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|Part of a series on the|
|History of Gentu|
and Gentish human history
|↑ before Homo (Septun epoch)|
(one-era three-age system)
The Middle Era, or less commonly known as the Dark Era generally runs from about 500 CE to 1589 CE. The period is characterized by the expansion of civilisations geographically and development of trade and sea networks between civilisations. The era is divided into 4 ages: the Early Age, High Age, Intermediate Age, and the Late Age.
In Hesterath, the spread of Plecanism by the Juksos created a new empire in the south of the continent and ushered in a Plecanist Golden Age with trade among the Hesterish, Naphtorans and Oranish continents, and advances in science in Gentu. The Hesterath lowlands experienced rise and fall of empires that influenced Eyoseoul, Horapon, Kharankhui, and Limu. Religions such as Afran and Plecanism spread in the region. Gunpowder was developed by the Zhao dynasty during the early High Age. The Jukso Empire connected Oranland and Hesterath, creating safe trade and stability between the two regions. In total, the population of Gentu doubled in the time period from approximately 290 million in 500 CE to 581 million in 1600 CE. Population generally grew steadily throughout the period but endured some incidental declines in events including the Great Plague, the Oranland War, and the White War.
- 1 Early Age
- 2 High Age
- 3 Intermediate Age
- 4 Late Age
- 5 Main trends
- 6 Timeline
- 7 Maps
With the fall of the Alarican Empire in Oranland, tribes from the north migrated south and settle on former Alarican territory. Over time, these tribes formed small kingdoms, they are widely regarded by historians today as the ancestors of modern Oranish nations. By the middle of the Early Age, there were 12 major cultures in Oranland (not counting Pylosan): the Veragese, Serons, Hesserlics, Hestandans, Brigans, Tawslawans, Uvaks, Bunsians, Wravians, Gurbs, Ornawans, Cavalans and Palons.
In 670 CE, the Ressen Empire emerges from Veragon, conquering huge swaths of territory stretching from modern day XXX and XXX. The empire eventually collapsed into East Ressen and West Ressen in 795 CE. In the east, another empire was also founded along the XXX river in 711 CE. They were named the Urgan Empire and frequently warred with the Dardonans in the south.
In Pylos, the Dardonan Empire rose in 496 CE, proclaiming itself the successor of the Alarican and Pylosan Empires. From 500 CE onwards, the empire reclaimed some former Alarican and Pylosan territories in the Zestoric, but after 873 CE, they were forced on the defensive as they were attacked by the Urgan Empire in the north. The Dardonans were credited for the invention of Pylosan Fire in 674 CE, which was an early version of the cannon.
In Alabon, the North Veragons, also known as the Veragian peoples, were thought to have migrated from Veragese in Oranland around the late 6th century CE, although some historians argue that the North Veragons were probably already in Alabon by that time since the Alaricans might have brought them there during their occupation of Alabon in the 2nd century CE. Whatever the case, the North Veragons thrived in Alabon. By 800 CE, they had splited into 4 distinct ethnic groups, in the north were the Nictses who were natives on the continent, in the island to the west were the Hesserns which broke away from the Nicts around the 1st century CE, in the south were the Poterns, and in the center, were the Neragese.
in 827 CE, the first kingdom in Alabon was formed in the central region known as the Kingdom of Hensax, soon after that, countless new kingdoms popped up in Alabon kick-starting the Age of Kingdoms in 841 CE.
The Early Age in Hesterath is characterised by the death of the last king of the Zhang dynasty in 554 CE and the coronation of his cousin King Wu of the new Wei dynasty in Marto of 555 CE. He introduced many new laws to the dynasty some of which are still used in modern XXX such as free education and humane prisons. Sadly, the dynasty did not last long as they were invaded by the Juksan Empire in 629 CE.
The Juksos in the first half of the Early Age thrived and conquered the Hesterath lowlands from 618 to 629 CE. But around 700 CE, the empire collapsed into numerous states governed by the noblemen who helped rule their respective areas during the time of the Juksan Empire. One of these states was the Theocratic Haserum Empire to the north of the Limu mountain range. They conquered some of Oranland in the late 8th century CE and ushered in the Plecanist Golden Age from the end of the Early Age in 843 CE to the start of the Late Age. Additionally, the empire amplified trade between Hesterath, Oranland, and Naphtora causing a boom of genetical, ideological, and technological diversity. In Plevapotamia, the fall of the Juksan Empire gave rise to the Orenetian Period, a period of war and political instability. The period lasted from 720 to 810 CE when the White Orda from the highlands conquered Plevapotamia.
In the Eyoseoul Peninsula, the Yeongman Hwagug was replaced around 660 CE by the Jaein Hwagug for reasons that are still obscure to humans today. the period of time during the Jaein rule is labled by many people as the Eyoseoul Little Dark Age due to the fact that little to no information has been uncovered regarding this period.
At around 660 CE, the first fully fledged Central Naphtoran state develops along the XXX River Valley they expanded rapidly, and by the end of the 7th century CE, the state, known as Harao occupies the entire XXX River Valley and had a, as Historian XXX puts it, "to some degree, a functioning naval force". At around 700 CE, the East Naphtoran appears and small but complex societies popped up in later decades.
In the north, the Dardonan Empire explores and conquers most of the northern region of Naphtora by the year 840.
In South Domica, the Atontec, not to be confused with the city of Atontec, emerges along the Haosan mountain range. artifacts from this period shows that they were capable of preforming surgery on the brain, with precision unlike any modern capabilities.
The High Age was the period in the Middle Era that spanned from the start of the Plecanist Golden Age in 843 CE to 1138 with the beginning of the Great Plague in Hesterath. The age is marked by the Golden Age of Plecanism and the founding of the Terranist Religion in the Veragese Collective.
The fall of the Ressen Empire led to the formation of the Veragese Collective formerly known as West Ressen in modern day Veragon, a group of unified principalities that acted as one large nation. The principalities fought wars against one another throughout their existence. Some examples being the War of the Boot or the War of the Long Knives. Meanwhile, in East Ressen, it splitted into 3 smaller states known as Horavia, Warsavia, and Briyania in 862 CE. The 3 states fought one another in a series of wars spanning 103 years, the first one starting in 866 CE and the last one ending in Disemba of 965 CE resulting in the reunification of the 3 states into the Briganan Empire.
In 921 CE, Terranity was formed as a religion that promoted peace in the Veragese Collective as well as an alternative to Hafanism. As war was frequent in the collective, the religion appealed to the lower class population as they were the ones who had to suffer the most during the conflicts. The religion was expectedly despised by the upper class and some of the middle class. Throughout the Middle Era, Terranists would be heavily persecuted in Oranland by whatever state they so happened to live in.
In the Dardonan Empire, the city of Neo-Odius began construction in 911 CE a few miles away from the site of the ruins of the original city. The city was schedule to be completed in 936 CE, but in reality, construction did not finish until 953 CE and the city did not open to the public until 956.
In eastern Oranland, the Urgan Empire collapses after the Midsummer Revolt of 961 lead by a Wravian peasant known as Miroslav Goran. The collapse eventually led to the formation of an early form of a Democratic nation led by a council of Goran's followers in the north, and the remnants of the Urgan Empire in the south. The south was later invaded and incorporated into the Dardonan Empire in 1001.
In modern day XXX, the Kingdom of Seronia rises to power in 1032 and conquers its surrounding area eventually making war with the Briganans in 1042 resulting in their victory and the weakening of the Briganan Empire and causing civil and political unrest in the empire. This would gradually lead to the Briganan Civil War in 1066 and its conversion to a more democratic form of government complete with elections and presidential terms.
In the Hesterlon Peninsula, the Hestandos rebelled against Dardona from 1059 to 1092, succeeding and formed their own kingdom in the northern part of the Hesterlon Peninsula. The successful rebellion inspired the Hesserlic people to rebel as well. So in 1108, the Empire of the Hesserlic declared independence from the Dardonans. The beginning of the Hestando's rebellion against the Dardonan Empire is widely considered by many historians today as the beginning of the fall of the "last bastion of the Ancient Era".
The High Age in Alabon saw the end of the Age of Kingdoms in Neragese, Poterns, and Nicts controlled land in 1024 with the conquests of the kingdoms of Asseia and Earcia. Their victory saw the unification between the 2 kingdoms forming the United Kingdom of Walland in 1124.
The collapse of the Juksan Empire led to the formation of several warring states in the former Wei dynasty that continued to fight each other until 859 CE with the emergence of the Long dynasty as the dominant force in the north and the Zhao, also known as the Baiyue dynasty in the south. This period was known as the Two Kingdoms period which lasted until 1043 with the northern invasion of the south. This period saw immense technological growth in the 2 dynasties, some inventions including gunpowder in 860 CE, paper money in 910, and the modern compass in 1012.
Plevapotamia and the Highlands were ruled over by the White Orda until their collapse in 1055. For roughly 130 years (until around 1185), the regions were in anarchy in what is known as the White War. It is estimated that the death toll was at least 10 million making the war one of the most deadliest in human history.
Throughout the High Age, the Haserum Empire continues to thrive as they expands into Oranland occasionally warring with Tawslaw or Bunsian tribes.
With the rise of the population of the Long dynasty in 1138, diseases became more common. A new disease that appeared around the period was the XXX and it begun to spread rapidly, killing of thousands of people in a few days. The new disease, nicknamed the Great Plague would ravage both Hesterath, Oranland, and Northern Naphtora in the next few centuries killing of millions of people.
Around 1150 was also the time when Naphtora became slightly more interconnected due to flourishing trade in the continent.
The Quadran Federation collapsed into war around 982 CE after the sudden withdrawal of dozens of tribes who were unhappy of how the federation was being ran. In South Domica, the Atontec people split into 2 groups, one in the north and the other in the south. The northern societies were more complex while their southern counterparts were more nomadic. Eventually, in 1120, the Atontec Empire formed in the north and conquered most of the Haosan mountains.
The Intermediate Age is the sub-period between the High and Late Age of the Middle Era from 1138 to the beginning of the Oranland War in 1295. It is marked by technological stagnation, plague, famine, and religious instability in Oranland, Hesterath, Alabon, and Naphtora. It is also characterized by the rise of more complex civilizations in Trimeshia and North Domica.
In 1138, the Great Plague spreaded rapidly through the lowlands, in just a month, around 100 thousand people had died due to the plague. Soon after, due to trade, the plague spreaded to Plevapotamia, Alabon, and Oranland. By 1160, and estimated 10 million were dead. The plague saw widespread famines as so many people died, most of which were the peasants and farmers. Because of this, most of the crops were left to rot in the fields. As well as famine, the plague brought political, social, and religious instability to wherever it went. Due to this, civil wars, and coups. The plague also coincided with the Mutamni Purge which saw the persecution and deaths of millions of Mutamniers which, like Terranists, were a scapegoat to be blamed for the outbreak of the plague. Additionally it also halted technological growth as many great thinkers and inventors isolated themselves or died from the plague. In 1210, the plague spreaded to Naphtora, by that time, around 22 million people was killed according to XXX although some historians argued that at least 40 million had actually died. Eventually, in the 1270s, the plague finally died down across the 4 continents, with over 65 million people dead.
The end of the Great Plague brought great joy initally, but as civil war and famines intensifies, the 4 continents fell into anarchy once again. in a restabilizing Seronia-Sotha, they blamed the Terranists for the plague, resulting in the Terranist Genocide which gradually spilled into the rest of Oranland. In 1277, the Dardonan Empire finally collapses, bringing an end to the "last bastion of the Ancient Era". In 1281, the Kingdom of Neo-Calidum emerges, conquering some former Dardonan territory in Naphtora.
Meanwhile, in Alabon, a civil war breaks out in 1274 between the House of Edwards and the House of Beckham ending in a stalemate although both sides claimed victory for themselves. From 1284 onwards, the Edwards ruled the south, otherwise known as New Asseia, while the Beckhams ruled the north, also known as Brunsland.
In Hesterath, Haserum experienced a brief civil war and several famines before collapsing, from the chaos, 3 new states formed which continued to fight against one another. The Long dynasty on the other hand, managed to recover after 3 successful and competent rulers. Horapon was not even touched by the plague.
In 1295, a series of raids on foreign settlements led to the Briganan declaration of war on Seronia-Sotha. Soon after, the conflict ecalated to encompass the entirety of Oranland and some of Hesterath. the war, known as the Oranland War would be one of the most deadliest ever fought.
Domicas and Trimeshia
The Domicas and Trimeshia saw massive growth in terms of population, society, and technology. The population in the Domicas rose from around 15 million in 1000 CE to around 32 million by the end of the Intermediate Period. Additionally, city-states and small kingdoms developed in both Trimeshia and North Domica, some notables were the Avalot Kingdoms in Trimeshia, and the Woodatan city-states in North Domica. Meanwhile, the Atontecs started building large temples and tombs around 1250 most of them used to sacrifice and bury children as part of their religion.
The aftermath included many new changes: The dissolution of Brigano. The beginning of what historian XXX noted as the rise of Seronia-Sotha as a superpower in the known Oranish world. The end of Plecanism in Oranland. And also the fall of the last remenants of the Jukso Empire. It is also the beginning of the Resurgance of Terranity, due to the many wars and famines, most people grew tired of it and wanted there to be peace, so many of them converted to Terranity which promised "everlasting peace" and to conclude all famines and strife that were still occurring by 1320. The first ruler to convert to Terranity was Penrod von Serida the ruler of one of the many principalities of the Veragese Collective.
Around 1320, with relative normality returning to Oranland, a population boom occurred bringing Oranlands population of approximately 9 million in 1329 to roughly 40 million in 1350. The Late Era also saw many new inventions such as the Printing press in 1436, and Oil paintings in 1458. In Hesterath, the Long dynasty was overthrown in 1374 by the Zhao dynasty who saw a huge growth in its population and general economic prosperity. It also saw the construction of the Palace City, the imperial residence in Haishu in 1469. The Zhao is also known for its blue-and-white Zhao porcelains. Meanwhile, in Plevapotamia, 4 states begun to govern the region by 1330. War between the 4 entities were frequent although their border's rarely moved.
In Horapon, Eakogawa was overthrown by the Shanji dynasty in 1474. They brought Horapon into isolation in 1475 and did not come in contact the rest of Gentu until 1769 when Seronia-Sotha invaded them.
In 1381, New Asseia and Brunsland went to war again after a small skirmish at the small town of XXX at the border of the 2 nations. The war eventually ended in Gunyana of 1385 after the death of King Henry II of Brunsland. The war also saw the annexation of the island of Oliean in 1382. After the war, the Neragese Empire was established.
Naphtora saw the emergence of a major empire in the central region of the continent. It was known as the Rokota Empire and at its height in 1537 spanned at least 5.1 million km2. The Late Age in Naphtora also saw the beginning of the Age of Settlers in 1500 where more and more people settled down to form kingdoms and city-states.
Age of Sails
The population of Oranland and Alabon saw massive growth throughout the Late Age. By 1500, it was so big (around 80 million) many people feared another collapse so from 1495 to around 1590, explorers such as Gabriel Aragon, Alf Weiss, and Kuno Schenck set out to look for new land to settle. Statistically, only 1 out of 20 of those who set out to find land actually came back due to the underdevelopment of Oranland and Alabon's naval technology. This eventually led to the development of the enbarck in 1505.
The development of the enbarck caused sailing for the Oranish and Alabonians to be much quicker and easier resulting in the discovery of the Domicas in 1513 and the discovery of Flonesia in 1530. The first Oranish settlement, later known as colonies, was set up in 1515 on the island of XXX in the Central Domicas by the Paqueonians. Gradually, more kingdoms and states created colonies to extract resources or to settle on the new territories. By 1537 a new type of conflict had started known by many today as the Great Games where empires such as the Paqueon, Neragese, Sereno-Sothan, and Cavalan Empire would compete over territories in the Domicas, Naphtora, Flonesia, Hesterath, and Trimeshia.
In the Domicas, the Paqueon Empire controls most of Central Domica after suppressing and enslaving the native populations there. In North Domica, the Chokaw city-states united into the Chokaw Confederacy to defend themselves against Oranish colonizers. In the east coast of the continent, the Neragese, Sereno-Sothan, and Palon competes wih each other for territory resulting in the Five Years' War in 1548. The result of which is Neragese dominance over the North Domican continent.
In 1562, the Treaty of Tavares was signed by Paqueonia, the Atontec, and the Palon Empire, dividing the continent between the 3 states. Some sections of the borders that were established in the treaty still survives to this day.
From about 1370 to 1404, 4 wars managed to reunited Plevapotamia into the Omaran Empire. The new empire swiftly asserted their dominance in the region and under the reign of Arbrim Ningal, joined the Great Games in 1565. They managed to aquire a colony in Flonesia in modern day Auralia.
In the Zhao dynasty, an early musket was invented in 1473, it later became popular throughout Gentu. The first ever usage of the weapon was in 1513 in a Zhao skirmish with Juksan minorities within the dynasty. The first large scale use of the weapon was during the Five Years' War.
Flonesia during the Late Age saw large scale colonization in an event known as the Flonesian Scramble. This inevitably led to a war in 1582 called the Flonesian War which ended in 1586 with Sereno-Sothan dominance over the northern region of the continent, and a Paqueon presence in the south. The war also saw the displacement of millions of native Flonesians and the near extinction of the Iolana Culture.
The Middle Era saw several common developments or themes. There was the expansion and growth of civilization into new geographic areas; the rise and/or spread of the three major world, or missionary, religions; and a period of rapidly expanding trade and trade networks.
Spread of religion
Religion that envisaged the possibility that all humans could be included in a universal order had emerged already in the 8th millennium BCE, particularly with Plecanism. In the following millennium, Plecanism was joined by two other major, universalising, missionary religions, both developing from Pylosan religion: Hafanism and Terranity. By the end of the age, these three religions were between them widespread, and often politically dominant thanks to colonialism and the growth of empires.
Trade and communication
Communication and trade across Oranland and Hesterath increased rapidly. The Tongxi Network continued to spread cultures and ideas through trade and throughout Oranland, Hesterath, and Naphtora. Trade networks were established between West Oranland, Dardona, Juksan, Plevapotamia, lowlands. In Naphtora the earlier introduction of the Camel allowed for a new and eventually large trans-Megalimos trade, which connected Sub-Megalimos West Naphtora to Oranland. The Juksans adopted many Pylosan, Calidum, and XXX advances and spread them through the Juksan sphere of influence, allowing these developments to reach Oranland, Plevapotamia, and Northern Naphtora. Oranish trade into Hesterath was pioneered by XXX. Importantly, the Zhang, later Wei, Long, and Zhao dynasty began the spread of their culture to regions like Horapon, Eyoseoul, and the Kharankhui Highlands through trade and conquest. Finally, the growth of the Haserum Empire in Southern Hesterath established safe trade such as to allow goods, cultures, ideas, and disease to spread between Hesterath, Oranland, and Naphtora.
The Domicans and Trimeshians had their own trade network, however theirs was limited by the lack of draft animals and the wheel. In Flonesia some of the island chains of Iolana and Nullaric also engaged in trade with one another before the arrival of the Oranish.
Growth of civilisation