Transvehemens slave trade
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The transvehemens slave trade, also called the Vehemens slave trade or the triangle trade was the sale and transportation of millions of predominantly Bahian slaves to the New World colonies of the Euclean colonial powers. It lasted roughly from the early 17th century to the mid-19th century, when slavery was abolished as a practise by the majority of major nations.
Slavery had been an institutional practice in Bahia for hundreds of years prior to Euclean contact, but the arrival of Euclean merchants and traders made the sale of slaves to Euclean powers incredibly lucrative for rulers of Bahia's houragic states. States in Bahia often fought each other for slaves as tribute, which would later be sold to Eucleans, exacerbated by the invention of slave ships, which carried hundreds at a time. Quickly, the use of slave labour was popularised among cash crop colonies in the Asterias, and countries such as Estmere, Hennehouwe, Gaullica, Geatland and Paretia were all heavily involved in the slave trade throughout its height.
After the Ten Years' War and subsequent Congress of Torrazza in 1721, Estmere lost most of its major colonies. The Estmerish Abolition Coalition campaigned for the abolition of slavery as early as the 1730s, popularising the slogan "Am I not a man and a brother?". The Estmerish government outlawed the trading of slaves in 1741, and became the first Euclean nation to abolish the practice altogether in 1795. Newly independent colonies in the Asterias also harboured successful anti-slavery and abolitionist movements, with Eldmark (1776), Belmonte (1802) and Gapolania (1808) all abolishing slavery. Gaullica abolished the practice and trade in 1815, with its colonies following suit decades after. With both Gaullica and Estmere lauching economic warfare on nations who still traded for slaves, including embargoes, as well as the advent of mass colonialism, which in only a few decades had reduced native rule in Bahia significantly, the trade was significantly reduced in the 1810s and 1820s. Paretia was the last major Euclean nation to abolish slavery in 1824. As a practice, slavery held for much longer in the settler colonies of the Asterias, notably Satucin and Aucuria, where white slave owners held significant influence in domestic politics. The latter became the final country to abolish the practice in 1873.
Freed slaves sometimes migrated back to Bahia from Euclea and the Asterias. Cities such as Port Fitzhubert and Sainte-Germaine became centres of Pan-Bahian academia in the Estmerophone and Gaullophone worlds respectively. Notably, the Conference for the Promotion of the Pan-Bahian Idea, held in Sainte-Germaine in 1907, extensively discussed topics pertaining to slavery, colonialism and its resulting mass changes to society. Controversy surrounding reparations for slavery as well as racial inequality continues to exist in Euclean and Asterian nations, as well as some Bahian nations such as Garambura, whose white settler population still form a sizable demographic in the country.
It is thought that as many as ten million slaves were shipped from Bahia to the Asterias as part of the trade. Inhumane conditions caused millions to die on the voyages to the colonies. Hundreds of Euclean port cities and towns developed extensively as a direct result of slavery. A number of Euclean governments issued apologies for slavery in the 2000s, though diplomatic dispute still continues between some Bahian and Euclean states with regards to economic reparations.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Trade and history
- 3 Geography of the trade
- 4 Effects
- 5 Legacy
Role of slavery in Bahia prior to Euclean contact
After Assim Asteris' discovery of the New World in 1488, various Euclean states began vying for land to expand their empires across the Vehemens. This colonists mainly landed across the west coast, in what is now Cassier, Marchenia and Rizealand. Some decades later, Povelian explorers began to settle and map the southern coast and the Arucian straits, whose humid, equatorial climate was ideal for growing a myriad of exotic crops such as cocoa and sugar. When they were first harvested and sold back to Euclea, they became immensely popular, and initially their rarity made them status symbols for the mercantile nobility. Realising quickly the economic potential of the crops, Povelia and later other Euclean states such as Caldia, Gaullica and Geatland began establishing large-scale plantations and purchasing slaves from Bahia to work on them. Povelia also later established coffee plantations in the New World from extensive trade with Rahelia in the late 16th century.
Many states whose climate favoured the growth of these crops were populated largely by plantations and the slaves who worked on them.
Trade and history
Bahian role in the trade
Euclean role in the trade
Outposts and markets in Bahia
Geography of the trade
Economic effects in Euclea and the colonies
Economic effects in Bahia
Demographic and population changes
Imagua and the Assimas
The primary legacy of the Transvehemens slave trade in Imagua is the presence of Bahio-Imaguans, who since the late seventeenth century have formed a majority of the population on the island of Imagua, with the 2011 Imaguan census showing that sixty percent of the population of Imagua are considered Bahian, and a study from 2017 from the University of Cuanstad showing that at least 85% of Imaguans are ultimately of partial Bahian ancestry.
Another crucial legacy of the Transvehemens slave trade was the domination of Imaguan politics, and to a certain extent, the ongoing domination of the Imaguan economy, by a Euclean minority disproportionate to the size of the Eucleo-Imaguan population, with the 2011 census showing Eucleo-Imaguans as numbering 22% of the population, of which 15% are of Etrurian descent.
Politically, Bahio-Imaguans, although they were present in the Imaguan legislature from its inception in 1892, would remain a minority well into the mid-1970s, with both chambers being dominated by Eucleo-Imaguans. It was only in the 1960s that Bahio-Imaguans first made it to the Imaguan presidency and premiership, with Eric Fleming serving as President from 1960 to 1968, and Prime Minister from 1968 until 1976, and even after Fleming, the second Bahio-Imaguan to become Prime Minister only took office in 1992, when Gerald Larsson became Prime Minister: however, since then, every Prime Minister has been of at least partial Bahio-Imaguan descent, excluding Saverio Merante.
Economically, Eucleo-Imaguan domination of the economy has largely continued to this day, albeit the proportion of Bahio-Imaguans serving as managing directors has risen from 8% in 1960 to 42% in 2010, while the proportion of Eucleo-Imaguans serving as managing directors fell from 92% in 1960 to 49% in 2010. The finance sector continues to be dominated by Eucleo-Imaguans, with the first Bahio-Imaguan managing director at a major Imaguan bank only being appointed in 2017, when former Finance Minister Holmes Threston was appointed managing director of the Bank of the Arucian.
The transvehemens slave trade imparted a complicated legacy on Estmere. As the first country to ban the trading of slaves in, and the first Euclean nation to abolish slavery fully, leadership within the country for most of the 19th and early 20th century considered it morally superior in regards to the slave trade compared to other countries such as Gaullica. Bahian diasporan communities raised the issue of reparations within Estmere a number of times; most notably, the Estmerish delegation to the Conference for the Promotion of the Pan-Bahian Idea presented the government with a manifesto which advocated for reparations and repatriation.
Estmere's role in the slave trade began to be more seriously and critically considered by academics, the government and the public starting in the mid 20th century. This more serious analysis was critical of historical Estmerish grandstanding in regards to being the first nation to abolish slavery, and began to revisit the idea of reparations toward the descendents of slaves and freedmen. The repatriation of Bahian cultural heritage held within Estemre has also been considered, and has become closely tied to the movement for repatriation. The Estmerish National Museum has been at the centre of this, with one notable example being the Rizi Relics, a number of pre-Euclean Bahian artifacts that were transported from Riziland to Morwall. The repatriation of these has been repeatedly requested by the government of Rwizikuru.
The slave trade had an indisputable legacy within Estmere. While repatriation was supported by many members of the abolitionist movement and the Bahian diasporan community from abolition up until the mid 20th century, such efforts were relatively minor, and in the modern day, people of Bahian descent make up a significant minority within Estmere. Their presence - particularly in urban centres where - has contributed to the cause of racial equality and multiculturalism within Estmere. Many of these people of Bahian descent, particularly Estmerish Bahio-Arucians, are descended from slaves and freedmen. In the capital of Morwall, Black Estmerish make up 21.3% of the population.
The Estmerish government under Heidi Reid in 2004 made a public apology on behalf of Estmere for its role in transvehemens slave trade. While the apology was lauded by many, it was also criticised as virtue signalling, as the apology was wholly symbolic and the Reid government made no attempt at reparations, monetary or otherwise. More recently, Zoe Halivar has promised to revisit the ideas of repatriating historical artifacts.
- Has an established presence in the Arucian by 1510, with a permanent colonial presence in Satucin beginning at the very least by 1540. I assume, if going by IRL trends, there would be for some time an explorationary period of indentured servitude/slavery of the native !Amerindians.
- By the 1550s at the latest Gaullica is exploring and perhaps helping initiate the Transvehemens slave trade by dealing with the veRwizi Empire.
- The establishment of Sainte Germaine on the Bahian coast by Gaullica in 1650 can likely be an attempt to help cut out the “middle-man”; in that Gaullica’s permanent presence on the coast and on the Gonda made Sainte Germaine a city of insurmountable wealth, population growth and a primary port in the “Vehemens Triangle”.
- Gaullica bans the slave trade and joins Estmerish efforts in 1810s. Slavery is also banned in the domestic metropole.
- By 1820, the ban has extended to Cassier.
- By 1830, it has extended to the Arucian colonies.
- By 1840, following the Brothers' War, it has extended to Satucin (Gaullica's last territory to have slavery outlawed).
Whilst Soravia was a notably minor importer of Bahian slaves to its own colonies in the new world, it still participated and benefitted from the transvehemens slave trade, mainly in its sugar plantations in Vinalia. Soravia briefly maintained small outposts in Bahia in the 17th and 18th centuries, where deals were struck with the Kenema people and the Oko people for the sale of slaves. Around 45,000 slaves are thought to have purchased and transported to the colonies in Soravian ships, mainly by the Soravian Maccan Sea Company, who auctioned them off in their various farms across southern Vinalia.
With growing international pressure against slavery, Soravia banned the import of slaves in 1800, later banning the practice altogether in 1812 but opting not to take an active economic stance against countries who still utilised slave labour. Despite abolition, indentured servitude was still extremely common in Soravian colonies. Soravia's lack of involvement in the Scramble for Bahia largely prevented freedmen from migrating back to Bahia due to large linguistic and cultural differences. As such, many remained in Vinalia, and their descendants constitute around 5% – almost 1.3 million – of Vinalia's current day population.
Despite calls for apologies from those descended from slaves imported by Soravia into its colonies, Soravia's government has yet to apologise for its involvement in the slave trade. Awareness of the trade is highest in Chistovodia, where several institutions are dedicated to uncovering the legacy and history of Soravia's participation in the trade, but general lack of awareness in Soravia – as well as its neglection from being taught in schools – has stifled progress on reparations for the trade.