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Daitoa Republic of Tsurushima
Tsurushima daitō kyōwakoku
Motto: "共栄、友愛、正義" (Tsurushiman)
(Justice, Liberty, Mutual Prosperity)
|Capital||Asahina New City|
|Recognised national languages||Yumisawan (Central Kahei)|
|Recognised regional languages|
|Demonym(s)||Tsurushimese, Daitoan, East Ochran|
|Government||Directorial technocratic socialist federal republic|
• National Directorate
• Chancellor of the Popular Assembly
|Legislature||East Ochran Popular Assembly|
• 2017 estimate
• 2014 census
• Per capita
• Per capita
|Currency||Tsurushimese kiku (き)|
Tsurushima, officially the Daitoa Republic of Tsurushima or alternatively known as the Republic of Tsurushima, (Tsurushiman romaji: Tsurushima kyōwakoku; hiragana: つるしまきょうわこく) is a country in East Ochran encompassing a chain of two major archipelagos and several smaller islands in the Makrian Ocean off the far eastern coast as well as the Kitagan peninsula in mainland Ochran and an enclave in the Zhou region. The Technocratic Republic is a constitutional, directorial federal republic composed of a total of five states of varying autonomy, with the Republic of Tsurushima as its largest and most dominant constituent entity on the Tsuru island chain and outlying islands. It shares a maritime border with Pulau Keramat to the south and southeast, a disputed border in the Kahei islands with the Arthuristan dominion of Lion's Rock and western land borders with Taizhou and Chagadalai on the Ochran mainland. Tsurushima is home to approximately 126.7 million people and its federal capital of Asahina located on the island of Takao in the Fūsan Republic was a former minor castle town before hosting the republican rebellion of 1752, becoming a planned city after the Tsurushiman Revolution. Its largest city, Koshigawa, is the commercial center of the island nation and potentially the second-largest city in Ajax.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Foreign affairs and military
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
The common name referring both to the Republic's major archipelago and the wider Great East Republic as a whole originates from an early self-description of the island as the islands of the noble red-crowned crane. More broadly, the proto-Kitaganic word tsuru can refer to a variety of long-necked birds while -shima is the append denoting an island or chain of islands. Several poetic names exist for the region as a whole including Azuma-no-kuni, the east country or Hitakami-no-kuni. The Daitoa moniker is the Tsurushiman naming for the general East Ochran-Makrian region in the traditional worldview of the region as a continent or region at the centre of the world, it was adopted by the revolutionaries of the Daitoa Revolution of 1893 to assert the view of a new Tsurushima as a pan-nationalist union of the various East Ochran and Makrian islander peoples in the Great East Republic.
The Great Peace
Tsurushima, the islands of the noble crane, throughout much of their history have been dependent on the sea for a livelihood (as well as trade for natural resources found lacking) and on a strong tradition of civic duty, arts, the letters and sciences for innovation and culture. For much of the ancient to early modern history of the Fūsan and Kihei archipelagos and the southern Kitagan peninsula, the country was a theocratic bureaucracy with its center at the ceremonial palatial temples of Narasu and Kaisei respectively, where a line of religiously significant shamanistic high priestess-queens referred to as mikahime (male counterparts referred to as mikahiko) delegated power first to warlords and petty kings through unifying conquests by the legendary Shamaness-Queen Shūkaku, whose female-line descendants became the imperial line, and beginning with the classical age, the Grand Bureaucracy of the Ritsuryō system. This clerical-magisterial system managed inter-clan roads, magistrates, currency, trade and foreign shipping and exploration. A stratocracy of military leaders originating as clan-lords emerged to share power with the civil bureaucracy and clergy of the animistic faith but were largely subordinated to the civil magistrates and the religious shamanistic class and were primarily tasked with protection of territory from foreign incursions and banditry or governance of border marches. During this period of peace, regular contact was maintained with the rest of Ochran, trade systems throughout Ochran as well as to Scipia and Norumbia were well-maintained by the merchant class and the Ritsuryo while the Shogun protected the peace on the roads, trade routes and managed internal stability. During this period, the navy was well funded under direct Imperial supervision and exploratory missions reached the islands of the Vespanian and Makria Oceans as well as far-off Scipia. Indeed, Tsurushimese expeditions reach Norumbia before Belisarian explorers, establishing trade links with the ancient indigenous empires and establishing outposts which would eventually form the nucleus of the later Enyama colony. Trade missions were far less ambitious in scope and lasting links were with nations and ports in Ochran along the so-called Jade Road
While a balance was maintained initially between the bureaucratic system/trade interests and the clan lords, the power represented through the shugo governors and military's ability to secure control over food stocks eventually led to the position of shugo exercising more power and privilege, as well as heavy responsibility, within their clans. The period of internal balance deteriorated beginning in the 1260s with a period of unusual environmental instability from greater storm activity, flooding and droughts destroying trade fleets at sea and leading to famine inside Tsurushima itself.
Birth of the Shogunate
Much of the nation's manpower had shifted from the fields to urban life dedicated to commerce or at sea during the Dai-Keian (Great Peace) period. The loss of access to much of Ochran during the Bayarid conquests greatly damaged the food security of Tsurushima, with the defeat of the armies of the Commandery of Kitagan by the Bayarid horde and surrender of the mainland provinces sparking a famine throughout Tsurushima by the 15th century. The office of the taishogun was created primarily to combat the Bayarid invasions of Kitagan and the Kahei islands and attempt to abate invasions of the Fūsan islands by the Bayarid successor states. As the shugo of the commanderies exercised greater direct protectorship of agricultural land and maintained the most capable fighting forces to protect the highways plagued by bandits, the Shamaness-Queen was ultimately forced to relinquish power from the clerical magistracy to the Taishogun and the Shugo military generals. By the end of the 15th century, the Shaman-Empress had lost de facto power of appointment for the Shogun and the first period of war between the commanderies erupted after the Taishogun from the Otomo family attempted to secure the succession for his son. The first shogunate war set a precedent for the position of Taishogun remaining in the most dominant clan or clan alliance until a period of internal civil war determines the next government of the islands. The war was resolved by the unexpected victory of an upstart bloc around the Kakita dynasty which established the First Kakita Shogunate, after the Otomo clan had fallen into disgrace from disreputable actions committed during the war. The power of the Shogunate was strengthened after successfully repelling invasions from mainland Ochran as well. Many of the former systems of arts and literacy dominated by the Imperial magistrates became incorporated and absorbed into the Samurai class as well, creating a hybrid role of scholar-warlords in Tsurushima and interest in the sciences focused on military as well as civilian applications, with some of the first gunpowder firearms entering use in Tsurushima during this period.
End of the Isawa Shogunate
By the early 1500s, Belisarian and Mutulese presence in the southern spice islands as well as the Open Door policy of the Isawa Shogunate had led to so-called Belisarian Legation cities on the outlying islands and various trade and religious missions on the main Kahei islands themselves. As the spread of the syncretic Kirishitan catholic faith from the southernmost island to the interior is influenced by Fabrian Catholic missionaries from the Latin Empire, the Fabrians inevitably convert some of the influential clans in the region and begin to coordinate a favorable takeover of the 'pagan islands'. The Kirishitan Uprising spirals out of their control, however, as a zealous crusade causes considerable damage throughout the countryside, with pillaging and forced conversions, and earns a far-ranging condemnation of all Belisarian faiths in Tsurushima from the Shogun. The Isawa manage to muster an army to subdue the Kirishitan Crusade and repay the barbarism inflicted by the Kirishitans by public beheading of the major instigators (including the Latin missionaries). This serves to isolate Tsurushima proper from world trade and calls into question the Open Door policy and, by proxy, the authority of the Isawa. A new civil war resolves with the Isawa deposed and the installation of the traditionalist Kakita Shogunate, Tsurushima's last stratocratic dynasty. During this period, Tsurushima is closed outright to Fabrian Catholics but not foreigners in general. The code of ethics and honor holds its greatest importance as the dynastic families are carefully monitored to ensure no belligerent actions are perpetrated against another clan's lands and to contain the spread of dangerous uprisings. The colonies in the Kahei archipelago enter a period of hegemonic dominance by Mutul and Belisarian empires through their control of outgoing trade via colonial ports.
Fall of the Shogunate and the Imperial War
At the advent of the early 18th century, the young Empress Daidoji develops a strong interest in natural philosophy and governance, studying both the classical Tsurushiman texts and Ochran philosophy but also taking an interest in Belisarian Enlightenment studies with secret excursions abroad. Empress Daidoji begins to openly question the idea and power of the Shugo system and publicly suggests to Taishogun Surikawa Yoshihiro that he gradually transfer power back to the Imperial Court. Forced with no honorable recourse, the Shogun reluctantly obliges. The young Empress' experience abroad makes her eager to reassert Tsurushiman maritime power, re-establish control in the Kahei islands and modernize the governmental system of the islands and popularize access to education while her experience abroad helps open the country but maintain a healthy distrust of the great powers. Some of the old responsibilities are returned to the civil service and the Ikko sect of the Shinseiwa clergy is favoured to promote greater societal equality and unity. In 1723, an assassin's blade takes the life of the Empress Daidoji. As the tradition of female claimants had largely dissipated during the militant period, various factions begin to promote their own dynasty's claimants to the Imperial Throne via past marriages with members of the Shamaness-Imperial line. The chaos provides an opportunity for Taishogun Surikawa Yoshihiro to return to the forefront advocating for an Interregnum where the Shogunate asserts full control of the nation whilst claims to the Throne of the Grand Shrine are more thoroughly studied. Soon, the shogunate and the various Shugo dynasties are in a state of war.
The rigid system, feudal control of the Shugo and inability to innovate in the face of the crisis regarding the imperial family and foreign influence ultimately led to a rising movement seeking a change to the shogunate. While not the first time a rebel reformist faction of samurai or clergy emerged, this reformism ultimately had greater sway over a pact of lesser samurai families left destitute or as ronin by the civil war, seeking to overthrow the current Surikawa Shogunate and the feuding imperial factions and instate a new system of merit based on innovation. As the provinces centralized toward the castles and market cities, the bureaucracy of the Ritsuryō held more sway than ever before, and the rebellious republican clans looked to the culture of clerical service and career scholars as a model for reform as well as their potential for securing arms and profits from trade to the cause.
The Republic was first declared at a Asahina Castle by a pact of reformist generals, populist clergy of the Ikko faction, peasant leaders, and academics seeking a definitive stability, protected freedom and equality for all castes, laws based on science and natural philosophy and an end to the nepotism of the dynasties. The promise of an end to rule by nobility was heeded by the merchant classes of the growing cities which provided a more substantial navy to the Republic than the Factional and Shogunate forces and soon contact was established with republican movements abroad which could provide resources and more advanced musketry. The Republicans remained wary of Belisaria's empires, however, and were unwilling to accept their intervention on the Republic's behalf. As the war continued, the more legitimate of imperial claimants died in battle or via assassination and the republicans had secured more support from samurai previously loyal to an imperial claimant. By 1752, the Asahina Republic had defeated the last Shogun, Surikawa Hiroki, in battle outside the gates of the Imperial city. The Republic of Tsurushima was proclaimed with its new capital at the port city of Asahina and an ambitious and progressive constitution, for the time, was drafted.
The Republican Navy ultimately became a sizeable force in the Makria Ocean with increased modernization of the country and its maritime power. Reunification was re-established either peacefully or by force with some areas of the spice islands and the separation between military and civilian government, as well as legal barriers between the two, were codified with the bakufu of the old Shogunate transitioning into the chief stratocratic council of the military branch (the National Bakufu). Tsurushima becomes a nation open to new ideas and new peoples as promising opportunities abound for prospectors and traders and the seizure of some mainland Ochran territory brings some populations of the Juwari people into a plurinational state. Tsurushiman cultural traditions are preserved alongside Makronesian, Juwari and immigrant cultural communities. The era of industrial growth and prosperity, however, also leads to an increase in direct foreign control of some of the country's industry and the emergence of corporations and plutocratic dynasties which shrink the role of the civil service and occasionally are at odds with the interests of the common good. An economic downturn hits in the early 20th century and many look increasingly to practical economic and scientific solutions to economic trouble and the country's de facto status of foreign exploitation. A popular movement installs technocrats to the Diet and conflict in Belisaria is used as an opportunity to nationalize some of the nation's vital industries and break apart trusts and plutocratic interests before they became too heavily entrenched in the political system. As with the early republic, the new constitutions installs a directorial republic with national service requirements of citizens, a national education system and a system of anonymous assessments in science, letters and the arts to be permitted to run for official political positions. The economic system is reformed to one of dirigisme which focuses primarily on scientific innovation and balancing improved quality of life with competitiveness on foreign markets. The previously unofficial name of an "enlightened republic" is adopted to signify the new directorial technate republic in Far Eastern Ochran with the Third Republic Period existing from 1893 to the present day.
While the overall archipelago along the Ochran-Makrian tectonic divide has long been termed 'Tsurushima' as a whole, the Tsurushiman chain is actually composed of several archipelagic groups, numbering 7,296 islands in total. The most populous of these island chains is the Fūsan archipelago comprised of the larger islands of Hidaka, Takao, Kagawa, Chūkai, Saikaido, and Kyūhoku with the second most populous archipelago along the chain found southwest on the tropical Makrian archipelago of the Kahei Islands. Other notable chains include the Yayoi islands, the Iwatobi islands and Nantama island south of the equator. The Tsurushiman archipelago is known for its volcanic mountain chains, enriched soils, preserved forests covering 60-70% of the land area and pampas grasslands in drainage basins between orogenic chains.
Government and politics
Branches of government
The National Directorate
Foreign affairs and military
The Constitution of the Republic of Tsurushima does not establish a state religion and provides for a clear separation of church and state and secular pluralism. By extension, the civil rights guarantees enshrined in the Tsurushiman Constitution of 1759 were carried over to the new Daitoa Republic in 1893. In practice, Kamiseiwa and Ikkoism are dominant among the majority of the population and the government tacitly promotes those religions above others to protect against foreign political influence. While nonreligious Tsurushimans are the largest demographic group, most also consider themselves Kamiseiwa practitioners and cultural events and festivals on the Tsurushiman calendar are stil heavily based on Kamiseiwa ritualism, with shrine visits or ceremonies officiated by miko still a common aspect of modern Tsurushiman life. The Grand Shrine at Narasu is a protected cultural heritage site in which one or more High Miko (dai-miko) descended from the female line of the kami Shinjo and Shūkaku still reside and tend to the grounds. Native beliefs among the native Makronesians and Yezo are almost extinct but the revival and preservation of religious customs and cultures in those areas with the support of the Daitoa government are under way. The Mutulese trade dominance of the Kahei islands in particular introduced the White Path faith, which continues to thrive as a minor religion predominantly among Makronesians, mixed-race households and Mutulese-Kaheiians though some of their practices are heavily regulated in the modern day.
Kirishitan sects as well as outside Christian churches persist, particularly in the Kahei islands, and are legally protected under the Daitoa Republic, however they are typically monitored by security forces, particularly after high-profile terror attacks by some millenarian cults inspired by Christianity and the historical animosity towards the Christian faiths. Some church organizations, particularly more militant or evangelical sects or ones with a charismatic or messianic central figure, have been prescribed as illegal religious organizations by the State Administration for Protection from Dangerous Cults and Activities and typically face imprisonment and 'deprogramming'. The plight of Christians within Tsurushima is often a major human rights issue attracting international criticism.