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Arthani People's Union
Motto: यतो धर्मस्ततो जयः
"Yato Dharmas-Tato Jayaḥ"
"Whence Dharma, thence victory"
Location of Arthasthan (dark blue) in Coius.
and largest city
|Official languages||Matrabashi • Vespasian|
|Recognised regional languages||Prasumi • Samundrese • Utcalan • Harringhati • Tamisari • Vijayla • Valarna • Marani|
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Federal socialist council republic|
|Independence from Etruria|
• Reorganisation into the Union
|625,945.6 km2 (241,678.9 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
|171.39/km2 (443.9/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
Arthasthan (Matrabashi: अर्थस्थान), officially the Arthani People's Union (Matrabashi: अर्थडि जनता संघ, Árthani Jantā Saṅgh), is a sovereign state in Satria, bordered by Padaratha to the west, Rajyaghar to the east, Ajahadya to the southeast, and Ansan to the south. It is a nominally a stateless confederation of local communes; in reality it functions as a federal council republic, although it remains relatively decentralised. Arthasthan is the second most populated country in Satria with a population of nearly 110 million. The country is divided into five regions, a territory, and the independent city of Nadipatnam.
The area which makes up Arthasthan has been continuously inhabited for thousands of years, with archaeological remains recording the presence of sedentary agriculture from around 4,300 BCE and the existence of pastoralist groups before this time. Located at the delta of the Bashurat River, Arthasthan was a heartland for the development of the Sataro-Euclean peoples who arrived from the east and subjugated the endemic peoples. The fertile valleys of the Bashurat river helped grow several large states in the antique era, making Arthasthan a centre of religious and philosophical as well as economic exchange. This led to the birth of the Jati philosophical and theological schools which centred upon religious asceticism and pacifism.
Under the Jati period, which began around 700 BCE and which would continue until the emergence of the Sangma as a rival power, the region of modern day Arthasthan was the home of several wealthy states. However, at the coming of the common era, the Ashramic princedoms were subjugated by the Sangma dynasty. The region would remain under the Sangma for the majority of the dynasty's history, before the Nadipatnam Thakurate broke away and fought several wars against the empire. The Ashramic Reformation in the 7th century brought religious turmoil in the Sangma.
As Sangma power receded, more Thakurates would break away, eventually forming a confederacy of princely states called the Chamtamula Confederacy in the south. In the north, various minor states existed, which would eventually form the Rajadom of Pali. The confederacy was partially conquered by the Togoti Khaganate; its eastern region was directly annexed and its southern region was vassalized. Following the collapse of the Togoti Khaganate, a major general named Akdoğan, established his own fiefdom which became the Rajadom of Akdoğan. The Rajadom of Akdoğan faced strong competition from the Rajadom of Ajahadya to the east, and the Naratha Confederacy to the north. Desiring support, the Rajadoms turned to Euclea, especially Etruria and Soravia for support. While this was at first manifested by increased trade and military advisors, the Euclean powers began to extract concessions. Kassar, modern day Auttamasaripa, was granted to Soravia following a limited armed campaign against the Palis, and in 1840s the Akdoğans were forced to cede their states to Etrurian rule.
During the Great War, Arthasthan supplied troops to Etruria but became a centre of activity for anti-Euclean resistance. After almost a century of Etrurian colonization and repression, anti-colonialist movements were largely destroyed, but the aftermath of the war brought a rise in anti-colonialist sentiment. It led to the rise of the Azad Fauj and the People's Volunteer Organisation, a socialist anti-imperialist paramilitary. The outbreak of the Solarian War, led to the Arthasthan Liberation War an independence war against Etruria and its former Satrian allies. In 1967, the provisional Satrian Commandery was reformed into the Socialist Union as a council republic led by the Arthani Satrian Section. In the following decades after independence, Arthasthan participated in multiple conflicts in Satria before it joined various international organisations. The aftermath of the Third Satrian War led to a diplomatic reorientation in favor of Senria and its Satrian allies in the 1980s, although it maintains close ties with the socialist world.
Arthasthan is classified as a flawed democracy and as a Southern democracy due to the weakness of the civilian government and the influence of the Arthani Section and the military. Ethnic divides are also present, due to the diverse nature of the state which unites many different ethnic groups. Arthasthan is a developing nation, reliant on agriculture, mining, commercial fishing, and tourism for the nation’s economy. The country is considered a middle power in Kylaris due its population and geographic location. Due to its status as a socialist country, it is a full member of the Association for International Socialism. It is also a member of the Bashurat Cooperation Organization, the Council for Mutual Development, the Community of Nations, and the International Trade Organization.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
On its own, the Parbhan word अर्थ (ártha) is defined as "meaning", "aim", and "purpose", but when placed into various compound words its definition can vary considerably. The Samundrese word स्थान (sthān) refers to "place", "site", and "location". When this suffix is added, ártha means "wealth" and "prosperity" so the compound word árthasthān literally means "place of wealth" or more figuratively "land of wealth". The first known use of the name "Árthasthān" dates to the 10th century during the High Period of the Sangma Dynasty, where the term appeared in official documents to refer to the Bashurat River Delta as a "place of wealth". As the name first appeared in the record of imperial administrators instead of local officials, it appears that the name originated as an exonym from the Sangma empire rather than from the local area.
Saṅgh is a Parbhan word meaning "association", "assembly", "company", or "community". It is traditionally used to denote a governing assembly in a republic or a kingdom, or a type of religious association of Ashramists. In the context of Arthasthan's government, the term is used to emphasise their rejection of the state according to Netaji Thought, instead referring to their country as a united community of Arthanis centered around a General assembly. When translated from Matrabashi, it is usually interpreted as "union" or "community"; the former translation was made official in 1985.
Post Sangma period
Early modern period
Arthasthan’s geography is diverse, varying from low coastal plains to tall mountain ranges. The country can be divided into five distinct geographical regions, the Bashurat River Delta, the Southern Coast, the Southern Interior, the Highlands, and the Northern Coast. The southern region of the country is characterised by flat plains with large slow moving rivers. Its most prominent feature is the Bashurat River Delta in the southeast. The country is divided by the Pavitra Mountain Range, which runs through the center of the country. The southern slopes of the mountain range features gently sloping foothills compared to the steeper northern slopes. As a result, the northern coast generally has rugged and steeper coasts than the southern coast.
The Bashurat River Delta is formed by the confluence of the Bashurat River and the smaller Dakian River. The two rivers diverge into a maze of channels, swamps, lakes, and floodplain sediments before finally flowing into the Bay of Bashurat. The region is called the "Land of Rivers"; as it is home to over a thousand rivers and streams. The region is predominantly rich fertile flat land with most of it is less than 12 m (39 ft) above sea level. To the west of the delta is the Easter Interior. While not as fertile as the river delta, the floodplains formed by the region’s many small rivers provide fertile land. This region makes up the majority of the country and is where most of Arthasthan’s population lives.
The Highlands consist of the Pavitra Mountain Range and its surrounding rugged foothills. It contains the country's highest point, at 2,621 meters above sea level. The mountain divide traditionally marks the boundary between Northern Arthasthan and Central Arthasthan. The mountains also mark the northern boundary of the Sura River’s drainage basin. Due to the high altitude few Arthanis live in this region. The western end of the mountain range descends in altitude to an elevated plateau and foothill near the border with Padaratha. The steeper slope in the north creates a rockier and steeper shoreline in the north; it is common to find small cliffs and bluffs.
Arthasthan's climate is largely a tropical climate with some isolated regional climates caused by elevation. The majority of Arthasthan is a hot tropical monsoon climate. Parts of the Northern Coast is a tropical rainforest climate, although the climate doesn't reach far inland. The lower regions of the Highlands feature humid continental climates, which forms as a transition zone between the lower elevations and the lower elevations. In the mountain peaks in the eastern Highlands, there is a icy mountain climate, with snow year round.
Only parts of the Northern Coast receive precipitation year round. For the rest of the country, the majority of precipitation arrives between from December to June during the monsoon season. Most of the precipitation from these storms falls in the mountains as snow. Temperatures across most of Arthasthan remain largely consistent with relevantly minor differences based upon the weather.
Arthasthan is home to diverse tropical floral and fauna, especially within the mountainous regions. There are ten nature reserves and nine national parks in Arthasthan that provide safe haven for many rare and endangered plants and animals. Arthasthan is commonly divided into into the Lowland biome and the Mountain biome, although each biome can be easily divided into a number of different biotic zones.
The Lowland biome is characterised by a tropical climate that is generally considered to cover nearly all of Arthasthan. Tropical forest and shrubland covers a majority of the biome as well as some semi-arid vegetation for the most extreme regions. Arthasthan's tropical forests can be subdivided further into broad categories of canopy density, or the proportion of the area of a forest covered by its tree canopy. The country's very dense forest, whose canopy density is greater than 70%, is largely found in the interior. Due to human habitation in the region, wildlife is most commonly found in these forests. Common wildlife in this area include tigers, elephants, monkeys, and the Satrian river dolphin.
The Mountain biome is characterised by colder and wetter weather with most of the precipitation falling as snow. As a result, the region forms the southern watershed for the northern region Bashurat River Basin and other rivers. Furthermore the rain shadow of the Pavitra Mountain Range causes the southern slope of the mountain to be warmer and drier. The biome is covered by forests at the lower elevations before the trees eventually give way to an subalpine zone. Above the tree line, is an alpine tundra devoid of large vegitation because of its elevation. Common wildlife in the region are suited to the mountainous terrain, which include the Snow Leopard and the Coian Lynx.
Government and politics
Arthasthan's constitution, the People's Laws of Arthasthan, declares that the country is a voluntary stateless confederation of communes united to achieve the goal of achieving a socialist society by following the ideology of Netaji Thought. In practice it functions as a decentralised state under a federal democratic council republic. The Satrian Section of the Workers' International (SKIS) holds extensive influence thoughout the country in a deep state known as the Internal State. The nation practices a unique form of councilism centered around the principle of Swaraj, combining traditional systems of local governance with modern socialist principles. Despite political centralisation and the rise of a powerful de facto federal government since the 1970s, Arthasthan continues to officially consider itself as a stateless society.
The People's Laws of Arthasthan declares that the Satrian Section "is the regional representative of the Workers' International, the Section shall play a leading role in the development of a socialist state" which constitutionalises its prominent status in Arthani politics. The Satrian Section of the Workers' International is not a traditional political party, but rather is an socialist political organisation that has a quasi-governmental role in the country's government. It plays a significant role the the country's social, cultural and political life through deep ties with the greater socialist mass movement in the country. It is one of the largest political organisations in the world with seven million members, not including an additional five million members who are part of the People's Volunteer Organisation.
The highest office within the Section is the First Secretary, who performs numerous key administrative functions of the party by controlling its national organisation. The First Secretary and other high level party officials lead the Secretariat, which functions as a collective body and cabinet. The Secretariat consists of five major offices and several minor ones that each handles a part of the Section's administration and policy. The Secretariat is appointed and overseen by the Central Section Council who can override and dismiss them when it deems fit. The Central Council is the most powerful institution in the Satrian Section, consisting of representatives from the Satrian Section's lower councils, Section owned enterprises, paramilitary forces, mass organizations, business associations, ethnic organizations, and research and educational institutions. It serves as the highest platform for debate and approval party policy and the election of party officials. Political analysts summarize the relationship between the Central Council and the Secretariat as one of a legislature and an executive that implements the Central Council's decisions.
At the lowest level, the Satrian Section maintains a series of lower councils, known as the Revolutionary People’s Councils. A council is assigned to every local Assembly to serve as an ideological check and to represent the interests of the Satrian Section. However the Councils does allow some local ideological flexibility to preserve pragmatism and efficacy for the region. It consists of the local members of the Satrian Section and the members from the organisations of the People's Volunteer Organisation. These councils serves to coordinate and connect the Satrian Section to their grassroots members and to mobilize society with their socialist mass movements. In addition it also has a role in social welfare campaigns, such as literacy campaigns and vaccination drives. These councils elect representatives to higher councils, which are attached to regional governmental Congresses. They play a similar role to the Revolutionary People’s Councils, except on a wider geographic area. These higher councils go on to elect representatives to the Central Section Council.
The Satrian Section has significant political influence and quasi-governemntal functions despite having no official position within the government. Through its influence it has taken up the role of directing broad policy and ensuring that Arthasthan remains faithful to the principles of Netaji Thought. The majority of its influence comes from the members of the Satrian Section who are elected to the General Assembly and the Committee. There they support decisions made by the Central Council of the Satrian Section as a delegate. However their standing within the Satrian Section is not tied to a government office, instead they must be elected to it. They cooperative closely with the National Committee and the General Secretary to implement and enforce the decisions and policies made by the Central Council. As a result, the Satrian Section is often known as the "fourth branch" of the federal government.
Between the full sessions of the General Assembly, executive, legislative, and judicial power in Arthasthan is exercised by the National Committee of Arthasthan, a de jure part of the General Assembly of Arthasthan. It consists of 125 members elected by the General Assembly who remain in power as long as they have the confidence of the General Assembly. The National Committee functions as a permanent standing legislature. The National Committee has the authority to create and implement its own policies but it is ultimately responsible to the General Assembly. It is the duty of the Committee to ensure that legislation passed by General Assembly are implemented nationally. It is also responsible for matters related to organization and personnel, and has the right to call for a full session of the General Assembly.
The General Secretary of Arthasthan serves as the head of government and the de jure head of state of Arthasthan. It is elected by the National Committee of Arthasthan to a four year term without term limits. The General Secretary is part of an informal executive body within the National Committee called the Council which functions as the national cabinet. The Council is a de facto part of the National Committee operates at its direction and wields executive power at the direction the National Committee. The National Council consists of Secretaries who are assigned to head government departments, like ministers in governments of other countries. The General Secretary coordinates policies with the Council and the National Committee. The secretaries of the Council and are appointed by the General Secretary and approved by the National Committee.
The General Assembly of Arthasthan is nominally the country's highest political authority as the de facto national legislature of Arthasthan. While it functions as a unicameral legislative body, the General Assembly is not organised as a traditional legislature. Instead it consists of 5,115 delegates, with one representative from each of the roughly 2500 recognized Assemblies and Committees in Arthasthan. There are no formal election periods for the General Assembly and the local Assemblies and Committees are free to elect and recall their delegates at anytime. The General Assembly theoretically wields parliamentary supremacy as the ultimate law making body within Arthasthan by proposing laws and implementing policies. In reality because of its size, it meets in full session only once a year for four weeks. Although it usually meets in partial session throughout the year, without a full session it lacks the quorum to vote. As a result the exercise of its powers are limited to these annual sessions where it decides broad policy, approves the budget, and elects members of the National Committee. The National Committee implements the decisions of the General Assembly when it is not in session. Between its sessions, its members often debate and compile reports on major social and economic issues affecting their constituents. These reports usually offer broad policy recommendations, which are forwarded to the National Committee.
The highest judicial authority in the country was the National Committee of Arthasthan, which delegated responsibility of managing the judicial system to a series of committees. Since 1986, power over the judiciary has been officially transferred to the Council of Judicial Affairs under the civilian government. Its members are appointed by the Premier and confirmed by the Assembly. The Council of Judicial Affairs is not a court, but serves to organize the judicial system of the country by hiring, firing, promoting, and assigning judges. Although the Council of Justice is an independent body, it continues to cooperates closely with the Political and Legal Affairs Commission.
In turn the Council delegates non-constitutional judicial powers to the Supreme Court of Justice. The Court of Justice is the highest court for criminal and private law and has supreme appellate jurisdiction as well as supreme original jurisdiction over non-constitutional cases. The Council of Justice also appoints the judges of several high courts that serve as regional judicial circuits, although the State government must approve the appointment. A regional judicial council appointed by the Council of Judicial Affairs also appoints the judges that serve the courts of the Local Districts, although it usually appoints a judge recommended by the District.
The law enforcement of Arthasthan is divided into federal level forces run by the national government and local forces managed by the various local councils. Federal law enforcement is largely controlled by the People's Armed Civil Forces, which consists of three agencies. As they operate in an armed militaristic capacity, and sometimes work alongside the military, the line between law enforcement and military forces are blurred. Academics consider the agencies of the People's Armed Civil Forces to be government paramilitary forces. The largest agency is the Internal Security Force, which is tasked with guarding Arthasthan's internal borders and major roads. Its main role is counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations within Arthasthan. Furthermore there are four different Border Police Forces each tasked with policing the country's land borders in peacetime and preventing trans-border crimes. Finally there is the Special Security Force which protects government sites, key infrastructure, and provides security to government officials. The only federal law enforcement agency under direct control of the civilian government is the National Police Force, which serves as a general law enforcement force dealing with organized crime and other federal crimes. In addition it maintains a quick reaction force that responds to riot and crowd control situations, formed after the 1980 Baisara riots.
Law enforcement below the federal level is handled by over a myriad of militias and government agencies organised on the local and regional levels. The organisation of these agencies varies considerably, although all Assemblies maintain a law enforcement agency for their District. Each region has over a thousand local law enforcement agencies tied to each District and occasionally zones. These agencies are primarily in charge of intrastate law enforcement within the country. However they are often marred by corruption, brutality, and conflicting jurisdictions which has led to their notoriety.
Arthasthan is consitutionally a stateless confederation of thousands of self governing communes which are governed by local community councils. In practice it functions as a councilist state overseen by a de facto federal government, although the communes remains the fundamental and most powerful unit of governance. Arthasthan only has two formal tiers of government, the national and local, the result of its origin as an confederation of local communes. However since its founding a complex but informal system of regions, states, republics, and zones has developed at the regional level. Finally the Indigenous Self-Determination Army has de facto control over the regions of Utcalasthan and Mahabhumi that it controls.
The Districts are the lowest and fundamental level of administration, equivalent to a municipality. The District system has largely subsumed the traditional tribe-based system by replacing the traditional council of elders with a Councilist system of governance. The main institution of the District is the Local People's Council, consisting of a 11 member council which is responsible for the District. Alongside the Council is the Local People's Assembly consisting of directly elected members and any voters who live in the District. Allowing voters to participate effectively turns it into a forum for their local community, allowing them to propose laws, decide some government spending, submit a report of current issues, and more. While the LPC and the LPA are the main authority, they are assisted by the Local People’s Committee which implements policies and ordinances proposed by the two other bodies.
Above the Districts is a complex and intertwined system of regional administration known as the internal raj. The system is characterized by formal and informal cooperation and coordination agreements between different Districts. These are especially common within populated cities and often act as de facto city governments. It can have varying levels of political integration, so it is not uncommon for a District to be in multiple agreements of varying integration. As a result there is is no standard structure used consistently across Arthasthan, except for Regions and a Territory. A Region is a large geogrpahical area defined as a constituent polity defined by the federal government. As Arthasthan is a federation of small local polities, instead of a traditional federation of states, these states are generally weak and only serve as a coordinating body and for the ease of adminstration. The country's sole Territory functions similarly but exclusively for Arthasthan's Tankari ethnic miniorities.
As a socialist country, Arthasthan is a member of the Association for International Socialism and its Satrian Section is affiliated with the Congress of the Workers' International. Despite ideological differences, it is also a member of the Senrian-led Bashurat Cooperation Organization, cooperating with Senria on security, military, and economic affairs. Other organizations it is a member of are the Council for Mutual Development, the Community of Nations, and the International Trade Organization. Due to its population, military, and economy it is considered a regional power as the only socialist state in Western Coius. The country's foreign affairs are primarily handled by the Ministry of Foriegn Affairs, although the International Relations Commission of the Secretariat of the Satrian Section also play a role.
Arthasthan is a founding member of the Association for International Socialism and a member of its predecessor the Association of Emerging Socialist Economies. Through the AIS, Arthasthan cooperates with the rest of the socialist world on military, economic, diplomatic, scientific, and cultural matters. While the country has good relations with the members of the AIS, Arthasthan's ties are the strongest with Dezevau, its oldest ally. Arthasthan's relationship with Lavana and South Kabu are also close due to their location in Coius.
Arthasthan's relations with its neighbors vary significantly from good to poor relations with its neighbors. Its relations are especially poor with Ajahadya who lays claim to all of Arthasthan as part of its state ideology of pan-Satrianism. Since independence, Arthasthan has fought three wars against Ajahadya and several conflicts against Ajahadyan backed insurgencies as part of its goal to unify Satria. Relations are also poor with Padaratha as the two countries have a dispute over the island of Minkathala, known as the Tamisari Socialist Region in Arthasthan. Formerly an independent state, the two countries struggled for control over the island since the 1960s. Relations with Rajyaghar and Ansan are good as all three are member states of Bashurat Cooperation Organization and the Council for Mutual Development and share numerous political, economic, and military ties.
Arthasthan's relations with capitalist states, especially Euclean ones, are largely tepid at best because of the legacy of Euclean colonialism in Satria and ideological differences. The sole exception is its good relations with Senria, which is the warmest diplomatic relations Arthasthan has with a non socialist country. Due to Arthani hostility to Ajahadya, an ally of its geopolitical foe Shangea, Senria views Arthasthan as part of its strategy of countering Shangea and Shangean influence. As a member of the Bashurat Cooperation Organization, Arthasthan closely cooperates with Senria with military and security matters. Arthasthan has become increasingly economically integrated with the rest of BCO despite its state ideology and its existing economic ties through the AIS. It is also a member of the Council for Mutual Development and is part of a vast transportation across Satria, built with assisstance from the organisation.
Arthasthan's military, the Arthasthan Armed Forces is one of the largest militaries in Satria, consisting of 545,000 active troops and 350,000 paramilitary personnel, totaling around 800,000 trained troops. The main branches are the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy, which are supported by a large number of paramilitary forces in the country. Although the the civilian government has direct control over the armed forces, in reality the military's own leadership wields significant influence who also shares control with the Arthani Satrian Section. The Armed Forces is overseen by the Central Military Commission, which consists of the military leadership and representatives from the Satrian Section and the civilian government.
The paramilitary forces affiliated with the ASR include the Naval Force, People's Guard, and the People's Armed Civil Forces. During peacetime the paramiltiaries' primary role are maintaining internal security which is chiefly conducted by the People's Armed Civil Forces. The paramilitary naval force primarily functions as a coast guard tasked with securing the nation's waterways, especially around the island of Minkathala. The People's Guard, Satrian Section's the paramilitary wing, was a ideologically driven militia force originally formed to operate as a resistance movement in the event of an invasion. Today the People's Guard functions as the Satrian Section's security force. During times of war, all paramilitaries are tasked with asymmetric warfare, counterinsurgency, and rear area security.
The Armed Forces is considered to be one of the three pillars of the Arthani state, along with the civilian government and the Satrian Section. Due to its prestigious status in Arthani society and its highly professional nature, the military is able to maintain a large degree of de facto autonomy in decision-making and political influence despite the civilian government's de jure authority over it. The Armed Forces play a major role in Arthani society through its integration into Arthasthan's civil society. The military has extensive economic interests throughout Arthasthan and it has been involved in building much of the country's infrastructure. It has strong ties with the Satrian Section, known as the Internal State.
Arthasthan is categorised as a rapidly growing lower-middle income developing economy with a nominal GDP of $270.45 billion and a GDP PPP of $865.12 billion. As a socialist state, Arthasthan's economic system resembles market socialism, with high degrees of state ownership and workers' self-management with some foreign direct investment and private ownership based upon a market system. The long-term goal of the Arthani economy as enshrined in the constitution is economic development within a socialist framework to eventually establish a true socialist economy.
During the first five years after the wars, Arthasthan implemented a planned economy to rebuild after the devasation caused by the Solarian War and the First Satrian War. The government subsquently embraced less interventionist policies, although it maintained direct control over key industries such as the Arthasthan's nascent manufacturing sector. The Second and Third Second Satrian War against Ajahadya brought further devasation and economic turmoil. The war and the subsequent embargo of Ajahadya led to Arthasthan's economic realignment in favor of Senria, despite its economic ties with the Association for International Socialism.
Arthansthan's economy is dependent on subsistence agriculture, textiles, tourism, and mining of mineral resources and fossil fuels. Arthasthan's service sector makes up a majority of the economy and is overwhelmingly reliant on tourism or servicing tourists. Arthasthan's economy is dependent on international trade and export. Its small but growing manufacturing sector centered in Nadipatnam, produces a variety of goods such as consumer electronics, textiles, steel, and concrete. Arthasthan is one of the largest exporters of coffee and tea, which constitutes a majority of the country's agricultural exports. Senria is reliant on Arthasthan's oil and coal. Despite its development level, Arthasthan maintains a complex river and canal system that the country uses for agriculture and transportation.
Despite rapid growth, Arthasthan remains one of the poorest countries in Satria and has significant regional disparities in development. To address this, the government and NGOs such as ARAC and the People's Rural Bank, focuses on rural development and poverty alleviation to improve living standards and reduce inequality. Foreign investors are largely dissuaded from investing on their own because of the country's economic protectionism and its convoluted governmental structure particularly on the regional level and below. This has led to corruption, a gap between legislation and implementation, and unclear or conflicting regulations. The country has a Human Development Index of 0.620 indicating medium development and a Gini coefficient of 2u.237 indicating low to moderate income inequality. As a result, Arthasthan receives development aid from the Association for International Socialism, the Council for Mutual Development, and the Bashurat Cooperation Organization.
The Arthani economy overwhelmingly relies on subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 20% of the nation's GDP but over 70% of the workforce. It largely consists of rice farming by agricultural cooperatives and commercial farming for export. These cooperatives either use the wet-field paddy system, practiced primarily in plains and valleys of the Bashurat River Delta and the Suranadi River Delta, or the slash-and-burn cultivation system, practiced primarily in hillier terrain found in the central and northern regions of the country. Animal husbandry is also common, and is supported by the government to provide better nutrition and additional sources of income for local cooperatives.
Over 75% of agricultural land in the country is used for rice; the remainder grow various agricultural for international export. It is a leading producer of black pepper, coffee, and tea which is exported all over the world. The majority of these farms are privately owned by permitted foreign investors that practice some form of intensive farming.
Despite the introduction mechanised farming equipment for preparing soil, planting, and harvesting crops, traditional methods for agriculture are still widely used. Attempts by the federal government to introduce equipment and educate farmers for its use, have met mixed success due to large regional disparities in adoption. Nevertheless small equipment such as small powered ploughs, has become much more common across the country in recent years.
Arthasthan maintains a large mining industry that accounts for 10% of national GDP and 5% of the workforce. Coal traditionally was the main international export in thousands of tons, but has been overtaken by iron ore, aluminium, chromite, and bauxite. The country is also a major producer of limestone, copper, and tin. After investment and economic assistance, in 2013 Arthasthan began producing oil in the western regions of the country. Currently there are plans to build a refinery so the country could export processed petroleum products. Mining is either done on the small scale by local cooperatives or on the large scale by state owned companies. Despite many local operations, the majority of resource extraction is done by large private entities.
Arthasthan maintains a small manufacturing sector centered on the Capital District of Nadipatnam that largely relies on foreign direct investment. It employs around 7% of the country's labour force but contributes over 20% of national GDP. Unlike the rest of Arthasthan, investment in the capital city is significantly easier due to support from the federal government and streamlined governance of the capital city. The majority of production is by Senrian-owned companies who largely produce a variety of textiles and basic consumer products. Arthani state owned companies also produce some goods, the most prominent being the Arthani Brewery Company, which produces a variety of beverages.
Arthasthan has a medium sized service sector, which occupies 18% of the workforce but contributes over 45% of the national GDP. It is dominated by the international travel and tourism industry, which has undergone a rapid growth since the country's borders were opened to tourism in 1994. Foreign tourism is the most common form of tourism in the country, with over 5.3 million arrivals in 2019, up 4% from the year before. The state authority for tourism, the General Agency for Tourism, manages a wide range of fields in the industry from acting as a travel agency, to operating hotels and restaurants. A number of approved foreign hotel chains, mainly Senrian, also operate in Arthasthan.
The main international destination in Arthasthan is the Kassar Peninsula and the city of Baisara. The region is famous for its sandy beaches and active night life and is also popular for its hiking and sailing. Within the past decade, the government has further encouraged further development in Minkathala and the southern coast in Mahabhumi.
Arthasthan's energy sector is managed by the state-controlled Arthasthan Electricity Group (AEG), which produces 65% of the country's electricity. The remainder are produced by large private entities or generated locally. Most of Arthasthan's power is generated by fossil fuels, mainly coal from the country's extensive coal reserves. There is some fossil fuel energy production from oil and natural gas although this is limited.
Arthasthan has a growing hydropower sector centered in Uttar Pradesh, generated by four dams, several dozen small hydro stations, and hundreds of micro hydro installations. The large dams are managed by the Arthasthan Electricity Group, while the rest of the hydro plants are directly managed by local authorities. These plants were constructed using development aid from the AIS' Development Fund and support from the AIS Energy Commission.
Most of Arthasthan's modern transportation network originates from the Etrurian colonial era when it was used to facilitate the transportation of raw materials to the colony's main ports. It was heavily damaged during the Solarian War and the First Satrian War and had to be completely rebuilt. Through support from COMDEV, Arthasthan has built two distinct transportation networks in the northern and the southern regions of the country. In the north is the Acheloian Logistical Corridor which runs along the northern coast and connects with northern Rajyaghar. In the south are the Satrian Belt Initiative and the Bashurat Belt Initiative, which connects Arthasthan's southern coast with southern Rajyaghar and Ansan. However outside of these two transportation corridors most of Arthasthan's transporation is underdeveloped. Furthermore the country's advanced transportation networks are not connected domestically and instead rely on the international network for cross country transport.
Bicycles, motorcycles and motor scooters are the most popular forms of private road transport in the country. Public road transportation relies on publicly operated bus routes. Arthasthan has a total of 150,000 km of paved, gravel, and dirt roads. As part of its Road Development Program, the government has both developed currently existing roads and developed new ones over the past seven years. The majority of new roads within the past couple years are in the Interior near or in Vanavasi land. These new roads have usually resulted in land disputes, as the Vanavasi fear encroachment by outsiders.
A large scale expansion of the country's transportation network is currently in progress to allow better economic development. Today Arthasthan has over a thousand kilometers of electrified standard gauge railways in service as part of the COMDEV funded transporation networks. A further 700 kilometers of railway are under construction, as part of the future National Railway System which will span over 5,000 km. The new railways will allow passenger transport and freight transport directly between the northern and southern regions of the country. The railway between Yadavpur and Kohadpath is currently under construction; once complete it would connect the existing railway networks in the north and the south.
Arthasthan has a total of 54 ports which consists of three main ports in Nadipatnam, Shankibandar, and Baisara and many other smaller ports along the north and south coasts. The ports accommodates cargo and cruise terminals which also serves as unloading docks for containers. Arthani ports handle over 75% of the country's imports and exports to and from the rest of Coius, Euclea, and Asteria.
The country operates a complex system of canals, embankments and reservoirs that first originated from the High Sangma. Despite periods of desolation and disuse, the waterworks were largely kept operational until the onset of the Solarian War and the First Satrian War rendered it largely inoperable. Following the Second Satrian War, a large scale restoration project restored its ability to irrigate and transport goods.
There are a total of 70 airports in Arthasthan. Among these, only Nadipatnam International Airport and Baisara International Airport accommodate international flights. Arthasthan Airlines, is the country's flag carrier, and is wholly owned by the Government of Arthasthan. The airline operates from its hub in Nadipatnam International Airport, and serves over a hundred international passenger, domestic passenger, and cargo destinations.
The country is the second most populated country in Satria behind Ajahadya, with its population estimated to be around 107 million people in 2021. The annual growth rate, calculated by the last census in 2018, was reported to be 1.45%. The total fertility rate is estimated to be 1.7 children per woman, which continues a declining trend over the last couple decades. However the median age of the country is 23.6 years old with the majority of the country below 30 years old. There is an estimated 102.3 males for every 100 females in 2021. The average life expectancy is 72.2 years, with 69.2 years for men and 75.5 years for women.
Migration from rural to urban areas has been an important dynamic in Arthasthan recent history. The 2018 census found that the urban population increased to 31% of the total population, an increase of 4% since the last census. Arthasthan has two well defined population regions which forms a large arc in the country stretching from the Bashurat River Basin, to Yadavpur and Bangnon in the east, to Baleswar and Shaktibandar in the northern coastal region. The majority of Arthasthan's population lives within this general region.
Arthasthan is widely considered to be a multiethnic country with many diverse ethnic groups and religions within its borders. The people of Arthasthan are divided into four general ethnic categories according to the national census; Parbhan, Tankari, Vanavasi, and Other, which are in turn divided into specific ethnic groups. The Parbhanic group represents more than three-quarters (75%) of the population, but there are more than a dozen different ethnic groups within Arthasthan, largely from the Vanavasi.
Around 75% of the population, about 81.3 million people, are Parbhans who speak various Sataro-Euclean langauges. The largest ethnic subgroup is the Prasumi which are concentrated in the Greater Bashurat River Delta and consists of 41% of the national population. The second largest Parbhan subgroup is the Samundrese who make up a majority of the southeastern region and 17% of the country's population. The third largest subgroup are the Utcalans who are largely found in the northern-central region, and make up 11% of the population. The fourth largest ethnic subgroup is the Harringhati who make up around 8% of the national population and are found in two regions in the north. The last major ethnic subgroup are the Vijayla, who make up around 3% and live along the border region with Ansan to the south.
Around 13% of the population, about 14 million people, are Tankaris who speak their eponymous languages. The group largely consists of the Tamisari and the Valarna peoples; the Valarna people can be found in the central regions bordering Padaratha, while the Tamisari largely reside on the island of Minkathala. Today Tankaris continue to face cultural and economic discrimination because of their differing cultures.
Since the 2020 Census, the government has allowed Arthanis to identify as Vanavasi in addition to their ethnic group. The Vanavasi are not an ethnic group, but rather a term to refer to over 900 different ethnic groups, through intentional or accidental isolation, have been sheltered from the wider Satrian society. Thus the term refers to an extremely diverse range of different ethnocultural groups, including Sataro-Euclean peoples, Tankari peoples, and a language isolate. Most Vanavasi today live in traditional social groups, such as tribes or clans, based on farming. The majority of 9.4 million Vanavasi live in the central and eastern border regions of Mahabhumi and Utcalasthan.
During the Socialist Satria Campaign from 1951 to the 1970s, the Vanavasi were the target of cultural and ideological "rectification" policies in order to assimilate them into Arthani society. The most notorious policies included land seizures to forcibly settle them, mandatory enrollment of Vanavasi children in state run schools, and the dismantling of traditional hereditary power structures. These policies led to significant ethnic tensions and the Vanavasi Insurgency which continue to the present day. The Vanavasi continue to face significant discimination in Arthani society, economic deprivation, and the legacy of the Socialist Satria Campaign.
The last ethnic category are "Others", which largely consist several isolated cultures that identify as Vanavasi. The remaining peoples include Ansans, Eucleans, and other Coians such as South Coians, Southeast Coians, Rahelians, and Bahians.
Arthasthan is a multiethnic and multilingual state; the predominantly used languages of Arthasthan are the Samundrese, Utcalan, Prasumi, and Harringhati languages. These langauges are a part of the Sataro-Euclean langauges. Arthasthan has several minority languages which are part of the Tankari languages such as Tamisari, Marani, Vijayla, and Valarna. These languages are recognized by the national government as protected languages and are the official language of their respective regions. In ancient Arthasthan, Parbhan was the language of written communication, especially by priests. Under Etrurian rule, Vespasian was the main language of the colonial adminstration and which led to the Arthani languages gaining Vespasian loanwords.
The Matrabashi language is the lingua gaullica and first official language of Arthasthan as designated by the Arthani government. It is an symbol of Satrian identity, Arthani socialism, and national unity. It is the main medium of communication in the country, understood by over 75% of Arthanis, but it is the primary language of only 5% of Arthasthan's population. Vespasian is the second official langauge of the country, primarily used in official business, government, and law. The use of other languages for these situations are officially discouraged, although this is rarely followed. Most Arthani citizens are bilingual; using Matrabashi and Vespasian as common languages to communicate with other Arthani and their mother-tongue to communicate within their ethnic group.
There is significant diversity within the Vanavasi languages with 800 indigenous languages, but most have fewer than 1,000 speakers. The average Vanavasian language has around 7000 speakers, although some languages have gone extinct. No languages of the Vanavasi are recognized; the use of their languages have declined as the use of Samundrese continues to be promoted in these communities by the federal government. The government has not made any attempt to halt the languages' decline or to preserve them, leading to accusations of forced cultural assimilation.
Arthasthan is consitutionally an "Ashramic nation" as the constitution of Arthasthan declares Ashram as the state religion of Arthasthan and makes numerous references to Ashramic principles. However it also establishes the country as a secular state, protects the freedom of religion, and proclaims equal recognition to all religions in the country. Ashram is the dominant religion followed by 78% of the population. It is home to the largest population of Ashramists in the world and one of two Ashramic-majority countries of the world, the other being Rajyaghar. The majority of Arthani Ashramists follow the Sucikammavāda school, followed by minorities of those who follow Ekattavāda and those who follow no particular school. The largest gathering of Ashramists in Arthasthan is the socialist Followers Congress, held annually by the Patriotic Truth Association. A member organisation of the Satrian Section, it is the largest Ashramic congregation in Arthasthan. It is part of the Ashramic Commission, an autonomous body of the Satrian Section Secretariat.
The Arthasthan government has little authority over the country's education system and curriculum, beyond establishing certain mandatory rules. Instead ultimate authority falls to local councils and education authorities. Education is free and is compulsory from the ages of 5 to 18, although students have the option at 16 to join the workforce through an apprenticeship. The standard school year runs from mid August to late May with some regional variations. The Ministry of Education has the authority to enforce these general rules and investigate wrongdoing, but has little control over these schools. Homeschooling is an option for students who have severe behavioural or learning difficulties or would be impeded by placement in a school.
Optional kindergarten education is provided by various organisations for all children between two and five years old. Primary education, lasts for five years, which beings at five years of age and ends with students graduating at ten. The school first concentrates on teaching student basic knowledge, skills, and activities before shifting to gauging a student’s abilities. A test administered before graduation will measure a student’s cumulative abilities.
Secondary education is broken into two parts; the General School for general education from ten to fourteen years old and two separate specialised schools from fourteen to eighteen. The High School is for talented and intelligent students, which emphasises academic learning and preparation for universities. Students can also go to a Vocational School, which teaches a student the skills for a particular job. Otherwise they can remain in the General School until graduation. They also offer artistic, gymnasium, and vocational classes. The General School also offers a variety of courses designed to prepare students with essential skills for adulthood. These include learning to pay various taxes and bills, driving a car, gun safety, and culinary classes.
There are 12 universities and over 100 colleges for tertiary education in the country, which are directly managed by the Ministry of Education. It is divided into vocational technicals and academic universities. Admission is free for students applying to technicals and universities who have an above average grade. Below that students must pay the admission fee.