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Monarchy of Yisrael

King of Yisrael
Yisrael HaMelech
Incumbent
Yis King Hezekiah III pic 1.jpg
Hezekiah III
since 22 January 2020
Details
StyleHis Royal Majesty
Heir presumptiveJosiah IV
First monarchSaul, King of the Jews
Formationc. 1037 BCE
ResidenceRoyal Palace, Old City, Yerushalayim

The Yisraeli King (Modern Hebrew: Yisrael HaMelech) is the head of state of Yisrael. The first "King of the Jews" was Saul around 1037 BCE. During the proclamation of the Kingdom of Yisrael, the historic title "King of the Jews" was legally incorporated and merged into the title "King of Yisrael." The current House of David ruling family first ascended to the throne with David in 1010 BCE but his dynasty was overthrown in 582 BCE by the First Aradian Empire. The pre-Yisraeli Jewish monarchy was revived under the Chasmonian dynasty (140 BCE - 37 BCE) and then the Latin puppet regime under King Herod and his heirs (37 BCE - 44 CE). The Davidic house was sustained through prominent families of direct lineage being active in social and religious affairs, including serving on the Sanhedrin. The last ruler of the Grand Duchy of Yisrael, Moshe III, was from a direct male Davidic line and restored his dynasty with the creation of Yisrael in 1715. The current monarch is Hezekiah III.

The monarchy is typically composed of the reigning monarch and his or her spouse and children, and the entire royal household which is comprised of personal and constitutional staff. As master of his dominion, the monarch has discretion regarding the composition of his or her household. The monarchy is always represented by the reigning monarch, his or her spouse and eldest children. Since January 2020, the monarchy is represented by King Hezekiah III, his wife Queen Tova, The Dowager Queen Mother Yehudis, the royal brothers Prince Michoel and Prince Yehuda, and Crown Prince Josiah IV; all of the above or their designated alternatives or representatives will attend functions on behalf of the Royal Family.

History

The role of king in Jewish society is discussed by G-d in the Hebrew Bible in Devarim 17:14-20:

"When you come to the Land that Hashem, your G-d, gives you, and possess it, and settle in it, and you will say, 'I will set a king over myself, like all the nations that are around me.' You shall surely set over yourself a king whom Hashem, your G-d, shall choose; from among your brethren shall you set a king over yourself; you cannot place over yourself a foreign man, who is not your bother. [...] It shall be that when he sits on the throne of his kingdom, he shall write for himself two two copies of this Torah in a book, from before the Kohanim, the Levi'im. It shall be with him, and he shall read from it all the days of his life, so that he will learn to fear Hashem, his G-d, to observe all the words of this Torah and these decrees, to perform them, so that his heart does not become haughty over his brethren and not turn from the commandments right or left, so he will prolong years over his kingdom, he and his sons amid Yisrael."

The emergence of the Jewish kingship came at the end of the era of Shoftim (Judges), during the oppression of the Plistim over the tribal Jewish lands c. 900s-1037 BCE. Saul was divinely appointed as the first "King of the Jews" by the Navi Shmuel, though the defeat of the Plistim are not concluded until the reign of King David (r. 1010-970 BCE). The United Monarchy era, as this time is known, lasted from 970-930 BCE, until the death of David's son, King Solomon.

The kingdom divides into northern and southern realms (Kingdom of Yisrael and Kingdom of Yehuda) under Solomon's heir, Rehavam in 933-931, with some territories such as the eastern Negrev Desert tribes breaking free of Jewish control. Yisrael controlled most of the Yarden, including the cities of Yericho, Shomrom, Chevron, and the port city of Yaffo while Yehuda controlled Yerushalayim at its northern point, Ashkelon to the west, and Beersheva to the south, in effect much of the country's breadbasket.

The Northern Kingdom survived until the 722 BCE, when the Greco-Aradian Empire conquered them; the Southern Kingdom fared slightly better, holding out another 150 years or so until they fell to the Neo-Aradians in 586-582.

The monarchy was restored under the Chasmonians c. 200 BCE as the First Aradian Empire was collapsing due to successive military defeats and economic pressures from the expanding Latin Empire, which had conquered much of what is now Sydalon in that time. The Chasmonians survived until 37 BCE, when the dynasty was ended after the invitation of the Latins into Judea. The new Latin rulers installed a Latinized Jew, Herod, as a puppet king over Latinic Judea. After his death, several of his heirs were put on the throne by the Latin Senate as "King of the Jews" until 44 CE, when the last Herodite dynast picked the wrong side of a Latin civil war and the winner abolished the Jewish monarchy, putting Judea directly under Latin rule.

Moshe III, the last Grand Duke of the early modern Grand Duchy of Yisrael (c. 1300s - 1715), was a direct male descendant of King David and worked with other House of David loyalists to restore the throne and his ancestor's line to power, which he did at the end of the victorious First West Scipian War with Sydalon and the ascension of Yisrael into a kingdom. The House of David has ruled Yisrael until the present.

Role in government

Currently, the King acts as the head of state and the "national representative," a largely symbolic role. His constitutional duties and powers are outlined in the 1920 Constitution, where the monarch is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces as well as politically neutral "overseer" of the partisan government institutions.

After the Year of Blood and fall of the Autocracy regime, the victorious Constitutionalists passed the 1952 Royal Reform Acts, which enacted a thinly-veiled and well-known extra-constitutional modification of the monarchy's royal powers and privileges, including de facto stripping the king of his C-in-C powers by forcing him statutorily to bestow the title of "military Supreme Commander" upon the the President, in effect making the President the day-to-day C-in-C of the military. The Acts also severely limited the king's ability to counter-veto the President's veto or an act of Knesset, making the monarch a ceremonial figurehead similar to countries such as Arthurista.

In addition, during the reign of the so-called "Quiet Monarch," King Yaakov II, he withdrew from active government functions to the extent that even many remaining royal privileges and duties went unfulfilled, forcing the President to step in and absorb these duties in a quasi-co-head of state function starting under Binyamin Schwartz until Noah Feldman. In the Hezekian Reaction, the current King Hezekiah has reclaimed his royal powers and invalidated the end-run provisions in the 1952 Acts concerning his C-in-C powers and other duties.

King of Tarshish and Gran Aligonia

During the Empire of Yisrael era, the Yisraeli king was installed as the head of state of several colonial protectorates that Yisrael established, including the Protectorate of Tarshish in the late 19th century in what is modern northwest Mont as well as the Protectorate of Gran Aligonia in the modern GA.

The subjects of the Protectorates had to affirm an oath of fealty and loyalty. These protectorates collapsed during the Year of Blood in 1950-51.

Executive and legislative reserve powers

The monarch plays a quiet but key role in government affairs, including having a range of reserve powers at his discretion when he feels the President or Knesset or both have overstepped their constitutional and legal perimeters or "thoroughly disrupt the unity of the Jewish people."

The King has the ability to veto Knesset legislation if the President will not, and he can counter-veto a President's veto as well. He may invoke emergency legal nullification powers if a law is invalid but political authorities refuse to rectify its defects, as was the case with the 1952 Reform Acts under the Hezekian Reaction. The King also may call and dismiss sessions of the Knesset.

Although the 1920 Constitution created a Cabinet post called the King's Minister to represent the Crown's interests, due to early infighting between King Josiah III and the Constitutional Liberal Prime Minister Shalom Blumfeld in the early-to-mid 1920s, the post was never filled and generally forgotten about or ignored until the King Hezekiah III's reign, when it was revived and filled by Prince Michoel under President Yitzchok Katz.

Military and foreign policy duties

The King serves as the supreme commander of the Royal Yisraeli Defense Forces. Declaration of war is reserved to the Knesset, but the King may deploy the armed forces at his discretion in reaction to foreign policy emergencies and conflicts. The RYDF's operational command structure is organized under the Ministry of Defense.

While the Presidency of Yisrael has the powers of being the "Chief diplomat", including negotiating and signing treaties, establishing diplomatic recognition, and other affairs, the King as "national representative" has a duty to represent the Yisraeli people at home and abroad, including seeking the safety and security of global Jewry.

Titles, styles and honors

Typically, the simplified title is used when addressing the monarch or his close relatives. This version is: "the Yisraeli King," or "King of Yisrael," followed by the appellation "His Royal Majesty."

The full title of the Yisraeli King is:

His Royal Majesty, the King of Yisrael and of the Jews, Sovereign of All Territories of the Chosen People, Shomer (Guard) of the Torah, and Servant to the Lord Above, Blessed is He.

Title of heir apparent

Traditionally, the eldest son of the reigning King is afforded the title of Crown Prince to designate their status as king-designate; most often conferred upon the individual once they undergo bris milah on the eighth day after their birth.

Succession Laws

Succession to the Yisraeli throne follows male-only primogeniture. The law governs that a monarch's sons and their lines of descent are the only eligible to assume the throne. Older sons and their lines come before younger sons and their lines. This has been the accepted method of succession since King David.

A series of formal rules also dictate succession to the throne, dictating that one must also be: legitimate, Jewish, male, and of Davidic descent. The throne may be vacant, most typically when a monarch dies and his heir sits shiva for seven days before ascending to take his seat on the throne. When the throne sits empty, a regent is appointed from close family relatives of the deceased monarch, e.g. a grand-uncle.

Residences

The King's official residence in Yerushalayim is the Royal Palace in the Old City. It is often the locale for many state banquets, royal ceremonies, and other events.

See Also