Nuvania

Nuvanian Free State

Nuwanse Vrystaat
Flag of
Flag
Motto: "Ons land, ons vryheid"(Asteriaans)
"Our Land, Our Freedom"
Anthem: Die Stem van Nuwanië
The Call of Nuvania
Location of Nuvania in Asteria Inferior
Location of Nuvania in Asteria Inferior
Capital
and largest city
Pietersburg
Official languagesAsteriaans, Estmerish
Demonym(s)Nuvanian
GovernmentParliamentary republic
S.P van Heerdens
Joesoef van Lingen
Establishment
12 October 1673
20 July 1720
• Home rule
20 February 1811
1 September 1886
Area
• Total
1,055,828 km2 (407,657 sq mi)
• Water (%)
0.8
Population
• July 2020 estimate
48,669,009
• 2015 census
47,448,333
• Density
44.9/km2 (116.3/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)July 2020 estimate
• Total
$1.49 trillion
• Per capita
$29,164
GDP (nominal)July 2020 estimate
• Total
$549.053 billion
• Per capita
$11,281
HDI0.776
high
CurrencyGoudë (₲) (NUG)
Time zoneNuvanian Standard Time
Driving sideleft
Calling code500
Internet TLD.nu

Nuvania (Nuvanian: Nuwanië), officially the Nuvanian Free State (Nuwanse Vrystaat) is a sovereign state located in western Asteria Inferior. It is bordered to the west by Vlissingemond, to the northeast by Vilcasuamanas, and to the east by Alforja, with coasts on the Vehmens Ocean and the Arucian Sea. With 47.4 million inhabitants, Nuvania is the second most populous country in Asteria Inferior.

Etymology

History

Pre-Euclean

Euclean Settlement

Estmerish Takeover

Home Rule

War of the Arucian

Independence

Golden Era

Great War

Postwar

The Great Experiment

The Great Experiment is a term originating from a 2015 documentary series that was coined to describe the era of social and economic liberalisation between 1973 and 2005.

Economic Crisis

Modern History

Geography

Nuvania covers an area of approximately 1.037 million square kilometres, making it the third largest country in Asteria Inferior. Contained within it are numerous geographical formations, rivers, and lakes that give Nuvania a unique landscape. The country is divided into several general geographical and environmental regions reflective of this diversity.

Northern Nuvania beyond the Arucian Range is dominated by the kustveld, a tropical coastal plain that extends beyond Nuvania's border with Aucuria to the east and stops at the Mascarenhas Peninsula to the west, on the border with the Van Horn Strait and the western Arucian Sea. Because of its proximity to the equator, the kustveld is one of the wettest and lushest areas in Nuvania, with fertile soils and numerous streams and rivers. Wetlands and mangrove swamps can be found in the immediate littoral in the north of the country, particularly where rivers and streams flow into the Arucian Sea. Most of these areas were reclaimed, either to support farmland or urban development. In some areas, mangrove swamps were also present, although these too have mostly been lost, save for a few protected or uninhabited areas along the coast. Further inland, the kustveld becomes a wide area of floodplains which gradually rise into the foothills of the Arucian Range in the south. On the Mascarenhas Peninsula, the floodplains give way to a series of low hills call the Westrand, which run up the western portion of the peninsular perpendicular to the Arucian Range. It is formed from an ancient seabed, raised during the same tectonic forces that created the Arucian Sea and the Arucian Range to the southeast.

The Arucian Range runs along most of northern Nuvania and into neighbouring Aucuria. It is the second largest mountain range in the country after the South Asterian Range in the south. The Arucian Range was formed by tectonic activity caused by the rifting in the Arucian Basin which formed the Arucian Sea. The range was considerably higher throughout most of its existence, however erosion has reduced the mountains in terms of shape and altitude, although they are still high enough to significantly affect the climate in the north of the country. Because of this, the Arucian Range has different overall climates dependant on location and altitude, with the northern side hotter and wetter, central parts cooler and drier, and southern areas hotter and drier. Contained within the Arucian Range are numerous valleys, which contain numerous cities and towns that were founded to facilitate trade through the mountains. In addition the sources of some of Nuvania's longest rivers can be found within the Arucian Range. At 2,620 metres in altitude, Mount Daalen is the highest point in the Arucian Range.

Central Nuvania is dominated by the bosveld, a vast, open area between the Arucian Range to the north and the South Asterian Range to the south. It is an area of broad flat lands characterised by low, rising terrain and a dry climate. The soils here are as fertile as those on the kustveld, with the climate being the primary factor in the lack of widespread crop agriculture in the region, with much of the region given over to the raising of livestock. The bosveld is one of the most mineral rich areas of Nuvania, producing gold, silver, platinum, iron ore, tin, as well as large amounts of coal. Other minerals can be found in the fringes of the bosveld, which has an economic and cultural significance in Nuvania. Much of the region is fed by seasonal melt from the South Asterian Range that separates the southern coast from the interior.

The South Arucian Range is an extensive mountain chain that runs along southern Nuvania, northern Belmonte, Aucuria and the southern extremes of Satucin. The range was formed from tectonic activity through the clashing of the x Plate and the x Plate. Because of this, the mountains are active seismically and include a number of volcanoes which are among the highest peaks in the Asterias. In addition, the mountains provide a significant proportion of the fresh water that flows down both sides of the range into central and southern areas. Much of the range is composed of mountains although a number of the peaks are volcanoes. The highest peak in Nuvania is Mount Constantyn at a height of 5,147 metres (16,886 feet).

Many rivers flow through Nuvania, with many flowing out from the major mountain ranges. The largest and longest of these is the Ardron River, which flows from the Southeast Highlands in Veld, and flows into the Van Horn Strait, with a length of 1,254 kilometres. The Ardron is important to central Nuvania as it provides much needed drinking and irrigation water for agriculture, as well as important habitat for numerous species of birds, fish, insects, and reptiles. Where the Ardron flows into the Van Horn Strait is the location of the Kinsella Wetlands, the largest in Nuvania.

Climate

Nuvania is under the influence of a variety of tropical climates which are influenced heavily by prevailing winds, ocean currents, and topography. Generally the climates in the north and parts of the northeast of the country are much wetter than climates across the rest of Nuvania, which is heavily dependent on seasonal rainfall.

North of the Arucian Range, as well as the northern slopes of the range itself, is under the influence of a tropical rainforest climate with no defined dry season. The climate is influenced predominantly by the South Arucian Current, a warm current that runs along the northwest coast of Asteria Inferior from western Satucin through to Nuvania. It brings much of the warm moisture systems which bring the majority of the rainfall along the northern coast. The Arucian Sea moderates the climate along the coast with onshore breezes, whereas the climate becomes much wetter inland, especially along the north-facing slopes of the Arucian Range which catch the rainfall and prevent it from reaching central regions of Nuvania. Rainfall in northern regions can exceed 1,000 millimetres annually in the wettest spots, with temperatures warm and humid throughout the year.

Nuvania's southern coast and southeast of the country are also under the influence of a tropical rainforest climate. This climate is influenced by the Vehemens Ocean, which acts as both a moderator and a generator of the weather systems that affect the southern coastline. Like the northern coast, the southern coast is humid and tropical, although there is a greater differentiation between wet and dry seasons. However, the South Asterian Range traps much of the moisture-laden weather systems that are generated in the eastern Vehemens Ocean, and as a result, rainfall is often high in these areas during the wet season.

While the Arucian Range prevents northern moisture bearing systems from reaching central and southern Nuvania, and it catches the seasonal rainfall that flows from the east, allowing for the existence of large areas of forests and scrubland in spite of the Hofmeyr Current which runs along the western coast of the continent. In this respect its northern slopes are under the influence of a rainforest climate, while its southern slopes are drier and more monsoonal. In the valleys and basins in the centre of the ranges exists a subtropical highland climate with a much more moderate climate, with rainfall totals around 700-900 millimetres annually.

Central Nuvania is dominated by a tropical savannah climate with monsoonal influences, as the wet season typically produces over 90% of the area's rainfall. As with other tropical climates, temperatures remain warm to hot throughout the year, although a large number of these areas have climates that verge on semi arid, and here the seasonal temperature variations are greatest. The wet season lasts between November and April, and produces over 90% of the total annual rainfall in these areas. Eastern regions of central Nuvania are wetter due to their proximity to the [[Wikipedia:}rainforests|}rainforests]] in central Asteria Inferior, while central and western regions have much drier climates, with western regions bordering on semi-arid.

The South Asterian Range is the most defining topographic feature when it comes to climate, with different areas of the range experiencing different climates, depending on location and altitude. Typically the southern side of the range experiences climates that are much wetter than those on the northern side, with lower elevations experiencing tropical climates and higher elevations subtropical alpine climates. The northern side experiences tropical savanna and semi-arid climates, with higher elevations experiencing more Solarian like climates.

Nuvania's highest recorded temperature is 45.6°C, observed at Dawson's Plain, Veld on November 18, 1979. The lowest recorded temperature is -26.5°C, observed at Windermere in the South Asterian Range on September 15, Template:Wpl1979.

Government

Constitution

The Constitution of Nuvania (Grondwet van Nuwanië) is the supreme law under which the government of Nuvania operates. It outlines the relationship between the head of state and the head of government and powers vested in those offices, the roles and responsibilities of the National Council, and the relationship between the provinces of Nuvania and the state. The constitution does not provide protections for certain rights and privileges, something which has been the subject of considerable controversy.

The Constitution of Nuvania was formally adopted on June 8, 1895 and a provision within the constitution makes June 8 a statutory holiday within Nuvania. The process for the creation of a codified constitution began with the adoption of the Independence Act 1884 two years prior to Nuvania gaining independence, which contained among others a requirement for the House of Commons in the then Nuvanian Parliament to begin the process of drafting a written and codified constitution. Disagreements and delays plagued the creation of the constitution which resulted in its adoption nearly a decade after Nuvania became an independent state.

In its role as the supreme law in Nuvania, the constitution functions as the metric through which government legislation, government decision making, and government policy is measured.

National Council

State President

The State President (Staatspresident) is the head of state of Nuvania. The office was created after independence in 1886 with a provisional office before the first presidential election was held in 1888. Since then there have been an additional eighteen elections for president.

The Office of the State President is a political one. Candidates are required to have served a minimum of ten years in either house of the National Council, are to be a minimum of 35 years old, as well as meet the same restrictions for voters and to be a member of either house of the National Council. Each State President is elected to a term of seven years, and since 1930, has been limited to two terms to be served in succession.

Officially the State President appoints the Chief Minister and each minister within the Cabinet of Ministers, and has the right of refusal to appoint candidates. In practice refusal has never occurred. Cabinet ministers are appointed on the recommendation of the Chief Minister. The State President can dismiss a sitting Chief Minister and sitting cabinet ministers, if the former has lost the confidence of both the General Council and the Legislative Council, and the latter if they have lost the confidence of the Chief Minister.

The State President functions as the executive within Nuvania, and thus acts both as the Commander in Chief of the Nuvanian Armed Forces, and the final authority in Nuvania. Only the State President may declare war. Furthermore all legislation that passes both houses of the National Council must be approved and signed into law by the State President. The State President may refuse to sign legislation into law, and can have legislation reviewed by the Supreme Court.

In addition to these powers, the State President appoints all judges to the Supreme Court and other state courts, signs treaties, accredits ambassadors, and can pardon or commute sentences upon request. Many of these functions often involve the advice of the government, or the Law Commission (Wetskommissie).

Chief Minister

The Chief Minister (Hoofminister) is the head of government of Nuvania. This office predates that of the State President, and was created under Estmerish control with the adoption of the Home Rule Act in 1811. It was originally referred to as the Office of the Prime Minister of the Realm of Nuvania, but was changed upon independence in 1886, with the creation of the Office of the Chief Minister (Kantoor van die Hoofminister), commonly abbreviated to KHM.

Officially appointed by the State President, the Chief Minister effectively is the leader of the party with the majority in both houses of the National Council. The requirements to become Chief Minister are essentially the same as that of State President, with the added requirement of being a leader of a registered political party with representation in both houses of the National Council. Chief Ministers are elected to a term in office of five years, which can be renewed indefinitely. In practice, an incumbent Chief Minister lasts for around two terms before they are replaced as leader.

Chief Ministers retain some of the powers that were inherited from Estmerish customs when the office was created in 1811. Officially they act as an adviser to the State President on constitutional matters, government appointments, and on other issues, such as the dissolution of the National Council. They set and assist in implementing government policy, and alongside the State President, represent Nuvania overseas on official tours. In this respect both the Chief Minister and the State President have dual roles in international affairs. Chief Ministers also have some controls over some intelligence services as well as government funding. Both of these roles are delegated, however, to ministers within the cabinet.

Elections

Elections in Nuvania are organised by the National Election Authority (Nasionale Verkiesingsowerheid, NVW), an independent agency associated with the Ministry of National Affairs (MNS). It was established on June 17, 2009 as a replacement for the General Election Commission (Algemene Verkiesingskommissie, AVK), then a child agency of the Ministry of National Affairs, due to international pressure for free and fair elections.

The role of the NVW is to organise and oversee national and provincial elections, promote electoral law compliance, as well as educate and inform the general public on matters of electoral importance, such as referendums. It also has an ancillary function of providing the government with recommendations regarding Nuvania's electoral system, although these are largely ignored.

In order to be able to vote in Nuvania, an individual must be 18 years of age and registered on the National Electoral Register (Nasionale Kiesregister, NKR). The NKR has the personal contact details of all of those legally allowed to vote in Nuvania. To be able to register, an individual must have proof of address, proof of citizenship such as a birth certificate or passport, and meet minimum literacy requirements.

Nuvania has been criticised for its restrictive regulations regarding who is able to vote. Current electoral law allows citizens, persons not currently serving a prison sentence of more than four years, and those that meet minimum literacy requirements as being able to enroll, and therefore able to vote. Many of these laws date from the early days of Nuvania as an independent state, and the minimum literacy laws date from the dominion era. Originally these requirements simply stated a person had to write their own name to be considered literate enough to vote, but this has since been changed to include the correct spelling of one's name and address on the enrollment form. Because of these requirements, at least 12% of Nuvania's population cannot vote. An additional 1.5% are disenfranchised due to the restrictions against prisoners voting.

Judiciary

Nuvania follows a hybrid system of law that combines aspects of both Hennish law and Estmerish law, both inherited from the early colonial period. Although Nuvania became an independent country in the 19th century, both of these influences have translated into the judiciary that exists in the modern day.

Despite being a unitary state, the judiciary is largely the responsibility of the provinces, and is principally funded and administered by them. This is, in part, due to historical communications difficulties and sparsely populated areas in Nuvania which were covered by the judicial system.

At the lowest level there are Municipal Courts (Munisipalehouwe) which deal with small civil and criminal matters. These range from small claims and neighbour disputes, to dealing with minor crimes like breaches of the peace, parking and traffic fines, and other such issues. Each municipality within Nuvania has at least one court to deal with these matters, usually shared within the same premises as higher courts.

A District Court (Distrikshof) functions between the municipal courts and magistrates courts. These deal with the most court cases in Nuvania, and deal with criminal law, civil law, and family law. District Courts are overseen usually by one judge or a panel of judges in some instances. Unlike most jurisdictions, Nuvania does not practice trial by jury.

The highest level of the court system in the provinces is the Magistrates Court (Landdroshof) which has considerable powers over interpretation of legislation as well as the powers of establishing legal precedents. Magistrates have the ability to interpret law and rule in accordance with the circumstances in specific cases, and these precedents can be followed by other judges. Only the most serious of criminal cases and significant civil cases are heard in Magistrates Court.

Outside of the provincial court system there exist what is known as the "parallel system" (parallelstelsel) of courts pertaining to specific areas of law. Included within these courts is the Labour Court (Arbeidshof) which exclusively pertains to disputes surrounding labour laws and their enforcement, the Business Court (Besigheidhof), which exclusively pertains to laws and regulations surrounding businesses and business competition. Both of these have attached appeals courts.

The highest court in Nuvania is the Supreme Court (Hooggeregshof) which acts as the final court of appeal, as well as a constitutional court, as those appointed to it have the ability to determine legislation or other laws as being in line with the provisions of the constitution. There are six judges that sit on the Supreme Court, with these positions considered to be a "life privilege" (lewensvoorreg) which means that judges can sit on the Supreme Court for life, or until they resign.

Judges within the provincial court system are appointed by the premiers of each province, with the Labour, Business, and Supreme Court judges appointed by the State President.

Law Enforcement

Law enforcement in Nuvania is primarily provided by the National Police Service (Nasionale Polisiediens), simply known in Nuvania as the polisie. It is the largest law enforcement agency in Nuvania with approximately 142,691 personnel in 2019, including over 80,000 sworn officers. For the 2018-19 financial year the National Police Service had an operating budget of ₲21.90 billion ($2.65 billion). It is primarily under the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice but operates more or less autonomously.

The National Police Service is split between eight provincial commands, each responsible for law enforcement within a particular province. It is tasked with general law enforcement, in addition to the investigation and prevention of criminal activities. Outside of criminal investigations and general law enforcement, the National Police Service has other responsibilities, including the issuing of various permits and identification documents, monitoring the incoming and outgoing monetary transfers of foreign citizens and Nuvanians that go in and out of Nuvania, counter-terrorism intelligence sharing and operations, and riot control.

Outside of the National Police Service, there are four other agencies which have similar powers as police. These are the Nuvanian Customs Service (Nuwanse Gebruikediens), which controls all points of entry into Nuvania and maintains passport controls, in additon to enforcing immigration laws and policies, the Nuvanian Parks Service (Nuwanse Parkediens), which is responsible for the management and maintenance of Nuvania's national parks, the National Prison Service (Nasionale Gevangenisdiens), which is responsible for Nuvania's prisons, and the Nuvanian Coast Guard (Nuwanse Kuswag), which enforces maritime laws within Nuvanian territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), as well as performing search and rescue operations over Nuvania's designated area of responsibility.

Municipalities are allowed to create and fund their own police services to enforce local by-laws and provide traffic enforcement at a local level. These police forces are subject to the same legal responsibilities, requirements, and limitations as the National Police Service, but are entirely independent of the Ministry of Justice. Most municipal police forces are not routinely armed, and often provide assistance to the National Police Service.

Foreign Affairs

Military

Administrative Divisions

Provinces

Provinces are the highest tier of local governance in Nuvania, with the country divided between eight of them. The roles, responsibilities, and powers of the provinces are outlined in the Constitution of Nuvania, with most provinces coming into existence upon independence in 1886.

Each province has its own elected government divided between the Provincial Assembly (Provinsiale Vergadering) and the Executive Council (Uitvoerende Raad). The latter is headed by a Chief Executive (Uitvoerendehoof) who serves as the province's executive.

Provincial Assemblies essentially are deliberative bodies as opposed to a legislative body as in the national legislature. Membership of the assemblies is part time, and many members often have other jobs in addition to their roles as members. Their role is primarily to hold the Executive Council and the Chief Executive to account, as well as approve spending, infrastructure projects, and other provincial matters that require deliberation. Members can chose to be partisan, and are limited to renewable six year terms. The numbers of members are decided upon by population, and members are elected from constituencies.

Executive Councils are the upper tier of provincial governments, and are mandated to contain no more than 15 members and more than five members. Each council is responsible for the governance of a province and utilising the powers that provincial authorities have. These are controls over environmental management, including air and water quality, local civil defence, and the planning and construction of infrastructure. In addition, provinces may institute or otherwise issue contracts for inter-urban public transportation. Each councilor is elected from an at large open list for a renewable term of six years using single transferable vote, with the person on the list with the most votes becoming the Chief Excutive.

Districts

Districts (distrikte) are the second tier administrative level in Nuvania. There are approximately 154 districts in Nuvania, with an average of 19 districts per province. Districts are not covered by the constitution but instead have their structure and powers laid out in the Local Government Reform Act 1945.

Districts are divided between urban districts and rural districts based on population. Urban districts, often referred to as city councils, are defined as urban areas with over 50,000 inhabitants. Rural districts are defined as all other districts not meeting the definition of an urban district. District borders are established through the provincial branch of the Local Government Board. Each district council has between five and ten elected councilors elected through single transferable vote from an at-large list every six years.

Districts have the responsibility to provide direct utility services to their residents, these primarily being sewage, water, and waste collection, but occasionally include electricity and household gas supplies. Districts are responsible for the maintenance of infrastructure and roads that are not already under the responsibility of provincial and central governments, as well as the planning and provision of public transport.

Municipalities

Municipalities (munisipaliteite) are the lowest form of internal administration in Nuvania. Municipalities have the least amount of powers and responsibilities within local administration, but do have some important roles. There are approximately 1,124 municipalities in Nuvania.

Municipalities are usually centered around a specific part of larger cities, individual towns in some rural areas, or a collection of villages, hamlets, and settlements, usually with a few thousand residents. They are entirely reliant on provincial and central government for funding. Municipal councils are limited to exactly five persons plus a mayor, and are subject to the same electoral procedures as districts.

Powers reserved for municipalities include establishing zoning laws for residential, commercial, and industrial developments, and local police. In addition, urban municipalities can provide some of the utilities usually reserved for districts, as well as public transport.

Reserves

Most of Nuvania's Asterindian inhabitants live within what is officially termed as Lands Reserved For the Indigenous Peoples of Nuvania (Lande Gereserveer vir die Inheemse Volke van Nuwanië, LGIVN), commonly known as "reserves" (reserwes). Reserves were first created in the mid-19th century as a way of relocating Asterindian off productive agricultural land or to expand urban settlement. These were largely informal and temporary settlements which either grew into some of the poorest suburbs in Nuvania's largest cities, or fulfilled their role and the inhabitants allowed to settle elsewhere. The reserves that exist today stem from the policy of containment (bevalling) introduced by Chief Minister Phillippus Van Straaten and expanded under Frederich Steytler. These reserves were created purely as a method of concentrating and containing Asterindian populations within designated areas, often at the fringes of society.

Reserves effectively functioned as permanent concentration camps until 1960, when the government changed policy from containment to separation (skeiding) where those living in reserves could govern themselves as a state within a state. This allowed for the government to withdraw personnel and services from these reserves, with the intention that the reserves would be self managing and self funding. Despite this, the government still has some responsibilities over the reserves and has begun reinvesting in these areas to address high crime rates, as well as high unemployment and illiteracy.

Officially reserves have powers over most of their affairs, including governance, taxation, law enforcement, and some statutory laws. The latter have mostly been to address issues such as alcohol abuse, with central government providing some services such as education, healthcare, vehicle licencing, as well as assistance in natural disasters. Judicial matters and disputes involving reserve residents or reserves themselves are resolved through the provincial court system outside of the reserves. Residents of reserves require separate identification cards and are subject to travel restrictions. Access to these reserves is restricted, and permission from both the reserve management and the [[Ministry of Indigenous Affairs\\ is needed in order to visit them.

As of 2019, approximately 8.32 million Asterindian in Nuvania live within 150 registered reserves, accounting for 87.3% of the Asterindian population.

Economy

Nuvania has a nominal GDP of ₲4.38 trillion ($530.33 billion), making it the second largest economy in Asteria Inferior, after Satucin (or third behind Valentir). Nuvania's economy is classified as mixed market, with ordoliberalist influences. Economic liberalisation has resulted in steady economic growth since the first reforms were introduced in 1976, and these were largely halted after the economic crisis of 2005. Growth has continued at a subdued but steady pace since 2005, allowing for the government to properly direct and manage economic growth.

Nuvania's economy is dominated by the services sector, with manufacturing, agriculture, and mining also significant contributors to the national GDP.

Nuvania has a total workforce of 19,477,800 people, the second largest labour force in Asteria Inferior. Unemployment rates are difficult to produce accurately, as the government only counts unemployment figures for whites and mixed peoples. Officially the unemployment rate is 7.9%, with whites having an unemployment rate of 3.3%, and mixed 6.4%. Unofficially the unemployment rate of natives is around 45%, but difficulties in access to native reserves make accurate figures largely impossible.

Agriculture

Agriculture remains a significant sector of Nuvania's economy, accounting for 7.5% of the GDP, or approximately $39.9 billion. Agriculture accounts for 7.1% of total exports, a value of $11 billion. The sector employs 4.6% of Nuvania's labour force, just under one million people. Nuvania's agricultural sector is divided between the fruit, dairy, and meat industries with a smaller crop industry.

Fruit growing is the largest agricultural industry in Nuvania, with the industry contributing $13.9 billion to the national economy annually. Nuvania produces eleven million tonnes of fruit a year, with principal fruit crops being avocados, bananas, mangoes, plantains, and pineapples. The plantain is the largest fruit crop grown in Nuvania in terms of tonnes produced annually, as well as value. It also makes Nuvania the largest cultivator of plantains in the world, and one of the world's largest suppliers of avocados and bananas. Most of the fruit is harvested from independent farmers who are members of Consolidated Fruit, a cooperative whereby the farmers are paid international wholesale prices for their fruit and in turn, receive monthly payments from the profits earned. Consolidated Fruit buys approximately 60% of avocados, 71% of bananas, 80% of mangoes, papayas, and pineapples, and 45% of plantains grown in Nuvania. The rest of the fruit is grown and sold by independent farmers, or by other companies.

Nuvania's meat industry is among the continent's largest, producing 4.39 million tonnes of meat annually, worth $13.6 billion, slightly less than the fruit industry. It is almost exclusively focused on the production of beef, chicken, and pork, with the largest component of the industry being chicken in terms of overall tonnage of meat produced. The most valuable industry is beef. The majority of Nuvania's meat production comes from the central provinces in the veld region of the country, and most of the beef cattle are raised on large cattle ranches. The meat industry is an important employer in this region, and is the second largest contributor to local economies behind mining. Unlike many abattoirs around the world, the vast majority of Nuvania's meat is processed at a vrieswerke, or "freezing works", which makes extensive usage of {{wpl|refrigeration{{wpl| technology to preserve meat for longer periods. These processing facilities are also commonly found in countries such as Valentir. Unlike the fruit industry, meat processing is less dominated a quasi-monopoly and several companies own and operate various freezing works in Nuvania. The largest companies operating these facilities are Arendse, which has the largest market share, and the United Beef Company (VBK).

The dairy industry remains significant in Nuvania's agricultural sector, and is primarily geared towards domestic consumption rather than for export. The industry contributes $3.6 billion to the national GDP, most of which comes from the production and sale of milk. Milk production is centred around the centre-northwest and the northern slopes of the Grootreeks, which have the right climatic conditions for grass growing. Virtually the entirety of the cattle used to produce Nuvania's dairy products are fed by grass, which coupled with ideal conditions make Nuvania an outlier among tropical countries in terms of having a significant dairy industry. Nuvania's dairy production is the one with the largest being Laterra, a Valentirian company, having the largest market share. Nuvania's dairy company is Numelk, which has the second largest market share.

A wide variety of crops are grown in Nuvania. As a whole, crop growing contributes $8.8 billion to the economy, and 18.2 million tonnes of produce, making crop growing the largest industry in the agricultural sector by volume of produce. Nuvania's most important crops are cassava, potatoes, rice, sorghum, and sugar cane, the latter largely refined to produce sugar. As with other industries, crop growers are almost universally independent farmers, who sell produce to manufacturers for wholesale market prices. Unlike other industries, no major companies dominate the market, instead a multitude of local and foreign companies compete for produce. Nuvania is the world's largest produce of cassava, and one of the largest producers of potatoes.

Agricultural exports are determined largely through cooperation between various lobbying groups and representative boards, and the Ministry of Agriculture. These have resulted in Nuvania maintaining export quotas, which range between 20-80% of crops being exported to foreign markets. Most of the produce and other agricultural products exported from Nuvania are exported within the Asterias, owing to large markets and comparatively few import tariffs in comparison with Euclea.

Manufacturing

Manufacturing is a significant component of the Nuvanian economy, contributing approximately 19.6% to the national GDP, or $98.6 billion. Most of the manufacturing base is located in the north of the country, where transport connections and infrastructure are best.

The automotive industry in Nuvania is one of the largest in Asteria Inferior, with Nuvania second only to Satucin in terms of total automobile production and number of manufacturers present. In 2018, Nuvania produced 1.07 million vehicles from 14 different manufacturers. Traditionally the automotive industry in Nuvania has existed thanks to a combination of protective regional tariffs from AFDC members and government tax incentives. Nuvania's position as a lower middle income economy allows for vehicles to be produced much cheaper than other places. Approximately 40% of the vehicles manufactured in Nuvania are exported outside of the country, primarily to developing markets in Asteria Inferior and Asteria Superior. The sector employs just over 57,000 people, under one percent of the total workforce.

Heavy industry accounted for a quarter of manufacturing output and value, with the industry primarily concentrated around the manufacturing of steel and aluminium. In 2018, Nuvania produced 1.17 million tonnes of aluminium and 13.5 million tonnes of raw steel, making it the second largest producer of these metals respectively in Asteria Inferior. Around two thirds of steel production and one third of aluminium production is controlled by domestic companies, the largest being Genstaal OBM.

Mining

Services

Energy

Nuvania is a significant energy producer within Asteria Inferior. It has the second largest oil reserves after Satucin, and the largest coal reserves. It is the largest producer of coal and crude oil within Asteria Inferior. Fuel extraction and production contributes approximately $34.4 billion to the economy annually, with Nuvania being a net exporter of fuels.

Nuvania produces 830,271 barrels of oil per day, with an annual production value of $19.1 billion. In addition, Nuvania produces $3.7 billion worth of petroleum, and $3.1 billion worth of fuel oil annually. Most of these products are produced at refineries located in northern Nuvania, in particular the Kronenburg Refinery near Pietersburg, the largest in Nuvania with a production capacity of 430,000 barrels per day. There are six oil refineries located around Nuvania, with the Arucian Oil Company (AOC) and the Nuwanse Oliemaatskappy (NOM) the two largest oil and gas companies operating in Nuvania.

Approximately $14.4 billion in liquid and solid fuels are exported overseas annually, with the majority of these exports going to other nations within the Asterian Forum for Development and Cooperation (AFDC), notably Imagua and the Assimas, of which Nuvania supplies 47% of its oil and gas needs, and Vilcasuamanas. Energy exports account for 9.15% of total exports.

Nuvania produces 90.6 million tonnes of coal worth $5.5 billion annually, with coal production accounting for 15.9% of total fuel production and $33.5% of fuel exports. Nuvanian coal is known for its low pollution and high heat generation when burned. Much of the coal is consumed domestically for electricity generation, with coal exports to primarily AFDC countries accounting for the remainder of production. Alkmaar and Veld Koolmaatskappy (VKM) are among the many companies that operate coal mines in Nuvania, with both Alkmaar and VKM the largest coal producers.

The electricity sector in Nuvania is one of the largest in Asteria Inferior, worth $23.3 billion. Nuvania generates an average of 203.18 TWh of electricity annually, second only to that of Satucin. Of that electricity generated, 62.2% comes from fossil fuels and 37.7% comes from renewable sources, with a total of 62,287 MW of installed capacity. The latter is dominated by hydroelectricity, with Nuvania home to the second largest hydroelectric power plant in Asteria Inferior, the Herstelling Dam. Nuvania's electricity generation and retail sectors are dominated by Enerkom, one of Nuvania's largest companies.

Around 26.1 TWh of electricity is exported annually, worth $36.8 billion, the higher value due to the average higher prices demanded by Nuvanian electricity companies. The majority of these exports go to neighbouring countries, with Vilcasuamanas receiving the majority of the supply, followed by Vlissingemond.

Demographics

Ethnicity

Nuvania is multi-ethnic in its composition with significant native and mixed minorities. The largest people group are the Eucleans, referred to in Nuvania as blankes. Eucleans occupy the highest social and political positions in Nuvania, hold the majority of wealth, and have the highest quality of life. Eucleans as a whole constitute 55.1% of the population, or around 21.1 million people. The largest of this group is the Asterianer people, who are the most culturally distinct of all the Euclean groups in Nuvania and are the descendants of successive waves of Hennish colonists. The population as of the 2017 Nuvanian Census, is 15.1 million, approximately 59.7% of Eucleans and 31.9% of the total population. Estmerish is the second largest group within Eucleans, and are the descendants of the Estmerish colonists who settled in Nuvania during the 18th and 19th centuries. At 10.5 million people, Estmerish compose 40.2% of the Euclean population and 22.1% of the total population. Approximately 496,736, or around one percent of the total population, are classified within Eucleans as "other". These include additional ethnic groups such as Piraeans, Vespasians, and Weranians.

Mixed peoples, or menges, are the second largest people group in Nuvania. The population of mixed peoples in Nuvania is 10.7 million, approximately 22.7% of the population. Mixed peoples generally have worse economic outcomes than Eucleans but are regarded better than the native inhabitants. However, they have lower incomes and lower quality of life in Nuvania, with most generally falling within the working class socio-economic demographic. However, around one third of mixed peoples in Nuvania live below the poverty line, classified as less than ₲82.60 ($10.00) per day.

Indigenous peoples, or inheemse, are the third largest people group in Nuvania, with a population of 9.5 million or 20.1% of the population. Indigenous peoples generally are regarded as having the worst economic outcomes and have the greatest levels of poverty in Nuvania. At least 70% of the indigenous population lives below the poverty line, and 87.3% of the population live on reserves, and are thus subject to significant restrictions. Furthermore the remaining 12.7% that do not live on reservations occupy some of the most impoverished communities in Nuvania. Indigenous peoples have some of the highest crime statistics, and compose approximately 40% of the prison population. Most indigenous peoples are descended from the pre-Euclean inhabitants of Nuvania. The Nuvanian government does not keep track of how many indigenous people groups there are in its census information.

Language

Asteriaans is the sole official language in Nuvania and is spoken as a first language by 47.6% of the population as a first language, 42.9% of the population as a second language. The remaining 9.5% of the population speaks Asteriaans as a third or even fourth language. Asteriaans is a Weranic language descended from Hennish spoken in the 17th century. It has developed since then into a distinct language, retaining the broad vocabulary structure but with different spelling of words, or even different vocabulary altogether. It became the sole official language of Nuvania in 1892, replacing Estmerish.

Estmerish is the second most spoken language in Nuvania with 44.3% of the population speaking it as a first language, and 42.4% speaking it as a second language. Approximately 13.3% of Nuvanians speak Estmerish as a third language or do not speak it at all.

Numerous different indigenous language groups are spoken in Nuvania. These languages have been subject to controvery as the Nuvanian government's language policy has seen the promotion of Asteriaans over indigenous languages, with no indigenous language being recognised officially nor receiving any government protections. Linguists have estimated that there are four principal language families and over two dozen languages. Most of these languages are severely threatened, although some of the largest ones continue to be preserved in Nuvania's reserve system.

Religion

Education

Education in Nuvania is a joint responsibility by the Ministry of Education and provincial educational departments who jointly provide for and fund schools around Nuvania. Furthermore education is split between public schools, private schools, and reserve schools. Nuvania has one of the lower overall literacy rates in Asteria Inferior, with a combined rate of 88% of its population literate. Approximately 12%, or 5.6 million people, are illiterate. Euclean Nuvanians have the highest literacy rate with less than one percent illiterate. Approximately 18.7% of mixed and 38.7% of indigenous Nuvanians are illiterate. As of 2018, the Nuvanian government spent 7.9% of its GDP, approximately ₲346.06 billion ($41.89 billion) annually on education.

The structure of education in Nuvania is influence by both Estmerish and Hennish schooling, with local adaptations, one of these being the existence of transitional schools (oorgangskole) which bridge the educational gap between primary schools and secondary schools. These were implemented in the 1970's and have since become common place around Nuvania. Schooling is compulsory until age 16, when students may be able to leave provided they have employment and with parental permission. Most primary and secondary schools fall within the public sphere, with 84.9% of students attending public schools, and 15.1% attending private schools.

Nuvania has some of the largest and most prestigious universities in Asteria Inferior. Nuvania has what is known locally as the "Big Three" universities, being the University of Pietersburg, the University of Windstrand, and Straatenburg University. Tertiary education in Nuvania is split between universities, vocational schools, and technological institutes. Universities are oriented towards academic studies, vocational schools provide practical training for trades and other related industries, and technological institutes are oriented towards scientific studies. Both universities and technological institutes are split between public and private universities, and vocational schools receive public funding and government subsidises for specific courses.

Healthcare

Nuvania has a mixed system of public and private hospitals, medical centres, doctors, and other medical institutions. It is ranked as the third most effective healthcare system in Asteria Inferior, and third for quality of care. The system reflects the disparities between Euclean, mixed, and indigenous Nuvanians, with the better healthcare services found in areas that are predominantly Euclean and wealthy. Poorer areas do not have as greater access to the same kinds of facilities and services that wealthier areas enjoy, which contributes to a wider disparity in terms of health outcomes and life expectancy.

Public healthcare in Nuvania is funded primarily by central government but administered by each province through a localised Department of Public Health. Each department is responsible for the maintenance of public hospitals and health clinics in each province, and also implements central government health policy. The system covers 3,863 health clinics and medical centres, and 407 public hospitals. These provide free at the point of use medical care for all citizens of Nuvania, and permanent residents with citizenship from certain countries.

Private healthcare is provided through a number of private healthcare providers, with the majority of specialist practioners operating within the private healthcare system. It is illegal for private healthcare providers to refuse treatment for those that cannot otherwise afford it, and much of the treatment that private healthcare providers provide is covered under some form of government subsidy. The private healthcare system covers approximately 610 medical centres and health clinics, and 203 hospitals.

Each citizen in Nuvania is legally required to have some form of health insurance, which guarantees that person free or subsidised healthcare no matter if they receive treatment in the private or public health system. Children under the age of 18 are covered by the health insurance plan of their parents or legal guardians. The Nuvanian government provides a Basic Health Plan (Basiese Gesondheidsplan, BGP) which is administered by the National Insurance Commission (Nasionale Versekeringskommissie, NVK), a child agency of the Ministry of Health. It provides insurance plans that cover 67.8% of all Nuvanians.

Emergency medical services are provided through both public and private institutions. Nuvania maintains a National Ambulance Service (Nasionale Ambulansdiens, NAD) which is provided for by the Ministry of Health. NAD personnel and vehicles are usually attached to fire stations around Nuvania. Each province also provides an ambulance service which is subsidised. These services are provided for areas which have minimal coverage from the National Ambulance Service.

As of 2018 the Nuvanian government spends 8.7% of its GDP on healthcare, approximately ₲381.18 billion ($46.13 billion), or ₲8,033 ($972) per person.

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