Commonwealth of Sivathra
Motto: "ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯ ಒಳಿತಿಗಾಗಿ" (Sivathran)
"United for the Common Good"
Sivathra (dark blue) located within Coius (light blue).
Location of Sivathra
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic|
|Legislature||Parliament of Sivathra|
|Independence from Estmere|
|1 November 1936|
• Current constitution
|1 January 1990|
• 2020 estimate
• 2017 census
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2019)|| 0.801|
|Currency||Rupee (₹) (RPS)|
|ISO 3166 code||SIA|
Sivathra (Sivathran: ಶಿವತ್ರ; romanised: Śivatra), officially the Commonwealth of Sivathra (Sivathran: ಶಿವತ್ರದ ಕಾಮನ್ವೆಲ್; romanised: Śivatrada Kāmanvelt), is a sovereign nation located in Satria. It is bordered on the east solely by Arthakhand, although it shares maritime borders with Baekjeong and Senria on the Bay of Bashurat. Its capital Mangalore is where the majority of the population is concentrated.
The Sivathran territory has been continuously inhabited for centuries, with findings evidencing the first settlements around 4,500 BCE; prior to this time, farming and an initial domestication of cattle is documented together with initial migrations from other Satrian regions, from which religion and initial forms of Sivathran script were developed, slightly coming to their actual form around 1200 BCE. Along with this, early forms of commerce and exchanges with other groups brought the evolve of religious beliefs and the first political unities, which grew along the south coast and saw the introduction of literature, technology and other general knowledge. With the time, inner regions of Sivathra organised themselves around agricultural petty kingdoms while along the coasts, other cities-states grew with commerce as a leading activity. From the contact with other kingdoms and the alliances to protect ports and farmlands, larger political units were formed until the Mandavya Empire took over most of the territory. This period saw an enormous advance in the arts, mathematics and poetry; most regions of the empire developed forms of direct democracy and findings have led to historians to believe that the population lived with prosperity.
The period of the Mandavya Empire concluded when external attacks made use of a lack of defensive protection, slowly damaging the imperial structure, which experienced an enormous debilitation during the early Middle Ages; this last period saw the introduction of Badi and Irfan, and left a legacy of artistic beauty and architecture, which were later took up by the Sivathran Empire, which expanded the use of the name Sivathra for the territory. Periods of relative stability were followed by internal clashes as local elites fought to gain power in more lands. Due to its location, the early commerce of tea and spices and the exchange of knowledge increased the relations with Euclean nations, which pushed the kingdom to sign treaties in unfavourable conditions. With the gradual takeover of territory from merchant companies, the structures of the kingdom fell under the colonial rule of Estmere, which lasted until the period prior to the Great War. During the international conflict, the difficult situation of the Estmerish crown propitiated several forms of anti-colonialist movements that emerged channelling general discontent. The struggle for independence was marked by the Entente backed groups; however, these found themselves with the rise of nationalist ideas, marking a halt in the relations with Ajahadya and a debilitation of their forces, which were defeated by the later called National People’s Party that granted the establishment of Sivathra, which has propitiated extensive relations with COMSED nations and Estmere.
Since independence, Sivathra has been governed mostly by the National People’s Party, with few interruptions of the Sivathrian National Front and the Democratic Action Parties. The first years of the Commonwealth were marked by the NPP governments, an authoritarian rule and the conflicts derived from the Satrian Wars. During the late 1970s crisis, the country saw the first change of party in government with the assumption of the Sivathrian National Front, which managed to sort out the financial difficulties making use of development plans. During the 1980s and 90s, Sivathra saw the rise of the first neoliberal policies. Today, the country is often recognised as a newly industrialised economy, which added to strong development and liberal policies, have resulted in a recent expansion of the quality of life and the international recognition of Sivathra; however, social inequalities and degrees of authoritarism are persistant issues to be faced.
Sivathra is a unitary parliamentary republic and keeps an inherited Northabbey system on the Parliament, although it has severely reformed throughout the history to make it an unicameral legislature. The country keeps an active role on its international relations, with peackeepers deployed in conflictive zones and being an active or observer member of several international organisations, such as the Community of Nations, COMSED, GIFA, ICD and ITO.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics and government
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
Archaeological evidence has suggested the presence of humans in the region of Sivathra with a frame time of at least 15,000-9,000 BCE. The territory of Sivathra would be first visited by humans shortly after the expansion of Satari-Euclean people into Satria, attracted by a territory without the common floods of the Bashurat River.
Although historians agree in 1720s as a frame date to introduce Euclean contact in Sivathra and the rest of the Satrian region, there are records that show earlier contact between northern Sivathran petty kingdoms and Euclean merchants. With the start of the 18th century, several commercial companies from Euclea had established ports on the coast and, motivated by their particular interests on the commerce of spices and tea, conflicts emerged for the control of further land. In 1728, the territory was visited by Sir Arthur Billinghurst, an Estmerish merchant and member of the Estmerish West Satria Company; Sir Arthur was the first to envision Estmerish dominance in the area and proposed the complete takeover of Mangalore taking advantage of the pre-existing weaknesses of local authorities and the permanent conflicts between Eucleans. However, his idea was going to be reduced to the rule of the Estmerish West Satria Company, contrary to his initial plan of a direct control of the Crown. Sir Arthur was appointed as the first Governor-General of Sivathra and years later by 1730, the colonial company had already owned a large portion of the commerce of tea and spices and was already owner of three factories in different areas.
Euclean colonisers, and specially Estmerish merchants, took advantage of the fragmented structure and the poor development in defensive capacities. As a result, during the early period of company's rule, Sivathran royal families signed treaties in unfavourable conditions to protect their privileges. This self-rule was later going to be reduced to a complete colonial control of the territory in practice, accompanied by the gradual disappearance of local authorities. As the colonial rule expanded inside the borders of today's Sivathra, the Estmerish built infrastructure that made possible an early development and industrialisation of the countryside, greatly benefited by the construction of the first railways. However, problems raised as the company's rule distanced itself from Morwall's control; with the pass of the time, corruption was made more visible and the rule of the company was centred in the welfare of extremely reduced Euclean and Sivathran elites. The grow of general social discontent and the lack of basic humane conditions in cities, workplaces and tea farms continued until the 1827 Incident of Brahmagiri Port, where a protest for a reduction of taxes and working cnditions was shot down by the company's forces with the use of violence, resulting in multiple deaths and the continuation of protests for reforms sparkling across the dominion.
The protests, which started in Brahmagiri, were rapidly spread to Mangalore and other industrial and commercially important towns where protestors were largely repressed by the Esmterish troops during a month until the incidents raised Morwall's attention over its colonial affairs in Sivathra and the [ Queen/King ] ordered the complete transfer of power from the Company to the Estmerish Crown, resulting in the start of the effectively Estmerish control of the territory. During the first years, the administration of the dominion fell under the responsibility of Lord Milton Hathwaye, who made significant process in the development of education and judicial systems.
Struggle for independence and Great War
Prior to the Great War, the Estmerish colony of Sivathra started carving its own path towards independence with the appearance of prominent figures such as Indira Gaonkar, Suda Nagaraja and Vijay Mahendar among others, whose contributions on the social or political fields initiated public debates about the future of the dominion and questioned established social forms. In 1903, the National People's Party was formed during the celebration of its first national congress in Mangalore, where the party agreed on basic guidelines to achieve self-rule. During its first years, however, the party would remain divided between radical postures, aiming for pan-Satrian ideals, and moderates, who believed in the construction of relations with the Estmerish elites and the Crown, being the formers those who led the NPP during is first years, through censorship and conscription. The party's actions pushed Estmere to allow Sivathrans participate in the government, strengthening common people's positive vision of the NPPs moderates.
In 1909, the Bashurat Crisis expanded an early form of discontent against Euclean minorities, attracting more groups of people to the idea of a "united Satria". These groups were later going to hold more participation in the independence movements of Sivathra, fighting against Estmerish authorities and the moderate NPP. As the world entered in the Great War and Coius saw its geopolitics divided between the Grand Alliance and the Entente. In 1926, the Bhatkal Front was formed in Bhatkal, the group was going to reunite the demand for the withdraw of Sivathra from the Estmerish Kingdom and the dissidence from the NPP; once the war burst, the group would receive funding and aid from Ajahadya and other Entente nations. The division among Sivathrans would escalate to violent conflicts as the NPP would retract to keep a pro-establishment stance during the first years; the movement happened as prominent figures that led the consolidation of the party, started to withdraw their participation.
Around the early 1930s, the presence of guerrilla and Ajahadya backed groups was clearly visible in the Sivathran territory. In 1931, the Batlle of Mangalore culminated with the surrounding of Estmere and the occupation of the territory by Entente forces. The withdraw of Estmerish authorities and forces led the National People's Party to suffer a radical change on its structure, as it happened to start bearing the flag of Sivathran nationalism. The resistance to the occupation was led from the western portion of Sivathra and was subsequently reduced to Cape Canning during the many conflicts until the last years of the Great War and the defeat of the Entente.
Post-war period and independence
The Entente surrender in the Great War in 1936 left Sivathra with a poor infrastructure, a practically destroyed industrial machinery and a devastated countryside. Shortly after the surrender was proclaimed by Ajahadya, Estmerish troops returned to Mangalore, which was severely damaged and the population demoralised. Together with the difficult situation of the Estmerish troops at the end of the war, the retirement of troops at the beginning of the invasion worsened the image of the Estmerish authorities among Sivathrans. In February 20th 1936, Sir Graham Haleye was appointed Chief Minister with the responsibility of re-building institutions. During the Great War, divisions between the Bhatkal Front and the National People's Party consolidated the separation between radicals and moderates, being the formers the one that started bearing the flag of Sivathran nationalism, a factor that was used by Estmere in the following years to keep Sivathra aligned to its interests.
During 1942, protests for a reduction of Estmerish influence became part of daily life until in December of that same year, riots in front of the Parliament concluded with several deaths. A year later, Sir Graham Haleye travelled to Estmere in order to hold taks about the future of the dominion; during his return to Mangalore, Haleye led the process of creation of the State of Sivathra, by holding a good relation with the NPP with whom the vision of Ajahadyan threat was shared. In 1945, Sivathra was granted a limited self-rule which was later expanded in 1946 to full independence. The interim government formed by both Estmerish and Sivathrans officials was replaced with the celebration of national elections where Devaraj Ananthamurthy, from the NPP, was proclaimed the first Prime Minister of Sivathra. Ananthamurthy held an incredible popularity inside and outside the newly founded Commonwealth during his approximately 20 years as Prime Minister. His presence was decisive for Sivathra during the First Satrian War, where his diplomatic abilities allowed the country to keep independent while forming alliances with many foreign powers, the conflict resulted with the modern boundaries of Sivathra. The economic policy during the period was marked by the difficulties of the reconstruction of the country, Anathamurthy gained space for ambitious reforms and the passage of important social policy, that was combined with industrial and rural development plans.
Martial law and economic reforms
In 1971, Jayanth Murthy is elected Prime Minister of Sivathra from the National People's Party. His administration soon faced the rise of tension in Satria and the start of the Third Satrian War of 1972, that expanded until its end in 1982. Murthy ordered the supply and aid of Subarnan forces while inside the country, the office of the Prime Minister suggested the imposition of martial law, which was ratified by the President and the Parliament under the premise of an imminent external attack and the preservation of internal stability. The martial law was kept until 1983, marking a period with large concentrations of power, supressed liberties, press censorship and Murthy's rule by decree.
While the Satrian region was immersed in an armed conflict, Senria and Xiaodong relations also escalated harming investors confidence in the area. Sivathra, which remained directly untouched by most of these events, saw its economy downgraded by the regional environment and the later internal problems carried out by the martial law. During 1978, financial problems were felt inside the MSL after the auto-maker something asked for an emergency loan; starting to feel the concern among authorities, early measures were taken and although efficiency was proven at first, during 1979 these will fail. During November 1979, unemployment had rose record levels and with the change in the currency trade band of the Rupee, the Sivathran currency suffered severe attacks until the Governor of the Central Bank announced a free-floating exchange rate arrangement. As the government held negotiations with GIFA authorities, the MSL touched a historic low and the currency was severely depreciated. Ending November, protests began in Mangalore urging the government to take measures to tackle down the economic situation and during December, riots expanded across cities in Sivathra, where police brutality was used to shut down protests. In February 1980, Murthy's government met again with the GIFA to accept a bailout package in return of strict policies to restructure the economy. The period was marked by the commonly called "Murthynomics", a term coined by the press to name the measures taken by the government while being advised by a team of Sivathran economists. This last period in Murthy's administration was severely marked by the development plans introduced to reorientate the economy under the premises of economic liberalization, privatization of state-owned companies and stabilization of inflation. Most of the policies, however, were introduced taking advantage of the repressed opposition.
In 1982, political pressure from inside the NPP ended with the imposition of the martial law and Jayanth Murthy accepted calling elections. Next year, Anath Lankesh assumed the administration to continue with the economic reforms but making gradual shifts re orientating the country towards a liberal democracy. During his four year long term, liberties were recovered and press censorship was alleviated; however, certain repressive policies remained in place under the National Security Act.
In the general elections of 2002, Sivathra saw the fist change on power after Manjula Gurushanta, from the Democratic Action Party was elected Prime Minister, becoming the first female in Sivathran political history to occupy the office. Manjula led the Commonwealth until 2007 and during her administrations, she received international recognition for her efforts in achieving higher democratic levels in Sivathra; in 2005, Gurushanta allowed the discussion of abortion in the legislature and a year later, the Parliament passed an act to legalise the practise on a national level; during her last years at office, Manjula pressured the political system to derogate the National Security Act, an issue that has continuously led the political scene of the country. During the 2015 elections, the National People's Party received its worst results concluding a period of dominance over the political system; that same year, Vivek Kumta assumed the office of the Prime Minister, which he occupied until 2013, with a political program described of centre-right, with nationalist roots and marking a difference with previous NPP administrations. Vivek Kumta strengthened the relations of Sivathra with its COMSED allies and inaugurated several major infrastructure works.
The Democratic Action Party formed again the government consolidating itself as the second largest political force. The Deepak Mohanty administration was marked by several reforms that continued the line of Manjula Gurushanta and concluded with some of the deepest changes on the National Security Act, which carved the path for Divya Brahmin's complete tear down of the act. Deepak's administration was led by a platform based on reforming the state's structure and the introduction of several welfare policies as well as further labour protection and the ban of old affirmative actions. The foreign policy of Sivathra, which has been historically independent since at least the 1980s, was reformed by Mohanty, who opposed to send the Sivathran Armed Forces to contribute during combats with other forces. However, he did contributed with peacekeepers and continued with several COMSED programs.
In 2018, the National People's Party was forced to seek other political partners to form government under the leadership of Divya Brahmin, who in November of that same year became the second female to serve as Prime Minister of the Commonwealth. Divya has been described by the media to resemble historic centre and even centre-left positions held during the initial years of the NPP, which costed the party several internal conflicts. On foreign policy, Divya Brahmin has held a more active international presence of Sivathra and has reached several economic agreements with nations in Asteria Superior; during 2019, she established relations with Chistovodia during a state visit, the first one held by a Sivathran PM.
Politics and government
Sivathra is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, with a multi-party system that has granted over the years, a stable democracy. From its independence until the early 2000s, Sivathra could have been described as a dominant-party nation in practice, with all governments having been formed by the National People's Party; however, since the election of Manjula Gurushanta as Prime Minister from the Democratic Action Party, the country has increased its democratic quality with the whole political system providing support for power alternation. The Prime Minister of Sivathra is the Head of Government and is appointed by the President as the person that is able to handle Parliament confidence; on the contrary, the President is considered the Head of State and is elected by direct, universal and democratic vote. The Cabinet is formed after general elections by advise of the Prime Minister and appointments of the President.
The government is separated into three branches:
- Executive: commonly led by the President, who is also commander-in-chief of the military; presidents have the power to veto laws before they become effective, are responsible of overseeing the government and appointing ministers. The Prime Minister and members of the Cabinet are responsible for laws and policies and usually advise the President.
- Legislative: composed by the Parliament of Sivathra, a unicameral legislature composed by 357 MPs who are responsible for enacting laws, approving budgets, providing confidence for the PM and controlling the government.
- Judiciary: led by the Supreme Court, composed by _ members appointed by the President; Courts of Appeal, that hears appeals from the High Courts; High Courts that deal with criminal offences and civil matters and lastly, District Courts, which deal with minor offences and are usually specialised in youth and family.
While Presidents are elected through direct suffrage and hold their office during a fixed term of six years (with the possibility of one re-election), Prime Ministers last in their office as long as parliamentary confidence is given, though in practice, legislatures generally last five years and after this period ends, Presidents dissolve them on advise of the Prime Minister to hold new general elections. The Parliament of Sivathra, which was traditionally inspired in the Estmerish legislature, was severely reformed during the 80s and 90s to make it unicameral; its members are generally referred to as Members of the Parliament (MPs) and like the Prime Minister, serve in their positions as long as the legislature is not dissolved (generally five years). Courts and the judicial system include the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal, the High Court, and subordinate courts, often specialised in different areas of family, labour and youth; judges and judicial officers are appointed with advise of the Attorney-General of the Commonwealth and a strict set of rules and conventions are followed to maintain judicial independence.
Sivathra holds an active position regarding its foreign relations, being full member and observer of several intergubernamental organisations. The Commonwealth keeps strong relations with its COMSED allies and Estmere, although in recent years, the country has pursued to strengthen its ties with nations in Asteria Superior, specially with members of the North Vehemens Organization. During 2019, Divya Brahmin visited Chistovodia for the first time establishing formal diplomatic relations. Sivathra follows the causes of trade liberalisation and the peaceful settlements of disputes, while in recent years, it has also included the preoccupation for environmental sustainability on its foreign agenda. The foreign relations of Sivathra have been described as apolitical, with few ideological interferences and minor changes between different governments.
Like most Satrian nations, Sivathra holds disputes with Ajahadya and currently, relations between the two are fragile and inestable. However, this is the only case as the Commonwealth holds good relations or at least certain diplomatic ties with almost all nations. The country is an active member of the Community of Nations, organisation that was led by the Sivathran diplomat Srinivasa Dhanaraj during two periods and with which the Commonwealth has held several peacekeepng missions across the globe; Sivathra is also a member of COMSED, the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, the International Council for Democracy and the International Trade Organization, and has been home to important summits and treaties like the COMSED 1986 Treaty of Mangalore.
Sivathra's armed forces —the Sivathran Defence Forces (SDF)— comprise the Sivathran Maritime Defence Forces (SMDF), the Sivathran Defence Army (SDA) and the Sivathran Air Defence Forces (SADF). In total, the three branches numbered _ personnel, as of 2019 statics. Defence policy is often created and administrated by the Minister of Defence of the Commonwealth, who is appointed by the Commander-in-Chief, the President of Sivathra; however, daily force movements are usually made by the Chief of the Defence Force, who enforces policy and is in direct contact with both the President and Ministers and the personnel. Among usual operations on the coasts and borders of Sivathra, the defence forces generally undertake exercises together with COMSED members on the Bay of Bashurat and the Lumine Ocean.
As of 2019 budget, Defence was given a 1.7% of the national GDP. The SDF maintains an important position, together with other regional allies, maintaining stability in the Satrian region and other areas of Coius; it currently has deployed active personnel in Baekjeong and hosts an importat presence in the _ Base, in the city of Cape Canning. The country has also assisted the Community of Nations in numerous peacekeeping missions, most notably those in Satria and Asteria Inferior in the past, and the current ones in Bahia.