Location of Galenia (in light green), within Euclea (light grey)
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
• Galenian League
|208 BCE - 90 CE|
• Trekalërisian Empire
• Apolitan Empire
• First Republic
|1879 - 1880|
• Republics of 1930
|1930 - 1931|
• Independence from Etruria
|62,532 km2 (24,144 sq mi)|
• 2020 estimate
|182.75/km2 (473.3/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
medium · 35th
very high · 19th
|Currency||Galenian Flori (TRF (ƒ))|
|ISO 3166 code||GAL|
Galenia, officially the Republic of Galenia (Tethian: Republika e Gallenisë, Montsurian: República d'e Galaniè, Novalian: Republika Galenska, Piraese Galenikí Dimokratía), is a sovereign state whose territory is located in the Continent of Euclea, Kylaris. Galenia has a total area of 62,532 square kilometres and a population of 12,270,164 (as of January 2017). Galenia's only border is with Etruria to the north. The capital and most populous city is Kartha, located in the southern coast. Other important urban areas of the country includes Mbresht, Talax and Sorrë.
Galenia was originally inhabited by Gadishullorian Tribes, with the oldest found settlement dating back to the 8th BCE. During the 7th BCE, Lasithi took control over the peninsula, extending the Pirean territory further south. Following the War of the League of Maleme (272 - 259 BCE) and the Eruption at Juktas, the Galenian city-states unite under the leadership of three dominant Polis (Amphitrite, Kymo, Kymodoke), and formed the League of Galenia in 208 BCE. The League did not last long as the Solarian Empire took over the Galenian peninsula in around 90 CE. Following the Solarian Empire's fall, Galenia became a huge conglomerate of small, independent kingdoms. During the 7th century CE, important kingdoms like the Trekalërisë and the Karthë-Tallaz rose in the peninsula; during the same period of time, Marolevians started to migrate south through Novalia, inhabiting most of the northern portion of modern day Galenia. The Kingdom of Trekalërisë gradually took over the peninsula and established the Trekalërisë Empire, renamed as the Apolitan Empire following the Iconoclast Wars.
During the early 18th century, Vespasians defeated the Apolitan Empire and annexed the territory to Novalia. Galenia remained as a region of Novalia until 1879, when Apolitan priest Bujar Zogaj led the Galenian Uprising, proclaiming the independence of Galenia from Etruria. The separatist movement fails and is annexed back into Etruria only 2 months later. In March, 1880, the First Republican March saw thousands of people across the Mbresht-Kartha-Tallaz area protesting against the Etrurian monarchy and claiming independence. In 1888 the new Etrurian republican regime promoted Galenia into a Federal Territory. It remained as such until 1930, when the Galenian Republican Army (URT) declares the Second Galenian Republic as independent from Etruria and it is promptly accepted into the Entente. However, the already mobilizied Etrurian military had no struggle containig the movement in 1931 and retaking Galenia as an Etrurian Territory. Independence only came in 1946, with the conclusion of the Solarian War. The Original Republic lasted until 1961 when the Patriot Party established a military dicatorship in the country. The democratic-leftist oposition started to protest against the current government after president's Xhelal Shkreli death, resulting in a violent political atmosphere in the country. Finally in 1985, following the fall of other Military governments, the current president Skeyënder Molla gradually reestablished the Galenian democracy.
As of the 1988 constitution, Galenia is a unitary presidential constitutional republic with a president elected every four years through popular vote as both Head of State and Head of Government. The incumbet president is Nertilian Bushaj serving since 2017, when the ex-president Endri Toskaj was impeached. Bushaj was elected in 2019 in the formal presidential election and is currently in the second year of his mandate. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral National Assembly, composed of XXX Assembly Members elected to a three-year term. National Assembly elections use the mixed-member proportional (MMP) system. The country struggles with corruption a lot, being considered one of the most corrupt in Euclea.
The Galenian economy is heavily based in the service, industrial and tourism sectors. Galenia is considered one of the most visited countries in Euclea and the world due to its lush beaches and summer resorts. Agriculture also takes a huge part in the economy, in specific olives and tobacco. Galenia has a big brewering industry, being one of the biggest producers of beer in Euclea. Galenia also stands out in the production of wine, though wine consumption is not common in the country. The government has a considerable control on the country's economy, holding shares in key-sectors of the economy. The Galenian state provides universal health care and education in all levels, though it common for Galenians to seek for private services, as those tend to be more efficient. Galenia is an active member of the Community of Nations, International Council for Democracy and the International Trade Organisation. The country is currently in the process of voting a formal Euclean Community membership request.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government & Politics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Infrastucture
- 8 Culture
The name Galenia is the Ancient Piraean name of the country. It is most likely derived from the Piraean poet Argyros, during the 7th century BCE, when he referred to the coast of Galenia, near the city of Halinos, as “the land of Galênaiê (Piraean: Γαληναιη).” In ancient Piraean mythology, Galênaiê was the “personification of the calm sea,” making an allusion to the calm and warm seas of Galenia. The term was carried on by the Solarian Empire, who referred to the peninsula as the Galenaea Province. The name would go obsolete following the fall of the Solarian empire and the rise of the Galenian kingdoms, but was introduced again when Galenia became an Etrurian territory in the 19th century.
The first human evidence found in Galenia dates back to the 8th century BCE. Historians struggle to properly determine who inhabited the Galenian peninsula first, but it’s widely accepted that the Gadishullorian Tribes appeared first. It’s uncertain when and why the Gadishullorian ended up in Galenia. Archeologists have found material evidence of Gadishullorian presence in southeast modern-day Galenia that dates back to 800 BCE. On the other side of the peninsula, Piraean people also migrated south, establishing villages and small kingdoms alongside Galenia’s western coast. The modern-day city of Halinos is considered to be the oldest established city in Galenia, founded by Piraeans in 787 BCE. As the Piraean tribes established themselves as city-states, Lasithi grew in power and sought to control and expand its influence. Lasithi fought the Sitia War (448 - 415 BCE), defeating the Polis of Aptera and rising as an Hegemony. By the year of 400 BCE, Lasithi had no difficulties to subjugate and annex all land belonging to the Gadishullorians, finally establishing the whole Galenina peninsula under Piraean control.
As the cultural influence from Lasithi kept growing in the Galenian Polis, their proximity to Gadishullorian people resulted in a culturally different people from the other Piraean people. Though Lasithi kept a firm hand over its dominion, small rebellions were a constant in the Lasithian Galenia. Lasithi’s power was heavily struck after the Eruption at Juktas destroyed their main port. This raised tensions within the Lasithian dominion, resulting in the war of the League of Maleme (272 - 259 BCE). Lasithia was defeated and, with it, lost possession of most of its domain. This left most of the Galenian peninsula fragmented into small Kingdoms and highly decentralized.
As the Lasithi hegemony came to an end, the Prassan hegemony sought to reconquer most of the territory lost by Lasithi. Fearing the threat of being subjugated once again, the Polis of Amphitrite, Kymo, and Kymodoke decided to come together as the Galenian League. Their union attracted many other smaller Polis across the Galenian peninsula. Due to their organization and united power, the Galenian League was able to fight off the Prassan invasion. The League lasted for about 100 years until the whole territory was conquered by the Solarian Empire.
Rise of Religion
After the most recent census promoted in 2019 by the Galenian Institute of Demographic Research and Statistics (IKSD), the population of Galenia is estimated at 12,270,164. The population density of Galenia is 182.75/km2 (473.3/sq mi). The Galenian population experienced fast growth in the 20th century, peaking at 10,6 million in 1980 and 12 million at the beginning of 2000. Nowadays, the population growth has slowed down, though the latest years of the 2010s experienced an increase in the fertility rate. Galenia’s fertility rate is 1.6 children born per woman, thus being considered moderately high for Euclean standards. The overall life expectancy is 79.2 years (76.7 years for males and 81.3 years for females.)
Immigration has played a major role in the Galenian demographics for the past decades. Since the country’s independence in 1946, there have been two major waves of immigrants in the country: the Tengarian wave during the late 1950s and the Coian (mostly Tsabarans and Zorasani) wave during the late 2010s. In the past, the country has experienced moderate immigration of Slirnians, Lemovicians, and Rajyani. Piraeans and Novalians have always been present in Galenia, constituting the two biggest ethnic groups after Galenians. Emigration in Galenia has experienced growth in the past two decades as the number of exchange student programs outside of Galenia increases. Mostly, Galenian students tend to have Gaullica, Soravia, and Slirnia as their favored destinations. Nevertheless, the biggest Galenian population outside of Galenia is located at Alikianos, Piraea.
Ever since the beginning of the 21st century, Galenians have been flocking to the urban centers of the country. Nowadays, the three most populated cities in the country hold together approximately 45% of the entire population. The biggest city in Galenia is the nation’s capital Kartha with a population of 2,5 million, followed by Mbresht with 1,8 million, and Sorrë with 1,1 million. The southern region alone accounts for over 60% of the Galenian population. All immigrant groups can be found within the urban areas of Kartha and Mbresht, but Halinos and Kreshnik are also considered to be immigrant hubs, more specifically to Piraeans and Novalians, respectively. Since the beginning of the Tsabaran crisis, the city of Kallëm, located on the southeastern coast of Galenia, has been struggling with illegal immigrants and refugees from Tsabara fleeing from the war.
Largest cities in Galenia
Galenian education is free and it is based on a 3-level educational system. The school year is separated into two semesters that stretch from August through December to January through May. The school life expectancy in Galenia is 16 years and the literacy rate is 98,8%, Attending basic, medium and higher education is mandatory by law unless any sort of physical disability is proven. The base language of teaching is Galenian, but foreign languages are also mandatory for students. Schools provide Gaulican, Etrurian, and Weranian classes. Piraean is only available for teaching in the counties of Fillim, Harmonia, Glauku, Rinor, and Bradhylis.
Students go through 12 years of basic education until reaching high school. Once in high school, students can choose to follow a specialized field of study that relates to their future career choice. Tertiary education is mandatory according to the Galenian Educational Guideline Act. On top of that, the Galenian educational system provides the opportunity for further education with post-graduate, master, and doctorate degrees.
The best higher education institution in Galenia is the University of Kartha, the only Galenian university in the best 50 universities in Euclea and the best 100 in the world. Private schools are available at all levels of education and often offer higher quality services than public schools.
Government & Politics
Galenia got its independence from Etruria in 1946 and, since then, has kept close diplomatic ties with Piraea and Emessa, also nations formerly occupied by Etruria. Other Southern Euclean nations such as Slirnia and Visoclesia are also considered close diplomatic allies with Galenia. Culturally, Galenia is somewhat hostile towards Etruria but holds cultural ties to both Etrurian regions of Novalia and Tarpeia. Though Galenia has adopted a neutral stance in Euclean affairs, its acceptance among the bigger powers in the continent is still debatable. Due to this issue, Galenia is a small power, even though it has gotten enough economic relevancy to be considered a middle power.
Galenia pioneered the establishment of the Association of South Euclean States in the 2000s. Due to current and historical divergences with the Etrurian government, Galenia’s adhesion into the Euclean Community has been regarded as controversial both national and internationally. Soravia is also a close economic partner with Galenia and a possible flirting between the Samorspi and Galenia has been rumoring for the past year, but no official comment by neither Galenian politicians nor Samorspi representatives has been made. Currently, Galenia is an active member of the Euclean Common Defense Treaty Organization, the Community of Nations, the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, and the International Trade Organization.
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Historically, the region of Tethia (Tethian: Tethys; Montsurian: Tézia) is located west of the south Aventine mountain range and is the home of the Tethian people. Tethia is further divided into four sub-regions based on physical geography: the Aventine Western Plains, the Highlands, the Low Aventine, and the Trekalerian Valley. The Kolm-Galenians are the majority in all regions but the Low Aventine, where the Çuk-Galenians are the majority. Besides, the counties of Fillim and Glauku are mainly inhabited by Piraeans with the city of Halinos having the biggest population of Piraeans in Galenia after Kartha.
The region of Montsuria (Tethian: Malljugë; Montsurian: Montsúria) is located east of the south Aventine range and is home to the Solarian language-speaking Galenians. Montsuria is similarly divided into five sub-regions: The Salopek Basin, the Shinè (plains), the Southwest Coast, the Senturèn (belt), and the High Aventine. Notably, the Salopek Basin has been heavily inhabited by Marolevians, most noticeably Novalians.
The city-counties of Mbresht and Talax, placed in Tethia and Montsuria respectively, alongside the city-county of Kartha comprise the Kambta Bay urban area, an interregional area that acts as a sub-regions.
A county (Tethian: Qarqet; Montsurian: Prefecturè) is the second level of administrative divisions in Galenia. There is a total of 42 counties in Galenia. Each county is led by a County Council, which is led by a Chairman. The current administrative division structure was adopted in the Constitution of 1946, but it was only made effective two years later when the former provincial system was replaced by counties. Furthermore, each county is divided into municipalities (Tethian: Bashkia; Montsurian: Muníshchè), the third level administrative divisions. From the 279 municipalities, three of those are consolidated city-counties: Kartha, Mbresht, and Talax.
The Galenian territory is in South Euclea, on the tip of the Galenian peninsula. Its territory encompasses an area of 62,532 km2 (24,144 sq mi). The largest county in Galenia, in terms of population, the Kartha City-County, with over 2,5 million people, while Rumarë County is the smallest with over ##,### people. In terms of area, the largest county is the Sarajë County, comprising 5.746,2 km2 (22.172,3 sq miles) in the Highlands region. The smallest county, in terms of area, is the Talax City-County, comprising 77,9 km2 (300,8 sq miles) in the Kambta Bay region.
Media and communication
Television and Cinema
Association football is the most-watched and played sport in Galenia. The Galenian League 1 is the top-flight division of the Galenian national pyramid system. Its biggest champion is Dinamo Kartha, with ## league titles, followed by Invictus Kartha with ##. Both teams feature the most traditional derby in the country, commonly called the Galenian Derby. The Galenian men's national team is currently ranked ## according to the IFF ranking. Historically, it played in ## IFF Coupe du monde, missing the editions of ###. The best record of the Galenian nationals was in the #### IFF Coupe du Monde, when they finished 3rd after losing against #### in the semi-final and beating #### in the third-place match. The Galenia women national team ranks better internationally, having played all the IFF Women’s Coupe du monde editions and finishing as the runners-up in the 2017 IFF Women’s Coupe du Monde hosted in ####.
Alternatively, basketball and volleyball are the most-watched sports in Galenia, with the Galenian basketball league being one of the most-watched in Euclea. In terms of medals in the Invictus Games, Galenia is the South Euclean nation with the most gold medals in men and women’s volleyball, and men basketball. Galenia is also a constant highlight in other Invictus sports such as gymnastics and swimming. Every year before the Invictus Games, Galenia hosts a domestic Invictus Game between Tethia and Montsuria, which will ultimately decide the Galenian team for the international Invictus Games. Historically, Montsuria has the biggest amount of gold medals in athletics-related sports, while Tethia excels more in sports with a ball, such as association football, volleyball, and basketball. The first edition of the Intra-Galenian Invictus Games was in 1965 Intra-Galenian Invictus Games, one year before the 1966 Invictus Game in ####.