehemens and Florian Oceans to the west, the Lumine Ocean in the east, and the Boreal Ocean to the north. It borders two countries in Asteria Superior; Rizealand and Chistovodia. The majority of Cassier’s 39,889,032 inhabitants live south of the 45th parallel north, generally within large and medium-sized urban areas. Cassier's capital is New Rayenne and its largest metropolitan areas are Andade, Sainte-Marie, and Bellevue.
Indigenous cultures inhabited Cassier for thousands of years before Euclean discovery and colonization. The first confirmed explorer from the Old World was Rahelian navigator Assim Asteris, who landed on Île d'Édouard, Terre-Belle in 1488. Gaullica came to to control much of western Cassier during the 16th century, establishing colonies in a region they named “New Gaullica" (Gaullican: Nouvelle-Gaullice), a name which was later applied to the Viceroyalty of New Gaullica. In 1757, the Continental Decree unified the New Gaullican colonies and territories possessing a majority-Gaullican population into a single dominion within the Gaullican Empire known as the Dominion of Cassier. Beginning in the 18th century, Cassier began its expansion eastward across Asteria Superior until eventually reaching its greatest extent in 1899. Over time, Cassier developed a distinct entity within the Gaullican Empire, with its own culture and political system. These developments coincided with increasing amounts of autonomy and authority to govern itself. External events and growing divisions between Cassier and Gaullica eventually culminated in its declaration of independence on October 14, 1936 and the establishment of its current republican government.
Cassier is a parliamentary republic and a liberal democracy, with three branches of government, a president who acts as head of state, and an executive minister who serves as the head of government. It is a global leader in metrics such as education, economic freedom, personal and civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. Cassier’s complex and often tumultuous history with other nations has had a significant impact on its economy, politics, and culture. Immigration from many other countries and a resurgence of indigenous influences has made Cassier one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations.
Cassier is a highly developed country with an advanced economy. It ranks above average economically, having the fifteenth-largest economy by gross domestic product, and the seventeenth-largest by purchasing power parity. Cassier is highly reliant upon the exportation of natural resources, its scientific and technological sectors, and commerce over well-developed international trade networks. It is an active participant in many intergovernmental institutions including the Community of Nations and the International Federation of the Blue Crystal Movement, and has historically been a major contributor for international peacekeeping, humanitarian efforts, and sustainable development. Cassier is a member several international organizations such as the Gaullophonie, OAN, and NVO, amongst others, and has recently sought to form closer ties with other Asterian and democratic nations.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Politics and Government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
Cassier is generally accepted to be derived from the St. Marcus Ganonsyoni word Kaska; a borrowing for the Casca-Dena people from the Dene Zágé language. The indigenous inhabitants near what is now Sainte-Marie used it while directing explorer Rogerin Dumont, who interpretted it as Cassia in order to describe the eastern interior of New Gaullica. Cartographers gradually altered its location towards the St. Marcus River, as well as adjusting its modern orthography to "Cassier".
Cassier entered official use after the partition of the St. Marcus colony into Upper Cassier and Lower Cassier in 1671, collectively known as the Cassiers. During this period "Cassier" exclusively referred to the area surrounding the St. Marcus River and did not include other areas such as Chicadia, Terre-Belle, or Beaumont. The Continental Decree of 1757 formalized Cassier as the official name for the confederation of Gaullican-majority colonies and territories in Asteria Superior, and conferred the word "dominion" as its title. Following its independence from Gaullica in 1936 the nation would adopt the Republic of Cassier as its official legal title.
The original inhabitants of Cassier encompass a broad assortment of different groups and cultures. Several nouns are commonly used in Cassien legal documents or in popular speech such as “aboriginal”, “indigenous”, and “native” which describe Cassier’s original inhabitants collectively and are used interchangeably. Meanwhile, First Nation, Borealian, and Metis refer to a specific group of indigenous peoples and are not used interchangeably.
The indigineous population at the time of Euclean discovery is estimated to have been between one and four million. Colonization directly contributed to a dramatic decline of Cassier’s indigenous population by as much as eighty percent. This is attributed to several factors including the transfer of diseases, conflicts with Euclean settlers or other indigenous groups, and a loss of self-sufficiency due to land seizures by the colonial and later Cassien governments.
Euclean interactions with indigenous peoples were relatively peaceful during the initial period of colonization. Indigenous aid and assistance was highly sought after by Eucleans, particularly among fur traders during the 16th and 17th centuries. Unions between Eucleans and indigenous women resulted in the first Metis; individuals with mixed-race heritage. Borealian groups were isolated from early Euclean settlement due to geographic distance and the harsher enviroment they inhabited. In what is widely considered to be a genocide colonial and Cassien authorities actively sought the assimilation or elimination of Cassier's indigenous peoples. First Nations, Metis, and Borealians were subjected to widespread sterilization, mass relocations to reservations, and cultural suppression which continued until as recently as 1988. Though indigenous languages and cultures have seen a resurgence in the 21st century widespread discrimination continues to be an issue into the contemporary.
The first Eucleans to settle in Cassier were Ghaillish mariners from Caldia who established seasonal outposts along the west coast in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. These settlers were confined to short lived seasonal settlements and forts along the coast due to Cassier’s harsher environment and geography compared to other lands further south. The first major Euclean settlements were be established shortly after Gaullican explorer Rogerin Dumont’s first expedition to Cassier. Upon discovering the St. Marcus River in 1534, Dumont would erect a 10 meter cross bearing the words “Long Live the Queen of Gaullica” and claiming the land he named New Gaullica (Gaullican: Nouvelle-Gaullice) for Queen Anne the Financer.
Dumont returned to Asteria Superior in 1535 and founded Fort Saint-Marcus near the site of present-day Monbec City. Other forts and settlements such as Bellevue and Sainte-Marie were established in the following years which facilitated the first major migration of Euclean colonists to the region. Geographical barriers and differences in lifestyle or background led to the development of three distinct Gaullican groups by the latter half of the 16th century; Cassiens near the Saint Marcus River, Chicadians throughout the Gulf of Chicadia and Terre-Belle, and a third group comprising mostly of fur traders and missionaries in the interior. Euclean activity intensified following Nathan de Beaumont’s attempt to cross the continent in 1603. While unsuccessful, Beaumont’s discoveries of gold deposits and of an alternate route to Lake Beaumont increased the number of settlers arriving to the colonies. The growth of the Euclean population led to the creation of the colonial governments and establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Gaullica in 1610. In 1640, many indigenous groups were embroiled in a myriad of conflicts collectively known as the Fur Wars, resulting in the further decimation of indigenous populations. The Great Settlement of Sainte-Marie brought an end to the Fur Wars in 1699, however fighting between and against indigenous peoples persisted as late as the early 20th century.
With its climate unsuitable for growing cash crops, the New Gaullican economy was dominated by mining, timber, agriculture, the fur trade, and other related industries. Although its population was steadily increasing a census conducted by Gaullican officials in 1675 reported a population of roughly 30,000; far smaller compared to the other Euclean colonies in the Asterias. In response, Gaullica implemented the Settlement Decree of 1680 which encouraged Gaullican colonists to have larger families and offered generous land grants to aspiring settlers. While successful in increasing the population and spurring economic growth, New Gaullica still lagged behind its neighbours which jeapordized Gaullican claims and holdings in Asteria Superior. Following a series of wars against rival colonial powers, Gaullica emerged as the preeminent force in Asteria Superior after taking control over the colonies of New Estmere, Sheah, and Nou Remana.
In 1753, King Louis VI summoned New Gaullican representatives to Verlois with the goal of consolidating the majority-Gaullican colonies into a unified political subject within the Viceroyalty of New Gaullica. Known as the Verlois Conference, these meetings culminated in the Continental Decree of 1757 which confederated the colonies of New Gaullica into the Dominion of Cassier; the first such polity within the Gaullican Empire. Confederating these colonies was viewed as both a practical measure and as a logical step in the progression of Gaullican imperialism in Asteria Superior. The new dominion was intended to enable Gaullica to divert resources elsewhere, establish a centralized colonial government capable of resolving its own internal disputes or issues without the needed for direct intervention, as well as solidifying Gaullican dominance in the new dominion.
The creation of such the dominion was initially celebrated by Gaullican colonists in the new dominion, who saw it as the bulwark of Gaullican language and culture in Asteria Superior. Widespread dissatisfaction quickly grew with the new government however. Locally, the colonial legislatures which had governed the colonies for over a century were replaced by provincial governments modelled after those in Gaullica. Positions in government were also changed and were largely restricted to aristocrats and prominent members of the clergy, which severely curtailed the ability for middle and lower class land owners to participate in colonial politics. The new Cassien government and federal assembly based in Sainte-Marie was similarly closed-off to the populous and lacked oversight, subsequently leading to abuses of power and corruption. Gaullican-born and colonial elites sought to establish political and economic structures similar to those found in Gaullica or in the viceroyalties of the New Aurean or Françoisiane. These factors led to a widespread belief that the system created by the Continental Decree was a determiment to the well-being of the general public, and overly favoured colonial elites. This fear was especially pervasive among Chicadians, who came to believe that their interests would be relegated within the majority-Cassien and foreign dominated dominion. Unrest continued to grow as calls for reform were rejected by the colonial government. Outrage was also prevalent in the interior as colonists in what is now eastern Breloux, the province of Beaumont, and the Rizean state of Charlotte, began to resist government attempts to impose new taxes and policies. This resulted in several confrontations between Gaullican and Cassien military forces with local militias. Tensions in the interior boiled over following the Guillaumeville Incident which saw Gaullican forces attack the unruly inhabitants of Guillaumeville, a village near Chaudeville, Breloux. The incident, along with the violation of earlier treaties made with indigenous and Métis groups, led to the brief Maraux Rebellion (23 August - 25 December, 1762) and culminated in the Christmas Day Agreement that created the districts of Beaumont and Charlotte, which were to be given unique considerations in the dominion.
The failure of Cassien and Gaullican officials to further address the growing unrest in Chicadia, and emboldened by the success of the Maraux Rebellion and the uprisings taking place elsewhere in Asteria Superior resulted in the overthrow of the New Sylvagnian government by pro-independence and republican militias on 10 August, 1764. This was followed by the St. Croix Declaration which saw rebel leaders proclaim their independence from Gaullica and marking the beginning of the Patriote Rebellion on 9 October.
The Patriotes were a coalition of Chicadians and other rebel groups Asterian War of Secession unified under the belief that the Gaullica and the government of the Dominion of Cassier had irreparably violated their rights. The original extent of the Patriotes' goals differed among its supporters until eventually coalescing under the idea that the colonists of Chicadia and Cassier should separate from Gaullica as independent republics. However, unlike the other revolutionary movements taking place to the south, the Patriotes critically lacked widespread public support. Although disgruntled with the policies and legislation imposed by the colonial government, the majority of the dominion's inhabitants vehemently opposed independence and refused to rally behind what was viewed as a Chicadian movement. The central figure of the Patriote rebellion was general Vivien Gérin-Lajoie, a notable military commander and politician. Under his leadership the Patriotes were able to make significant gains by successfully capturing important cities and forts throughout Chicadia and Upper Cassier. The climax of the war took place at the Battle of Louiseville in 1769, which saw Lajoie’s Patriote Army engage a hastily assembled force of loyalists led by Michel Rousselle. Though numerically superior, the Patriotes were decisively defeated following Lajoie’s sudden death during the battle. The defeat at Louiseville marked the turning point of the war in Cassier. The arrival of Gaullican reinforcements at Monbec and the recapture of Bellevue forced most Patriotes to flee Cassier. The Patriotes continued to struggle against Gaullica throughout Asteria Superior, but by late 1770 the Patriotes no longer posed any credible threat to Gaullican rule in Cassier.
While Cassier remained a Gaullican dominion following a secessionist victory in 1771, the period of uncontested Gaullican hegemony in Asteria Superior was over. In 1783, the newly independent nation Rizealand launched a succesful invasion of Cassier in the First Beaver War which brought Charlotte and a large portion of New Sylvagne, Beaumont, and Upper Cassier under their control. Alarmed by a second Rizean victory in Asteria Superior and the nearly unanimous outrage it generated throughout Cassier, Gaullica agreed to impliment many of the reforms to the Continental Decree desired by influencial but politically moderate Cassien figures during the Monbec Accords in 1789. Among the reforms agreed upon was the removal on restrictions which prevented property-owning men from holding office in provincial legislatures, increased oversight of the aristocracy and clergy activity in Cassier, and the creation of a lower house open to the public in the federal assembly.
In a bid to regain territory and undo the humiliation of the previous war, Gaullica declared war on Rizealand 1 May, 1810, beginning the Second Beaver War. Rizealand was driven out of much of New Sylvagne, Upper Cassier and Beaumont, however a string of successive military defeats in combination with supply issues halted Gaullican progress by late 1812. Unwilling to continue fighting, peace negotiations began in 1813 which saw Cassier regain lost territory, the establishment of a better-defined border, and Rizealand's retention of Charlotte. While minor, unofficial conflicts between Cassier and Rizealand took place throughout the 19th century, the peace treaty signed to end the Second Beaver War marked the last time Rizealand and Cassier engaged in open hostilities with each other.
Expansion and industrialization
An influx of roughly 70,000 to 95,000 Gaullican Asterians known as Exiles (Gaullican: Exils) fled to the Dominion of Cassier in the wake of the Asterian War of Seccession and the Beaver Wars. Their arrival significantly shifted Cassier's demographics, not only representing a sudden increase in the dominion's population but also seeing them supplant the Chicadians as the second largest Gaullican group in Cassier. Most Exils chose to settle on plots of land offered by the Gaullican government primarly in Upper Cassier and Beaumont, the latter of which became a province in 1793. The loss of the district of Charlotte to Rizealand, combined with increased Gaullican settlement in the Cassien interior, spawned a need for an alternate domestic route to Lake Beaumont. This culminated in construction of the Rousselle Canal between 1805 and 1811; the first of many infastructure projects that connected the frontier with Cassier's population centres in the west. Considered to be one of the greated engineering and technological feats of the time, the canal significantly reduced the dangers, costs, and time required to reach the interior.
The early 19th century saw a major increase of Euclean immigration to Cassier, resulting in a population growth of roughly 1.5 million by 1815. Seeking to solidify its territorial claims and secure its presence on the eastern coast of Asteria Superior, Cassier underwent a rapid period of territorial expansion. This resulted the addition of two new provinces; Katepas and Montagne, and the integration of areas held by the Dumont Bay Company.
Asteria Superior’s first transcontinental railway was completed in 1873, further integrating the Cassien interior, facilitating Euclean settlement, and connecting Cassier’s industrializing cities’ in the west to the east’s natural resources. The completion of the transcontinental railway marked the beginning of what is known in Cassier as the Era of Optimism (Gaullican: L'ère de l'optimisme); a period of economic prosperity and political development which characterized Cassien culture over the following three decades. The settlement of Beaumont, Katepas, and Montagne during this era drastically altered the interior's landscape as large farms came to dominate the region. The decimation of the wild Asterian Bison population coupled with the spread Old World diseases devastated indigenous peoples. Legislation such as the Native Peoples Act saw the forced relocation of indigenous peoples to reservations set up by the Cassien government, and began a period of intense political and cultural oppression. Migrants to Cassier from overseas; particularly those from Coius and western Euclea, were also expected to assimilate into Gaullo-Cassien society and culture and were frequently subject to discriminatory practices and legislation.
An important feature of the Era of Optimism was the widespread loyalist sentiments held by a majority of Cassier's Gaullican-speaking population. Most actively supported the continuation of Cassier's status as a dominion of the Gaullican Empire and viewed themselves as a natural, important part of it. Additionally, many also saw Cassier; with its culture, economic practices, and political institutions, as the model that Gaullica's other colonial subjects should emulate. These beliefs were greatly strengthened during the reign of King Albert III, as Cassier obtained new privileges, greater autonomy, and saw the formalization of its liberal-democratic government. By the turn of the 19th century, Cassier handled a majority of its domestic affairs with little Gaullican interference, and the framework for what eventually was to be its modern republican government had been largely put into place. Externally, Cassier also began to establish relationships internationally by working within Gaullica’s extensive diplomatic network to promote its interests abroad.
Early 20th century
The first half of the 20th century would decisively alter Cassien politics and culture. The era of optimism would come to an abrupt end following the Weisstadt Stock Exchange and the onset of the Great Collapse. Cassier was hit especially hard by the 1913 economic depression due to its export-driven economy, experiencing a downturn in gross national product and employment to a greater extent than its neighbours in Asteria Superior. In a demoralizing turn of events, the westernmost province of Terre-Belle formally left Cassier and returned to direct Gaullican control in 1915, sparking public fears that the dominion may collapse entirely. A landslide victory in the 1916 general election would see the Liberal Party led by Wilfrid Édouard implement sweeping domestic programs and reforms that led to Cassier’s economic recovery. The worst of the depression finally passed by late 1919, just as a new rift between Cassier and Gaullica quickly took its place as the foremost issue for Édouard’s government.
The rise of Rafael Duclerque and the functionalist Parti Populaire in Gaullica was viewed with concern in Cassier. A majority of Cassiens were opposed to Duclerque and the tenants of functionalism, viewing it as incompatible with Cassier’s liberal ideology or even a threat to the dominion's security. Before abdicating and fleeing to Cassier in October 1920, Alfred III reaffirmed Cassier's right of self-governance and issued an imperial decree which proclaimed its full independence from Gaullica. While he was still widely popular and warmly recieved upon his arrival to Cassier, Albert III's decree was deeply shocking and controversial to the Cassien public and placed the dominion in a difficult position with Gaullica. Despite the widespread trepedation regarding the functionalist seizure of power, the majority of Cassier's moderate and conservative leaning population did not desire independence. As a result, the Cassien government under Wilfrid Édouard initially refused to acknowledge Albert III’s decree and began discussions with the new Gaullican government in order to ease tensions and avoid sparking a rebellion. By November 1920, the governments of Gaullica and Cassier made the controversial agreement to maintain the status-quo, viewing Alfred III's decree as a reaffirmation of Cassier’s highly autonomous political status in the Gaullican Empire rather than a declaration of total sovereignty.
While the it successfully avoided any full-scale rebellion and maintained Cassier's self-governing status, the agreement did little to quell the unrest that had been growing among radical political groups nor was it completely respected by the Cassien and Gaullican governments. During the talks Duclerque had demanded the deportation of Albert III and other opponents of the new government back to Gaullica... [TO BE CONTINUED].
Sustained economic expansion, urbanization and policy decisions led to the emergence of a new Cassien identity following its independence. The Liberal dominated government prioritized a domestically-oriented, socially democratic approach to governance, enacting programs such as universal healthcare, education initiatives and infastructure improvements, amongst others. Additionally, in response to the outbreak of the Solarian War the Liberal government oversaw the beginning of Cassier's state of armed neutrality. While it remained a member of international organizations such as the Community of Nations and an active participant in peacekeeping or humanitarian missions, Cassier generally refrained from establishing ties which nesseciated direct political, economic or military action. This policy was upheld despite the Conservative shift following in the 1950 general election and remained in place until 1991.
The 1950s and 60s were marked by major political and cultural shifts which shook the nation. The issue of insitutionalized racism and discrimination against Cassier's ethnic and religious minorities, women and other disinfranchised groups were increasingly challenged by opposition movements. The approaches, objectives and public perception of these movements varied substantially. Among the most prominant were the peaceful movement for civil justice, whose nonviolent and inclusive approach towards confronting discrimination had earned it increasing public and political support. This was contrasted by the militant, Indigenous Peoples' Liberation Army (ALP) which, with Chistovodian backing, carried out terrorist attacks and insurgent activity throughout western Cassier during the Asterian Rebuttal in 1960, necessitating the deployment of military forces. [TO BE CONTINUED].
Geography and climate
At 9.35 million square kilometres, Cassier is the largest country in the world by total area. Cassier also possesses the world's largest quantity of freshwater lakes at over 3 million, the world's longest coastline, as well as longest land border which it shares with Rizealand. Its geographical boundaries are defined by the Vehemens and Florian Oceans in the west; to the Lumine Ocean in the east; and to the Florian Ocean to the north. In addition to its land borders, Cassier also has maritime boundaries with the Sorovian territory of George Ruset Land and Marchenia. Cassier also possesses one of the Asteria Superior's northernmost settlements, Cassien Defense Forces Station Balise, located near the northern tip of Daucourt Island – the second closest landmass to the North Pole.
Cassier's physical geography is highly diverse. A majority of Cassier's land acreage lies within its forested regions, including boreal, temperate broadleaf, and coniferous forests. The northernmost areas of Cassier's provinces and territores are characterized by polar regions and ice caps, with much of the Cassien arctic being widely covered by ice and permafrost due to cold ocean and air currents. Glaciated areas can also be found in the Imperial Mountains of Terre-Belle, and the Snowy Mountains of Montagne. The Cassien interior is characterized by large, relatively flat areas of grassland which hosts the majority of Cassien agricultural activities. Large freshwater lakes are also common throughout most of Cassier, several hundred of which have a surface area 100 square kilometers (39 sq mi) or greater. The largest of Cassier's lakes is Lake Beaumont, which is the largest body of freshwater in the world.
Cassier's position at the boundary of major tectonic plates makes it geologically active. Signs of volcanic activity is particularly prevelent in eastern Cassier, as seen from volcanoes such as Mount Carpentier, Mount Bérengère, the Mount Brunelle massif, and the Mount Constance volcanic complex. The last major eruption in Cassier occured when Mount Rousselle erupted in 1980, which caused a major economic and ecological disruption that was felt across Asteria Superior. Other signs of geological activity include frequent earthquakes and notable rift valleys.
Average temperatures across Cassier vary significantly from region to region. Winters in most of Cassier are generally cold and snowy, while its summers are normally mild and humid. Most of Cassier experiences either a subarctic or continental climate, where daily average temperatures during the winter are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills. Snow has been known to cover the ground for most of the year northern or high altitude areas. Cassier's coastal regions in general experience moderately high temperatures; generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while areas further inland see summer highs from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F). Average summer temperatures rarely exceed 40 °C (104 °F).
Recent climate trends such as global warming have resulted in a noticeable reduction in permafrost and icy areas in Cassier. Average temperatures have steadily warmed between 1.7 °C (3.1 °F) to 2.3 °C (2.0 to 4.1 °F), with northern and central Cassier seeing the fastest rates of warming. Air and water pollution, and resource extraction, have severely impacted Cassier's waterways and forests.
Politics and Government
Cassier is described as a "full democracy", that has traditionally followed a moderate liberal and egalitarian political ideology. The government is responsible in upholding the laws and rights outlined within the Consitution of Cassier. An emphasis on social justice and the promotion of public welfare has been a distinguishing element of Cassier's political culture originating from the 1757 Continental Decree which created the Domain of Cassier. Cassier is a parliamentary republic, with its government divided between legislative, executive, and judicial branches that are each accountable to each other.
Cassier's legislature, called the National Assembly (Gaullican: Assemblée nationale), is responsible for the creation, proposition, and enactment of legislation. It is divided bicamerally into upper and lower houses. The lower house is the Chamber of Representatives (Gaullican: Chambre des représentants) and is made up of 400 representatives from single-member electorates of roughly equal population (one for every 100,000 people as of 2018). The upper house is the Chamber of Deputies (Gaullican: Chambre des députés), comprising of 39 representatives whom represent the governments of Cassier's provinces and territories, sending a predetermined amount based on their populations. Deputies are not directly elected by the citizenry but are instead appointed once every six years by the province or territory's legislative body.
The Chamber of Representatives is the dominant branch of the National Assembly. Although both chambers theoretically maintain equal powers, the responsibility of proposing legislation is left to the Chamber of Representatives as a matter of convention and tradition. Traditionally less partisan than the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies is responsible for reviewing legislation passed by the lower house. While it rarely outright opposes the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies may veto or amend a proposed bill given a two-thirds majority. In such a situation, the Chamber of Representatives may override the upper house's veto or amendment given a two-thirds majority after 180 days have passed.
Members of the Chamber of Representatives (often called MPs) are elected once every four years in a general election and may serve for a maximum of three, four-year terms. Representatives are elected by their constituents via a preferential instant-runoff voting system. After the conclusion of a general election the party that obtains a majority (200 seats) or forms a coalition with one or more other parties will be selected by the President to form a new government, with the party or coalition's leader ascending to the position of Executive Minister. As of the most recent general election, the Chamber of Representatives is governed by the Liberal, Reformist, and Green parties, together with liberal-indepedents and Indigenous party, form a coalition government. The opposition consists of the Conservative and Libertarian parties, along with conservative-indepedents.
The Chamber of Deputies consists of members appointed by the provincial and territorial legislatures who are tasked with representing their respective governments. The number of members a province is entitled to is determined using a degressive proportionality method, based upon a province's population. Each is entitled to a minimum of four and a maximum of six Deputies, while territories are granted a maximum of two. The total number and allocation of seats within the Chamber of Deputies is reevaluated once every six years, with the most recent change occuring in 2008 resulting in an increase from 35 to 39 members and population milestones set to the following schema:
- Territories will be granted 2 Deputies.
- Provinces with 2 million inhabitants or fewer will be granted 4 Deputies.
- Provinces with 5 million inhabitants will be granted 5 Deputies.
- Provinces with 7 million inhabitants or more will be granted 6 Deputies.
Cassier is dominated by three parties at the federal level; the far left Reformist Party, the centre-left Liberal Party, and the centre-right Conservative Party. The historically dominant Liberal Party positions itself at the centre of the Cassien political spectrum, while the Conservative and Reformists parties are oriented to the right and left respectively. A total of six political parties were elected in the 2018 election; the Liberal Party; who currently have the most seats, followed by the Conservative Party, the Reformist Party, the Libertarians, Greens, and Indigenous Peoples parties. Additionally, independents also comprise a noticible minority within Cassien politics, holding 3 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 11 in the Chamber of Representatives. Extreme political parties have rarely played a prominent role in Cassien politics, with functionalist or socialist parties historically recieving only minor support within the National Assembly.
The President of Cassier is the head of state, who serves as the main representative of the Republic both domestically and internationally. The President is elected once every 6 years in a popular election and may serve a maximum of two terms (12 years). The office is theoretically open to any Cassien citizen over the age of 40. The powers invested in the president are largely representative or ceremonial; serving as Cassier’s first ambassador during state or foreign visits, verifing the decisions made by the National Assembly; such as the appointment of theExecutive Minister of Cassier and members of the Cabinet, and calling elections. The President traditionally follows the advice given to them by the Executive Minister and the Cabinet, however they retain the right to act politically, though historically Cassien Presidents will avoid directly involving themselves in political matters.
Following general elections, the leader of ruling party within the Chamber of Representatives will be appointed by the President to take on the role of Executive Minister. The Executive Minister of Cassier is the head of government, who, along with the Cabinet, exercises the bulk of executive authority in Cassien politics. The Executive Minister works closely with their Cabinet, which is a council of senior government officials, ministers, or advisors who are appointed under the advice of the Executive Minister. Together, they advise and direct the President and by extension the direction of Cassien politics as a whole. This includes approving legislation made in the National Assembly, dissolving or postponing sessions of the National Assembly, calling for elections, appointing positions in the Cabinet or the Supreme Court, or to make declarations.
As a member of the National Assembly, the Executive Minister also assumes the role, responsibilities, and term limits of one of its members. They are subject to the term limits of their chamber (a maximum of 3, 4-year terms as a Representative, or 2, 6-year terms as a Deputy). Due to the fact that the Executive Minister is an appointed position, voters do not directly elect the Executive Minister in a national election like the President.
Constitution and Law
The Constitution of Cassier outlines its system of government and the rights of its citizens or inhabitants. It is the supreme law of Cassier, meaning that federal legislation outweighs those of its provinces or territories, though these entities themselves must also abide by the constitution. The Cassien constitution incorporates many of the principles found within the constitutions of other Asterian and Euclean republics, such as the rule of law, the separation of powers, and extensive protections of civil and human rights.
Cassier’s judicial system has primarily been influenced by Gaullican civil law, though elements of Estmerish-Rizean common law are also present. Judicial authority at the federal level is vested in the Supreme Court of Cassier, which is composed of nine Judges who interpret and determine the constitutionality of legislation via judicial review. Judges in the Supreme Court are appointed by the President under the advice of the Executive Minister and with the approval of the Chamber of Deputies. After being appointed, Supreme Court Judges serve until they reach the age of 80, when they are required to retire from their position. Below the federal level, each province, territory, and local area also maintain their own court systems which serve as the highest courts of law within their respective divisions.
Provinces and territories
Cassier has eight provinces - Beaumont, Breloux, Chicadia, Katepas, Monbec, Montagne, New Sylvagne, and Terre-Belle - and two territories - Aurora and Borealia. Provinces receive power from the Cassien constitution, and are granted more autonomy than territories. They have the authority to enact their own policies and legislation free of federal scrutiny, so long as it does not violate the Cassien constitution. Provinces are also largely responsible for local tasks such as managing their education, health, and welfare systems. Cassier’s territories are granted a degree of autonomy similar to those of its provinces, but the federal government retains the right to enact or override legislation as they see fit. The federal government rarely exercises this right however, and Cassier’s territories are generally treated as if they were provinces.
|Flag, name, and abbreviation||Cities||Confederated||Population||Area (km2)||Representation|
|Breloux||BR||Andade||July 1, 1757||13,000,000||815,371.50||130||6|
|New Sylvagne||NS||Bellevue||July 1, 1757||7,543,062||147,219.85||75||6|
|Monbec||MC||Monbec City||Sainte-Marie||July 1, 1757||6,000,000||521,305.13||60||5|
|Montagne||MT||Val Albert||Barnier||September 12, 1861||4,600,000||1,181,865.56||46||4|
|Katepas||KA||Saint-Élie||Armeins||May 11, 1858||4,000,000||1,051,197.05||40||4|
|Beaumont||BT||Nanowin||January 24, 1793||2,200,000||597,466.21||22||4|
|Chicadia||CH||Chiboctoc||July 1, 1757||1,983,563||105,118.78||19||3|
|Terre-Belle||TB||Porte-Calme||July 1, 1757||519,685||2,278,492.16||6||3|
Following its independence from Gaullica in 1936, Cassier entered into a period of non-alignment and neutrality. While it sought out ties with nations including Gaullica and Rizealand, and remained a major contributor towards humanitarian and peacekeeping efforts, Cassier did not participate in any major conflicts or interventions for most of the 20th century. Cassier reevaluated and abandoned its neutral foreign policy shortly after the Haillet's Crisis, and has since sought to pursue stronger, multilateral ties with other democratic nations and organizations.
The 2016 Cassien Census indicated a total population of 39,889,032, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure. The main driver of population growth in Cassier is predominately immigration, with over a million immigrants arriving in Cassier between 2011 and 2016.
Cassier has one of the highest immigration rates per-capita in the world, spurred by economic policies. The general public, as well as the major political parties, have been supportive of the current level of immigration. Immigrants to Cassier have originate from a variety of different regions and countries, with most arriving from Coius and Asteria Inferior. The recent waves of immigrants settled mostly in major urban areas such as Andade, Sainte-Marie and Barnier.
Cassier's population density, at 4.2 inhabitants per square kilometre, the lowest in the world. About four-fifths of the population lives within 200 kilometres either Cassier's southern borders or coastlines. The most densely populated part of the country is the Saint Marcus Corridor in the provinces of Monbec and Breloux, residing mostly within the Saint Marcus river basin.
|Largest urban areas by population|
Music and Art
The roots of organized sports in Cassier date back to the 1770s. Cassier’s official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse. Other sports such as golf, soccer, baseball, tennis, skiing, badminton, volleyball, cycling, swimming, bowling, rugby union, canoeing, equestrian, squash and the study of martial arts are widely enjoyed by much of the population recreationally.
Cassier shares several major professional sports leagues with its neighbours. Cassien teams in these leagues include nine franchises in the Asterian Hockey League, as well as several !Major League Soccer teams and the Cassier men's national soccer team, at least one team in !Major League Baseball, and the !National Basketball Association. Other popular professional sports in Cassier include football, which is played in the Cassien Football League, National Lacrosse League lacrosse, and curling.