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Commonwealth of Halland
Commonwealth of Halland
Comhlathas na Tìr Hael
Motto: Sic semper tyrannis
Thus always to tyrants
Physical map of Halland
|Recognised national languages||Estmerish|
|Recognised regional languages||Powhatan|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
• Prime Minister
|Sean Mac Dónaill|
• Colonisation by Estmere and Caldia
• Gilded Wars
• Declaration of Independence
|1,831,549.44 km2 (707,165.19 sq mi)|
• 2015 census
|34.87/km2 (90.3/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2015)|| 32.2|
|HDI (2015)|| .898|
Halland is a country in Asteria Superior, bordered by Cassier in the north, Nuxica in the south and the Vehemens Ocean to the west. It also shares a lake border with Chistovodia. The country is subdivided in 7 regions, which cover an area of 1,831,549.44 square kilometers, making it the fifth largest state in Asteria. Halland is a Unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Avelon. Its largest city and main commercial center is Astoria, located on the northern coast of the nation. Other major cities include Ealaghleann, Stokes and Leon. Estmerish is the official language, although in the Fáel region, Ghailish enjoys co-official status.
Indigenous people inhabited the country for thousands of years prior to colonization. Assim Asteris and his expedition sponsored by Caldia discovered the continent in 1488, marking the beginning of colonization of the region by Euclean nations. Caldia soon after created its colony, Fáel, in the south of Halland. Soon after, Estmere established the colonies of New Estmere and Lothicania to the north. Both colonies would grow prosperous, with the city of Kingstport, later renamed to Astoria, becoming a major port in the continent in the 17th century. Both colonies would be conquered by Gaullica during the Gilded Wars of 1721. The new administration sponsored many policies which sparkled significant unrest, leading to various failed independence attempts and culminating in the 1764 War of Independence. Since then, Halland grew economically and became an important power in Asteria Superior, industrializing rapidly in the early 19th century and receiving many migrants. Halland was an important player in the Great War, achieving significant naval victories against Gaullica, aiding on the liberation of Nuxica and leading the Arucian Campaign and invasion of Nuvania.
In modern times Halland is a cosmopolitan nation with populations of a very diverse background. It is the fourth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the largest economy in Asteria. The nation has a significant international presence, being host of the Organization of Asterian Nations, one of the founding members of the CN, a participant of ASTRA and NVO, an observer member in COMSED and one of the founders of the ICD. Halland is considered a developed nation, with high standards of living and an advanced economy.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
The territory that is now Halland shows archaelogical sites tracing back to 10,000 BC. These archaeological sites show signs of sedentary lifestyle, writing and complex tools dating as far back as 6000 BC. Several native ethnicities inhabited the nation's coast and interior, most notably the Nehinaw and Nimarew cultures. It is estimated that before the arrival of euclean colonists, roughly 4 million natives inhabited the lands that are now Halland. The majority adopted semi-nomadic lifestyles, though sedentary behaviour along the coast was a notable feature of the Nehinaw.
Prior to Euclean arrival, the Nehinaw controlled a significant portion of Halland's inner coast, with an organized bureaucracy, permanent settlements and a sedentary lifestyle. The Nehinaw tribes were loosely centralized under a High Chieftain, which rotated from among the chieftains of three of the major tribes. On first contact, Estmerish explorers were imprisoned and held captive for three weeks. There, the explorers were able to codify the Nehinaw culture and life in Nitassinan, one of their largest permanent settlements located in the vicinity of present-day Tyrell. The city was divided in twelve districts each with twelve large communal houses suited for twenty families each and smaller habitations and temporary tents for visitors from other settlements, as well as small patches of farmland. At the center of the city was another large communal house, where the chieftain, his family and other families of prestige lived. In total, it was estimated that the city was home to at least 25,000 inhabitants.
The Nehinaw frequently had conflict with other tribes, such as the Onnohou people in the north, with whom they had frequent conflict. The Wyandot confederated to protect against Nehinaw expansion, fighting numerous wars against them. To the east, the Nimarew tribes also exerted pressure on the Nehinaw, with surviving exerpts of text from the Nehinaw discussing the "savage nature of the uncivilized Powhatan". The Powhatan tribes adopted a semi-nomadic lifestyle to the east, centered around their holy cities along the Weanoke river. The Powhatan made extensive use of mounds in the construction of these settlements, which were intermittently inhabited following the harvest seasons. After harvest, tribes adopted nomadic styles, hunting and gathering through the Eastern Plateau.
The pre-assimian era in Halland was marked by significant clashes between the area's tribes, originated by ethnic, religious and cultural differences, which would later be exploited by the Euclean colonizers. Contact between the asterian natives and the eucleans brought a decline to the native population, mostly due to disease. The Nehinaw and Onnohou, coastal inhabitants, were particularly affected by this, being the most exposed to euclean influence and diseases.
Estmerish and Caldish colonization
Estmerish colonization efforts began in 1578 with the foundation of Haven and the colony of New Estmere. The town of Kingsport, founded in 1586, would grow to become a major hub in the Asterian slave trade, despite the colony itself not being a major slave-owning area. The Estmerish approach to colonization was far more organized from the start, creating forts and sending settlers and garrisons over to the colony. With the aid of the Onnohou, who allied with the Estmerish, colonists were able to charter the inner areas of the Vehemens coast and take control of several Nehinaw cities. Estmerish policy towards the natives was far more assertive, seeking to convert and assimilate the locals. This caused several colonial wars against the Nehinaw in particular, who were already in decline due to the diseases brought by the Eucleans.
A second colony was established in 1611 following the creation of new coastal settlements on the Weanoke river mouth and conquest of Nehinaw lands. Many of the local natives were displaced inland or succumbed due to these wars and exposition to disease, though some Nehinaw tribes were subdued by the estmerish administration. The Nehinaw would later form a Nehinaw confederacy inland in resistance to the Estmerish, migrating north and acquiring arms with Gaullican support. The Nehinaw would grow to be a significant ally in the colonial front of the Gilded Wars later, as a consequence of this expansion.
The new colony was named Lothicania after Gerald Ruyter, Baron of Lothican, who led the expeditionary armies against the Nehinaw and founded the settlement of New Warminster. With the north vehemens coast secured, the Estmerish colonies saw significant settling influx of both catholics and amendists. While these colonies were not estmere's main source of profit due to their settler nature, the port of Kingsport and New Warminster were key nodes to the Estmerish control of global trade, with Kingsport being a major trade node in the transvehemens slave trade. The growth of these colonies in population and prosperity was intensified by the amendist wars, with Lothicania and New Estmere receiving many migrants from various euclean nations where amendism was persecuted. These migrants, many of which were wealthy, contributed both in the early urbanization of the colonies and the interiorization process along the Weanoke river. Armed conflict between natives and settlers was common, with armed expeditions ofter being done by colonial armies and independent private bands to secure land. The creation of fortified cities along the river basin such as Vernon, Ruyter and later Avelon and Fort Roberts solidified Estmerish control over the Weanoke basin, allowing expeditions inland.
During the Gilded Wars, the prosperous colonies of New Estmere and Lothicania saw early victories against New Gaullica and the Nehinaw confederation. The inland Nimarew tribes occasionally aided the Estmerish colonists, though remained neutral for most of the war. Despite initial success, Gaullican reinforcements and major victories on the new world, together with the estmerish defeat, saw the transfer of both colonies over to Gaullica in 1721, solidifying its hegemony on the Vehemens coast.
Following the discovery of Fáel's coast in 1489, the Caldian Crown ordered the chartering of a second expedition of five ships, lead by Sir Rian MacCathal. The expedition arrived three months later, after a perilous voyage through the Vehemens Ocean. MacCathal then founded the settlement of Torán on the coast with the tripulants of the four ships who arrived, the colony named after the vessel who naufraged after a heavy storm. There, they established a fortified outpost and made contact with the Nehinaw, during an expedition north. Three Caldians were ambushed by a small patrol of the Nehinaw people from the city of Nitassinan, who captured them and held them in for three weeks. Following contact between them and the locals, relations later normalized and the euclean outpost began trade with the natives. The relative success of Toran caused the Caldian Crown to continue colonial efforts, sending further ships and founding the colonies of Ealaghleann and Tyrell in 1548 and 1554 respectively.
The economies of these early colonies were mainly extraction economies, driven by fur, fishing and timber, as well as trade with the Nehinaw polities to the north. These colonies and surrounding lands would later expand to small scale plantations and subsistence farms, following the population increase in Fáel. The birth and migration rates of the colonies were extremely high, with the local climate being attractive to the Caldish peasants. Many Caldish catholics migrated to the new world, to practice their religious habits further away from the Church of Caldia.
In 1597, the Caldish solidified control of the Assimian Islands, disputed by the Estmerish, and in 1601 formalized control of the island of St. Ellen. While the northern archipelago was unsuited for plantations due to its climate, the island of St. Ellen was adequate for cash crops and saw one of the first influxes of slaves in the Caldian New World.
Expansion and control of the administration of these early colonies only truly began in 1602, when the Caldish crown formally established the colony of Fáel, appointing a governor and creating a bishopric in Ealaghleann. The city would become the political center in the Caldian new world, seeing rapid migration and growth in prosperity. Influx from amendist settlers increased their population in the new world, where catholicism was previously dominant. Administration of the colony at the time was done directly by Caldia, with the local settlements administering regional rule under the General Governor in Ealaghleann appointed by the crown. The rapid economic growth provided Caldia new sources of wealth, and Fáel expanded inland, taking control of lands previously controlled by the declining Nehinaw. The introduction of cash crops in the continental new world was done with limited success in Fáel, with tobacco and cotton farms established on the west coast of Fáel. The scale of these plantations was small however, and subsistence farming remained the dominant form of agriculture in the continental colony.
The 17th century saw the growth of Fáel to become a significant timber industry, with Ealaghleann and Tyrell growing relevant shipyards who supplied Caldia with both timber and ships locally manufactured. This began a trend of early urbanization, particularly around Ealaghleann, which increased the prosperity of Fáel further and the relevance of city as an asterian trading post. Migration caused by the Dejarlist Wars was also a cause of more migration, and by 1650 Fáel's population was above two million inhabitants.
The first Gilded War marked the beginning of the decline of the Caldian colonial empire and Fáel. The costs carried by the war increased taxation levels in the colony which impoverished the locals, and the intensification of the naval industry for the war effort overconsumed a lot of the timber in the area. An unsuccesful invasion from Gaullica was repelled by local garrisons with the aid from the Estmerish colonies to the north, though the disruption of trade caused by the war crippled Fáel's economy in the following decade. The defeat of Caldia in the Third Gilded War caused the transfer of the Assimian Islands, the island of St. Ellen and Fáel to Gaullica, bringing an end to the Caldian colonial empire.
Following the transfer of Caldian and Estmerish colonies over to the Gaullican Empire, the colonies were submitted to drastic shifts in administration. The previous local autonomy granted to local settlements in the Estmerish colonies gave way to increased centralization of control under newly arrived catholic Gaullican aristocrats. The enforcement of catholicism and alienation of the local colonists was a very impopular measure, which brought significant unrest. The local colonial garrisons were officially disbanded, being replaced by forces arrived from Gaullica and the northern colony of New Gaullica. However, informal garrisons and armed groups formed by the local populace never ceased to exist, with the population in rural areas heavily armed due to their past history and interactions with the natives who previously controlled the lands.
The Gaullicans incorporated the Nehinaw confederation into their administration, granting them rights and giving them concessions as a form to dillute the power of the estmerish settlers in the north. Though their population by then was low, they were fundamental in securing major victories in the Gilded Wars and were rewarded with the preservation of the northern lands they had and with legal precedents in their favor against the estmerish in land rights past the Bale Mountains. The Nehinaw territories later saw an influx of Gaullicans from the north, who also established farmlands in the area and founded cities such as Ardougne, forming the province of Charlotte from lands that were previously part of the old New Estmere.
Despite Gaullican effort to weaken the Estmerish, they remained majority in the territory, and their unrest was costly for the Gaullican crown. Further settlement inland from the Estmerish was conducted independently, with more rural areas in present-day east lothicania occupied by the Estmerish-asterians. The Gaullican efforts of gaullicization proved unfortuituous both in the estmerish and caldish continental colonies, though the Assimian islands began a slow but steady process of Gaullicization through migration. All these points of dissent and local unrest, however, were not enough to prevent Gaullican control of the colonies, and with minor concessions on local administration the empire was able to sustain its policies while keeping a firm grasp on the colonies.
1732 saw the imposition of timber quotas for the Gaullican crown to sustain the expansion of their navy, a measure that was a source of major unrest. Protests were sparked in Kingsport and New Warminster, which were both brutally repressed by the garrisons. Following this event, the colonies saw increased presence of garrisons, a costly measure on part of the colonial administrators, but considered necessary given the consistent unrest in the area. The local Nehinaw minorities, privileged by the Gaullicans, were also massively recruited as part of these garrisons, as they were considered more loyal than the locals. Local catholics were also privileged over the amendist majority in recruitment, when possible.
The reduction of autonomy reached its peak in 1739, when gold was struck in northern Fáel. The Gold Rush induced caused an influx of local colonists to attempt to extract the ore, opposed by increased efforts of Gaullican centralization in an attempt to control the production and transportation of the ore. New local administrators in areas with proven local gold reserves were placed, overruling the local customs of allowing the colonists to handle themselves. Aditionally, large portions of land surrounding these areas were forcibly purchased by gaullican nobles, as measures to ensure ownership of newly found reserves. New regulations on the minting of coin ensured that only Gaullican minting houses and seals were authorized for gold ingots, centralizing methods of taxation and reducing the usefulness of gold acquired beyond the control of the Gaullican control.
These new regulations, taxes, combined with the increase in centralization and displacement of previous small land owners sparked major unrests in Fáel and Lothicania. Though unaffected by the gold rush itself, the northern colonies were also deeply unsatisfied with the increased taxation, which had also propagated in Kingsport as it was the major trade node of the region and main outlet of goods to Euclea. The taxation and reduction of autonomy sparked the Astor Insurrection, an armed movement in Kingsport which defended the independence of New Estmere from Gaullica. The movement was brutally repressed by the Gaullicans, with the leader of this insurrection, John Astor, brutally executed for treason.
Astor's execution was very controversial in the colonies, radicalizing the population. Many viewed him as a martyr, and his name would be used as a symbol of resistance and Gaullican brutality. The violent and spectacularized response to the Astor insurrection sparked an enmity between the ethnic estmerish and the gaullican gentry in particular, who viewed them as not representative of their interests. Similar response to this violence and control were found in Fáel. By 1762, the beginning of the decline of the Gold Rush tightened the control and taxation of the Gaullican crown even more, as a way to sustain their income from this source.
Revolutionary Leader Niall Sheeran raised an armed movement, organizing assassinations and attacks against Gaullican officials, as well as publicizing leaflets advocating for the end of the Gaullican imperialism in Asteria. He was captured in 1763, and avoided an execution due to his ties to very wealthy and influential families in both the old and new world, who bailed him out for a life sentence instead.
By the 1760s in general, unrest was already unbearable. The gaullican garrisons weren't enough to sustain control of the colonies, with local recruits complementing the areas instead. Occupation of the area was proving costly, and the enmity between the administration and the local populace was already irreversible, despite attempts of concessions in the north increasing local rule. In Lothicania and Fáel, the influx of slaves due to the gold rush proved especially controversial, as it was viewed as a method to alienate the locals from the wealth obtained in the gold rush, with all of it instead acquired by slave-owning gaullican administrators who controlled the mines instead. In 11 May 1764, an estmerish batallion in New Warminster mutinied under Edward Marlin, occupying the local city council and calling for the independence of Asteria. This sparked major revolts not only in Lothicania, but also in New Estmere, Fáel, and the Asterias as a whole, as the movement grew more cohesive.
More mutinies ensued and other factions adhered to Marlin's cause. In May 19th, members of the estmerish colonial elite in New Estmere under the leadership of James Chancellor, a wealthy euclean from Kingsport, issued a manifesto against Gaullican colonialism and supporting independence. Local soldiers and civilians then rose up, spreading the armed movements to the northern colonies. In Fáel, the locals stormed the barracks in Ealaghleann, stealing weapons and invading the prison where Niall Sheeran was located.
Independence and expansion
Industrialization and the Great War
President since 2016
|Sean Mac Dónaill|
Prime Minister since 2018
Halland is a unitary semi-presidential republic with a very strong democratic tradition since its foundation. Despite being a unitary state, Halland features significant levels of devolution, with regions enjoying varying levels of autonomy. The most notable of which is the Fáel region, which has a parliament of its own and devolution of significant powers under said parliament.
The nation's legislative power is a unicameral legislature, the Hallandic Parliament is responsible for approving national law, ratifying treaties, approving the yearly national expenditure and declaring war. The legislature also has power of Impeachment, as well as appointing a Prime Minister, who is the country's Head of Government.
Executive power is divided between the President, who is Head of State and the Prime Minister. Executive power is divided between the President and Prime Minister, with the constitution dividing interior affairs and policies for the Prime Minister, while Foreign Policy, Defence and other state affairs as a responsibility of the President. De facto, this is only done when the President and Prime Minister are in opposition, with the President usually assuming a more assertive role in internal affairs when the Presidency and Prime Ministers are of the same party. The President is also the Commander-in-chief of the Armed forces, appoints Ministers of the Supreme Court and may veto laws, sending them back to parliament where they have to be reapproved with a majority of two thirds in the case of common laws, or 75% in case of ammendments to the Constitution.
The judiciary is represented in its highest level by the Supreme Court and its lower instances. Ministers of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President, and are responsible for interpreting laws and their rulings are binding upon all lower courts. They also hold the power of retrial and can also reject laws considered unconstitutional. It is composed of 9 Ministers. Other than the Supreme Court, the Fáel Region also has the Superior Court of Fáel, which acts an intermediate court instance between conventional judicial instances and the Supreme Court. Regarding laws approved by the Parliament of Fáel, it also is not subject to further review by the Supreme Court.
Halland's Parliament, the National Assembly, is composed of 639 seats, which are elected to serve for 4 years. Elections for the National Assembly are done through Proportional Representation, where each of the 8 administrative regions are granted a seat per 100,000 inhabitants. Parliament elections are done in four year terms. An exception to the proportional representation is Fáel, where the National Assembly seats are instead organized into districts and voted in a FPTP system.
Each of the 8 Administrative Regions feature varying levels of autonomy and different systems of organization based on the 1988 Statute of Devolution. The Fáel Region has a Parliament of its own, organized in an unicameral legislature. Since the statute of Devolution, all Administrative Regions have elections in place for Governors, which have varying degrees of autonomy. Halland's current constitution was approved in 1974, extending local autonomy and expanding the role of the national government in social security at local levels. It has since then received several amendments such as the aforementioned Statute of Devolution. Amendments must be approved with a majority of two thirds by the National Assembly.
Halland's modern political environment is protagonized by four major political parties: The Union Party (UP), the Liberal Republicans (LR), the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and the Fáelian Conservative Union (FCU). The first three parties represent nation-wide movements and traditions of conservatism, liberalism and social democracy respectively. The FCU is predominant in the Fáel region, being largely associated with the Union Party at a national level. Recently, the Green Party has gained relevance, rising in representatives both in Halland's National Assembly and Senate. The Green Party has achieved its first prefecture in 2016, in Tyrell.
The history of devolution in Halland dates back to independence, with the unification of New Estmere, Lothicania and Fáel in a single nation following independence from Gaullica. The wartime United Confederacy had then been transformed onto a federation. Management was considerably decentralized, with the Federal Government in Avelon having little power and autonomy over the federal entities below it. Following the Naro-Hallandic in 1822, Halland's federal system was put in check, resulting in a new constitution with a strong unitary state and a statute of devolution for Fáel, which gave it rights similar to its prior federal status. Halland's Unitary State was once again questioned after the Great War, with a new debate on regional autonomy, local administration and minority rights becoming prevalent for the following decades. In 1974, Halland's current constitution was put in place. The new constitution increased regional autonomy significantly, establishing terms of devolution in eight newly organized regions in Halland, each with different levels of autonomy. This increased the autonomy of Halland's increasingly decentralized urban population and also gave Halland's 4.2 million native asterians new rights in their areas within these eight regions, a right previously poorly adressed by the former constitution.
As per the Statutes of Devolution in Halland's current constitution, Halland is divided in 8 administrative constituencies, each with their own particularities. Halland's constituencies each have a different term of autonomy, voted on by the national parliament, the regional parliament and confirmed by referendum among region citizens. As per the Statute, national responsibility is delegated onto regional administration on a case by case basis, with the regional and national governments jointly agreeing upon a division of tasks adequate to the constituency's needs, historical background and strategic interests. Prior to 1974, only the Fáel Administrative Region featured devolution, whereas remaining regions lacked meaningful autonomy.
All Constituencies regardless of status have a legislature, which enjoy limited legislative capacities on varying levels, based on the Term of Devolution of said Constituency. Constituencies are each free to decide the organization of such legislature and electoral system, provided it respects the guaranteed democratic rights of the constitution. Constituent Councils are all under the legislative precedency of Halland's National Parliament, meaning laws approved by a Constituent Council may not override national law. An exception to this is the Faelian Parliament, whose term of devolution precedes that of any other state and is in effect since 1823. The Fael Constituency enjoys significant autonomy when compared to the others, able to override national parliament laws as long as they are constitutional. Each constituency must also elect, directly or indirectly, a head of government, responsible for regional management. The autonomy of this head of government is also dependent on the Term of Devolution, ranging from shared administration of assets in particular areas with the national government to full autonomy and management of government assets in most areas.
The peculiarity of Fáel's Term of Devolution arises from its status as a different colony prior to independence. Fáel and the Estmerish colonies were only unified after the independence efforts due to the convergence of ideas and cohesive actions between Edward Marlin and Niall Sheeran, who both advocated for a pan-asterian solidarity and unification against Euclean imperialism. The two nations since remained together. Following Halland's defeat in the Naro-Hallandic War and the already fragile nature of the federal state in the Beaver Wars, an increased push for a more centralized government capable to exert its influence and organize itself was championed by the Estmerish-Hallandic peoples, under the so called Warminster Faction. This centralization was put in practice in 1822, sparking secessionist sentiments. This was solved through Fáel's Term of Devolution, which granted it significant autonomy and is still the same agreement Fáel has with the Hallandic state to this day. Fáel's legislature enjoys significantly more autonomy, its own Gendarmerie and a much wider control of the region's own budget. Ghailish is the official language in Fáel, with Estmerish being co-official, as well as many other particularities. The National State still has control over certain assets, such as parts of the infrastructure network, hospitals and certain universities.
Halland's legal system operates under civil law, with the legal core principles written in the country's current constitution, which entered effect in 1974. This legal system is traditional to Halland and has been in place since the nation's independence.
Halland is a founding member of the Northern Vehemens Organization and ASTRA, a founder of the CN, an observer member of COMSED and a member of the ICD. The nation has close diplomatic ties with Estmere, being considered its largest ideological and historical partner in Euclea. A leading member of the Grand Alliance during the Great War, Halland has since then established a vast network of allies globally, notably Nuxica, Eldmark and Cassier, its main strategic partners. Senria, Aucuria, Belmonte and Estmere are also notable allies of Halland internationally. Halland is considered a hub of international relations in Asteria, being the hosting nation of the OAN and the headquarters of various other organizations such as the Asterian Bank for Development.
Halland has extensive military presence abroad. Through NVO, it is part of various treaties of military cooperation abroad, enjoying significant collaboration with COMSED and ECDTO. Additionally, it supplies extensive economic aid to countries abroad, especially in Bahia, through the ABD, as well as supplying and partaking in various peacekeeping missions of the CN. Halland is one of the top donors in the world, with 0.37% of its GDP directed towards foreign development aid. This is mostly done through the ABD, an institution famous for extensive support of large scale projects and zero interest loans with the objective of consolidating rule of law, democracy and enforce human rights in developing nations.
The Commonwealth Armed Forces are the the military forces of Halland, with the President as its commander-in-chief. They are divided in 4 branches, also known as arms: The Army, the Navy, the Air Force and the Marines. Halland is among the largest armed forces in the world. Halland has emerged in the Great War as the leading naval power in the Asterias, with a capable blue water navy capable of operating globally together with the nation's allies. Halland's military has one of the largest naval budgets in the world, with a budget of $73.4 billion, accounting for 2.7% of the Hallandic GDP.
While not a nuclear state, Halland houses Nuxican nuclear warheads in its arsenals, with both land and air launch capability. The use of these warheads requires authorizations of both Nuxica and Halland jointly. Halland, despite its nuclear sharing agreement established in 1965 due to the worsening of relations with Chistovodia, has an ideological policy against nuclear weapons. While criticized to this day by certain right-wing parties, the government cancelled its nuclear weapon program in 1958, despite having a functioning bomb prototype. Halland however continued its research on nuclear propulsion, and is a leading power in nuclear propulsion and energy generation. It is considered a nuclear-latent power, with capacity to quickly develop nuclear warheads.
Halland has one of the largest military industrial complexes in the world, with one of the most competitive naval and airspace sectors. Halland is a world major exporter of arms, with a stronger aeronautical and naval industry internationally, exported to COMSED, ECDTO, Asterian and Bahian nations extensively. Among the technology developed in Halland are the F2000, a highly advanced multi-role fighter jointly developed with Estmere, Senria and other nations, the Oberon-Class submarine, one of the most advanced and silent attack submarines in the world, the SASM, a highly advanced supersonic anti-ship missile, among others. Halland cooperates extensively with its allies and participates in several technology sharing programs with its military industrial complex.
Halland has an active military beyond its borders, most notably in NVO member states and associates. Aditionally, Halland has extensive military presence in Imagua and the Assimas, and also has units stationed in St. Roberts and Fleming and non-combatting units in Marirana.
Halland is the largest economy in the Asterias, with a nominal GDP of $2.65 trillion. It is ranked the 4th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by Purchasing Power Parity. Private enterprise is extensive, with the nation being amongst the freest to do business with in Asteria. It has an unemployment rate of 4.7% and enjoys high labour productivity. Halland's development is centered along its coast, with Astoria being a notable global city.
Halland's economic growth has been steady ever since the 2005 crisis, with the country's economy growing by 3.6% in 2019, the largest growth since 2008. Halland is one of the largest importers of goods in Asteria, and the second largest exporter of goods in the continent. The nation has an extensive network of free trade agreements with the EC, COMSED, the ACO, the AFDC and other nations, as well as being one of the founding members of ASTRA, a free-trade zone between Halland, Nuxica and Cassier.
Halland was the first nation to industrialize in Asteria, with the country achieving impressive economic growth and expansion following its independence from Gaullica. Astoria grew significantly and became an important industrial hub worldwide, and later so did Ealaghleann. The interior took longer to develop, with the government incentivizing an extensive rail network to connect the develop coast with the more rural interior. Stokes and later Leon have since then grown to become important development nodes in the hinterlands. Recent history has seen particular growth of population in the country's interior, due to reduced cost of living and availability of jobs. As a result, economic activity in the interior has increased significantly over the past decades.
Financial services are a significant sector of the economy, with the Astorian Stock Exchange being the largest in Asteria and one of the largest in the world. The services sector accounts for 70.9% of the economy, while the industrial sector composes 28.2% and agriculture 0.9% of GDP. Halland remains an industrial nation, although the country is deindustrializing at a fast rate in base industry. The automotive, electronic, naval, chemical and airspace industries are potent in Halland, being one of the most competitive in the world. The government owns significant shares in the airspace, energy and infrastructure sectors, with the country being considered by some to be a mixed economy. This presence of the government in the economy has reduced steadily after the 2005 crisis, however. Recently, the government has been selling shares in several sectors of the economy, most notably the full privatization of HALCHEM, the country's largest petrochemical company, of which the government previously owned 40%, and the privatization of Hallair, the country's former nationally owned airline.
The government remains the leading employer in Halland, with 20.4% of employees working for the public sector. Labour movements in Halland are significant, with 64% of workers being unionized. As a result, worker's rights movements and negotiations are frequent. By law, Hallandic workers have one month paid vacation, guaranteed sick leave, extensive safety regulations, and a variety of other rights.
Halland is an exporter of agricultural products such as corn and wheat, with the country's food industry known worldwide. Halland is known for a diverse and internationally recognized varieties of cheeses, beers and cured meats. Beers, particularly of the Asterian Golden Ale and Asterian Wheat Beer are heavily exported, while internally different local varieties are consumed depending on region. Halland is known for its soft cow and goat milk cheeses, which have grown in popularity over the past decades. Hallandic Whiskey is also a significant luxury item exported worldwide.
Of the world's 500 largest companies, 31 are housed in Halland. Halland's biggest companies maintain key roles in the insurance and banking industries, as well as the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors. The airspace sector is also one of the most competitive in the world. Halland is one of the easiest nations in the world to create a business in, with average time to create a company being only 4 days. The nation has an extensive small business and startups sponsoring programs, which have thus far created 13 unicorn companies.
This list shows the 5 largest companies in Halland, as per their revenues reported in 2019.
Energy and Infrastructure
Halland is one of the largest consumers of energy in Asteria, with a consumption of 734.9 TWh per year. While Halland is a producer of natural gas, it is a major importer of oil, the majority of which is sourced from Cassier. Halland is one of the world's main extractors of uranium, of which it exports to nations in Asteria, Euclea and Coius. Thanks to its large uranium reserves, nuclear power is Halland's main source of energy, with a total production of 272 TWh per year through the nation's powerplants.
Another major source of energy production are the many hydroelectric powerplants situated along Halland's many river basis. The construction of these powerplants has slowed down since the 40s, however, due to environmental concerns and also political controversy surrounding the displacement of peoples caused by the flooding of dams necessary for these projects. Halland is a pioneer in hydroelectric technology since the 1880s.
Halland has been steadily reducing its carbon consumption, albeit at a slower rate than originally intended due to the aftermath of the 2005 crisis. The Clinton Powerplant, Halland's largest coal thermoelectric plant, is scheduled for retirement in 2030, delayed from the original 2020 goal due to political pressure from mining lobbies. The instability of the oil market caused by the Tsabaran crisis has given a new push for the reduction of oil dependency in Halland, and the country has announced the construction of four new nuclear powerplants in 2018.
Renewable sources have also been growing, especially in the Assimian Islands, whose regional government has taken significant steps towards the increase of wind and wave power as measures to reduce the islands' carbon footprints. The transition of Halland to a low carbon economy has succeeded slowly, with a reduction of 7% of carbon emissions between 2000 and 2020, from 397 to 369 Mt of carbon dioxide per year.
Halland features a modern, multimodal transportartion network. Historically, the waterways of the Weanoke river were used as methods of integration of the country's hinterland with the more densely inhabited coast. Halland's biggest port is Astoria, which is one of the world's busiest ports. Tristan International Airport in Astoria is also the country's largest airport and among the largest in Asteria by volume of traffic.
While air travel is used for regional flights within Halland, the primary mode of passenger transportation for longer distances in the interior of the country are the nation's railways. Halland's national railways are administered by the Hallandic Rail Service, a state-owned company that manages most of halland's high speed and long distance rail lines. Private owned railways exist and complement the national system, although they have been in steady decline since the 1950s, with highways replacing their role further. As of 2015, there are 31,940km of active railways, of which 16,920km are electrified. 76% of the nation's railways are owned by the government either integrally or administered through consortium with private companies. Halland's rail systems are constructed in standard sizes (1,435mm) and integrated with the infrastructure of Nuxica and Cassier.
Science and Technology
Halland is the third most populous nation in Asteria Superior with a population of 63.8 million. It is the 17th most populous country in the world, with a population density of 35.6 inhabitants per square kilometer. Life expectancy at birth is 79.8 years for men and 82.1 years for women. It has a birth rate of 2.2 children born per woman, above the replenishment rate of 2.1. Halland's birth rate has begin to grow recently due to increased migration, having increased from 1.9 in 2005.
Halland can be divided in three major local demographic groups, tied to the country's history. The most populous demographic is of Estmerish background, originated from the settlers and colonists of New Estmere and Lothicania. In the Fáel region, the majority is of Ghailish ethnicity, originating from Caldish colonists. The country's interior is still home to significant native-asterian communities, mainly of the Nimarew tribes. While a minority in their administrative regions, they are a recognized and protected historical group in Halland, accounting for 4.2 million inhabitants of the country.
Halland is a very popular immigration destination, with significant historical communities having arrived from Euclea and Coius. The country's relatively simple immigration policy and sponsorship of qualified immigrations has made the nation a frequent choice amongst communities in developing countries, with 18.5% of the population being "of second-generation migrant" background. Halland is home to large ni communities, a majority of which are of Gowsa origin and secondary migrants, as well as a significant Senrian community, a Xiaodongese community, a Gaullican community and many other groups, with immigrants from Bahian backgrounds numbering in the hundreds of thousands. Since the 50s, Bahio-Imaguans have grown a notable community, with roughly a hundred thousand Bahio-Imaguans in Halland. Recently, the number of migrants of Tsabaran origin have increased significantly due to the current civil war.
|Largest urban centers by population|
Halland uses both public and private schools, with a primary, secondary, tertiary and technical school level. All schools in most of Halland are organized under the National Act of Education, which determines guidelines for education at primary and secondary levels. The Act is ammended by the Faelian parliament, where the educational structure is modified. While organized under the National Act, pre-schools and primary schools are managed at a provincial level, whereas a majority of secondary schools are managed by constituencies. Halland's national government is responsible for the funding and management of most universities.
While the education system starts with infant education (or preschool), education is only mandatory when students turn 5, when they start attending preschool. The following year, they begin to attend elementary school, where they continue their studies until they turn 11, when they begin to attend middle school (although in most parts of the country, they are considered two stages of elementary education). When students turn 15, they begin attending high school, and the following year, students decide whether to continue high school, or attend a technical school to enable students to directly enter the work force with further vocational expertise in a chosen field at age 18.
At the age of 18, students finish their mandatory education, and if they finished their high school education, can continue on to post-secondary education. Of the post-secondary institutions in Halland, there are 84 universities and 21 polytechnics in the entire country. Education in all public institutions from primary to tertiary level are completely free to students. Additionally, a number of privately-managed colleges and community colleges exist. Notably in Fael, public community colleges are widespread, providing technical education after secondary school. All public owned tertiary education institutions require participation in Halland's National Exam for Secondary Schools, or NESS, in order to be admitted. Grades in the NESS are ranked and used for students to choose their university of choice. The exam is also used to evaluate performance of schools all over the country.
Halland's culinary culture is diverse, thanks to the country's many different communities. The country is known not only for traditional regional produce, such as cheeses, beers and fermented vegetables, but for an intense modern fusion cuisine scene in metropolitan environments, adapting traditional cuisine from Halland's migrant communities. Traditionally, Lai communities and Dezevauni migrants, who form the bulk of Halland's immigrant communities, have cemented themselves in urban settlements and brought much of their cuisine with them. Hallandic cuisine changed greatly in the 19th century, shaping itself beyond the traditional Euclean diet.
Halland's most common proteins are fish and pork, with beef being mainly imported. Both riverine and oceanic fish are important staples of Hallandic cuisine and overall seafood is considered the primary protein for special occasions. Pork and poultry are very common daily sources of protein, produced significantly locally. It is estimated that 11% of Halland follows a vegetarian diet, a proportion that has been rising recently.
A staple of Halland's cuisine and culinary lifestyle is the prevalence of regional open markets and street food. Large chains and retail markets have faced significant resistance in Halland and many had to adapt their business practices to compatibilize with Halland's consumption styles. Open Markets feature a diverse variety of local producers, especially in smaller cities and organic suppliers. The markets are also most known for urban street food vendors, which are popular amongst natives and tourists. Hallandic street food staples are barbecue eels, mangoes and spice, coconut breaded shrimp and a variety of stir fries. Despite this resistance however, many local chains and brands have grown to a significant ammount of stores, most of them originating from regional cafés and restaurants who transitioned to a franchising model. Typically, many of these chains operate not in large stores, instead having small food stalls in markets, food trucks and menus consisting of a reduced number of items.
Halland's staple fast food is the Cheesesteak, having originated as a traditional astorian sandwich popularized nationwide and through the Asterias. It is sold by street vendors, local restaurants and fast food chains, typically consisted of thinly sliced meat, Winchester cheese, onions and peppers. Another very common fast food is the Hamilton sandwich, made of pulled pork ribs in a soft long roll, coated with a spicy, sweet and sour sauce or with a Demi-glace. Hallandic style of street and fast food was internationalized by Hamilton's, a restaurant chain present in Asteria, Euclea and Coius, having originated from a small cantina in New Warminster, and famous for the aforementioned Hamilton Sandwich.
Fermented foods are also a historic traditional staple in Halland, which traces back to pre-colonial periods. Fermentation has always been a characteristic practice for preservation of food, but its use for cuisine and its taste became more appreciated following the popularization of spices originated from Coius to Halland. Spicy fermented vegetables are common seasoning, and is growing in popularity internationally due to its healthy properties.
Halland's regional law features protected regulations for local produce, the most famous of which are the Winchester and Ruyter cheeses, and Fael Whiskey, exported worldwide. Each Constituency has specific protected labels which are recognized on national level, and local seals of quality are given to agricultural policy who meets adequate quality standards. Quality labelling in Halland is valued by consumers, and labels take into account the origin of produce, health standards of agriculture and food processing, traditional methods of production and labour standards.
Organic foods have been an increased concern in Halland, as well as humane treatment of animals. Due to consumer pressure and laws, business practices in the agricultural sector have recently taken a shift towards more humane production. A major political movement in Halland is the "Buy Local" campaign, which sponsors the consumption of food produced in the vicinity of individuals by small rural landowners. Large boycotts have been orchestrated against large food processing conglomerates in the past two decades, which have given even more life to Halland's traditional open markets.