This article belongs to the lore of Cavala.
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Cavala

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2nd Republic of Cavala

2e République de Cavala (Cavalan)
Flag of Cavala
Flag
Emblem of Cavala
Emblem
Motto: "Vive le Cavala"
"Long live Cavala"
Anthem: "Notre Pavillon Tricolore"
"Our Tri-Coloured Flag"
MediaPlayer.png
Cavala Globe.png
Location of Cavala (Green) in Oranland (Dark Grey)
CapitalGodfrey
Largest cityMoreux
Official language
and national language
Cavalan
Ethnic groups
(1998)
97.4% Cavalan
2.6% Others
Religion
(1999)
63% Terranity
17.8% Hafan
13.1% No religion
6.1 Others
Demonym(s)Cavalan
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Mathéo Vasseur
Alberte Jacquinot
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Assembly of Deputes
Establishment
12 Kunnen 1812–28 Gunyana 1816
• Cavalan Republic established
1 Okjatab 1816
• Cavalan Empire established
12 Kunnen 1817
31 Tebax 1948
• Current constitution and 2nd Republic
2 Gunyana 1948
Area
• Total
422,633 km2 (163,180 sq mi) (X)
• Water (%)
0.85%
Population
• 1987 estimate
Steady47,295,000 (X)
• 1994 census
Steady48,392,100
• Density
114.5/km2 (296.6/sq mi) (X)
GDP (PPP)1998 estimate
• Total
Decrease$4.391 trillion (X)
• Per capita
Decrease$48,329 (X)
GDP (nominal)1999 estimate
• Total
Neutral increase$3.289 trillion (X)
• Per capita
Neutral increase$43,924 (X)
Gini (1996)Negative increase 27.5
low · X
HDI (1994)Decrease 0.854
very high · X
CurrencyBilet (Ƀ) (BLT)
Time zoneMTS-9 (West Oranland Time)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling codeX
Internet TLD.ca
Preceded by
Cavalan Empire

Cavala, officially the 2nd Republic of Cavala (Cavalan: 2e République de Cavala), is a country in western Oranland. It also has overseas regions and territories in the Domicas and the Nullaric. Its main territories extends from the X river to the Ingentric and from the Zestoric to the Neragese Channel; overseas territories include Cavalan Iolana in Flonesia and many islands in South and North. Cavala borders X to the north, Paloa and Paqueonia to the south, and X to the east. Its 12 provinces span a combined area of 422,633 km2(163,180 sq mi) and over 48 million people (as of 1994). Cavala is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Godfrey, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre; other major urban areas include Moreux, Port-de-Gagnon, Veerla, Libtrud, and Rotraud.

Early hominids lived a nomadic hunter-gatherer life in Cavala. Cavala has numerous megalithic sites from the Novalithic Age. Metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium, initially working gold, copper and bronze. Around the 23rd century BCE, the Calidum Empire founded the colony of Ganoia, on the shores of the Zestoric Sea. This makes it Cavala's oldest city. Around the same time, the Dordon people begun to settle the region. Around 1100 BCE, Calidum colonies in modern day Cavala were abandoned due to constant attacks by the Dordon people. At the same time, the Veragon people from the Hesterlon Peninsula migrated north gradually spreading through the rest of the country between the 11th and 5th century BCE and driving the Dordons north to modern day X. During the 1st century BCE, Pylos colonized some of what is now Cavala, However, Pylosan rule lasted for barely a century, as the conclusion of the 2nd Zestoric War saw the assimilation of many Pylosan colonies in the region by the Alaricans. From 4 CE to 300 CE, the Alarican Empire would attempt to conquer the Veragese people of present day Cavala. The Alaricans and the Veragese would remain adversaries for the next centuries. Many cities were founded during Alarican control over Cavala, including Moreum, which is considered the capital of the region. From the 4th to early 5th century CE, the Alarican Empire faced many challenges in the form of attacks on its borders from native Oranland tribes from the northern region of Oranland. These attacks eventually led to the Cavalan people revolts against the Alaricans in 463. They succeeded in defeating Alarico and pushing them out of Cavala in the Battle of Surmontum.

At the end of the Antiquity Era, Cavala was divided into several Cavalan and Veragese kingdoms as well as a remaining former Alarican territory known as the Kingdom of Orvana. The kingdoms fought for control over the region, as a result, around 670 CE, the Ressen Empire emerges under the reign of Wagner I, routing the last forces of the former Alarican Empire out of Cavala in 678. He conquering huge swaths of territory stretching from modern day Legerville and X. After his death, Ressen was split. During the 8th and 9th century CE, West Ressen became a very decentralised state, thus the Veragese Collective was born. In 921, Terranity was created which promoted peace and cooperation as well as an alternative to Hafanism. The Great Enlightenment in the Veragese Collective saw a spectacular cultural development and the first standardisation of the Cavalan language.

The Industrial Revolution in Oranland brought about the first factory in 1768. Over the next few decades, more and more factories popped up in the countryside resulting in the creation of new settlements which in turn led to the foundation of a more complex social hierarchy. However, these new changes also introduced a larger wealth gap throughout Oranland. This eventually resulted in the Cavalan Revolutionary War in 1812 which resulted in its independence. On the 19th of Enero 1817, the Wolfgang Conference between multiple principalities as well as Seronia-Sotha results in the creation of the Anti-Cavalan Coalition led by the Principality of Serida and Seronia-Sotha. On the 12th of Kunnen, William Chapelle proclaimed himself Emperor of the Cavalan Empire. His army kicked the coalition out of Cavala with swift victories such as the Battle of Brumeux or Ôter-Colline. By 1819, the Cavalans had conquered most of the Veragese Collective including Serida; ending the war with the Treaty of Godfrey. After the war, a period of peace known as Pax Orania begun. It ended with the beginning of a war known as the Urgo-Wravian War. It ended in Disemba of 1868 after a two-pronged attack at the Battle of Zsofia conducted by Neo-Calidum and Urga ended in the death of King Dzmitry II of Wravia. However, the conflict between Cavala and Paloa; and Seronia-Sotha and Paqueonia did not end until 23 of Kunnen 1869 with the Armistice of 23 Kunnen 1869.

Cavala joined the Great War in Okjatab 1918 as a response to the Serono-Sothan declaration of war on Brigano. Cavala and the Cordial Alliance emerged victorious against the Grand Coalition in Kunnen of 1934 at a tremendous human and material cost. The period from 1935 to 1950 are marked by intense international tensions and a variety of social reforms introduced by the Fierté Nationale government. The controversy surrounding the impeachment of Prime Minister Hugo Deshaies by king José II in Marto of 1947 eventually culminated in the deposition of the king, and the birth of the 2nd Republic. During the Wettänkrieg, Cavala was an ally of Neragon. Additionally, Cavala contributed to the Space Race by launching the first man into space in 1959 and co-founding the Oranland Space Organization (OSO) alongside 4 other nations. In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of the late 1960s and large-scale social upheaval, conservative moral ideal shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal in an event known as the Great Liberalism. Since the early 1970s, Cavala has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational Oranland Trade Union, notably by signing the Schaffung Treaty (which created the Union) in 1973.

Many immigrants have arrived in Cavala since the 19th century. Following the end of slavery, Cavala experienced an economic crisis in the 1970s, which led to them granting citizenship to new immigrants (mainly from North Naphtora) and allowing them to permanently stay in Cavala with their families. As a result, tens of thousands of Hafans were forced to live in public housing that was subsidized and experienced extremely high unemployment rates. The assimilation of immigrants, whereby they were expected to uphold traditional values and cultural standards, was also rejected by Cavala at the same time. As a result, Hafanist terrorist attacks posed a threat to public spaces in Cavala. Over 14,000 terrorists were murdered between 1981 and 1995 as a result of Operation Caméléonne, Cavala's military operation to disarm Hafanist terrorist groups, which began after the 1981 Godfrey Underground Bombing.

Cavala retains its centuries-long status as a global centre of art, science and philosophy. It is the world's leading tourist destination, receiving over 102 million foreign visitors in 1998. Cavala is a developed country with the world's X-largest economy by nominal GDP and X-largest by PPP; in terms of household net income, it ranks X in the world. Cavala performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy and human development. It remains a great power in global affairs, being an official state with nuclear weaponry. Cavala is a founding and leading member of the Union of Realms as well as a key member of the Alfred-Riverend Defence Organization (ARDO) and the X.

Etymology

TBA

History

Prehistory

One of the Soutenir Cave paintings: a bison, approximately 19,000 years old.

The earliest trace of human civilization in modern day Cavala dates back to around 2.2 million years ago. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. Cavala has a large number of decorated caves from the Vetuslithic Age, including one of most well preserved, Soutenir Cave. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 6th and 3rd millennia BCE, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium, initially working gold, copper and bronze, as well as later iron. Cavala has numerous megalithic sites from the Novalithic Age, most notable being the dense Fortuna stones site (approximately 3,400 BCE).

Ancient Era & Alarican control

The Forme Haute was a Alarican temple in modern day Moreux and one of the most well preserved remnant of Alarican control over Cavala.

Around the 23rd century BCE, the Calidum Empire founded the colony of Ganoia (present-day Port-de-Gagnon), on the shores of the Zestoric Sea. This makes it Cavala's oldest city. Around the same time, the Dordon people begun to settle the region.

Around 1100 BCE, Calidum colonies in modern day Cavala were abandoned due to constant attacks by the Dordon people. At the same time, the Veragon people from the Hesterlon Peninsula migrated north gradually spreading through the rest of the country between the 11th and 5th century BCE and driving the Dordons north to modern day X. Around the 5th and 4th century BCE, tribes throughout the region settled down and formed more complex societies resulting in the creation of small kingdoms the most well known of which are the kingdoms of Moredum, Hydorun, and Beslius.

During the 1st century BCE, Pylos colonized some of what is now Cavala, However, Pylosan rule lasted for barely a century, as the conclusion of the 2nd Zestoric War saw the assimilation of many Pylosan colonies in the region by the Alaricans. From 4 CE to 300 CE, the Alarican Empire would attempt to conquer the Veragese people of present day Cavala.

In 56 CE, a Veragese chieftain Aodhan unites the Veragese people in what is now Cavala and defeated the Alaricans in the Battle of the Silva in 58, and besieged and ransomed Ganoia (Port-de-Gagnon). The Veragese invasion left Alarico weakened, and the Veragese continued to sabatoge Alarican control over the region when they entered into a formal peace treaty with Alarico. But the Alaricans and the Veragese would remain adversaries for the next centuries, and the Veragese would continue to be a threat in Alarico.

Around 264 Alarico conquered the southern region of Cavala. Emperor Sangarinus conquered the remainder of Cavala and overcame a revolt carried out by the Veragese chieftain Finnini in 300 officially beginning Alarican rule over Cavala. Many cities were founded during Alarican control, including Moreum (present-day Moreux), which is considered the capital of the region. These cities were built in traditional Alarican style, with aqueducts, theatres, gymnasiums, and bath complexes. Some cities also included libraries and shops, and marketplaces. The Veragese mixed with Alarican settlers and eventually adopted Alarican culture and Alarican speech (X, from which the Cavalan language and culture evolved).

From the 4th to early 5th century CE, the the Alarican Empire faced many challenges in the form of attacks on its borders from native Oranland tribes from the northern region of Oranland. These attacks eventually led to the downfall of the empire in 500 CE as many tribes migrated and settled on former Alarican territory replacing them by the so-called barbarian kingdoms. In Cavala, the Cavalan people revolts against the Alaricans in 463. Together with the Veragese people from the north, succeeded in defeating Alarico and pushing them out of Cavala in the Battle of Surmontum. However, unity between the 2 people fell apart during the late 5th century resulting in the formation of an unknown number of barbarian kingdoms in what is now Cavala and X.

Middle Era and Early Modern Age

The Ressen Empire right after the death of Wagner II in 795.
Prendreaux Prison is one of the last surviving structures that used to be a slave prison. It has been redesigned as a museum of slavery and freedom in 1968.

At the end of the Antiquity Era, Cavala was divided into several Cavalan and Veragese kingdoms as well as a remaining former Alarican territory known as the Kingdom of Orvana. The kingdoms fought for control over the region, as a result, around 670 CE, the Ressen Empire emerges under the reign of Wagner I, routing the last forces of the former Alarican Empire out of Cavala in 678. He conquering huge swaths of territory stretching from modern day Legerville and X.

The Cavalans embraced the Alarican culture and adopted Alaric languages, except in the north of the empire where Alarican settlements were less dense and where Veragese languages emerged. Wagner made Godfrey his capital, further solidifying his control over the region. However the empire did not survive after the death of his son Wagner II in 795, after a few months of quarrel, the empire was divided under the Treaty of Helmsburg between Wagner's 2 sons, with East Ressen going to Wagner III, and West Ressen to Charles I.

During the 8th and 9th century CE, West Ressen became a very decentralised state: the nobility's titles and lands became hereditary, and the authority of the king became more religious than secular and thus was less effective and constantly challenged by powerful noblemen. Thus, in 877 a group of noblemen overthrew the king at the Battle of Sang Colline, establishing the Veragese Collective: a group of unified principalities that acted as one large nation. A puppet monarch was also installed on the throne to act as a figurehead. Over time, some of the principalities would grow so powerful that they often posed a threat to each other. For example, in 1128, Monika von Sotha, the princess of the largest principality in the Veragese Collective married Jakub II of Seronia which added "Queen of Seronia" to her titles, becoming both the subject to (as Princess of Sotha) and the equal of (as Queen of Seronia) the puppet monarch, creating recurring tensions between Seronia and Sotha, and the rest of the Collective.

In 921, the Terran religion was created which promoted peace and cooperation as well as an alternative to Hafanism. Due to the fact that conflicts were frequent in the collective, the religion looked appealing to the lower class population as many felt they were being exploited for the gains of others. However, the religion was somewhat despised by the upper and middle class. Throughout the Middle Era, Terranists would be heavily persecuted in Veragon resulting in numerous uprisings of which all failed. Like the rest of Oranland, Hesterath and Naphtora, the Veragese Collective was struck by the Great Plague; about 200,000 people died within the first 3 years after the plague had reached the region, by the time the plague died down in the 1270s, around half of the Veragese Collective's population of 15 million had perished.

In 1295, the Oranland War begun after a series of raids conducted by Seronia-Sotha on Brigano results in their declaration of war. Major principalities and their allies saw the war as an excuse to resume conflicts with other faction within the Veragese Collective resulting in many major battles where tens of thousands of soldiers died. Some major battles include the Battle of Bruno, Battle of Godfrey, and the Battle of Egon.

The Resurgence of Terranity which begun in 1320 saw the conversion of many rulers in the collective from Hafanism, the first one to do so being Penrod von Serida.

The Great Enlightenment in the Veragese Collective saw a spectacular cultural development and the first standardisation of the Cavalan language, which would become the language of Oranland's aristocracy. Additonally, Cavalan explorers, such as Robin Beaulne and Auguste Barreau, claimed lands in the Domicas and Flonesia for the Veragese Collective or Seronia-Sotha, paving the way for the Seronia-Sothan colonial empire. The rise of Altenicism in Oranland led to a civil war known as the Veragese Wars of Religion in 1627, where, in the most notorious incident, thousands of Altenic members were murdered in the St. Delon massacre of 1630. The war ended in 1633 when Charles VII signed the Rights of Religion.

In 1592, the first government body in Runburg was established by Hoffman von Runburg to deal with magical and Mutamni affairs known as the Département des Anomalies Magiques (Department of Magical Anomalies). It resulted in a long set of wars, known as the Matar Wars, between the southern Veragese principalities and the House of Matarjaro, a Mutamnier family which did not think the Mutamni people should rely on the government. After the Cavalan Revolutionary War in 1816, the department merged with Ivaburg's Council of Mutamni Affairs to form the Cavalan Ministry of Magic.

During the rise of the Slave Network in the 1750s, numerous businesspeople, with the help of local authorities, set up trading posts and slave prisons along the coast of the Veragese collective. However, the most concentration of slave trading posts and prisons were located on Île-de-Noir (literally meaning Isle of Black) where it get its name. This eventually resulted in Veragon's—later Cavala's—dependency on the Slave Network to function as an economic powerhouse.

Revolutionary Cavala

William I, Emperor of the Cavalan Empire, led the Cavalan Revolution and helped built a vast colonial empire across Gentu. His conquests spread the ideals of the Cavalan Revolutionary War across much of Oranland, such as popular sovereignty, equality before the law, and nationalism. Which, especially in eastern Oranland, emerged in reaction against him.

The Industrial Revolution in Oranland brought about the first factory in 1768, a textile factory. Over the next few decades, more and more factories popped up in the countryside resulting in the creation of new settlements which in turn led to the foundation of a more complex social hierarchy. However, these new changes also introduced a larger wealth gap throughout Oranland. Because of this, the new Volkist ideology developed by Markus Volk, a Veragese-Cavalan lawyer and politician in Godfrey. In 1774, Volk attempted to lead a peasants revolt in the southern Veragese Collective in what is known as the Phupu Revolt. The revolt failed in 1775 and Volk was forced into exile in Walivia.

Despite the failure of the Phupu Revolt, it inspired other workers and peasants to rebel against the collective resulting in numerous other revolts such as the Theodora Revolt, Autumn Uprising of 1780, the Hunyo Rebellion, and the Earque Revolt. This eventually led to the Cavalan Revolutionary War in 1812. Under William Chapelle, a Cavalan Mutamnier, the Cavalans took over the southern Veragese principalities in 1816, Establishing the Cavalan Republic as well as the Cavalan National Council, the predecessor of the Cavalan Parliament. Through the Declaration of the Rights of the Workers and Peasants in 28 Okjatab 1816, Cavala established fundamental rights for men. The Declaration affirms "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression". Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests were outlawed. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth.

On the 19th of Enero 1817, the Wolfgang Conference between multiple principalities as well as Seronia-Sotha results in the creation of the Anti-Cavalan Coalition led by the Principality of Serida and Seronia-Sotha. In Memesa 1817, the Emperor of Seronia-Sotha and the Prince of Serida in the Declaration of Veerla threatened Cavala to intervene by force of arms to restore the principalities captured by the Cavalans. This led to development and deepening between a group, later called the 'Frappers', who favoured war with Seronia-Sotha and the Veragese Collective, and a group later called 'Apaisers', who opposed such a war. A majority in the National Council however saw a war with the Anti-Cavalan Coalition as a chance to boost the popularity of the new government and thought that Cavala would win a war against those gathered monarchies. On 10 Marto 1817, therefore, they declared war on the Coalition.

In the spring of 1817, the coalition pushed into Cavala. Infuriated by the coalition Army capturing Grasbourg and counter-revolutionary uprisings in the north of Cavala, William Chapelle and an army of loyalists stormed Château de Saint-Beaumont, the meeting place of the National Council, and dissolved the legislatures, seizing control of Cavala. On the 12th of Kunnen, Chapelle proclaimed himself Emperor of the Cavalan Empire. His army kicked the coalition out of Cavala with swift victories such as the Battle of Brumeux or Ôter-Colline. By 1819, the Cavalans has conquered most of the Veragese Collective including Serida. These victories led to the worldwide expansion of Cavalan ideals and reforms, such as the metric system, and the Declaration of the Rights of the Workers and Peasants. The Great Coalition War ended on 12 Phupu 1820 after a victorious albeit deadly Sothan campaign ended in the fall of the Sothan capital.

During the Treaty of Godfrey, the Veragese Collective was dissolved with Cavala annexing most of it. The remaining principalities was reorganised into the Grand Duchy of Ivo. Cavala also aquired 6 colonies, 2 being in Flonesia and 4 in the Domicas. In Gunyana of 1824, William Chapelle also known as William I died of a stroke leaving his son William II to rule as emperor.

19th century

During the Amplan Wars with Cavalan participation from 1820 to 1826, Cavala successfully defended their newly acquired colonial possessions. Their success being often credited to two Cavalan generals known as Edgar Renaud who won the Battle of X, and Patrick DeMoreum. After the war, a period of peace known as Pax Orania begun. It is identified as a golden age of increased as well as sustained Oranish imperialism, relative peace and order, prosperous stability and technological growth. During this period, the University of Godfrey as well as other institutions was established. The most well known invention of Pax Orania was the microphone which was invented in 1832 by Côme Favieux.

The death of king Bruno III, King of Paloa resulted in a succession crisis between Sebastião da Alves, an uncle of the late king; and Pedro III, King of Paqueonia and cousin of Bruno III. This resulted in war on the 15th Pulungana the same year called the War of Palon Succession. The war ended 4 Memesa 1825 resulting in Paqueonia annexing Paloa and the exile of Sebastião to New Roque. Paqueonia's control over Paloa lasted until 1828 when an uprising in Leitao occurred which became a full blown rebellion in Okjatab. On the 22 Okjatab, Cavala declared war on Paqueonia starting the Peninsular War after the Brumeux Conference between the Palon Rebellion and Cavala resulted in an alliance between the two states. Cavala's invasion of Paqueonia was led by General Jean Forgeron which resulted in the fall of Paqueonia's capital of Castelano on the 12th of Tebax 1830. The Treaty of Hidalgo on the 17th resulted in the independence of Paloa and some minor border changes between Cavala and Paqueonia.

The Cavalan Vaissre, photo taken in 1866. A partaker in the Battle of the Neragese Channel.

Pax Orania ended in 1859 with the beginning of a war known as the Urgo-Wravian War in eastern Oranland. It broke out between the 2nd Urgan Republic and the Kingdom of Wravia. The war eventually saw the participation of Paloa, Paqueonia, Cavala, Seronia Sotha, and Neo-Calidum. The war also saw the first large scale use of the steam warship. The most well known battle involving them was the Battle of the Neragese Channel between forces of Cavala and Seronia-Sotha. Cavala had joined the war after Paqueonia had declared war on Paloa which was allied with Wravia. The war in eastern Oranland ended in Disemba of 1868 after a two-pronged attack at the Battle of Zsofia conducted by Neo-Calidum and Urga ended in the death of King Dzmitry II of Wravia. However, the conflict between Cavala and Paloa; and Seronia-Sotha and Paqueonia did not end until 23 of Kunnen 1869 with the Armistice of 23 Kunnen 1869.

In 1871, king José I, a lover of fine art, literature, and technological progress decided to hold an international exhibition which he called the Grande Vitrine. Famous people of the time attended the Grande Vitrine, including Abel Baudelaire, Adahy Grau, Estaban Adjudan (who assisted with the planning and judging of exhibits), Idrol Bristule, Magnus Hugel, X, X, and X. The event took place in Godfrey, from 2 Kunnen to 16 Pulungana, 1871. It was the first in a series of World's Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th and early 20th century. Modern historians such as X believe that without the emergence of World's Fairs, the technologies of the Contemporary Age would have been drastically different.

By the end of the 19th century, Cavala's power extended greatly and have emerged as the third most powerful nation in the world behind the Seronia-Sothan and Neragese Empires. Known as the Lumière Âge, the last 2 decades of the 19th century was a period characterised by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity and technological, scientific and cultural innovations. In 1893, state secularism was officially established.

Contemporary Age

Jean-Pierre Lazard was the Prime Minister of the Cavalan Empire from 1903 to 1918.

With the death of José I, the early 20th century challenged the new king José II with a number of new existential and social crises. Frustrated by parliament’s inability to solve the economic and political issues plaguing the empire, General Néo Couvreur establishes a military dictatorship in Hunyo of 1902 with the backing of King, Néo Couvreur’s regime alleviated unemployment and improved infrastructures. However, his regime did not last long as a train accident in Memesa of 1904 resulted in his demise at St Roteaux Hospital in Godfrey the same month. A conservative win in the 1904 Cavalan general election heralded the “L’Années Sombre”, marked by political, violence, and paramilitary action. In 1907, a coup occurred, replacing the Conservative Party with the Fierté Nationale under Jean-Pierre Lazard. After fending off counter-coups, the political situation stablised and Cavala was allowed to address its external threats.

Cavala joined the Great War 14 Okjatab 1918 in response the the Serono-Sothan declaration of war on the Kingdom of Brigano. The regions of Serida-Reynar and Louterra saw Serono-Sothan occupation during the war. In Flonesia, Cavalan Iolana as well as the Chainilen Islands saw Serono-Sothan and Omaran occupation while Cavalan colonies in Naphtora participated in battle against both the Anti-Colonial League and the Grand Coalition. Cavala and the Cordial Alliance emerged victorious against the Grand Coalition in Kunnen of 1934 at a tremendous human and material cost. Approximately 2.7 million Cavalan soldiers dead, 4% of its population. Between 27% and 30% of soldiers conscripted from 1992 to 1933 were killed. Civillian casualties meanwhile are estimated to be around 2.1 million. About 3 million additional deaths where a result of the 1929 jenivert pandemic. The period from 1935 to 1950 are marked by intense international tensions and a variety of social reforms introduced by the Fierté Nationale government (annual leave, eight-hour workdays, women in government).

Protesters in Godfrey, Cavala during the 1947-1948 Cavala protests, prior to the Tebax Revolt.

The impeachment of Prime Minister Hugo Deshaies by king José II in Marto of 1947 sparked protests which eventually culminated in the Tebax Revolt which saw the deposition of the king, the birth of the 2nd Republic and the election of Hugo Deshaies as president. In 1949, the Union of Realms was formed with Cavala being one of its 34 founding member states. In 1954 Cavalan Naphtora rebelled against the government, Cavala attempted to regain control but was defeated by the Wanyan Alliance in 1959 at the climactic Battle of Bucan. Only months later, Cavala faced another anti-colonialist conflict in Samin. During the conflict, the Cavalans systematically used torture and repression, including extrajudicial killings in an effort to keep control of Samin. This conflict wracked the country and nearly led to a coup and civil war in Cavala. The presidency of Lilian Girault saw an end to the war with the Bleekrood Accords in 1965 that led to Samin independence.

Cavala contributed to the Space Race by launching the first man into space in 1959 aboard the Chaîsées 1A and co-founding the Oranland Space Organization (OSO) alongside 4 other nations including Neragon. Additionally, Cavala was a founding member of ARDO (1962) and launched a nuclear development programme known as Force de dissuasion nucléaire and made Cavala the third nuclear power.

In 1967, with the outbreak of the Shanji War in Horapon, Cavala sent troops to the region to protect trade in Shanji. However, this soon led to full scale Cavalan intervention in the war that remain highly controversial to this day. Cavala, and the Cavalan, later Neragese backed Hoywako faction emerged victorious from the war after deafeating the Naohiroist faction backed by the Northern United Republic. In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of the late 1960s and large-scale social upheaval, conservative moral ideal (religion, patriotism, respect for authority) shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal (secularism, individualism, sexual revolution) in an event known as the Great Liberalism. In the Post-Great Liberalist world, Cavala remained one of the most developed economies in the world, but faced several economic crises that resulted in high unemployment rates and increasing public debt. Since the early 1970s, Cavala has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational Oranland Trade Union, notably by signing the Schaffung Treaty (which created the Union) in 1973.

With the outbreak of the Zenswanan Revolution (1980) in Naphtora, president Thibaud Bozonnet signed the Lucroy Treaty with the leaders of the Cavalan Naphtoran colonies, giving them independence in exchange for payment in the form of exports from them. With that, Thibaud created a new form of resource extraction: Neo-Colonialism which economically destroyed the Naphtoran nations and made them militarily, socially and economically reliant on Cavala. Just 5 months later, the Chainilen Crisis occurs which concluded in Kunnen of 1981 with the formation of the Republic of the Chainlien, a vassal state of Cavala.

Since the 19th century, Cavala has received many immigrants. These have been mostly male foreign workers from Eastern Oranland countries who generally returned home when not employed. During the 1970s Cavala faced economic crisis following the abolition of slavery resulting in them allowed new immigrants (mostly from North Naphtora) to permanently settle in Cavala with their families and to acquire Cavalan citizenship. It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Hafans living in subsidised public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates. Simultaneously Cavala renounced the assimilation of immigrants, where they were expected to adhere to Cavalan traditional values and cultural norms. As a result Cavalan public centres became susceptible to Hafanist terrorist bombings. Since the 1981 Godfrey Underground Bombing, Operation Caméléonne, Cavala's military efforts to contain Hafanist terrorist organisations, killed over 14,000 terrorists between 1981 and 1995.

Geography

Topographic map of Cavala.

Cavala is located in western Oranland and has a total area of 422,633 km2 (163,180 sq mi) making it the X largest country in Gentu by area and the X largest in Oranland. The country is bordered by X the east; Paloa, Paqueonia, as well as the Zestoric Sea to the south; and the Ingentric Ocean to the west and north. The geography of Cavala consists of a terrain that is mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in the north, east and west; and mountainous in the south which includes the Surmonté mountains. The tallest point in Cavala is Mount Sudist standing at 1,391 metres. The main rivers are the Godfrey River and the Walon which empties into the Godfrey Estuary and Walon Delta respectively.

Climate

Climate map of Cavala.

Cavala has a varied landscape. The south is characterised by its tropical savanna climate which recieves and annual rainfall of about 762 to 1270 milimetres (30 to 50 in) per year. The dry seasons of the climate can become severe, and often drought conditions prevail during the course of the year. The north and numerous southern mountains are defined by its humid subtropical climate which has hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters; While oceanic and tundra climates can be found on the peaks of tall mountains.

Climate change in Cavala includes above average heating.

Environment

Cavala was 1 of the first nations in Gentu to create an environment ministry in 1969. According to the 1998 Environmental Protection Index conducted by X, Cavala was the X-most environmentally-conscious country in the world, at 66.3 out of 100.

Like all ARDO member states, Cavala agreed to cut carbon emissions by at least 30% of 1980 levels by 2000, compared to X plan to reduce emissions by 5% of 1980 levels. As of 1999, Cavalan carbon dioxide emissions per capita were lower than that of X. The country was set to impose a carbon tax in 1999 at 17 bilets per tonne of carbon emitted, which would have raised 4 billion bilets of revenue annually. However, the plan was abandoned due to fears of burdening Cavalan businesses.

Forests account for 49 percent of Cavala's land area. Cavalan forests are some of the most diverse in Oranland, comprising more than 120 species of trees. There are 5 national parks and 34 natural parks in Cavala, with the government planning to convert 20% of its territorial waters into a Marine protected area by 2010. The parks foster ecological research programmes and public education in the natural sciences.

Biodiversity

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Administrative divisions

The 2nd Republic of Cavala is divided into 12 provinces. The provinces are further subdivided into 40 counties. The counties are in turn, subdivided into 171 conteurs. The provinces, counties and conteurs are possess local assemblies as well as an executive.

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Government

Matheo.png Alberte.png
Mathéo Vasseur
President
Alberte Jacquinot
Prime Minister

Cavala is a representative democracy organised as a unitary, semi-presidential republic. The Constitution of the 2nd Republic was approved by referendum on 2 Gunyana 1948, establishing a framework consisting of executive, legislative and judicial branches. It sought to address the instability of the Cavalan Empire by combining elements of both parliamentary and presidential systems, whilst greatly strengthening the authority of the executive relative to the legislature.

The executive branch has 2 heads, the President of Cavala, currently Mathéo Vasseur as the head of state, elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 7-year term. The Prime Minister of Cavala, Alberte Jacquinot is the head of government, also elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 7-year term to lead the Government of Cavala. the President also appoints judges and civil servants, negotiates and ratifies international agreements, as well as serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The Prime Minister determines public policy and oversees the civil service, with an emphasis on domestic matters. In the 1997 Cavalan presidential election, president Vasseur was re-elected.

The legislature comprises of the Cavalan Parliament, a bicameral body comprising a lower house, the Assembly of Deputes (Assemblée des députés) and an upper house, the Senate. Legislators in the Assembly of Deputes, represent the 40 counties and are directly elected for 6-year terms. The Assembly has the power to dismiss the government by majority vote. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 10-year terms, with half the seats submitted to election every 5 years. The Senate's legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the Assembly has the final say. The parliament is responsible for determining the rules and principles concerning most areas of law, political amnesty, and fiscal policy; however, the government may draft the specific details concerning most laws.

The electorate is constitutionally empowered to vote on amendments passed by the Parliament and bills submitted by the president. Referendums have played a key role in shaping Cavalan politics and even foreign policy; voters have decided on such matters as the election of the president by popular vote, the joining of ARDO, and the reduction of presidential term limits.

Law

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Foreign relations

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Military

Clockwise from top left: a Venue A3 aircraft; a Meltra tank; a Victorieux-class submarines; the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier La République.

The Cavalan Armed Forces (Forces armées cavais) are the military and paramilitary force of Cavala under the President of Cavala as supreme commander. They consist of the Cavalan Army (Armée de terre cavais), Cavalan Navy (Armée de mer cavais), Cavalan Air Force (Armée de l'air cavais), Cavalan Space Force (Armée spatiale cavais), and the Cavalan National Police (Police nationale cavais), which also fulfils civil police duties in the rural areas of Cavala. According to a 1998 study by X, the Cavalan Armed Forces are ranked as Gentu's X-most powerful military, and the X-most powerful in Oranland. As far as the Cavalan intelligence units are concerned, the Agency of Intelligence and External Threats (Agence du renseignement et des menaces extérieures) is considered to be a component of the Armed Forces under the authority of the Ministry of Defense. In 1996, a law to ban national conscription was passed making Cavala the last one in western Oranland to do so.

Cavala is a permanent member of the Security Council of the VR, and a recognised state with nuclear weaponry since 1963. Cavala's annual military expenditure in 1998 was $69.5 billion, or 1.5% of its GDP, making it the X biggest military spender in Gentu after X. Cavalan nuclear deterrence, (formerly known as "Force de dissuasion nucléaire"), relies on complete independence. The current French nuclear force consists of 7 Victorieux-class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. In addition to the submarine fleet, it is estimated that Cavala has about 93 MAT mid-range air-to-land missiles with nuclear warheads, of which around 32 are deployed by the Air and Space Force using the Souhaits 4X long-range nuclear strike aircraft, while around 51 are deployed by the Cavalan Navy's Après-Choc Modernisé (ACM) attack aircraft, which operate from the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier La République. The new Venue A3 aircraft will gradually replace all Souhaits 4X and ACM in the nuclear strike role.

Cavala has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world. Its industries have produced such equipment as the Venue fighter, the La République aircraft carrier, the Atieau missile and the Meltra tank among others. Cavala is a major arms seller, with most of its arsenal's designs available for the export market with the notable exception of nuclear-powered devices.

Cavala has consistently developed its cybersecurity capabilities, which are regularly ranked as some of the most robust of any nation in Gentu.

Economy

The central provinces of Cavala are characterized by their vast wheat farms.

Cavala has developed, high-income mixed economy. For roughly 1 century, the Cavalan economy has consistently ranked among the X largest globally; it is currently the world's X-largest by purchasing power parity at $4.391 trillion, and the X-largest by nominal GDP at $3.289 trillion. According to the Union of Realms, Cavala is ranked X in GDP per capita, with roughly $44,000 per inhabitant. It placed X in the Human Development Index. Political corruption is among the highest in Gentu, with Cavala consistently ranking among the 50 most corrupt countries since the Political Corruption Index began in 1978 at 69.3 out of 100; it placed X as of 2000, down one place from the previous year. Cavala is Oranland's second-largest spender in research and development, at over 4 percent of GDP; globally, it ranks Xth. The Caalan economy is considerably open, although the state still owns considerable shares in key industries related to the energy, telecommunications and transport.

Cavala's economy is highly diversified, the sevices sector represents 62.4% of both the workforce and GDP, while the industrial sector accounts for 30.2% of GDP and a similar proportion of employment. Roughly 7% of GDP is generated by the primary sector, namely agriculture. However, Cavala's agricultural sector is among the largest in value and leads the Oranland Trade Union in terms of overall production; it is highly concentrated in the production of diary products, pork, beef, fruits and vegetables and wine, which is a nationally protected product. The central provinces of Cavala are characterized by large wheat farms, while coastal, greener regions count with a higher presence of farms. The services sector is based around banking and finances, in which the state plays an important role with saving banks. The sector sees large contributions from tourism seeing around 102 million foreign visitors in 1998 which is why it is regarded as a crucial portion of the economy of some Cavalan provinces.

In 1998, Cavala was the X-largest trading nation in the world and the X-largest in Oranland, with the value of exports representing over two-seventh of GDP. Its membership in the Oranland Trade Union facilitate access to capital, goods, services, and skilled labour. Despite protectionist policies over certain industries, particularly in agriculture, Cavala has generally played a leading role in fostering free trade and commercial integration in Oranland in order to enhance its economy. In 1999, it ranked Xth in Oranland and Xth in globally in foreign direct investment, with Oranish countries being leading sources. According to the Bank of Cavala, the leading recipients of FDI were manufacturing, real estate, finance and insurance. Le-Grand-Godfrey province has the highest concentration of multinational firms in Oranland.

The Moreux-Godfrey stock exchange (Cavalan: Bourse de Moreux-Godfrey) is one of the youngest in Oranland, created by X in 1874. In 1990, it merged with counterparts in the Oranland Trade Union to form the Orannet stock exchange, Gentu's X largest stock exchange. Oranet Godfrey, the Cavalan branch of Orannet, is Oranland's X-largest stock exchange market, behind the X.

Agriculture

Cavala has historically been one of the world's major agricultural centres and remains a "global agricultural powerhouse". Over half its total land area is farmland, of which 43% is devoted to permanent field crops such as cereals. The country's extensive arable land, and modern farming technology has made it Oranland's X agricultural producer and exporter; it accounts for one-fifth of Oranlands's agricultural production, including and over one-third of its oilseeds, cereals, and wine. As of 1997, Cavala ranked X in Oranland in beef and cereals; X in dairy and aquaculture; and X in poultry, fruits, vegetables, and manufactured chocolate products.

Cavala is Gentu's X-biggest exporter of agricultural products, generating a trade surplus of over $7.2 billion. Its primary agricultural exports are wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, pork, and internationally recognised brands, particularly beverages. Cavala is the X largest grower of wheat. It is the world's top exporter of natural spring water, flax, malt, and potatoes. In 1998, Cavala exported over $54 billion in agricultural products, compared to $25 billion in 1990. Cavala is also Gentu's X largest producer of wine, with many varieties enjoying global renown, such as Moreux and Eloise; domestic consumption is also high, particularly of Moreux. France produces rum primarily from overseas territories such as Cavalan Iolana.

Unlike other developed countries, agriculture is an important sector of Cavala's economy: 3.4% of the active population is employed in agriculture, whereas the total agri-food industry made up 3.9% of Cavala's GDP in 1995.

Tourism

Châteaux de Moreux is a top tourist destination in Cavala and a recognizable symbol of Moreux.

With 102 million international tourist arrivals in 1998, Cavala is the X most visited country ahead of X (X). Tourism as an economic sector made a considerable contribution to the economy of Cavala, generating a revenue of $346.2 billion, or 7.8% of Cavala's GDP in 1998. It is also an important source of employment in urban areas and in rural areas of frequent availability to tourists. According the the Ministry of Tourism, Cavala has 6,414 museums, 187 spas, 215 theatres, 17 amusement parks, 853 hotels and resorts, 26,542 tennis courts, 931 golf courses, more than 239,000 kilometres of hike trails, and 31,000 kilometres of biking ways all available and accessible to tourism activities.

The country is home to some of the most well-known cultural, iconic, and natural landmarks in Gentu, as well as 35 GEKSO sites. The most popular tourist sites include: the Nouvelle Tour Jumelle, Godfrey Musée d'Art et de Culture Cavais, Châteaux de Moreux, Mont Sudist (Mount Sudist), Colline Victoria, Île Saint-Joseph, Château de Saint-Beaumont, Porte Godfrey, Forme Haute, Grande Salle de Vitrine, and X.

Energy

Cavala is Gentu's X-largest producer of electricity. Cavala Electrique (CE), which is majority-owned by the Cavalan government, is the country's main producer and distributor of electricity, and one of the world's largest electric utility companies, ranking X in revenue globally. In 1996, CE produced around X of the Oranland Trade Union's electricity, primarily from nuclear power. As of 2000, Cavala was the X biggest energy exporter in Oranland, and the X largest net exporter of electricity in the world.

Since the Great Oil Spill of 1989, Cavala has pursued a strong policy of energy security, namely through heavy investment in nuclear energy. It is one of X countries with nuclear power plants, ranking X in the world by the number of operational nuclear reactors, at 78. Consequently, 74% of Cavala's electricity is generated by nuclear power, the X highest proportion in the world.

Due to its overwhelming reliance on nuclear power, renewable energies have seen relatively little growth compared to other member states of the Oranland Trade Union. Nevertheless, between 1988 and 1998, Cavala's production capacity from renewable energies rose consistently. Hydropower is by far the leading source, accounting for over half the country's renewable energy sources and contributing 11% of its electricity, the X highest proportion in Oranland after X. As with nuclear power, most hydroelectric plants, such as Poussian, and Lac de Faucon, are managed by CE. Cavala aims to further expand hydropower into 2020.

Cavala made minimal but measurable investments in other renewable energy sources. Due to its geography and extensive agricultural land, it has the X-largest wind energy potential in Oranland, and by 1996 had ranked X globally in installed wind capacity. In terms of solar power, Cavala ranked X in the world in 2015 for solar photovoltaic installation capacity. As of 1999, solar power sources generated over 9,840 megawatts of electricity, compared to a little over 1,000 megawatts in 1990.

Because Cavala derives the vast majority of its power from nuclear and renewable sources, more than half of its primary energy (52.1%) is derived from low-carbon sources, compared to X% in Oranland and X% in the world as a whole. Cavala is also the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the Oranland Trade Union.

Transport

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Science and Technology

Replica of the earliest known version of the spinning frame.

Since the early Modern Era, Cavala and its predecessors has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement. In the mid 18th century, Fabien Cartier invented the spinning frame ushering in the Industrial Revolution. The University of Godfrey, founded in the early 19th century, is still one of the most important academic institutions in Gentu. In the 17th century, Hector Dimont became famous for his work on probability and fluid mechanics; both were key figures of the Great Enlightenment, which blossomed in Oranland during this period. The Saint Charles Institution of Science, founded in the late-16th century by Léo von Runburg to encourage and protect Runburg scientific research, was one of the earliest national scientific institutions in history; it was at the forefront of scientific developments in Oranland for the next few centuries.

Famous Cavalan scientists includes the mathematician and physicist Théodore Gueguen, physicists Frank Bessette, and virologist Lou Plantier who discovered the Jenivert virus. Their researches practically gave birth to standardized engineering education and mechanics in Cavala, their works are used in numerous universities worldwide. Leg transplantation was developed in Veerla in 1997 by a team of scientists from X and Cavala that included Nathan Jacquier who afterward performed the first successful double leg transplant. The most well known Cavalan biologist is Abel Baudelaire, known for his research into foodborne germs and the discovery of Baudelaire's bacteria in 1884.

Cavala is the X country to aquire nuclear weaponry in 1963 and has the X largest nuclear arsenal in Gentu. Cavala was the X nation after X to launch its own satellite. Cavala is also a founding member of the Oranland Space Organization (OSO) alongside X, contributing over a quarter of the organization's budget, the most of any member state. The Cavalan space programme, CCRS, is the X oldest in Gentu. Autovolant a leading aerospace company and the world's largest airline manufacturer, was formed and based in Cavala.

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Demographics

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Ethnic groups

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Major cities

Cavala is a highly urbanised country, with its largest cities by population (including metropolitan area population) being Moreux (9,874,242 population), Godfrey (8,259,283), Port-de-Gagnon (4,756,296), Veerla (1,284,642), Libtrud (1,164,550), Rotraud (1,093,146), Lombarda (1,010,365), Richville (974,934), Eloise (763,645) and Grasbourg (705,677). Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century.

 
Largest cities or towns in Cavala
1997 census
Rank Province Pop. Rank Province Pop.
Godfrey
Godfrey
Moreux
Moreux
1 Godfrey Le-Grande-Godfrey 3,245,323 11 Legerville Runville 207,952 Port-de-Gagnon
Port-de-Gagnon
Veerla
Veerla
2 Moreux Viejaune 1,246,315 12 Brumeux Theodora 186,361
3 Port-de-Gagnon Gagnon 754,552 13 Boulebourg Balada 177,465
4 Veerla Cavais-Sothie 694,268 14 Saint-Mouvrer Serida-Reynar 175,682
5 Libtrud Viejaune 540,623 15 Platville Gagnon 170,735
6 Rotraud Cavais-Sothie 321,644 16 Hautélevé Theodora 159,784
7 Lombarda Balada 256,313 17 Verlebas Runville 156,090
8 Richville Louterra 242,844 18 Mîldupas Casque 152,003
9 Eloise Balada 240,150 19 Genpherie Île-de-Noir 149,952
10 Grasbourg Casque 231,581 20 Goudeaux Balada 149,253

Language

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Religion

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Magic

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Health

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Education

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Culture

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Art

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Architecture

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Literature

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Philosophy

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Music and Cinema

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Cuisine

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Fashion

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Media

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Sports

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Public holidays and festivals

Public holidays celebrated in Cavala include a mix of religious (Terran), national and local observances. Each county is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. Cavala's National Day (Fête nationale cavais) is celebrated on 1 Okjatab, the anniversary of the establishment of the Cavalan Republic. There are also many festivals and festivities in Cavala. Some of them are known worldwide, and millions of tourists from all over the world go to Cavala annually to experience one of these festivals.

Public holidays and festivals include:

Date Standard name Local name Remarks
1 Enero New Year's Day Nouvel An
24 Memesa Rabenus' Day Fête de Rabenus Terran holiday; celebration commemorates the birth of the Prophet Rabenus.
25 Memesa X X X
14 Marto Abolition Day Fête de l'Abolition Celebrates the anniversary of the abolition of slavery.
1 Kunnen Kunnen Day Festival Fête du Uner Kunen Celebrates the beginning of Kunnen or about halfway between the spring equinox and summer solstice. Observed only in Cavais-Sothie and Louterra.
12 Kunnen Labour Day Fête du Travail
19 Kunnen Victory Day Fête de la Victoire End of hostilities in Oranland in the Great War.
moveable Midsummer Festival Festival d'Été Day of Summer solstice.
30 Hunyo Passover Passus Terran holiday; celebrates the passing of Rabenus onto the afterlife.
8 Phupu Paul Rîneture's Day La Fête de Paul Rîneture Commemorates the birth of human rights activist Paul Rîneture, the leader of the abolition of slavery movement in Cavala. Only celebrated in Île-de-Noir.
1 Tebax All Saint's Festival Toussaint Feast of All Saints of the Hafan religion.
1 Okjatab Cavalan National Day Fête nationale cavais Cavalan National Day, commemorates the anniversary of the establishment of the Cavalan Republic.
31 Okjatab Saohain (Saint Nicolas' Day) Saohain (Le jour de la Saint-Nicolas) In Terranity, it celebrates the defeat of the Army of the Underworld at the hands of Saint Nicolas. In Mutamnian and Veragese tradition, it is believed that the ghosts of the dead returned to earth and the boundary between the realms of the living and the dead became blurred allowing necromantic rituals to occur.
1-30 Pulungana Vitrine Fair Vitrine A festival as a nod towards the Grande Vitrine that occurred from 2 Kunnen to 16 Pulungana 1871.
21-31 Disemba Terrantide Fête de Terren Holiday to celebrate the Hafan goddess Tereyia.
moveable Winter Festival Festival d'Hiver Day of Winter solstice.
31 Disemba New Year's Eve Réveillon de Nouvel An