The Commonwealth of Hindia Belanda
Persemakmuran Hindia Belanda
Gemenebest Nederlands Indië
Motto: Saya Pertahankan (Indonesian: I will uphold)
Location of Hindia Belanda (dark green) in Astyria
and largest city
|Official languages||Dutch, Indonesian and English|
|Recognised national languages||Various|
|Demonym(s)||Hindia Belandan, Indesvolker|
|Government||Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy|
|Anne Charlotte of Hindia Belanda|
• Prime Minister
from the Kingdom of Noordenstaat
• Colonial charter
|3 February 1800|
|12 August 1929|
• 2017 estimate
|HDI (2017)|| 0.923|
|Time zone||UTC +7|
Hindia Belanda (Dutch: Nederlands Indië, Indonesian: Hindia Belanda), officially the Commonwealth of Hindia Belanda, is an archipelagic country in Southern Sythith. It is (possibly?) the most populous country in the continent of Sythith. The national government and parliament are seated in Jakarta, the country's capital, largest city and main economic centre. The country consists of some 6,000 islands encompassing Java, Madura, Sendjani, Papoea, Celebes, Timor, Somatra, the Malayan Peninsula and smaller islands and islets. The country occupies the entire Nusantara archipelago and shares a land border with Maqtajer in the northeast.
Inhabited by the seafaring Austronesian people for over 40,000 years, the Nusantara archipelago which constitutes modern-day Hindia Belanda saw the development of tribes into petty kingdoms, principalities and the Anjani Empire along with its tributary states. The archipelago has been one of the most important trade regions since the 7th century when animist kingdoms began to trade with outside powers. Islam was introduced to Hindia Belanda by Shia Traders and partisans of the Shia Imams in the 10th century. It was not until the early 16th century that the archipelago started to experience foreign colonialism with the arrival of the Empire of Exponent on the island of Sendjani and the establishment of their trading posts and forts. The Empire of Exponent brought Roman Catholicism to Hindia Belanda, although their presence, being limited to small trading posts, forts and monasteries meant that their hold on these islands began to weaken with the arrival of the Noordenstaater Trading Company, which brought with them Protestantism.
Colonial Hindia Belanda was formed following the dissolution of the Noordenstaater Trading Company in 1800, when territories previously held by the trading company were nationalised and made part of a new crown colony. In 1927, Hindia Belandan intellectuals began to demand full autonomy in a period known as the Struggle for Autonomy. During the struggle, the colonial society was polarised into two opposing factions: the Republicans, who demanded that Hindia Belanda became independent as a republic, and the Autonomists, who desired that the colony be given full independence whilst sharing the same monarchy. The movement was led by Soekarna, who initially sided with the republican movement but was later convinced by his long-time friend Mochammad Hata to support the Autonomist faction. Soekarna later became the first prime minister of Hindia Belanda. A war of independence nearly broke after continuous clashes between the two factions but was prevented by the signing of an emergency Royal Decree in 1928, issued by Queen Margriet under heavy pressure from Autonomists and some Noordenstaater politicians. The decree became the blueprint for the Charter for the Commonwealth of Hindia Belanda, signed on 12 August 1929, a date which became Commonwealth Day. The Charter established the Commonwealth in its current form and is the basic guiding principle of national life.
As a result of historical, political and cultural ties with Noordenstaat, Hindia Belanda enjoys close relations with the Lorecian Community and forms part of the Royal Union. The country is a founding member of the E10 Council of Nations and a full member of the World Assembly. Hindia Belandans enjoy a high standard of living and the country performs well in many comparisons of national performance, especially in education, healthcare, social welfare, civil liberties, prosperity and human development. The country is one of the first in Sythith that legalised same-sex marriage and decriminalised personal drug use and possession. A majority of Hindia Belandans are Esoteric Shias, followed by Christians and other religious communities. The government itself remains secular and does not concern itself with the religious life of its citizens, although crackdowns on Wahhabism, a puritanical form of Sunni Islam, in recent years indicated a change in stance. The Hindia Belandan currency is the Roepiah, which is legal tender in Hindia Belanda and Noordenstaat alongside the Noordenstaatian Guilder.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
Main article: History of Hindia Belanda
IGNORE THIS PART FOR NOW Main article: Prehistoric Hindia Belanda
Human migration study conducted by various Hindia Belandan and foreign universities found that Homo sapiens settled the archipelago by around 45,000 years ago, yet earlier modern hominids such as Homo erectus have settled most of the islands between 1.6 million to 1 million year ago and had gone extinct shortly after the arrival of Homo sapiens. Whilst the Hindia Belandan archipelago reached its present form in the pleistocene period, some parts of Sundaland remained connected to the Sythithian mainland which facilitated the migration of animals and hominids. The shallow Arafura sea also made human migration to the entire chain of islands possible.
At the end of the last ice age 10,000 years ago, the surrounding land bridges became submerged as sea level rose creating the Java Sea, Malacca Strait and the Sendjani Sea. It is at this period that civilisations in the Nusantara archipelago became isolated and contacts between one another dramatically decreased due to the changing geology of the region.
The earliest evidence of a human settlement in what is now Hindia Belanda was found in the foothills of Mount Sendjani, Java in 1989. The artefacts, consisting several stone tools, clay potteries and daily utensils, were carbon-dated to at least 700 BCE. The excavation effort which was led by Raden Poerasedja who, at the time, presided over the Royal University of Jakarta as Chancellor, brought to light the previously missing link between largely nomadic cultures that dominated much of Java in the 8th century BCE to fully-fledged societies with permanent settlements that existed in the 2nd century CE.
It is difficult, however, to define the beginning of historic periods in Hindia Belanda as various cultures across the archipelago developed at a different rate. Most historians accept that one of the first cultures to have begun their historic periods were mostly situated on the islands of Java and parts of eastern Borneo. Writing script was still unknown to some cultures which settled in the interiors of remote islands within the archipelago, whilst at the same time civilisations began to flourish in other parts of Hindia Belanda, with the advent of the Sundanese Salakakirana Kingdom in circa 130 CE marking the start of historically recorded civilisation in the archipelago. Historians now accept that civilisation in what is now Hindia Belanda developed slowly but at a steady pace from 700 BCE until around 290 CE when petty animistic kingdoms started to make their appearance in Java and Sumatra, replacing nomadic cultures that had grown into villages and hamlets with complex societies.
Whilst most primitive tribes in Hindia Belanda that resisted outside influence have slowly embraced modern way of life, remnants of megalithic traditions can still be found today in parts of Nias island in the form of ceremonies and rituals. Some primitive societies still exist in small number, scattered across the archipelago and often situated in remote reaches of the island. These societies have all made contacts with the Hindia Belandan authorities and they are protected by Hindia Belandan law from forcible relocation.
The early 2nd century saw the establishment of the Salakakirana Kingdom, the first historically recorded Kingdom in what is now West Java province.
Vast, thalassocratic empire with a capital of the same name.
Esoteric Shia states
A few decades before the fall of the Anjani Empire, the tributary relationship that dominated the archipelago was already deteriorating to the point where some tributary states of the empire declared independence with little to no violent struggles. One of the first of such states was the XY, whose leader, NAME, converted to Esoteric Shi'ism and started the first Esoteric Shia Dynasty in the archipelago.
Brief era of Exponential colonialism with trading posts, forts and missions scattered here and there.
Noordenstaater Company rule
The 1580s until 1800. Territories limited to trading posts but the NTC successfully took over the Sundanese port city of Jacatra, modern-day Jakarta and established its headquarters there.
Starts in 1800 ends in 1929.
1929 - 1950. Immigration restrictions (bad), protectionism, Commonwealth paternalism, disenfranchisement of Hindia Belandan nobility, forced assimilation of minority Melanesians (pretty horrendous), armed neutrality (good).
1950 - present day. Liberalisation of the Church of Hindia Belanda. Decriminalisation of drug use and possession.
Hindia Belanda occupies the entire Nusantaran Archipelago in Southern Sythith and is composed of 6,000 islands, of these only 5,000 are inhabited. The largest of the Hindia Belandan islands are Java, Madura, Sendjani, Papoea, Celebes, Timor, Somatra. Peninsular Hindia Belanda, known simply as Malaya shares a land border with Maqtajer. The Hindia Belandan archipelago is surrounded by the Central Ocean.
The snow-covered Carstensz Mountain on the island of Papoea is the country's highest point at 5,188 metres above sea level, whilst the Devil's Trench is its lowest point at -4,125 metres below sea level.
Hindia Belanda has a tropical climate.
Main article: Politics of Hindia Belanda
Hindia Belanda is a unitary parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy. It is headed by a Queen, currently Anne Charlotte II, who is represented in the Commonwealth by a Governor-General, currently Maryam Rahmadisoerja. The person who is the Hindia Belandan sovereign is equally that of Noordenstaat, although the two monarchical institutions remain separate. The Queen is said to appoint the Governor-General who carries out royal prerogatives on her behalf, but in practice the Governor-General is chosen by an all-party parliamentary commission. Empowered by royal prerogatives, the Governor-General sits in the Cabinet of Hindia Belanda, which is a committee within the Council of State, the highest executive body in the Commonwealth. Headed by the Prime Minister, who is currently the National Indies Party leader Antje Moeljani, the cabinet is directly responsible to parliament.
Since 1951, the involvement of the Governor-General in the domain of governance is limited and the person occupying the office no longer attends cabinet meetings despite being organisationally a part of which. On rare occasions, the Governor-General may exercise the viceregal prerogatives without the advice of the government. One of the most important of the Governor-General's prerogatives is to ensure that there is always a democratically-elected government, formed by the party with the most seats in the Dewan Deputi. As Hindia Belanda has in place an adversarial parliamentary system, the party with the second-most seats in the Dewan Deputi becomes Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition tasked with challenging the government of the day and keeping it in check. In the event that there is no clear majority in parliament, the leader of the party with the most seats in parliament is appointed as formateur, charged with seeking confidence and supply from other parties. When a coalition has been formed, the formateur reports back to the Governor-General asking to form a government in the sovereign's name and the formateur becomes Prime Minister.
The 790-seats in the Dewan Deputi, the lower house of parliament, each representing a constituency, are elected by simple plurality. General elections are called by the Governor-General through the issuance of a writ of election in the event that the government loses confidence of the Dewan Deputi, on the advice of the Prime Minister or when the maximum life of a parliament – a period of five years from the last general elections – has expired. The unelected upper house, the Dewan Bangsawan, is composed of peers of which there are two types: life peers and princely peers. Life peers are appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the incumbent Prime Minister and an all-party Parliamentary Joint Committee on Peerage. Princely peers are (heads of the fifteen Hindia Belandan princely houses) and as such, their position is hereditary. The number of life peers is not fixed whereas there can only be one princely peer representing a Hindia Belandan princely house.
Politics in Hindia Belanda are characterised by continuous efforts to achieve general consensus on important issues. Egalitarianism, social justice, liberalism and limited direct democracy are considered as some of the country's political traditions which evolved from ideas developed in the colonial era. Governments are known to seek approval of the general population before submitting significant bills of law and ratifying treaties with foreign states. Historically, most governments were formed by a coalition of several parties but beginning with the 2012 Hindia Belandan general elections, two major parties, the big-tent National Indies Party and the centre-right Liberal Democratic Party, have dominated Commonwealth-level politics.
The Hindia Belandan Government is led by the Prime Minister.
Main article: Parliament of Hindia Belanda
Provincial and communal devolution
The largest subdivision of Hindia Belanda, the 14 provinces have their own governments led by a Queen's Commissioner, who is elected for a five-year term, and their own elected provincial assemblies. As set out by the Provinces Act (Devolution) 1948, the authority of a province encompasses all fields of governance, except defence and security, foreign policy, the judiciary, the monarchy, fiscal and monetary matters as well as religion (provinces may neither establish an official religion nor implement religious law). Queen's Commissioners are, first and foremost, representatives of the Commonwealth Government in the provinces and thus subordinate to the government of the day.
Below the provinces are the communes (Indonesian: komune; Dutch: gemeente), of which there are two types: urban commune and rural commune. An urban commune is headed by a mayor and a board of aldermen whilst a rural commune is headed by a syndic. Both urban and local communes have their own local governments and legislatures, but they are subordinate to the provinces. The policy arenas for which communes are responsible are limited by the provinces of which they form part, but generally they encompass local town planning, road maintenance, waste management, education and law enforcement.
Law and criminal justice
Main article: Foreign relations of Hindia Belanda
Under an arrangement reached between the Noordenstaater crown and the traditional monarchies that ruled the various states and petty kingdoms in Hindia Belanda, each Hindia Belandan princely family was to be given five permanent seats in the newly-established Staten-Generaal of Hindia Belanda, which is the direct successor of the Raad van Indië. These princely families also enjoy immediacy over the ceremonial governance of their respective territories. Most public petitions started by a resident of a traditional territory over which a princely family is considered to be its traditional ruler must be addressed to the hereditary peer representing that family in the Dewan Bangsawan, instead of to its MP in the Dewan Deputi. In 2007, following the passage of Life Peers Act 2007, the seats in the Dewan Bangsawan given to each princely house was reduced from five to just one, with the head of the princely house being the only eligible person to occupy the seat.
Hindia Belanda has a mixed economy, with both the private and public sector playing a significant role. It is considered a prosperous capitalist welfare state and social democracy with certain key economic sectors owned and managed by the state. The country enjoys great wealth and ranks among the world’s wealthiest countries. Healthcare is universal in Hindia Belanda and citizens over the age of 16 pay an annual flat charge of 384 Roepiahs. Parents, regardless of gender, enjoy 45 weeks of paid parental leave. The industrial sector is the largest contributor to Hindia Belanda's economy, followed by services and agriculture. Private sector is greatly encouraged, though also heavily controlled by strict regulations to eliminate monopolies. The country has extensive natural resources including crude oil, gas, gold, copper and diamond. Hindia Belanda is the second largest palm oil exporter, after the Republic of Malaya. Hindia Belanda is home to numerous multinational companies, the largest of them in terms of revenue are Halvestör, Indischefood, Pengasingan Financial, Varnadin Pharmaceuticals, Mercuria HB and the Des Indes Group. Some other notable companies include Air Nederlands Indië, Nusantara Armaments and Bali Confectionaries.
Historically, Hindia Belanda has been a large producer of various agricultural products. Vast and fertile lands, together with progressive agricultural policies and the occasional protectionism have contributed to the success of Hindia Belanda as one of the region's leading agricultural producer. Rice, tea, tobacco, nutmeg, cinnamon and various other staple and cash crops are among the nation's agricultural exports. Its winemaking industry, introduced in the 1820s during the early years of the colony, is Sythith's largest.
Tourism is a lucrative industry in the Commonwealth. Annually, the country sees over 17 million tourists of which at least 2 million stay for more than a month. Amongst the country's top destinations is Bali, whose provincial capital Denpasar and its neighbouring resort town of Bandar Kunti host at least 58,000 foreign tourists at any given day.
The tax rate in Hindia Belanda changes on a yearly basis. Income tax is tiered and divided to several brackets according to one's income. The authority of the State to levy taxes is temporary and must be renewed annually. When the people are convinced that the tax rate exceeds by a great amount the national expenditures, a recalibration of the tax rate must be conducted.
In 2017, population reached 121 million people and has been rising at a slow but steady rate ever since. The government-sponsored family planning programme launched in 1997 had successfully slowed the population increase, thanks in part to the distribution of free contraceptions to remote communities. It was surveyed in 2015 that Hindia Belandans living in urban areas are more disinclined to have more than two children. This contributed significantly to the overall slowing of population growth in the Commonwealth.
Resident foreigners make up 2.6 million of the total population. Of these, about 90% come from Noordenstaat and other countries in the Lorecian Community. The remaining 10% come from neighbouring countries and other parts of the world.
Hindia Belanda is a very ethnically diverse country; 180 different ethnic groups speaking hundreds of different languages and dialect call the country home. 81% of its population are considered ethnically native, while the rest are ethnically foreign. Javanese people make up the largest ethnic group in the country, while ethnic Malays and Sundanese are the two largest non-Javanese groups. Lorecians, especially Noordenstaaters, comprise the country's largest ethnically foreign group, followed by Chinese and Riysans. Interracial marriage between Lorecians and ethnically native Hindia Belandans is commonplace and due to its prevalence, Indo people have become the fourth largest ethnic group in the country. Melanesians of Papoea make up the least numerous ethnic group in Hindia Belanda, due to centuries of massacres perpetrated against their ethnicity.
Hindia Belanda has three official languages: Dutch, Indonesian and English – about 89% of Hindia Belandans are fluent in all three. The country boasts over 500 languages spoken across the archipelago and for this reason, most Hindia Belandans are remarkably quadrilingual. Dutch and Indonesian are used interchangeably in everyday conversations while English is spoken on a lesser frequency. It is mandated by law for the Commonwealth government to communicate in all three official languages. Provincial authorities and communes have the freedom to communicate in their respective vernacular, with the caveat that they must provide a translation in the three official languages of Hindia Belanda.
The Dutch spoken in Hindia Belanda has slightly diverged from the standard Dutch spoken in Noordenstaat. Many Indonesian words have been absorbed into the Hindia Belandan Standard Dutch, replacing their original.
The most spoken language at home is Indonesian and Dutch, according to a 2018 study by the Royal University of Jakarta, whilst English may be spoken intermittently amongst friends, especially in social groupings where there are expatriates. The country, however, has been seeing increased use of the Indonesian language amongst all ethnic groups, owing to the fact that the Hindia Belandan entertainment industry favours the use of the Indonesian language. Most popular TV shows in Hindia Belanda are in the Indonesian and English languages.
Main articles: Religion in Hindia Belanda, Esoteric Shi'ism, Islam in Hindia Belanda, Church of Hindia Belanda, Roman Catholicism in Hindia Belanda, Buddhism in Hindia Belanda, Judaism in Hindia Belanda, Kepercayaan Asli
Hindia Belanda is a secular state and consequently has no official state religion. It is home to various religions and belief systems owing to its long-history of interactions with foreign civilisations. The freedom to believe or not believe is guaranteed by the Charter for the Commonwealth of Hindia Belanda, the foundational document of Hindia Belanda as a sovereign country. Religion generally does not play a central role in the public life of Hindia Belandans but those who adhere to a religion claims that it holds an important place in their private lives. The most recent government estimate (2019) show that most Hindia Belandans identify as belonging to a religion or belief system, the largest group of which is Islam with 46% of the overall population, of these 44% are Esoteric Shias and official members of the Shia Convocation. The remainder belongs to Reformed Sunni Islam (1.3%) and Ismaili Shi'ism (0.7%).
Christians are the second largest group in Hindia Belanda, accounting for 37% of the population. Most Christians are members of the Church of Hindia Belanda, a liberal Lutheran high church that separated from the Protestantse Kerk in Noordenstaat. Around 5% of the population are Roman Catholics who mostly live on the islands of Java and Timor. The largest Protestant denomination other than the Church of Hindia Belanda is the Free Church of Hindia Belanda (2%), which is theologically identical to the Protestantske Kerk in Noordenstaat, and the Pentecostal Church in the Indies (0.7%). The remainder 0.3% of Christians follow various other churches.
Before the arrival of Islam and Christianity, the Austronesians of Hindia Belanda adhered to Imperial Hyangism, an animistic and panentheistic official religion of the Anjani Empire. The religion declined as the majority of Hindia Belandans adopted Esoteric Shi'ism and Christianity. However, Imperial Hyangism was reformed sometime in the 18th century to bring it more in line with the archipelago's prevalent Abrahamic religions, eventually becoming modern-day Hyangism, which is the country's third largest religion, accounting for 2.7% of the population. Judaism accounts for 2% of the Hindia Belandan population.
1.3 % of the population adheres to Kepercayaan Asli. It is an official umbrella term for Austronesian belief systems other than Hyangism considered to be indigenous to Hindia Belanda such as Kejawèn, Parmalim, and Mangaju.
11% of the total population are non-religious – they are either agnostic or atheistic. This number has been on a steady rise for several years. Most atheists in Hindia Belanda report of believing in some sort of an afterlife.
Education in Hindia Belanda is mandatory for children between age 6 and age 18. It is divided over schools for different age groups, some of which are further divided into multiple streams for different educational needs. Primary education starts at age 6, although many children generally undertake one to two years of Kindergarten before entering primary school. Some legislators have recommended the government to implement a K-12 system similar to other foreign countries, but the plan never achieved enough support in the Dewan Bangsawan (upper chamber of the Hindia Belandan parliament)
Schools in Hindia Belanda are divided into public, religious-oriented and private schools – religious schools do not receive state funding. The school year runs from early September to mid July. Homeschooling exists within the Commonwealth, although the system is closely supervised by the government and follows very strict rules. Not every child is entitled to homeschooling as it is only granted for children with extreme needs such as those suffering from a disease or when attending a normal school would otherwise endanger their own safety. Children aged 6 to 18 must attend a school, whether public or private.
The country implements a National Core curriculum, which is taught in every public school. In Kindergarten, each individual school is allowed to implement their own teaching method, granted that it must follow the general goal of developing children to become responsible citizens, confident individuals, creative contributors and ardent learners.
In lower elementary (Year 1 -3), the National Core curriculum includes the subjects of Indonesian, Dutch, English, mathematics, geography, natural sciences, history, basic civics, arts, music and sports with increasing complexity as the student advances from one year to another.
In upper elementary (Year 4 -6), students begin to learn drama, introductory epistemology and an elective course on a foreign language, in addition to the subjects that they have started from Year 1. Starting from Year 5, children studying at public schools also learn ethics and ‘Worldview Religion’ where they are exposed to the world’s major religions, their general belief system and rituals from a neutral and theoretical point of view. While the concept of Creationism is taught from a neutral point of view, public schools emphasise their teaching on the theory of Evolution. The subject of ethics sometimes do overlap with introductory epistemology and the study of both subjects is often combined at some schools.
Upon completing elementary school, students are given the option to choose from three types of secondary school based on their educational need and future plan. The three types of secondary public schools are Practical School (PS), Advanced Vocational School (AVS) and Senior Secondary School (SSS or 3S).
Practical Schools combine vocational training with a small share of theoretical education; it is aimed for students who want to enter the job market directly upon graduation. PS graduates cannot apply for university directly and must attend an additional six months of education at an Advanced Vocational School, before becoming eligible for an undergraduate course at a university.
Hindia Belanda is comparatively more urbanised than neighbouring countries. 3 out of 5 Hindia Belandans live in urban areas. The Commonwealth has gone from a largely rural country to an urban one in just 50 years. Despite the aggressive urbanisation efforts, urban sprawls generally do not affect and alter Hindia Belandan landscape. Cities in Hindia Belanda form a dense network where large cities are often interconnected by a series of medium and small cities. Vegetation is abundant within cities and the country is generally considered to have one of the cleanest airs in the world. In recent years, however, there are growing concerns about land use in Hindia Belanda among environmentalists.
The metropolitan areas of Jakarta, Bandung, Soerabaja, Denpasar, Bandar Kunti and Tanau are recognised for their great quality of life. Urbanisation has, in part, affected living cost in these areas which has risen significantly in the past two decades.