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|Part of a series on the|
|History of Gentu|
and Gentish human history
|↑ before Homo (Septun epoch)|
(one-era three-age system)
The Modern Era, also known as the Contemporary Era (not to be confused with the Contemporary Age), is the period of human history that runs from 1589 to the present day. The era is divided into 3 ages: the Early Modern Age, Middle Modern Age, and the Contemporary Age.
Variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the start of the Great Enlightenment, historians in recent decades have argued that from a worldwide standpoint, the most important feature of the Early Modern Age was its spreading globalizing character. New economies and institutions emerged, becoming more sophisticated and globally articulated over the course of the period. This process began simultaneously in Oranland and Hesterath although some sources argued it had first begun in the Veragese Collective. It also included the rise of the dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism.
The Middle Modern Age meanwhile, is marked by the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in 1760. The period also saw widespread improvement and development in technology such as the invention of the steam engine and an early telephone. In addition to these improvements, the early half of the Middle Modern Age is regarded by many historians as the Golden Age of Slavery. In Naphtora, the Naphtoran Conquests beginning in 1870 saw the rise of the Anti-Colonial League led by Neo-Calidum in 1873. The Middle Modern Age also included the rise of the relatively new Volkist ideology.
With the end of the Great Games and the start of the Great War in 1918, the Contemporary Age begun. The age was characterized by the end of colonialism with the last major colony gaining independence from Paloa in 1990. It also saw the landing of the first man on Cynthia in 1976 and many other technological advances due to competition for influence over Gentu between XXX and XXX. The age also comprised the start of the unofficial Verandere Epoch in 1950.
Early Modern Age
Beginning in 1589, the Early Modern Age is distinguished by the beginning of the Great Enlightenment and its globalizing character.
The Great Enlightenment was triggered by the resurgence of trade between Hesterath, Oranland, Naphtora, the Domicas, Alabon, Flonesia, and Trimeshia. This resulted in the amplified spread of ideas and inventions throughout the continents. In Trimeshia, the Oranish powers colonized the continent with Neragese influence in the east and Palon influence in the west.
In Naphtora, a coup in Neo-Calidum leads to the establishment of the Neo-Calidum Empire in Okjatab of 1623. Under the reign of Sehiman the Great, the Neo-Calidum Empire conquered most of northern Naphtora and some of what remained of the Dardonan Empire. Throughout the Modern Era, Science and learning flourished throughout the empire, but particularly in its early centuries. Neo-Calidum had contributed to the development of hospitals and healthcare, and witnessed advances in medicine, mining and military technology. They also set up a leading observatory in Neo-Odius and had established more than 300 institutes for learning.
The idea of a unified state spreaded to northern Hesterath around the mid 17th century. It resulted in the emergence of the so-called Northern States. They stayed disunited until 1710 with the start of the First Northern War ending with the establishment of the Eudocian Republic in 1716 and Omaran occupation of the western half of northern Hesterath. In the Lowlands, the Zhao continues to flourish due to trade while the Shanji continues its practice of isolationism.
In the Domicas, war erupts between the Paqueon and Neragese Empire in 1602. The war, later known as the War of 1602, spanned the regions of Oranland, the Domicas, Flonesia, and some of Hesterath. It included 7 combatants and was fought over a period of 13 years, ending in Enero of 1615. Although the war ended in a stalemate, it resulted in the Terranist Divide in 1618 which in turn, led to the divide of the Terranist Church into the Paxist and Altenic Church, the Paxists promoting pacifism more strongly then Terranism while Altenics only wanted to be left alone.
During the 1750s, the Slave Network was formed. It involved the transportation by slave traders of sold and enslaved Naphtoran people, mainly to the Domicas. The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the Slave Network were people from central and west Naphtora that had been sold by other Naphtoran to Oranish slave traders, while others had been captured directly by the slave traders during frequent tribal wars that occurred. Oranish slave traders gathered and imprisoned the enslaved at forts on the Naphtoran coast and then brought them to the Domicas. The South and Central Domican economies were particularly dependent on labour for the production of sugarcane and other commodities.
Middle Modern Age
The Industrial Revolution begun in Cavala in 1760 with the invention of the Spinning frame, ushering in the Middle Modern Age. The age ended in 1918 with the conclusion of the Great Games and the start of the Great War.
The Industrial Revolution, introduced many new inventions to Gentu, such as the steam engine, invented in 1784; the electrical telegraph in 1837; and the telephone in 1876. These new inventions changed lives of many people and helped make communication and transportation easier throughout the many empires.
In Hesterath, in response to a refusal to trade with Seronia-Sotha, they declared war on the Shanji dynasty in 1769 this led to a Serono-Sothan victory and the Shanji was forced to cede a few islands of the coast of Horapon to Seronia-Sotha which would later develop into the Serono-Sothan trading city and colony of Nowy Shoto. In 1772 the Zhao dynasty plunges into civil war after the death of the king. The war eventually concluded with the treaty of XXX in 1786 with the Zhao dynasty divided into north and south: the Easu controlled Yang dynasty in the north, and a Qiu controlled Nanchao dynasty in the south.
In 1778, the Second Northern War begins when the Omaran declares war on the Eudocian Republic. The war eventually ended in 1784 with the Omaran Empire kicked out of northern Hesterath and the establishment of a Neragese colony in the region. 23 years later, in 1807, the Farhad people revolts against the Omaran Empire resulting in the Third Northern War. The war ended in another Omaran defeat, the expansion of the Neragese colony in the region, and the establishment of the Farhad Federation in 1814.
In 1823, the Nanchao dynasty ceded 118 square kilometres of land on the Red River Estuary to the Palon Empire as a trading post. The piece of land would later be known as Hoy Kok. Around the same decade, in 1826, the Yang dynasty would enter a period of isolation just like the Shanji did on Horapon.
Around the mid-19th century, the first steam warship was developed in Nanchao. Although the exact time of its creation and the person who invented it is still a mystery, the new concept spreaded quickly across the known world and completely revolutionized naval warfare. The first large scale usage of this new type of warship was in 1867 at the Battle of the Neragese Channel during the Urgo-Wravian War in Oranland.
In 1874, the Omaran Empire aquired a colony in Naphtora during the Naphtoran Conquests before they were expelled from the continent by the Neragese in 1894.
In 1893, war between the Kingdom of Samin and Cavala breaks out in the southern region of the continent resulting in a Cavalan victory.
The Goldern Four
The Golden Four was the name given to the 4 continents of North and South Domica, Naphtora, and Oranland. The reason as to why they were called this was because they were the main locations of the Slave Network. The early half of the Middle Modern Age is regarded by many historians as the Golden Age of Slavery.
The Industrial Revolution in Oranland brought about the first factory in 1768, which was a textile factory. Over the next few decades, more and more factories popped up in the countryside resulting in the creation of new settlements which in turn led to the foundation of a more complex social hierarchy. However, these new changes also introduced a larger wealth gap throughout Gentu. Resulting in the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer. Because of this, the new Volkist ideology developed in the southern principalities of the Veragese Collective.
In North Domica, an expensive war between the Chokaw Confederacy and the Neragese Empire in 1772, known as the Warkhan War, leads to a Neragese victory and the annexation of Chokaw. But because of how costly the war was, the Chokaws and a group of Oranish defectors were able to continue fighting using guerrilla warfare against the Neragese until 1778 when they overthrew the Neragese northern colony in North Domica when Neragon was diverting its resources to Hesterath during the Second Northern War. This eventually resulted in the Chokaw Independence War which ended in 1789 in a Chokaw victory. These chain of events inspired many other people oppressed by the empires in the Domicas to revolt against them.
From 1770 onwards, demonstrations in Oranland organized by workers and miners would occur. Although, none of them were successful, it resulted in the legalization of trade unions in Neragon, Palon, and Seronia-Sotha. Trade unions were organizations of workers who had came together to achieve common goals, such as protecting the integrity of their trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, healthcare, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by solidarity among workers. However, places that did not act quick enough led to more violent and frequent demonstrations. This eventually led to the Cavalan Revolutionary War in 1812. They united the southern Veragese principalities into the Cavalan Republic in 1816.
Due to Cavala's rapid expansion, the Anti-Cavalan Coalition led by the Principality of Serida and Seronia-Sotha was formed in Enero of 1817. This prompted the Great Coalition War in 1817 which ended in 1820 in a Decisive Cavalan victory, managing to aquire 2 colonies in Flonesia and 4 in the Domicas. While the Great Coalition War was occuring in Oranland, the indigenous people of South and central Domica and a few Oranish colonies rebelled against Neragese, Palon, and Paqueon rule in a series of conflicts known as the Amplan Wars. With the help from the Atontec Empire, they nearly drove them off the continent. However, several colonies in the Domicas were unable to be captured so although the war ended in a victory in 1826 for the rebellions, a few Neragese, Paqueon (and later Cavalan) colonies survived.
In 1823, a successioon crisis occurred which led to the War of Palon Succession in Pulungana of 1823. The war would eventually end in 1825 with the Paqueon annexation of the Palon Empire. However, Paqueon occupation of Paloa did not last long as in 1828, war between Cavala and Paqueonia would break out resulting in the Peninsular War which ended in 1830 with the release of Paloa and some minor border changes between Cavala and Paqueonia.
The period of time starting in 1826 was known as the Pax Orania, the timespan which is identified as a period and as a golden age of increased as well as sustained Oranish imperialism, relative peace and order, prosperous stability and technological growth. It ended in 1859 with the beginning of a war known as the Urgo-Wravian War in eastern Oranland between the 2nd Urgan Republic and the Kingdom of Wravia in 1859, both of them being successor states of the Urgan Empire. The war saw the first large scale use of the steam warship and saw the involvement of 5 other combatants on both sides of the conflict. Ending in 1869, the war brought about the unification of eastern Oranland and the establishment of the Republic of Wravia.
In 1871, 2 years after the last major war, the Grande Vitrine was held in Cavala. It was an international exhibition which took place in Godfrey, from 2 Kunnen to 16 Pulungana, 1871. It was the first in a series of World's Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th and early 20th century. Modern historians such as XXX believe that without the emergence of World's Fairs, then the Contemporary Age would have been drastically different then what we recognise.
Meanwhile, the Naphtoran Conquests begins in 1870. It consists of the invasion, annexation, division, and colonization of most of Naphtora by 7, later 5 powers, kickstarted by the Neo-Odian Conference in late 1869. This eventually led to the establishment of the Anti-Colonial League in 1873 led by the Neo-Calidum Empire. This resulted in the series of so-called Naphtoran Wars which ended in 1905. By that time, only 6 of the original 13 members of the league survived.
On the 12th of Pulungana 1918, a Briganan Volkist by the name of Adrian Claude assassinates Prince Tobias Ludwig of Seronia-Sotha in Luceria in the Protectorate of North Brigano during one of his trips to the protectorate. The assassinations, along with the Great Games, Volkism, imperialism, militarism of Seronia-Sotha and the alliance system all contributed to the origins of the Great War, which began exactly a month and a day after the assassination, with Seronia-Sotha's declaration of war against Brigano. The assassination of Ludwig is considered the most immediate cause of the Great War.
In 1888, a Cavalan explorer Samuel de Héroux discovers the Chainilen Islands. A few years later in 1894, the Cavalan Empire would invade and colonize the islands.
In Aralona, a war between Seronia-Sotha and the Paqueon Empire in 1899 broke out. Ending in 1908, the war resulted in Paqueonia severing ties with Seronia-Sotha. This would eventually lead to Paqueonia forging closer ties with the Kingdom of Brigano.
The Great War offically begun on the 13th of Okjatab 1918 and ended on the 21st of Enero 1935. by 1923, its belligerents included much of Oranland and Naphtora, Chokaw, and most of Hesterath, with fighting also expanding into the Domicas, Flonesia, and parts of Trimeshia. It is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, an estimated 54 million people were killed in combat, while over 35 million civilians died from military occupation, bombardment, hunger, and disease. Millions of additional deaths resulted from genocides within the Omaran Empire and the 1929 jenivert pandemic, which was exacerbated by the movement of combatants during the war.
At the beginning of the war in 1918, there were 3 factions: the Cordial Alliance of Cavala, Paqueonia, Brigano, and Wravia; the Grand Coalition of Seronia-Sotha, Urga, Wallia and Saroa, and Batsa; and the Anti-Colonial League of Neo-Calidum, Beja, Rokota, Rwahili, Aranto, and Warasania. In Enero of 1920, Neragon, and late Eudocia would join the Cordial Alliance after Seronia-Sotha invaded the Grand Duchy of Ivo to bypass the Couvreur Line that defended Cavala's border with Seronia-Sotha. On the 4th of Marto 1924, the Omaran Empire joins the Grand Coalition after an Omaran merchant ship was sunk of the coast of Neragon, the following week, the Nanchao dynasty declared war on the Omaran and joined the Cordial Alliance. Just 3 days later on the 15th of Marto, the Yang dynasty to the north and the Farhad Federation joined the Grand Coalition and declared war on Nanchao. In Disemba of 1926, Chokaw declares war on Neragon after a Chokawan warship was sunk by a Cavalan submarine in central Domica.
The war ended in Kunnen of 1934, by that time, an estimated 96 million people soldiers and civilians died. The Godfrey Peace Conference in Pulungana to Disemba the same year imposed various settlements on the defeated powers with the best-known of these being the Treaty of Moreux. The fall of the Eudocian Republic to a Volkist rebellion; and the dissolution of Seronia-Sotha, Yang, the Omaran, Urga, Batsa, led to numerous uprisings and the creation of independent states, including Seronia, Gurbon, and Veragon. In Naphtora, the Treaty of Astes in Enero of 1935 resolved the stalemate between the League and the Cordial Alliance allowed the Anti-Colonial League to claim the colony of Seronia-Sotha but were also forced to give up their holdings in Oranland which resulted in the establishment of Pylos. In the Domicas, Chokaw and and Neragon signed the Treaty of New Asseia which resulted in white peace.
The Roaring Fourties, refers to the decade of the 1940s. It was a period of economic prosperity with a distinctive cultural edge in Chokaw, Oranland, and Hesterath, particularly in major cities such as Wolfgang, Godfrey, Wilding, Haishu, Sesay, Weston, and New Gagnon. In Cavala, the decade was known as the années dorées ("golden years"), emphasizing the era's social, artistic and cultural dynamism. Jazz blossomed, the flapper redefined the modern look for Oranish and Domican women, and Art Deco peaked.
This period saw the large-scale development and use of automobiles, telephones, films, radio, and electrical appliances in the lives of millions in Gentu. Aviation soon became a business. Nations saw rapid industrial and economic growth, accelerated consumer demand, and introduced significant new trends in lifestyle and culture. The media, funded by the new industry of mass-market advertising driving consumer demand, focused on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars, as cities rooted for their home teams and filled the new palatial cinemas and gigantic sports stadiums. In many major democratic states, women won the right to vote.
The spirit of the Roaring Fourties was marked by a general feeling of novelty associated with modernity and a break with tradition, through modern technology such as automobiles, moving pictures, and radio, which brought "modernity" to a large part of the population. Formal decorative frills were shed in favor of practicality in both daily life and architecture. At the same time, jazz and dancing rose in popularity, in opposition to the mood of the Great War. As such, the period often is referred to as the Jazz Age.
In 1949, the Murchu Conference results in the agreement of the Neragese proposals for the aims, structure and function of a new international organization. The Union of Realms was founded with the sole purpose of ensuring peace in Gentu.
The Wermark Crisis ended the period and ushered in the Wettänkrieg, kickstarting the end of colonialism in 1951.
The Wettänkrieg officially begun on the 9th of Phupu 1951 with the beginning of the Wermark Crisis, a confrontation between Neragon and the Northern United Republic following a Neragese intervention in the politics of the newly formed state of Mareasia. The crisis saw the development of the first atomic bomb in Memesa of 1952 by the Neragese. The crisis is often considered the closest the Wettänkrieg would come to a full scale war, comparable in scale only to the Great War. The crisis ended in Gunyana of 1952 with the Mareasian Civil War which ended in Enero of 1953.
No large-scaled wars would be waged throughout the Wettänkrieg, instead, the 2 superpowers would each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these 2 superpowers. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events and technological competitions such as the Space Race. It also resulted in the invention of new technologies such as the modern computer, the kommatrix, and the video game. The Wettänkrieg also resulted in the end of slavery in many countries and the independence of many colonies which did not want to be affiliated with the conflict which is why the period was often regarded as the Century of Revolution in Naphtora, or the Great Decolonisation everywhere else. By 1980, around 23 colonies had gained independence via violent or non-violent methods.
In 1957, a Volkist revolt in Nanchao, results in the collapse of the dynasty and the beginning of the Nanchao Civil War. The war eventually ended in 1961 with the emergence of 3 new nations: the OVE aligned Eyoseoul and Juksia; and the Neragese aligned Qiuhua. Following that, Neragon and its allies created the ARDO military alliance in 1962 in the apprehension of a Northern attack and termed their global policy against Volkist influence containment. The Northern United Republic formed the Beimen League in 1963 in response to ARDO. Major crises of this phase included the 1960-1968 Omaran Civil War, the 1967-1979 Shanji War, the 1968 Urgan Revolution, the 1975-1979 Nanhai Blockade, and the 1983 Trimeshian Crisis. Neragon and the OVE competed for influence in the Domicas, southern Hesterath, and the decolonizing states of Naphtora, Trimeshia, Hesterath, and Flonesia.
From 1988 to 1990, a wave of revolutions (with the exception of Anova and Kukana) overthrew almost all volkist governments of the Beimen League. The Volkist Party of the OVE itself lost control of the state and was banned following a coup in Enero 1992. This in turn led to the formal dissolution of the OVE in Memesa 1992, the declaration of independence of its constituent republics and the collapse of volkist governments across much of Naphtora, Hesterath, the Domicas, and Trimeshia. Neragon was left as the world's sole superpower.
This section needs to be updated.1 Enero 2000)(
The post–Wettänkrieg period is the period of history that follows the end of the Wettänkrieg, which represents history after the 1992 fall of the OVE.
The period (1992 to the present) is characterized by the rise in the awareness of multiculturalism as well as the advance of alternative media. Music movements like grunge, the rave scene, and hip hop became popular with young people worldwide, aided by cable television and the internet. The 1990s saw advances in technology, with the Gentubreitmatric, the first gene therapy trial, cloning, and the first designer babies all emerging and being improved upon throughout the period.
New ethnic conflicts emerged in Naphtora, eastern Oranland, and Trimeshia, the former witnessing the Kukanan genocides in 1996. In 1999, the Oliean War began sparking a period of violence that has not yet been concluded.