Autonomous administrative territory of Xiaodong
|Jindao Autonomous Administrative Territory of the Auspicious Republic of Xiaodong|
Jindao in western Xiaodong
|Tienwei Island Treaty||May 18, 1857|
|Estmerish colony||February 20, 1935|
|Xiao-Estmerish Jindao Treaty||February 1, 1991|
|Transfer of sovereignty from Estmere||April 10, 1996|
|Ethnic groups |
|44.1% Solarian Catholic|
• Chief Executive
• Chief Secretary
|1,125.6 km2 (434.6 sq mi)|
• 2020 estimate
• 2019 census
|15,055/km2 (38,992.3/sq mi)|
• Per capita
• Per capita
|Gini (2020)|| 50.7|
|HDI (2020)|| 0.893|
|Currency||Jindanese Nacar (NAC)|
Xiaodongese Renjin (RJN)
Jindao, officially the Jindao Autonomous Administrative Territory of the Auspicious Republic of Xiaodong, also historically known as Kintao or Kintou in Senria, is a special administrative region situated in western Xiaodong, whom it shares its sole land border with. With 6,541,201 people and an area of 1,125.6 km², around 60% of which is water, it is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. The city of Shilou, within the Jindao metropolitan area, is the most densely populated city in the world, with a population of 2,541,205 and an area of 63.83km² (including the Tanpe, Tangqiu, Satratown and Weikan districts), the city has a population density of 39,812 people per square kilometre.
The city-state of Jindao was an independent kingdom for much of its history, with little instability ever rocking the nation and the port of Jindao being a hub for trade in the southern Coius region. Coming under Xiaodongese subjugation at the start of the 3rd century, the city continued to flourish under Xiaodongese control as more resources and revenue from mainland Xiaodong were directed in the way of the city due to the decreased trade regulations between the two states. Also formerly a colony of Gaullica after it was relinquished by Xiaodong as a treaty port in 1857 as per the Tienwei Island Treaty, Jindao acted as a naval base for Gaullica (and Xiaodong) throughout the Great War. After Gaullica's loss in the war, the city's sovereignty was transferred to Estmere, under whom more rights were guaranteed and more democratic reforms were instated, including the reformation of the Biao as a devolved government under Estmere in 1949. The country flourished as women's suffrage was introduced in 1953, and the legal recognition of homosexual marriage being introduced in 1966. In 1990, Estmere and Xiaodong signed the Xiao-Estmerish Jindao Treaty, an agreement which promised the sovereignity of Jindao to be returned to Xiaodong in exchange for the customs of rights of the city to remain unchanged and guaranteed. Estmere officially relinquished sovereignity of the city in 1996, returning it to Xiaodong after 139 years of Euclean rule. Jindao acts as an Autonomous Administrative Territory (AAT) of Xiaodong, whose legislature and government is separate from that of the mainland.
A bustling city in western Xiaodong, Jindao is a major resort city with one of the highest tourists-per-capita of any city in Coius. The Jade Square in central Jindao is renowned for its wide assortment of cultures, cuisines and activities, with entertainment such as theatres, casinos and restaurants adorning much of the square. It is one of the highest recipients of tourism revenue and tourism accounts for most of country's economy.
Jindao has high rates of urbanisation centred around the main Jindao city, with one of the highest Human Development Indexes in the world, standing at 0.936. The Jindanese government is working on increasing residential capacity on the outlying islands as well as reclaiming land from the sea to use as residential suburbs and estates.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Government and politics
- 4 Geography
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Infrastructure
- 8 Culture
- 9 Education
- 10 Media
- 11 Cityscapes
The first instance of the city being called "Jindao" is from the early 2nd century, when Xiao settlers began to inhabit the city and naming it after the fabled beaches on modern-day Wujin Island. Despite its etymology being incorrect for the city itself, the name has remained in use to this day. Jindao has also been known under several different similar names, with "Jindau" sometimes being used to refer to the city and "Chintow" being the official name of the city whilst it was under Gaullican rule and also partially under Estmerish rule until the postal romanisation stopped being used in X, where it was renamed to its traditional name.
Jindao was first settled in the 2nd century AD, when Xiaodongese settlers migrated in from western Xiaodong. The Xiaodongese settlers brought their customs and traditions of classical antiquity Xiaodong to the city and it effectively functioned as an offshoot of Xiaodong despite the city being an independent entity. The knowledge of rice cultivation was brought from the mainland and the city flourished as an ideal place for rice growth and farming. Due to its unique climate, Jindao was initially a slow-developing city, with most of the city being used exclusively for rice farming. In 281 AD, Yao Jin consolidated the city of Jindao and proclaimed the Yao Dynasty as a separate kingdom to the mainland and claimed the entire peninsula for the newfound state. His armies quickly seized the city (at this point mainly unsettled forest) to prevent the intervention of the Xiang dynasty of Xiaodong.
The Yao dynasty of Jindao did not last long, and Yao Jin would be its first and last independent emperor. News of the formation and breakaway of the Yao dynasty from the now-centralised Xiang dynasty angered the Emperor, who ordered that Jindao be vassalised and later fully integrated into the Xiang realm. In 286 AD, the Xiang Emperor launched a full invasion of Jindao utilising much of the standing Xiao forces. With the combined forces of the Xiang navy and army ready to launch a full invasion of Jindao, Emperor Yao Jin presented a peace offering to the Xiang Emperor, in which Jindao would surrender the city provided it is given some autonomy and the Yao dynasty retaining the right to rule the city as a subordinate leader under the Xiang. Fearing a possibly costly battle for the small and largely uninhabited city, the Xiang Emperor conceded and allowed Jindao to keep its autonomy provided it surrendered the city. The Xiang forces were allowed through the Jindao Harbour and docked in Jindao, where Xiang general Ma Xue, commander of the forces invading Jindao, was invited into the Yuhan Palace to sign the agreement. Xue and Emperor Yao Jin are told to have walked out of the palace together, treaty in hand, and announcing to the gathered crowd of Jindanese farmers, civilians and Xiao soldiers of the peace between the nations. The treaty was known as the Yuhan Palace Treaty and was the first step in Jindao's long endowment of autonomous status.
Jindao would continue to co-exist with the Xiang dynasty throughout the rest of the mid-Xiang period and into its downfall, and participated little in the fighting that ensued following the Xiang dynasty's demise. Jindao became a refugee haven for the upper-class Xiaodongese fleeing from infighting during the period of the Four Kingdoms, with old members of Xiang royalty as well as Xiang loyalists who owned land in mainland Xiaodong fleeing to the city in search of safety and refuge. The vast amounts of wealth that came into the city allowed Jindao to be built up quickly and by around 520 AD the city was technologically on par with the mainland for the first time in its history. Many modern day districts were first referenced during the time of the city's restructuring, including Tulihe and Laoshizhai in Emperor Yao Tai's census of the city in 534 AD, which recorded a population of 79,000.
|Part of a series on the History of Jindao|
|Historic rulers of Jindao|
|281 – 286|
|286 – 500|
|500 – 731|
|731 – 1415|
|1415 – 1667|
|1667 – 1857|
|Empire of Gaullica|
|1857 – 1933|
|Republic of Senria|
|1933 – 1935|
|Federated Republics of Estmere|
|1935 – 1996|
|Auspicious Republic of Xiaodong|
The Yao dynasty officially came to an end in 1202 when the Tao dynasty commanded its full annexation into the Tao realm, with the Yao Emperor not putting up much resistance and being allowed to live in Jindao as a figurehead following the annexation. Jindao served as an important naval port during the wars with Senria that were waged throughout the Tao era. Opinion of the Tao dynasty in Jindao was poor due to the repression of Jindanese customs in favour of more Xiaodongese-oriented ones, and following the wars with Senria as well as the economic decline of the dynasty, Jindao supported the Jiao family in their coup of the throne in 1415. Among the reign of the first Jiao emperor, the wealth accumulated by trade coming into Jindao was often lavishly spent on things for the emperor himself, and the Jiao family quickly squandered the wealth that had existed in Jindao for centuries. Despite this, the creation of Taojiao and its teachings was welcomed by Jindao and it quickly became the dominant religion of the city. Jindao again served as an important naval port for the invasion of Senria, but the city was affected by the peasant uprising that ultimately led to Xiaodongese defeat in the war. Zhengbu was a peasant stronghold during the uprising. Christianity - mainly Solarian Catholicism - arrived in the 17th century and was repressed within Xiaodong and Jindao, but some underground sects of newly-converted worshippers developed, most notoriously the Tàiyáng lóng (太阳龙; "Solar Dragons"), who burnt down the north side of the Yuhan Palace in 1656 and attempted to assassinate the emperor of Xiaodong in 1657, while he was on a visit to Jindao. By the time the Solar Dragons rose to prominence, the Jiao dynasty had long been in decline, largely due to the growing influence of Solarian Catholicism and the economic consequences of their luxury spending. In 1667, following another coup, a Senrian mercenary known as X seized Xiaodong and began the Toki-era of the country.
The Toki dynasty began change almost immediately, implementing a new government system akin to that of Senria's, changing some of the customs that had existed in Xiaodong for millennia. Jindao was also affected by this change, with the new Senrian government system increasing centralisation and making Jindao subjected to increased direct rule from Rongzhuo. The swift change of the ethnicity of the higher class of Xiaodongese society angered most Xiaodongese people, who hated seeing the people they had fought so long to undermine ruling over their lands. The existence of the Toki dynasty was the initial step in the development in Xiaodongese nationalism and the loss of wars to many Euclean powers and the unequal treaties that followed only amplified and spread the newfound ideology. Ruler of the Toki dynasty oversaw many technological developments and the increase in free markets and capitalistic policies did wonders for the Jindanese economy, skyrocketing free trade and economic growth in the port city which allowed it to quickly industrialise at a much faster rate than its mainland counterparts. Due to this, migration to Jindao increased, especially from the mainland. The Euclean powers invaded a declining Toki dynasty in the 1850s and imposed a series of treaties on the state, one treaty, the Tienwei Island Treaty, saw Jindao leased to Gaullica for an 80-year period.
Gaullica immediately sought out reform within Jindanese society, introducing Solarian Catholic beliefs and repressing the native Xiaodongese language in favour of Gaullican. In 1887, development of a rail network, both overground and underground, began in Jindao, and just two years later the first underground line was opened, travelling between East Yanglin and West Tulihe, beginning the now-expansive Jindanese metro system. The introduction of Euclean technology and innovations bolstered Jindao's economy and it became a largely Euclean-influenced city in Coius. New sewage systems spanning the streets of Jindao were created in the late-1890s to early-1900s, drastically reducing disease spread throughout the city. Jindao once again served as an important army and naval outpost in Coius for Gaullica, giving the empire a base in southern Coius from which to project its influence from. Xiaodongese and Gaullican troops and equipment were stationed in Jindao throughout the Great War and the city saw some of the first wars it had ever seen on its home shores during the conflict. Following Senrian landings across Xiaodong, the Battle of Jindao began in August 1933, with the subsequent Senrian Occupation of Jindao being completed by March the following year. After the Entente surrendered in 1935, the city was transferred to Estmere as part of the peace treaty. Jindao entered the Community of Nations with Estmere in 1935.
Democratic reforms in Estmere also applied to Jindao, and in 1949, the Biao, originally the court of the Yao emperors, was recreated as a devolved legislative parliament to supply Jindao with autonomy within the declining Estmerish colonial empire. The reforms were met with widespread praise and the satisfaction with Estmerish rule was high. Societal reforms continued to be implemented, with women's suffrage introduced in 1953 and the legalisation of homosexuality ratified in 1966. The post-war depression experienced by much of Euclea and Coius also encouraged widespread migration to Jindao, especially among the upper class and conglomerates in their countries. Taxes in Jindao were reformed in 1971 to attract large multinational corporations to base their operations in Jindao, allowing companies to avoid taxes through the lack of filed public accounts in Jindao and all countries with bilateral tax treaties with Jindao. Jindao also operates a policy of financial secrecy. Following the swift decline of Estmerish colonialism in the 20th century, the question on whether Estmere could continue to rule Jindao with the growing industrial power of Xiaodong pressuring the country to begin negotiations on the port's return. In 1990, the two nations signed the Xiao-Estmerish Jindao Treaty, agreeing that as long as Xiaodong preserves the autonomy and liberties of Jindao, the port will be returned back within ten years. After the end of the Duljunese War in 1996, Jindao was returned back to Xiaodong as an Autonomous Administrative Territory, similar to that of Duljun, signalling the end of Estmerish colonial rule. Jindao's economy has continued to skyrocket through its taxing policy and the one city boasts a GDP more comparable to some countries, standing at just over $500 billion. Population growth in Jindao in increasing and the city is beginning to face a residential housing crisis with the amount of migration globally, although this has begun to be combatted with the construction of the Yuetang Residential District, Yaoling City and Houfu. The 2019 Mathratown protests are ongoing amidst calls for more Jindanese liberty and independence.
Government and politics
Jindao is an Autonomous Administrative Territory (AAT) of Xiaodong, characterised by increased autonomy from the mainland in many aspects of society and politics. The Xiao-Estmerish Jindao Treaty laid out the framework for the continuation of Jindanese economic and administrative sovereignty following the transferral of the port back to Xiaodong in 1996. The law of Jindao acts as a basic uncodified constitution for the region, although Xiaodong reserve the right to impose the law of the Xiaodongese constitution on the city, although it is unlikely they will do so.
The Biao, the regional parliament of Jindao, consists of three main entities:
- Executive: The Chief Executive and represents Jindao in official meetings as its de facto head-of-state, appointed by the Executive Council. The council itself is elected every five years in non-partisan elections, but under heavy regulation from Xiaodong.
- Legislature: The Legislative Council are responsible for the drafting of legislature and presenting it before the Executive Council (which is elected every five years in a non-partisan election). The Legislative Council also approves the fiscal budget for the territory and as the power to impeach a sitting Chief Executive with a three-quarters-majority vote. Unlike, the Executive Council, the Legislative Council is not subject to outside Xiaodongese influence.
- Judiciary: Jindao's judiciary are tasked with the application of regional law as well as Xiaodongese law. The judiciary is heavily connected with its counterparts in Xiaodong, and legal connections are often made between the two.
The Chief Executive, currently Wei Hanying, serves as the region's de facto head-of-state and its head-of-government, and can serve for one five-year term. The Premier of Xiaodong appoints the Chief Executive with guidance from the elected Executive Council, composing of 20 members.
The Legislative Council consists of 25 members, all of which serve a 5 year term. The 25 members are split between the 19 districts of Jindao and 6 functional constituencies that represent corporations and organisations, high-ranking people and special interest groups. Political parties can run for the Legislative Council, but not for the Executive Council, as a result many send their party leader or other high ranking officials to campaign for executive election, while the main bulk of the party campaigns for the Legislative Council. A total of 4 political parties won seats in the 2015 Legislative elections.
Xiaodongese national law does not usually apply within the region, and is one of the core principles in Jindanese autonomy, the region operates its own seperate laws enforced by the Judiciary. Jindao operates a separate immigration policy to the mainland, although work has been done to centralise the two systems in recent years.
Xiaodong is responsible for the defense of Jindao, one of the clauses outlined in the Xiao-Estmerish Jindao Treaty, with the civilian Jindanese National Guard mainly tasked with domestic policing as well as security for high-level political figures from abroad.
Jindao is divided into nineteen districts with hundreds of lower-level suburbs. Separate District Councils address individual problems within their represented district such as public funding (each district council is allocated a fiscal budget), cultural and religious promotion and events, public facilities and environmental policy. Before 2002, a rural council represented the villages of Shanjia, Kushui and Tsintsi, but the council was abolished following urban expansion in the area and the construction of Yaoling City.
Jindao is a democracy, employing universal suffrage for its Legislative and Executive Councils. This often proves difficult and acts as a hurdle for Jindao as mainland Xiaodong does not employ democracy in its government. Some Xiaodongese pro-democracy advocates have relocated to Jindao to participate in its electoral system, and Jindao often harbours pro-democratic campaigners from countries around the world. While ethnic minorities (other than those from Estmere or Gaullica) suffer underrepresentation in Jindanese councils, it is forbidden by law to discriminate against someone for their race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, etc. Jindao is often labelled as an inclusive society and the region is usually open to immigration from around the world. Jindao is often more inclusive than its mainland counterpart, which can sometimes cause issues in diplomatic relations.
The Xiao-Estmerish Jindao Treaty in 1990 guarantees that Jindanese Law takes precedence over Xiaodongese Law, with an exception of the Xiaodongese constitution, which lead some to believe that Xiaodong can exercise its power over the region by amending their constitution. The possibility of such an event happening spurs on calls for Jindanese independence or the return to a more liberal Estmerish rule.
Jindao sits on Xiaodong's western coast, in the Bay of Bashurat. Most Jindanese naval traffic comes from the Lumine Sea, where Jindanese naval and air traffic is heavily based. The territory's 1,129 km² (435.9 sq mi) consists of Jindao City (also called Jindao Proper or Jindao Metropolitan), the North Territories, Central Territories, South Territories and Islands. The highest peak is the Wujin Mountain, part of the Wujin Forest National Reserve, standing at 812 metres (2664 ft) above sea level. Urban development was historically concentrated in Shilou, Jindao and Gaozhai, but due to the lack of available flat land that is suitable for building, urban development has been branched out to places like Zhengbu, Yaoling City and Houfu. Some of Jindao is built on reclaimed land, and the city has land bridges connecting the island of Houfu and Wuzhao Island (through the Wuzhao Island Reservoir).
There is little undeveloped terrain in Jindao, and undeveloped land is usually a designated national reserve or park, one exception is Baiju Island, where a bridge connecting Yanhui and Wujin Island crosses. Plans for commuter settlement developments on Baiju Island were planned in 2008 and 2012, but both were rejected by the Executive Council. Parks consist mainly of tropical woodland and grassland, with farmland becoming increasingly rare as the territory becomes more reliant on imports to make way for its urban development projects. Jindao is home to incredibly diverse marine life, and the Jindanese Aquarium gifts all profits to organisations dedicated to the preservation of the unique marine species of the city's seas, of which there is over 100.
Jindao has a subtropical highland oceanic climate (CfB in Koppen's climate classification). Summers are mild with more rainfall than any other season, although temperatures at night can still drop down to cooler temperatures. Jindao receives some rainfall which is distributed throughout the year but concentrated mainly in the warmer months, with May and June receiving the most rainfall. Winters are cold and temperatures often drop below freezing and rarely rise above 10 degrees Celsius. Spring and autumn are generally sunny with some interspersed rainfall. Snowfall is common during the winter months across the city. The highest and lowest recorded temperatures at the Shilou Observatory are 31.3°C (88.3°F) in 2014 and -8.7°C (16.3°F) in 1995. While the Shilou Observatory holds the highest temperature recorded across the entire territory, it does not for the coldest, -11.5°C (11.3°F) was recorded at the peak of Wujin Mountain in 2001.
|Climate data for Jindao (Shilou Observatory), normals 1996-2016, extremes 1884–1933 and 1936-present|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.4
|Average high °C (°F)||10.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−9.8
|Rainfall mm (inches)||10.3
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||4.19||4.31||4.86||7.10||7.28||7.35||7.10||5.24||4.78||4.56||4.39||4.20||65.36|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||132.5||139.8||156.8||181.3||217.3||230.2||234.1||232.7||214.4||185.2||144.6||133.9||2,202.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||27||29||32||35||46||59||62||60||51||44||32||26||39|
|Source: Shilou Observatory|
Jindao has one of the highest concentrations of skyscrapers and highrise buildings in the world, with 408 such buildings throughout the city in 2018. The lack of available space for building development makes the construction of highrise towers more enticing due to its residential capacity. In a 2015 survey, 43% of people in Jindao lived in a tower above 150 metres (492 ft) in height. Jindao's rapid development since 1980 has shaped the city's architecture as highly modern, and introduced the unique Gǔxiàndài (古现代; lit. "Ancient Modern") architecture of Jindao, which blends the architectural characteristics of old Xiaodongese and Jindanese buildings with the modern technology and flair of the city. The Jindao Stock Exchange building is the tallest in Jindao, standing at 367.4 m (1,205.4 ft), and houses the largest stock exchange in the world, with the market capitalisation of all its listed companies standing at $13.3 trillion in March 2019. Another characteristic of Jindanese architecture is compressed architecture, which became prominent throughout the 80s and 90s as a solution to the housing crisis the city faced during that period of time. Many estates and districts in Shilou are designed with compressed architecture, including the Little City of Shilou, an incredibly dense part of Shilou that utilises compressed architecture.
The Jindao Demographical Society's census of Jindao concluded that in 2019, 6,541,201 people lived in the region. The majority of such is Xiaodongese at 85% and Mathran at 10%. Non-Coians living in the region are primarily Gaullican and Estmerish, who together contribute around 3.5% of the population. Around 2 million people have some form of Estmerish or Gaullican nationality, a long-standing legacy of the colonial rule of the region, with 137,000 being Estmerish nationals. All Jindanese citizens hold Xiaodongese citizenship, granted automatically to passers of either test.
The common language is Xiaodongese, with 96% saying they can converse fluently in the language. Xiaodongese is spoken by 83.7% as a first language, and 12.4% as a secondary language. Other predominant languages include Mathran, Gauravi, Gaullican and Estmerish. 2% are Estmerish first language speakers, however it is spoken by 52% as a second language and is taught in Jindanese schools, and switching between the two in informal conversation is common.
Religious in Jindao consists mainland of Taojiao and Solarian Catholicism, with 44.1% identifying as Catholic while 38.2% identify as Taojiao, a further 15.6% say they are irreligious or atheism and the final 2.1% is made up of other religions, most of which is Irfan.
Life expectancy in Jindao was 79.2 for males and 83.1 for females in 2017, which is rapidly rising due to the region's continual investment in health-based infrastructure. Heart disease, cancer and workplace accidents are the region's top three leading causes of death, totalling to around 27% of recorded deaths together in 2018. Jindao has a public universal healthcare system, funded by tax revenue.
Income inequality in Jindao is a large problem, and has risen rapidly since colonial rule. The tax haven policies the region has adopted have led to an increased number of billionaires who immigrate into the region, and general migratory patterns leading to an increase of poorer people in search of employment in the region contribute to the region's rising income inequality. With a Gini coefficient of 50.7, it is estimated that 63% of the wealth is owned by the top 2% of the region. Jindao has the highest billionaires per capita in the world, with one billionaire per 102,384 people in 2017.
Jindao employs a capitalist mixed service economy, separate to that of the mainland. It is characterised by corporation-friendly zero tax rates, which carry over and apply to countries with bilateral tax treaties with Jindao. The government also refrains from intervening with corporations based in Jindao and rarely intervenes within the economy, leaving the independent free market to its own accord most of the time. Jindao has an established international financial market throughout most of in the world. Jindao has a large, stable economy and one of the largest economies for one metropolitan area in all of the world, with a nominal GDP of $506 billion and GDP per capita of just over $77,000, the highest in the world. Jindao's economy is often considered one of the most free in the world and usually ranks at the top of economic freedom indexes, although the territory has high income inequality, with a Gini coefficient of 50.7. The Jindao Stock Exchange, founded in 1897, is the largest in the world by a considerable margin, with a market capitalisation worth over $23 trillion as of March 2019.
Jindao is an established trading entity in imports and exports, and it's location in the centre of Xiaodong allows it to be a popular for transshipments to dock before travelling either domestically or internationally. Transshipments account for most of Jindao's throughput, with around half of that throughput coming from mainland Xiaodong and another 25% coming from nations within the Euclean Community. The EC also assumes the role of Jindao's largest export partner, accounting for 37% of Jindanese exports in 2018. The territory's location also allows it to produce the necessary infrastructure for trading and high throughput, including transportation and logistics.
Jindao has little to no arable land and natural resources, with most of it being replaced by urban developments throughout the 1990s and 2000s, as such, Jindao imports around 95% of its food and raw materials from other countries (mostly Xiaodong). Agricultural activity in Jindao contributed <0.1% of its GDP in 2018 and was almost exclusively for the growth of premium foods.
Before the arrival of Euclean imperial powers in 1857, Jindao was a large manufacturing and industrial hub of the southern Coius region, producing military equipment for the most part. Its industrial sector dwindled as the employment sectors began to move into the tertiary and quaternary sectors, due to Gaullica's large industrial power back in its homeland. Jindao became a service sector-dominated region, and in the modern era, it remains that way, with over 95% of the region's income generated from the service sector. Jindao experienced immense economic growth in both its gross domestic product and its GDP per capita in the mid-1900s and its economy boomed after the Great War due to the influx of migrants whose hometowns were destroyed.
As the mainland reformed its economy, through privatisations and shock therapy tactics which included a switch to export-oriented industrialisation and the deregulation of companies and the labour market, Jindao implemented laws that turned it into a corporation-friendly tax haven, enticing corporations to base their operations in Jindao in order to pay zero tax rates within Jindao and any country in which Jindao operates a bilateral tax treaty with. As many companies began relocating and with them, their owners, investment in Jindao began to skyrocket as companies competed for increasing influence in the city. The population of conglomerates in the city led to the formation of functional constituencies within the Legislative Council in 1994, which make up half the council and represent the interests of corporations and conglomerates within the region. Since the region's return to Xiaodong, the integration of economic infrastructure with the mainland has allowed Jindao to trade more easily with its mainland counterpart. The culmination of this integration led to the $3 billion constructive of the Baiju Island Bridge, connecting Lunkeng and Jindao to allow to easier and more feasible land-based trade.
Tourism in Jindao is a sizable portion of the economy, and made up around 3.5% of the GDP in 2018, with around 15 million tourists visiting throughout the year. Due to Jindao's population density and lack of housing, it is often ranked as one of the most expensive cities for expatriates to reside in.
Jindao has an expansive network of modern, high-speed public transport services, including buses, overground trains, subway networks and trams. Most residents of Jindao commute via public transport, with around 83% making their daily journeys via one of the city's public transport networks, one of the highest percentages for a city in the world. The Jindanese government has plans to roll out a contactless, smart-pay card that residents of the city can use to pay for many of the city's public transport networks, expected to be available in 2020.
Transport to Jindao from mainland Xiaodong can be done through a plethora of methods, but most choose to make the journey either by car over the expansive Baiju Island Bridge, by ferry from commuter civilian ports in Jindao and Zhengbu, or by the subway's newly-opened Baiju Bridge Crossing, an overground train network running through the centre of the bridge, connecting to the already established subway network existing in Zhengbu. The subway also plans to introduce connections to the high speed rail network in Xiaodong from the Baiju Bridge Crossing as well as the nearby city of Lunkeng.
The Jindanese subway stretches across the entire city and has a daily ridership of around 7 million, most of which are commutes to and from education or employment. The subway system is renowned for its reliability and punctuality and connects into the larger network of Jindanese Public Transport, administered as a whole by the Jindanese Ministry of Transport, or JJB (金岛人交通部; Jīndǎorén Jiāotōng Bù).
Jindao as a whole imports most of its energy, with what little it produces by itself coming either from solar or hydroelectric from the Wuzhao Island Dam in the north-east of the country. Around 64% of its energy comes from coal, mostly imported from the mainland, with minute exceptions. Owing to Jindao's high urbanisation rate and population density, energy and fuel generation on the peninsula is not feasible and the city is often at risk to shortages. With help from the mainland, small sources of wind energy have been developed on the city's northern coast, but contribute only a fraction of Jindao's energy requirements.
With almost no natural features about the city aside from the Lu Keqian Forest Park, a protected reserve and thus protected from water harvesting, unpredictable climate and high rainfall across the city, Jindao also has to rely on other countries for much of its fresh water supply. Around 6% of the country's fresh water supply comes from the Wuzhou Island Dam (which doubles up as a reservoir, also), but a staggering 90% of the city's water comes from mainland Xiaodong, with the other 4% coming from a wide range of external sources. The city is investing in desalination plants and expanding water recycling facilities to reduce its fresh water usage, particularly for toilet water - with many public restrooms now using recycled water (or seawater, in some cases) in flush cycles.
The entirety of Jindao is well-connected with fibre-optic internet networks, and the city has the highest internet speed on average in the world, averaging 32.6 Mbit/s per household. An independent 2016 survey found that 96.5% of houses in Jindao were connected to fibre-optic networks in the city, increasing to 99.3% by the 2019 census, with only a few houses in the expanding Tsintsi region not connected. Fibre-optic connection percentages are expected to increase to 100% by 2020. Mobile phone usage is also large in Jindao, and most residents owning a smartphone and most of the city being covered by a 4G network, split mainly between Jindao's regional network Taoren Mobile and Xiaodongese-based company Yuanjing.
Jindanese culture is considered closest to Xiaodongese but has noticeable aspects of Euclean, particularly Estmerish, culture within it. While Xiaodongese culture generally has a high emphasis on religion and spirituality, Jindanese culture focuses little on religion and it has little influence on day-to-day life in Jindao, mainly due to the rising atheistic tendencies of Euclea and the decline of religion following the decolonisation period of the mid-to-late 20th century. The divergence between Xiaodongese and Jindanese culture began when the city was leased to the Gaullican Empire in the 19th century, with different cultural influences and diverging rates of social and economic progression separating it from its mainland counterparts. The city's flourishing migrant communities also influence its culture, with elements of Mathran and Euclean cuisine being seen in evolved local cuisine. Cultural independence has also seen a rise since 1996, with many Jindanese now choosing to identify as such as opposed to the general "Xiaodongese".
The cuisine of Jindao is heavily influenced by its mainland counterpart, with many of its famous dishes originating from or heavily based upon traditional Xiaodongese cuisine, amplifying the xianwei taste found in many Xiaodongese meals. Jindao is mainly known for its large street markets serving quickly-made, easy-to-eat food. Dim sums, noodles and jianbing are all popular in Jindao and are widely sold across the city. Some of Jindao's more upper market restaurants will often add Euclean influences to their food, although Euclean, particularly Estmerish and Gaullican, influence in food can be found in all of Jindanese cuisine.
Cinema was introduced to Jindao in the 1910s, however its popularity within the city did not increase until the conclusion of the Great War, where many post-war films began to be made, particularly in Estmerish and Senrian, two sizable demographics in Jindao in the 1940s. Montecaran film Il Paradiso was one of the first to enter the mainstream in Jindao, and was successful in launching the city's film industry. Since the introduction of Il Paradiso, the Jindanese film industry has produced notable actors such as Tony Shun and Bobby Lim, and has had particular success in Euclea for its films depicting life in Xiaodong or life in occupied Jindao.
Music in Jindao has generally been absent from the mainstream of most places except itself. Popular music in Jindao consists mainly of artists from Xiaodong, Estmere and Senria, with all three still having cultural impacts on the music scene in Jindao. Jindanese music usually utilises Xiaodongese lyrics and some artists may even use traditional Xiaodongese instruments blended with modern elements of music in their songs. The musical and cultural revolution that embroiled Euclea in the 1960s and 1970s, however, did leave a profound impact on Jindao, with electronic music, particularly synth-pop, a popular genre in Estmere, entering the Jindanese charts almost immediately when it was introduced. Gina Heidel was one of the first stories of modern musical success in Jindao, an immigrant from Werania, she was characterised by her music blending elements of rock with pop and singing in her native Weranic language.
Events such as the Senrian Wave also had a large impact on music as a culture in Jindao. Senrian instruments like samisen and taiko drums have been popular in Jindao, both part of a broader minyou-based inspiration for Jindanese folk music, which became particularly popular during the Toki Sougunate in the 18th and 19th centuries. S-rock with its punk influences and s-pop with its Euclean-influenced music has also been very popular in Jindao since the start of the Senrian Wave. Karagaku started to become popular post-handover, with many karagaku bars opening in the late-1990s and early-2000s, and is now a common sight in Jindanese high street bars. Further abroad, experimental genres like Djeli pop have been known to have a popular following in Jindao.
Sport and recreation
The most popular sport in Jindao is football. Influenced from its time as a Euclean outpost, football skyrocketed in popularity during the early-to-mid 1900s in Jindao, especially during the Great War and Senrian occupation, due to its cheap and simple nature to play. Contrary to its mainland counterpart, martial arts are not a popular recreation in Jindao, however the Xiaodongese government has aimed to popularise martial arts as part of a cultural unification program introduced by the government of Yuan Xiannan in 2014. Other popular sports in Jindao include basketball, as well as tennis and golf among the upper class populace. Jindao represents itself as a separate entity from Xiaodong in sports and has its own National Invictus Committee. In 1958, Jindao hosted the summer Invictus Games, which was boycotted by Xiaodong, many socialist nations and the allies of such, and indirectly led to the popularisation of the Games of the Red Star the same year. Jindao has participated in each Invictus Games, both summer and winter, since Hammarvik 1954, and is currently a major participant in the 2020 Winter Invictus Games in Narozalica.
Horse-racing and gambling are both popular recreations and pastimes in Jindao, with the city famed for its gambling scene and extravagant casinos, often attracting gamblers from around the world. In 2015 a study concluded that Jindao had the most casinos per square mile and per capita of any city in the world. Owning a Jindanese casino is often seen as extremely prestigious by millionaires and billionaires around the world, and as such there is high demand for their ownership. The Jindanese government taxes casino and gambling earnings from their respective institutions at a rate of 37%, with the government making an estimate $7 billion per year from the industry.
Education in Jindao has historically been extensively modelled after the Estmerish system, although this has begun to change in recent years as the system is beginning to be changed to one that emulates the system used in mainland Xiaodong. Currently, parents may choose to send their child to kindergarten between the ages of 4 and 6, although this is not subsidised by the government and comes at an independent price determined by the kindergarten. From 6 to 11 children are legally required to attend primary school, which is partially subsidised by the government, although school supplies are often not provided and must be bought. For most schools, a stationary store is run by themselves and often sold at discounted prices for students of the school. Primary school students complete their SPEs (Secondary Promotion Exams; 二次晋升考试; Èr cì jìnshēng kǎoshì). These exams are typically more important than similar exams across the world as secondary schools are permitted to set SPE quotas for students looking to join. Students complete SPEs in Estmerish, Maths, and Science, with most SPE quotas being along the lines of CCC, with the exception of more famed schools.
Between 11 and 18, students attend secondary school. Students study a wide range of subjects between the ages of 11 and 14, before choosing four to six specialist courses to study until they are 18. Compulsory subjects include Estmerish, Maths and Sciences (Physics, Chemistry and Biology), with specialist courses ranging from things such as home economics, PE, woodworking, engineering, history and geography. From 14 to 18, students will study their compulsory subjects and specialist courses in preparation for their Extended Qualification exams (EQ; 扩展资格; Kuòzhǎn zīgé), which are taken at age 18. Jindao's EQ exams are regarded as some of the hardest secondary school exams in the world and are often criticised for the amount of pressure and content they contain, especially for children as young as 14. Despite this, the Jindanese government has been unwilling to budge on their EQ exams. Due to their difficulty, Jindanese students are often among the most qualified in the world out of secondary school.
At 18, students can choose to either enter the workforce with their Extended Qualifications or go on to study at a university. Jindao has many universities for various workforce sectors and jobs, but it's main and most prestigious university is Knowleston University, located mainly in the district of New Estmere with campuses in the Metropolitan and Shilou districts. Knowleston consistently ranks in the top 15 global universities and has educated many notable alumni since it opened in 1890 as the Royal Albert III University, including current Chief Executive Wei Hanying and multi-billionaire philanthropist Wu Fang-su. Knowleston was renamed in 1936 to its current name.
Jindao has historically been a very media-friendly place, especially compared to the mainland. Freedom of the media was one of the "essential rights" of Jindao outlined in the Xiao-Estmerish Jindao Treaty by Estmerish President Roger Williams. Jindao's most popular newspaper is the Jindao Morning Post, which provides daily news coverage both online and in paper format, the latter of which is sold in most stores across the city. The JMP mainly covers events in south-western Coius and the Bay of Bashurat, with a focus on Xiaodong and Senria, although it has been broadening out recently with journalistic expansions to Euclea and the Asterias. Jindao also has some free-to-air television channels, the most popular of which are those run by the Jindanese Broadcasting Company, which airs news, sports, entertainment and documentaries, and is Jindao's largest channel network by annual viewership. Other television networks such as Honghua Network place emphasis on a single genre of television, and have begun to grow in popularity recently.
Jindao also has a various assortment of TV channels for foreign residents of the city, with many channels available in Gaullican, Estmerish and Xiaodongese. More recently language expansions within the networks have begun to cover languages such as Senrian, Tinzan, Pardarian, Floren and Weranian. Jindao ranks highly in media freedom indexes and is among the Euclean nations in freedom of the press.