Nuvania

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Nuvanian Free State

Nuwanse Vrystaat
Flag of
Flag
of
Coat of arms
Motto: "Ons land, ons vryheid"(Asteriaans)
"Our Land, Our Freedom"
Anthem: Die Liedjie van Nuwanië
The Song of Nuvania
Location of Nuvania in Asteria Inferior
Location of Nuvania in Asteria Inferior
Capital
and largest city
Pietersburg
Official languagesAsteriaans
Estmerish
Demonym(s)Nuvanian
GovernmentParliamentary republic
S.P van Heerdens
Andrew Bohn
Establishment
• Establishment of Fort Willem
12 October 1540
• Annexation by the Kingdom of Estmere
20 July 1750
• Dominion established
20 February 1811
• Treaty of Cuanstad
15 June 1860
• Independence
1 September 1886
Area
• Total
1,055,828 km2 (407,657 sq mi)
• Water (%)
0.8
Population
• 2022 census
50,602,499
• Density
47.9/km2 (124.1/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)January 2022 estimate
• Total
$1.35 trillion
• Per capita
$28,050
GDP (nominal)January 2022 estimate
• Total
$522.22 billion
• Per capita
$10,320
Gini (2020)30.2
medium
HDI0.776
high
CurrencyNuvanian shilling (NS) (NUS)
Time zoneUTC+12 (Nuvanian Standard Time)
Driving sideright
Calling code500
Internet TLD.nu

Nuvania (Asteriaans: Nuwanië), officially the Nuvanian Free State, is a sovereign state located in western Asteria Inferior. It is bordered to the west by Satavia, to the northeast by Aucuria, and to the east by Belmonte, with coasts on the Vehmens Ocean and the West Arucian Sea. With 50.6 million inhabitants, Nuvania is the second most populous country in Asteria Inferior. It also has the second largest economy on the continent, and plays an important part in regional affairs.

First inhabited some 41,000 years ago by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, Nuvania was inhabited by a variety of people groups before the arrival of Eucleans. These early inhabitants settled permanently and formed the first pre-Euclean civilisations which then expanded into the tribes and civilisations that existed when the first Eucleans mapped the northern and western coasts in Kanaän.

Euclean settlement began in 1540 with the arrival of the first settlers from the First Hennish Republic establishing Fort Willem, with more settlements appearing along the northern and western coasts belonging to either the South Asterian Company or the New Asterian Company, the latter under control of the Duchy of Flamia. Cities like Niekerk, Pietersburg, and Windstrand were all established during the early colonial period, which also saw the conquest of numerous indigenous groups culminating in the conquest of the Mosca in 1640. Conflict between Flamia and the Sotirian Commonwealth would lead to the annexation of the Commonwealth by Flamia and the consolidation of Hennish colonies in the Asterias, which included settlements on the island of Satavia. Estmere would defeat Flamia and conquer the colonies in 1749 and 1750, transferring them to Estmerish administration.

Under Estmerish control, Nuvania would undergo significant changes, including the formation of the identity of the Asterianer people as well as growing autonomy. Responsible government was granted by 1811, when the country became a dominion. Tensions between Estmerish settlers and Asterianers, as well as Nuvania’s disastrous participation in the War of the Triple Alliance brought about an end to the dominion in 1860 following the signing of the Treaty of Cuanstad created the Nuvanian Free State, an independent entity within the wider Estmerish empire. Nuvania would continue to pursue independence throughout the Free State period, the final event coming in the form of the War of the Arucian, in which Nuvania participated in a land invasion of neighbouring Aucuria. Nuvania would secure independence from Estmere in September 1886.

Nuvania grew in prosperity as a newly independent nation through a late industrialisation and commodities boom that fuelled high economic growth. During this period, the National People’s Party consolidated its power through economics and legislative changes, essentially making Nuvania a dominant-party state. The Great Collapse brought about significant hardships for Nuvania and saw the rise of the functionalist and nationalist Volksfront regime, which aligned itself with Gaullica. During the Great War, Nuvania invaded and occupied large portions of western Asteria Inferior, including most of Aucuria, all of Satavia, much of Belmonte, and several islands in the West Arucian Sea. Unable to meet the demands of the occupations in terms of men and materiel, the Nuvanian Armed Forces launched a series of coups and counter-coups that finally brought about its surrender in late 1934.

Post-war Nuvania would be occupied by a military-civil administration overseen by the Grand Alliance until the restoration of democracy in 1937, seeing the first government led by the Democratic Action Party. This period would see significant social investment and increases in the quality of life for Nuvania’s ethnic minorities. It would come to an end in 1949 on the back of increased social tensions between whites and ethnic minorities. Under the National People’s Party, successive conservative governments would implement policies of racial privilege that created more tensions, seeing the rise of the Direct Action Movement, a social movement that would use non-violent means to oppose racial discrimination in Nuvania. Armed resistance began in 1960, creating a low intensity asymmetric war that would see Nuvania fight anti-government groups both in Nuvania and in neighbouring countries. It would be the only country to not see a change in government through the Asterian Spring, instead continuing to fight until the signing of the Pietersburg Agreement in 1994.

Following the Pietersburg Agreement, Nuvania would experience a period of peace and prosperity until the Great Recession of 2005, in which the country experience significant social and economic hardship. While the country recovered, economic growth was slow, and by the late 2010’s, the economy had stalled. The eruption of Mount Micchiano in 2020 deeply impacted Nuvania, seeing the end of a property bubble that had developed since the Great Recession, as well as significant disruption to the agricultural and tourism industries.

Nuvania remains a diverse nation both socially and in terms of biodiversity, with one of the highest rates of biodiversity anywhere in the world. The country, however, continues to struggle with social issues surrounding wealth inequality and indigenous rights. It is a member of several supranational organisations, namely the Community of Nations, the Organisation of Asterian Nations, and the International Council for Democracy.

Etymology

Nuvania is a portmanteau of words belonging to the Estmerish and Hennish languages, as well as the Asteriaans language. The first part of the name comes from the Asteriaans word nuut, meaning "new". This is derived from the Hennish word nieuw and was changed during the evolution of the Asteriaans language during the 18th and 19th centuries. The second part, "van" comes from the Estmerish language and means the "foremost part of a group", reflective of Nuvania being the location of the first Hennish colony in the Asterias. The final suffix is used in the formation of nouns, especially in the naming of countries.

Nuvania was first mentioned during the early Estmerish colonial period, when the Hennish colonies acquired by Estmere after the conclusion of the Estmerish-Hennish War were split into two separate entities. Colonial governor George Ratcliffe popularised the use of the name during the 1780's, and the name was officially adopted by the Estmerish government on December 9, 1799.

Historically Nuvania was referred to collectively as the "Asterias" alongside Satavia. During the early colonial period, the area of Hennish colonies was referred to as the "Hennish Asterias", making no differentiation between colonies of the First Hennish Republic, and later Sotirian Commonwealth, and those of the Duchy of Flamia. After Hennehouwe was unified, the name changed again to the Flamian Asterias. Hennish settlers and colonial authorities themselves did not have names for Nuvania prior to the Estmerish-Hennish War.

History

Main article: History of Nuvania

Precolonial History

Recreation of a Tairona village in southern Etten.

Human habitation of the territory that would become Nuvania has been estimated to have been confirmed as early as 41,000 years before present, with some of the oldest pottery in Asteria Inferior found at a number of sites in the Arucian Mountains. Cave paintings found in the Van Breda Estate have been dated to approximately 12,400 years before present, with sites at Tibito and Tekendama dated to 11,740 and 11,000 years ago respectively. Other sites in the Arucian Mountains have been dated more recently, including Watervaal and Chekwa, which date from 5,000 and 3,000 years before present respectively.

Emerging evidence suggests that central Nuvania, in particular eastern Pomeronia, has been inhabited since at least 8,000 years before present with the discovery of shell middens and large geoglyphs that have been found to have been fortifications for villages belonging to the Kunare culture, one of several similar ancient cultural groups that likely belonged to a wider Sythian civilisation that inhabited the vast interior between the Arucian Mountains, the Vaskaranas Mountains, and the South Asterian Range. Population estimates have put the pre-colonial population at approximately 350,000 people at its peak, and around 100,000 at the end of the 17th century.

Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, the nomadic hunter-gatherer societies inhabiting Nuvania transitioned into sedentary agricultural societies, building fixed settlements and developing pottery. By the first millennium BCE, various cultural groups began to emerge, dominated by three main language groups with some localised language isolates. By the late precolonial period, these groups had consolidated into distinct cultures and political entities, the largest and most powerful of these developing feudalistic confederations. The most developed of these were in the north of Nuvania, where the Tairona and Sinoe were most dominant on the northern coastal plains, themselves coming under influence of the Ruanaca and Mosca people to the southeast and south respectively. The Mosca themselves were one of the most advanced and organised precolonial civilisations in the north of Asteria Inferior, rivaling the Cutinsua in all but territory, although the Mosca influenced and controlled neighbouring cultures such as the Inza, Timana, and Tolima.

The west coast of Nuvania was home to similar cultures. In modern day Demara, the Kimbaya, known for their gold working, lived on the narrow plains and foothills of the western edge of the Arucian Mountains. The Kalima also lived along the western coast, while the Wanambu and Kapuli cultures occupied southern Albina and most of Mahaika.

Euclean Exploration

Nuvania was discovered by Hennish explorer Johannes van Twiller in 1512 during his voyage along the northern coastline, detailing the northwestern portion of the continent. Although not landing on the continent, he was the first Euclean to not only discover the continent, but to affirm that the two continents were separate landmasses. Van Twiller's expedition was intent on ascertaining the extent of the continent and to look for possible sites for suitable colonisation. Van Twiller was the first Euclean to sight Native Asterians on Asteria Inferior, making a note that the continent contained "a number of thatched hamlets inhabited by people of a darker complexion." Van Twiller had identified two potential areas of possible colonial sites on the mainland, one at the tip of the Mascarenhas Peninsula, and one located at the eastern base of the peninsula. He returned to Hennehouwe in 1533 with a map of the northwestern portion of Nuvania's northern coastline.

Simultaneously, Iusitan explorer Álvaro de Mascarenhas launched his expedition on the behalf of the Empire of Gaullica, with the intent of finding additional colonial territories for the Gaullicans. Mascarenhas sailed down the western coast of the continent and discovered the island of Satavia, assuming it to be an extension of the continental landmass. During this expedition, Mascarenhas landed at what is now Colonist's Beach in the far northwest of Nuvania, having spent the better part of six months at sea. The landing, on August 10 1533, marked the first landing of Eucleans in Nuvania. Mascarenhas noted that while the peninsular was "most excellent for the regarding of shipping", the lack of suitable water sources would likely hamper the development of any settlements. He also noted that the area appeared to be sparsely populated, writing of the "scattered glimpses of what I assume to be natives in the jungle beyond". Mascarenhas departed on August 12, and sailed south, marking out the coastline of the western side of the peninsular, the northern coast of Satavia, and the southwestern coastline of Asteria Inferior. He then made for Gaullican trading ports in southern Coius on August 21, 1533.

The Hennish crown approved the creation of the Asterian Company (AK) in 1533 to pursue colonisation and trade in Asteria Inferior, and to join the rush to acquire territories in the Asterias alongside other Euclean colonial powers. Plans were drawn up for two trading ports in the areas recommended by van Twiller. In order to get a better lie of the land, the Crown sent Jacobus van Achelen, who sailed on September 1, 1533, to gather more information. Van Achelen sailed to the northern Mascarenhas Peninsula and down its eastern coast to the area where Pietersburg would later be founded. Van Achelen noted that "many people inhabit the coast in this area", and would be beneficial for prospective trade. Landing at what would become the settlement of Fort Willem and at the site of Pietersburg, van Achelen affirmed the decision to promote this area for Hennish colonisation. He returned to Hennehouwe and arrived there in October 1534.

Colonisation

King Adriaan-Willem I approved the Asterian Company's plan for two settlements in northwestern Nuvania on February 9, 1537. However, these plans were shelved as the death of the king prompted civil war in Hennehouwe and the partition of the country between the Kasperist north, supported by the Kingdom of Estmere, and the Catholic south, which became the Duchy of Flamia under the rule of Adriaan-Willem II. The latter had inherited the plans for the establishment of colonies in the Asterias, including those of the now-defunct Asterian Company. Adriaan-Willem II established the New Asterian Company (NAK) on June 1538 for the purpose of establishing colonies in the Asterias. The first colonists were recruited from those that had lost their homes during the partition of Hennehouwe. They set sail on December 19, 1540, and landed in Nuvania on May 19, 1541. The colonists were lead by Jacobus van Achelen, who had extensive knowledge of the area. There, they established Fort Willem, in honour of the Duke of Flamia.

Fort Willem was intended to act as a trading and military outpost from which further expansions and settlements could originate. Unsure of the intent or the number of the native inhabitants of the region, Fort Willem was fortified from its inception, which made it one of the more better defended settlements from native attacks. In 1542, Petrus Boerhaave landed to the southeast of Fort Willem at the mouth of the Konrad river, and established the settlement of Pietersburg after his sponsor, Pieter van Meetkercke, the first settlers following four years later in 1546. A number of smaller settlements and bartering posts were progressively established by a number of colonists from different countries with the permission and oversight of the NAK.

Following partition, the First Hennish Republic explored the possibility of establishing colonies in the Asterias themselves. They were aware of the existence of both the Asterian Company prior to the dissolution of the Kingdom of Hennehouwe, as well as the existence of the New Asterian Company. In 1545, Stadtholder Cornelis van Heemskerck established the South Asterian Company (ZAK) to establish colonies in areas outside the NAK. Under the direction of Fransz de Veer, the first ZAK settlers arrived in northeastern Nuvania on August 5, 1547, establishing the settlement of Port Veer, which later became the city of Windstrad.

By the turn of the century, there were over eighty Hennish settlements in northern Nuvania, the majority of them in the northwest of the country. Most of these were small bartering posts and hamlets supporting small areas of agriculture, often cooperating with or incorporating the native inhabitants. A few attacks on these settlements were reported, but the coexistence between the Eucleans and Native Asterians was largely peaceful.

The early colonisation period marked the beginning of the wider Hennish expansion into northern Nuvania, bringing it into contact with different native peoples. The ZAK in particular began to move into the domain of the Tairona, as well as westwards along the coast, gradually pushing out the tribes that lived there. One of the more notable expeditions was that of Herman Hasselaer, who led an expedition into the mountains of the Arucian Range, and made the first contact with the Mwiska people in October 1556. The discovery of arable lands in the Arucian Range, as well as the vast amounts of gold worked by the Mwiska, prompted further expeditions that established a long-standing trade relationship with the Mwiska that lasted into the 17th century.

Sotirian Commonwealth

Mwiska Wars

Duchy of Flamia

Kingdom of Estmere

Estmere had long harboured ambitions to strengthen their position within Euclea and within the Asterias, owing to their longstanding rivalry with Gaullica and the comparatively smaller colonial empire within the Asterias. The Gaullicans had not only much larger colonies, they also controlled part of the Arucian Straits, through which substantial proportions of trade passed through between the East and West Arucian Seas. In addition, many of their colonies in the tropics were becoming significantly wealthy off the back of fast-growing cash crop production, particularly of crops such as sugar cane and tobacco. Outside of her colonies in Asteria Superior, Estmere possessed just one other colony in the Asterias: the islands of Imagua and the Assimas. Although strategic in of itself, it was alone in a the West Arucian Sea, and within two days sailing for significant Gaullican colonies in Sainte-Chloé and Satucin. Nuvania and Satavia also offered a significant strategic advantage, being close to the western entrance to the West Arucian Sea. Wealth from Nuvania and Satavia had also bankrolled the reconstruction efforts throughout the Duchy of Flamia, and thus was indicative of significant wealth within the colonies.

The ensuring Estmerish-Hennish War was split between the campaign in Euclea and the colonial campaign in the Asterias, in which Nuvania played the most important part as the largest and most populous of the three colonies. Initial engagements between Estmerish and Hennish colonial forces were primarily naval, including the crucial naval battle off North Point in which the Estmerish Asterias Fleet destroyed the similarly named fleet of the Royal Flamian Navy. Successive naval victories allowed the isolation of the remaining Hennish colonies, the Estmerish opting to divide and conquer, beginning with Satavia and then moving into Nuvania. Estmerish Royal Marine Forces came ashore near the city of Witsand in northwestern Etten and began progressively pushing inland. Flamian colonial forces responded, engaging the Estmerish in both pitched battles and hit and run engagements using local militias. A second landing south of the port of Wetting caused the collapse of the Flamian forces in the north of Nuvania, the colonial government abandoning Pietersburg and fleeing to Daalensfontein in an attempt to reach Constantia. A third landing in northern Albina sealed the fate of the colonial government, which after a brief final battle ensured the surrender of the colonial government. An official ceremony took place on October 30, 1749 in which Estmere claimed Nuvania in the name of the reigning monarch, Mary II. Military operations, however, continued, especially in central and southern Nuvania which were yet to have come under Estmerish control. Sporadic conflicts and skirmishes continued until 1778.

The newly conquered colonies were placed under the control of a new colonial governor, Lord Fairburn, who arrived in October 1751 to replace Lord Bolton, the military governor of the Conquered Territories as the former Hennish colonies were known as between 1749 and 1751. Lord Fairburn returned the colonies to their Flamian names, and alongside Imagua and the Assimas, were referred to as Meridian Asterias, differentiating them from the colonies in Asteria Superior. Each colony was administered independently from one another and was ruled from a different capital. In Nuvania, the government was reestablished in Pietersburg, with the Hennish-speaking civil service remaining largely intact. However, as more and more officials were sent into these new colonies, the more and more Hennish speakers were pushed out of the civil service. By 1800, less than five percent of civil servants were Hennish speakers.

Lord Fairburn imposed a wide variety of reforms as to how the colonies functioned as well as new laws, taxes, and restrictions imposed on the Hennish to open up both land and employment for Estmerish settlers. These laws became known by the Hennish name De Oplegging, or "The Imposition", with resistance to these laws and regulations punished severely. Taxes were imposed on materials that previously remained untaxed. Glass, wallpaper, and windows were among the new taxes introduced from 1752 onwards, with other taxes introduced periodically. This had little effect on the colonial settlers, and principally affected those already living there. As with other impositions, tax evasion and resistance was punished severely.

The conquest of Flamia and her Asterian colonies had opened up new lands for settlement for the Estmerish. However, unlike other colonies, the former Flamian colonies were well developed and had plentiful cheap labour, which was expanded further beyond newly freed Bahian slaves, Creoles, and indigenous peoples to include poor or dispossessed Asterianers. While ordinary citizens immigrated to Nuvania by the thousand, it also saw a mass migration of wealthy people who wished to carve for themselves a new landed gentry in the colonies. Estmerish rule also opened up avenues for other migrants from northern Euclea, including Borland and Caldia. In addition, limited migration was allowed from the parts of Hennish-speaking Estmere that had been conquered.

Immigration swelled the numbers of people living in coastal cities, with Pietersburg and Windstrand seeing their respective populations double within two decades. This also created significant migration inland from the northern provinces, as Asterianers moved further into the interior of Nuvania. Initially Asterianers settled in the North Asterian Range, but as more newer migrants also settled within the range due to the more agreeable climate, Asterianers moved further into the interior, beginning a mass settlement of provinces such as Albina and Pomeronia, the latter seeing a substantial amount of internal migration that resulted in significant changes both to the landscape of the central plains and to the indigenous peoples that lived there. By 1770, conflicts between Asterianer settlers and indigenous Nuvanians living in the central plains were common place, and as a result, indigenous communities were decimated from conflict and introduced diseases. Missionaries were also active during this period, actively converting indigenous communities resulting in the destruction and extinction of indigenous religions and languages.

Dominion

By the end of the 18th century, the Hennish colonies had begun to develop a distinct identity separate to that of the Estmerish colonists, with the Hennish referring to themselves more as Asterianers, especially after the publication of the poem Die Asterianer in 1796 by poet Cornelius Nagel, which went on to inspire the Ekwet movement established and lead by Lodewikus van der Walt in 1799. The Ekwet movement did not call for complete independence, but instead demanded reform within Estmere’s colonial administration, including the establishment of a separate parliament as well as guarantees and protections for Asterianers, including administrative roles within the government. Van der Walt hosted the Constantia Assembly in 1800 which gathered influential Asterianer thinkers and public figures to create a list of grievances and demands to be presented to the Estmerish authorities, backed by the formation of the kommando, localised volunteer militias prepared to fight the Estmerish if necessary. The Estmerish refused to accept the demands made by the Asterianers and on May 25, 1806, kommando militias in Constantia seized provincial government buildings, forcing the colonial administrator to flee. Two days later, kommando militias in Newport seized the customs office, prompting a response from the colonial government, which sent a military expedition to Albina and Pomeronia to restore order.

This did little to reduce tensions between Asterianers and the colonial authorities. In June 1806, open rebellion broke out in Brabantia, which was not defeated until September the same year. This was followed in 1807 by a rebellion in Kanaän in which kommando militias marched on Pietersburg and attempted to seize important government buildings in the city. This rebellion was also defeated but it prompted the colonial administration to rethink its policies regarding the Asterianer population in Nuvania. This prompted the colonial government in Pietersburg to petition the central government in Morwall for a political solution to the problem, as military defeats did not deter uprisings by the Asterianers. As a result, an act was presented before Parliament in Estmere in late 1809 that would grant Nuvania self-rule within the Estmerish colonial empire. The bill, known as the Home Rule Act 1809, would be passed by both houses of Parliament in June 1810, but it was not until the following February that the proclamation was officially made, creating Nuvania as a dominion within the empire.

In accordance with the Act, a separate legislature was created and elections were held, with Asterianers allowed to vote alongside the Estmerish. Pietersburg retained its status as the administrative capital, now home to both the House of Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, and the Legislative Council, the upper house of Parliament until the end of the Great War. Parliament was composed of appointed members until elections could be organised, with the first general election taking place in 1813. The new Parliament allowed for representation of Asterianers, which improved stability within Nuvania and brought a period of peace and prosperity to the dominion. In 1821, political parties began to form, with the Dominion Party forming the same year and the National People’s Party forming in 1822; the Dominionists representing Estmerish interests and the National People’s Party representing Asterianer interests. The Dominionists would win the 1825 general election and dominate Nuvanian politics between 1825 and 1842.

Political and social instability returned following the 1841 general election in which the government of Harold Bray introduced reforms and revisions of tariff and tax policies that raised the prices of basic goods. Violence broke out in Niekerk as a response, prompting another military expedition to restore order. The policies brought about an end to the dominance of the Dominionists; pro-business faction splits off and creates the Liberal Party in 1843, followed by the creation of the Reform Party in 1845 over calls to expand voting rights to a greater number of people, including property owning non-whites. The results of the 1845 elections provided a hung parliament with all parties gaining a plurality of seats, with the Dominionist, Liberal, and Reform parties forming a grand coalition to avoid another general election

War of the Triple Alliance

Free State

War of the Arucian

Chief Minister Pieter van Kyl.

The victory of the National People’s Party in 1881 put Nuvania on the path to war and the path to independence. Despite van Kyl having the numbers, the reliance on other parties and substantial resistance to the idea of independence meant that van Kyl did not immediately pursue independence, instead choosing to seek closer ties with other countries. Between 1881 and 1883, van Kyl embarked on a series of official state visits overseas, primarily to secure trade agreements and diplomatic support. Van Kyl sought to engage with Gaullica in particular, as it was the more dominant diplomatic, economic, and military power in the Asterias. This included a secret alliance in preparation for a future conflict with Aucuria, with which both Nuvania and Gaullica through Satucin had territorial disputes. Van Kyl also sought to acquire mineral deposits in Leikauskas, particularly the gold and silver deposits. The province was also largely ethnically Weranian, as opposed to the largely mixed race wider population, and as such, the population identified more with the new Asterianer dominated government than that which existed in Kalnaspilis.

In early 1883, Nuvania and Gaullica signed a mutual military assistance treaty aboard the HMS Pietersburg that ensured Nuvania would become involved in a future war with Aucuria. This came soon with the outbreak of hostilities in March 1883, with Nuvania formally declaring war the following month and mobilising its naval forces in support of Gaullica. In August 1883, Nuvania began a formal invasion of Aucuria, engaging in a quick campaign to secure Leikauskas, capturing Fresenburgas in less than a month. The wet season interrupted Nuvania’s campaign, allowing it to consolidate its gains, before launching another offensive against Aucuria the following June, reaching and capturing Kalnaspilis by November 1884. A planned campaign in the Vaskranas Mountains was cancelled owing to already high casualties among Nuvanian soldiers. Despite this, hostilities continued, allowing for Nuvania to gain a more advantageous position for negotiations. These had concluded by the end of November 1884, with Nuvania signing the Treaty of Soleil Couchant, bringing a formal end to the war. The treaty itself gave Nuvania significant territorial acquisitions, including the entirety of Liekauskas and portions of Juoda and Šventasis Steponas, giving it some of the largest territorial gains from the conflict.

Van Kyl’s return to Nuvania after the signing of the treaty saw him promoted a hero among the Asterianer population, while the Estmerish, particularly the monarchists, had little doubt that full independence was close. In 1886, van Kyl called the first elections since 1881, and this gave him and the National People’s Party a firm majority in both houses of Parliament for the first time. With this mandate behind him and the party, van Kyl and the NVP began the formal legislative process to full independence, including the formation of a constitutional convention to draft a new constitution for an independent Nuvania.

Independence

Great Collapse

Great War

Post War

J.P van Vollenhoven, Chief Minister of Nuvania between 1937 and 1949, is considered to be one of the most important Chief Ministers of the 20th century in Nuvania.

Nuvania was occupied by personnel from the Grand Alliance in the immediate post-war period, with much of its civil and military leadership detained and charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity during the war. Throughout much of 1936, Nuvania underwent a defunctionalisation process during which those arrested by the occupying powers were arrested and tried during a series of trials held in major cities across the country. In addition, sympathisers and supporters of the Volksfront were purged from the civil service and the armed forces. A constitutional convention was convened to create Nuvania’s new constitution, which would formally reestablish Nuvanian government powers and responsibilities, as well as enshrine new civil rights and freedoms. This new constitution was ratified by an interim government established by the occupying powers in December 1936 as the beginning of the process of returning to responsible government.

Elections were held in May 1937 to establish a new government and elect new members to Parliament. The Democratic Action Party under the leadership of J.P van Vollenhoven won the 1937 elections and would go onto govern for the remainder of the decade and much of the 1940’s.

Throughout the late 1930’s and much of the 1940’s, van Vollenhoven engaged in a series of plans and programs that expanded state control over important economic sectors, acquiring revenue from resource extraction and raw materials to fund expansive social investment in welfare, healthcare, and education. Infrastructure was significantly expanded, as were the number of schools and medical facilities. Public housing became one of the keystone areas in which the van Vollenhoven government invested, as slums had expanded considerably in Nuvania following the Great Collapse and the economic instability of the Great War. The outbreak of the Solarian War created a brief economic shock for Nuvania but would become beneficial, driving up demand for raw materials.

Public Housing Corporation housing under construction in 1947. Social housing was an important policy of the von Vollenhoven government.

Van Vollenhoven engaged in a broader diplomatic reset for Nuvania, moving away from traditional allies such as Gaullica and Satucin towards improving relations with Grand Alliance powers, particularly Rizealand and Werania, the former becoming one of Nuvania’s largest trading partners by the end of the decade. Nuvania began to integrate diplomatically within Asteria Inferior and took an active interest in affairs in the West Arucian Sea as well as outside of the Asterias, culminating in sending soldiers to fight alongside Community of Nations soldiers in the Solarian War.

Nuvania also experienced a period of economic and social emancipation for its ethnic minorities, as government policies sought to do away with the racial and sexual discrimination enforced by the Volksfront government. Education was made mandatory for all Nuvanians between the ages of six and 16 in 1941 and full suffrage was granted to women in 1943. Literacy increased substantially as did the living quality of all of Nuvania’s ethnic minorities, which increased overall prosperity. This lead for increased calls for full economic and social equality, and subsequently gave rise to reactionary movements from conservatives within the Nuvanian political establishment.

Conservative Rule

Charles Wakefield, Chief Minister between 1949 and 1957 (left) Owen Fraser, Chief Minister between 1957 and 1965 (right)

Towards the end of the 1940’s, Nuvania began to experience a period of social unrest despite widespread economic prosperity. This unrest was driven by both a broader conservative reactionary movement in relation to the left-wing policies of J.P van Vollenhoven, and challenges to the existing social and economic status quo by Nuvania’s ethnic minorities. This unrest began in the mid-1940’s with the rise of the Barimanna conflict between the Etten provincial government, white farmers, and the Makusi people over disputes between grazing land and water access. The conflict was used by the National People’s Party to gain greater political influence over the van Vollenhoven government, with the conflict resolved through the use of police and the military. A miner’s strike in 1946 followed by ethnic riots in Blairmont in 1949 were utilised by the conservatives to portray Nuvania as being under attack from communist and other left-wing groups, which saw the NVP win a landslide victory in the 1949 general elections.

The new conservative government under Chief Minister Charles Wakefield quickly aligned itself with the new military regime in Aucuria and the hardline conservative government in Belmonte. In addition, it began to quickly implement policies that entrenched racial discrimination, principally the Racial Quota Act of 1950 which mandated racial quotas of workforces. This was subsequently used to enforce discriminatory policies elsewhere, including education and welfare. This prompted a reaction from Nuvania’s non-white communities and white liberals, who formed the Direct Action Movement to organise resistance to the Wakefield government and the implementation of its policies. The Direct Action Movement would lead non-violent and passive resistance actions against the government during the 1950’s and 1960’s, principally using strikes and boycotts, as well as other initiatives to improve voting representation for non-white Nuvanians.

The Wakefield government responded by strengthening laws around sedition and censorship, as well as passing legislation that granted the government increasing power over mass media and important sectors of the economy, allowing it to achieve greater control over the wider Nuvanian public. In addition, the Wakefield government began to promote propaganda that portrayed the Direct Action Movement as communist subversives, and this enabled Wakefield and the NVP to win reelection in 1953, achieving a substantial majority over a collection of minor parties and the DAP. In 1956, Wakefield suffered a heart attack and was forced to retire from politics as a whole, being replaced in the leadership by Finance Minister Owen Fraser, who implemented a series of policies that promoted soft economic liberalisation and relaxed state control over the economy. This created a period of prosperity that lasted into the 1960’s, but also began the division within the party between economic liberals largely led by Nuvanian Estmerish politicians and economic conservatives led by Asterianer politicians. Nonetheless, Fraser’s economic liberalisation created another period of increased economic growth and prosperity that lasted until the mid-1960’s.

Sugar Crash

F.A. Vredeling, Chief Minister between 1965 and 1973.

Nuvania's prosperity and economic growth continued into the 1960's, with the first half of the decade seeing some of the highest growth in its history. Average wages rose as did the quality of life across most of Nuvania's society, with many of those in its ethnic minority groups seeing some improvements in both pay as well as in other important social measurements, such as literacy. However, millions of Nuvanians did not share in the prosperity and this continued to fuel resentment against the government for continuing it's policies of racial privilege. Violent resistance to these policies began to escalate, including an outbreak of violence against police in the northern city of Blairmont in 1960 against the redevelopment of a slum. The Direct Action Movement continued it's campaign of non-violent resistance, launching regular protests and boycotts.

Nuvania would experience a period of economic decline known as the Sugar Crash, which began during 1963 with consistent falls in the price of sugar. As a major producer of sugar, this significantly impacted Nuvania and resulted in major economic problems stemming from bankruptcies and rising unemployment. Prices began to decline in 1963 and fell further and faster in 1964, causing instability within the government between Chief Minister Owen Fraser, who did not want to bail out the sugar plantations that were facing bankruptcy, and Finance Minister F.A Vredeling, who wanted to provide financial assistance to prevent further economic turmoil. This largely split the government between two factions, and ultimately resulted in Fraser resigning as Chief Minister in April 1965, replaced by Vredeling after a quick vote within the NVP caucus.

Vredeling opted to increase economic protectionism within Nuvania by introducing tariffs and taxes on imported finished goods and agricultural produce that would protect Nuvanian manufactured and produced goods as a means of saving industries that were harmed by the economic downturn. In addition, he utilised the introduction of these protectionist policies to benefit the agricultural sector, providing financial assistance for farmers and plantation owners. He also expanded the quota system that benefitted Asterianers to further remove non-white workers from key industries, with Estmerish Nuvanian workers also facing discrimination as the government believed they voted for opposition parties.

Despite these policies, the economy continued to worsen through 1966 and into 1967 and this continued to have a negative impact on Nuvanian society as more and more people began to fall into poverty and unemployment rose. A lack of access to basic services across many areas created the conditions for increased social unrest and violence, which escalated throughout the late 1960's. Violence broke out over living conditions and low wages in Pietersburg in 1968, with similar grievances leading to a major riot in Windstrand in 1969. Nuvanian voters began to fear a breakdown of society and voted overwhelmingly to re-elect the NVP in the 1969 general election, with the party winning 209 out of 274 seats. Vredeling, who had promised to end the violence, assumed emergency powers and began restricting the movement and freedoms of opposition politicians and anti-government activists, with many arrested on charges of sedition. Trade unions that were not controlled by the government and the leadership within the Direct Action Movement were also subjected to increased government surveillance and arbitrary arrest. This increased authoritarianism prompted the organising of anti-government paramilitary groups that would fight in an armed struggle to remove the NVP from power and abolish it's policies of racial privilege.

Stagnation

Nuvania would continue to experience economic stagnation going into the 1970's, despite global sugar prices recovering and reaching a record price by 1972. A lack of economic growth had resulted in declining wealth and quality of life for many Nuvanians, with as much as 32% of the national population living below the poverty line in the early 1970's. Aware of the social impacts of economic issues, the Vredeling government implemented a five year plan to attract foreign investment and promote economic development through the expansion of resource extraction and manufacturing. Nuvania saw increased foreign investment and trade from rapidly industrialising Coian states as well as increased trade in the Asterias which helped to improve the Nuvanian economy.

The slow recovery did little to alleviate the increasing violence within Nuvania. Student protests against government policies regarding tertiary education began in Niekerk in January 1973, and had grown into a nationwide series of strikes organised by the Direct Action Movement by march of that year. These protests became one of the defining issues of that year's general election, which was made more significant with the bomb attack on an NVP rally on June 20 that year, killing 10 and injuring 365. The attack highlighted the nature in which anti-government groups were becoming more bold with their attacks on the state, which prompted the far right to organise themselves to confront what they believed to be increasingly uncontrolled far left violence. The NVP would remain dominant in both houses of Parliament in the election with a slight reduction in their majority.

Two weeks after the general election, Vredeling died of a stroke and was immediately succeeded by Deputy Chief Minister G.J Vermaak, who responded to the increase in violence by expanding the use of the military directly and approving greater powers for security agencies and law enforcement. This would further exacerbate violence within Nuvania, as attacks against military and law enforcement personnel as well as government and civilian installations increased, escalating to major bombings that included the bombing of the Ballantyre Hotel in Pietersburg, killing 23 people and injuring 60 on July 2, 1976, and the bombing of the provincial police headquarters in Constantia in September 1976 which kills an additional 12 people and injures another 30. Further complicating matters was the outbreak of hostilities in neighbouring Satavia, which inevitably drew government involvement. Nuvania initially remained neutral in the conflict, with the Vermaak government opting to offer broader diplomatic support to the Satavian government.

The Vermaak government would face serious allegations of links to right-wing paramilitaries operating in Nuvania as well as supplying illicit firearms to anti-government paramilitaries in Satavia through a series of news reports that prompted an official investigation. Vermaak would preempt the release of the initial report into these allegations and resigned in June 1977, being replaced by Deputy Chief Minister P.J Duvenage, who attempted to suppress the report into the allegations as well as further expanding state powers to try to attempt to stem the tide of violence. Despite this, more bombings and attacks continue, including the bombing of a SuperPrix supermarket in Pietersburg that kills eight and injures 11 others in the lead up to the 1977 general election. Although the NVP and Duvenage would win, their majority was substantially reduced as the economic and domestic situation deteriorated further.

Following the 1977 general election, the existing factions within the NVP would reform along economic principles, with the emergence of the New Right lead by Johnathan Keaton, who advocated for abolishing Nuvania's protectionist economic policies in favour of free market reforms. This conflict between the two factions would define Duvenage's time as Chief Minister, with the New Right seeing increased influence within the government. The bombing of NLM Flight 627 in 1979 would see the Duvenage government finally intervene in Satavia on the side of the Satavian government, commencing military operations to participate in and support the peacekeeping operation lead by the Organisation of Asterian Nations.

Economic Reforms

Main article: Keatonomics

Nuvania underwent considerable economic, political, and social change in the 1980’s stemming from political disputes between opposing factions within the National People’s Party that resulted in the resignation of Chief Minister P.J Duvenage in 1981. Duvenage was replaced by Johnathan Keaton, who represented the New Right in Nuvanian politics. Keaton promised radical social and economic reforms in the run up to the 1981 general election as a means of reducing the rising impact of terrorism and social unrest in the country. Despite the political infighting, the NVP is reelected in 1981 with a further reduced majority.

Keaton’s reforms would fundamentally shift Nuvania away from a conservative, controlled and protectionist economy into an open, free market economy. Concurrent with these reforms came social reform as well. These reforms began in earnest in 1983, with the deregulation of the finance and banking sectors and the abolition of subsidies on most domestic industries, principally agriculture and manufacturing. In 1984, with cooperation from the DAP, Keaton’s liberal faction within the NVP abolishes the Racial Quota Act, with non-white Nuvanians seeing restrictions on employment, housing, and education vanish overnight. Other important social reforms also occur during the Keaton government, including the legalisation of abortion in 1986, divorce in 1987, and homosexuality in 1989.

These reforms would cause controversy and social unrest on both ends of the political spectrum. Rural conservatives angry at the removal of subsidies for agriculture and tariffs protecting Nuvanian exports, as well as broader calls for social reform, split from the NVP in 1984 and formed the Nuvanian Agrarian League, winning enough seats in the 1985 general election to force the NVP into Nuvania’s first coalition government since 1917. Keaton’s social reforms often put the party at odds with its coalition partner and led to political instability within the government over Keaton’s second and final term in government. Keaton’s reforms exacerbated existing economic inequalities in Nuvania, resulting in an increase of poverty, violent crime, and terrorist attacks, with the government forced into negotiations with the Direct Action Movement in 1989. This did little to stem the tide of change, and the NVP lost the 1989 general election, ending four decades of NVP rule.

New Society

Great Recession

Modern History

Geography

Nuvania covers an area of approximately 1.037 million square kilometres, making it the third largest country in Asteria Inferior. Contained within it are numerous geographical formations, rivers, and lakes that give Nuvania a unique landscape. The country is divided into several general geographical and environmental regions reflective of this diversity.

Northern Nuvania beyond the Arucian Range is dominated by the kustveld, a tropical coastal plain that extends beyond Nuvania's border with Aucuria to the east and stops at the Mascarenhas Peninsula to the west, on the border with the Van Horn Strait and the western Arucian Sea. Because of its proximity to the equator, the kustveld is one of the wettest and lushest areas in Nuvania, with fertile soils and numerous streams and rivers. Wetlands and mangrove swamps can be found in the immediate littoral in the north of the country, particularly where rivers and streams flow into the Arucian Sea. Most of these areas were reclaimed, either to support farmland or urban development. In some areas, mangrove swamps were also present, although these too have mostly been lost, save for a few protected or uninhabited areas along the coast. Further inland, the kustveld becomes a wide area of floodplains which gradually rise into the foothills of the Arucian Range in the south. On the Mascarenhas Peninsula, the floodplains give way to a series of low hills call the Westrand, which run up the western portion of the peninsular perpendicular to the Arucian Range. It is formed from an ancient seabed, raised during the same tectonic forces that created the Arucian Sea and the Arucian Range to the southeast.

Mount Constantyn, left, is the tallest mountain in Nuvania.

The Arucian Range runs along most of northern Nuvania and into neighbouring Aucuria. It is the second largest mountain range in the country after the South Asterian Range in the south. The Arucian Range was formed by tectonic activity caused by the rifting in the West Arucian Basin which formed the West Arucian Sea. The range was considerably higher throughout most of its existence, however erosion has reduced the mountains in terms of shape and altitude, although they are still high enough to significantly affect the climate in the north of the country. Because of this, the Arucian Range has different overall climates dependant on location and altitude, with the northern side hotter and wetter, central parts cooler and drier, and southern areas hotter and drier. Contained within the Arucian Range are numerous valleys, which contain numerous cities and towns that were founded to facilitate trade through the mountains. In addition the sources of some of Nuvania's longest rivers can be found within the Arucian Range. At 2,620 metres in altitude, Mount Daalen is the highest point in the Arucian Range.

Central Nuvania is dominated by the bosveld, a vast, open area between the Arucian Range to the north and the South Asterian Range to the south. It is an area of broad flat lands characterised by low, rising terrain and a dry climate. The soils here are as fertile as those on the kustveld, with the climate being the primary factor in the lack of widespread crop agriculture in the region, with much of the region given over to the raising of livestock. The bosveld is one of the most mineral rich areas of Nuvania, producing gold, silver, platinum, iron ore, tin, as well as large amounts of coal. Other minerals can be found in the fringes of the bosveld, which has an economic and cultural significance in Nuvania. Much of the region is fed by seasonal melt from the South Asterian Range that separates the southern coast from the interior.

The South Arucian Range is an extensive mountain chain that runs along southern Nuvania, northern Belmonte, Aucuria and the southern extremes of Satucin. The range was formed from tectonic activity through the clashing of the x Plate and the x Plate. Because of this, the mountains are active seismically and include a number of volcanoes which are among the highest peaks in the Asterias. In addition, the mountains provide a significant proportion of the fresh water that flows down both sides of the range into central and southern areas. Much of the range is composed of mountains although a number of the peaks are volcanoes. The highest peak in Nuvania is Mount Constantyn at a height of 5,147 metres (16,886 feet).

Many rivers flow through Nuvania, with many flowing out from the major mountain ranges. The largest and longest of these is the Oronoke River, which flows from the Southeast Highlands in Pomeronia, and flows into the Van Horn Strait, with a length of 1,254 kilometres. The Oronoke is important to central Nuvania as it provides much needed drinking and irrigation water for agriculture, as well as important habitat for numerous species of birds, fish, insects, and reptiles. Where the Oronoke flows into the Van Horn Strait is the location of the Kinsella Wetlands, the largest in Nuvania. Other important rivers in Nuvania include the Aruwani, Irakubo, and Madawini in the north, and the Gwaitara River in the south.

Climate

Nuvania is under the influence of a variety of tropical climates which are influenced heavily by prevailing winds, ocean currents, and topography. Generally the climates in the north and parts of the northeast of the country are much wetter than climates across the rest of Nuvania, which is heavily dependent on seasonal rainfall.

North of the Arucian Range, as well as the northern slopes of the range itself, is under the influence of a tropical rainforest climate with no defined dry season. The climate is influenced predominantly by the South Arucian Current, a warm current that runs along the northwest coast of Asteria Inferior from western Satucin through to Nuvania. It brings much of the warm moisture systems which bring the majority of the rainfall along the northern coast. The Arucian Sea moderates the climate along the coast with onshore breezes, whereas the climate becomes much wetter inland, especially along the north-facing slopes of the Arucian Range which catch the rainfall and prevent it from reaching central regions of Nuvania. Rainfall in northern regions can exceed 1,000 millimetres annually in the wettest spots, with temperatures warm and humid throughout the year.

Nuvania's southern coast and southeast of the country are also under the influence of a tropical rainforest climate. This climate is influenced by the Vehemens Ocean, which acts as both a moderator and a generator of the weather systems that affect the southern coastline. Like the northern coast, the southern coast is humid and tropical, although there is a greater differentiation between wet and dry seasons. However, the South Asterian Range traps much of the moisture-laden weather systems that are generated in the eastern Vehemens Ocean, and as a result, rainfall is often high in these areas during the wet season.

A thunderstorm off the northern coast of Nuvania.

While the Arucian Range prevents northern moisture bearing systems from reaching central and southern Nuvania, and it catches the seasonal rainfall that flows from the east, allowing for the existence of large areas of forests and scrubland in spite of the Hofmeyr Current which runs along the western coast of the continent. In this respect its northern slopes are under the influence of a rainforest climate, while its southern slopes are drier and more monsoonal. In the valleys and basins in the centre of the ranges exists a subtropical highland climate with a much more moderate climate, with rainfall totals around 700-900 millimetres annually.

Central Nuvania is dominated by a tropical savannah climate with monsoonal influences, as the wet season typically produces over 90% of the area's rainfall. As with other tropical climates, temperatures remain warm to hot throughout the year, although a large number of these areas have climates that verge on semi arid, and here the seasonal temperature variations are greatest. The wet season lasts between November and April, and produces over 90% of the total annual rainfall in these areas. Eastern regions of central Nuvania are wetter due to their proximity to the [[Wikipedia:}rainforests|}rainforests]] in central Asteria Inferior, while central and western regions have much drier climates, with western regions bordering on semi-arid.

The South Asterian Range is the most defining topographic feature when it comes to climate, with different areas of the range experiencing different climates, depending on location and altitude. Typically the southern side of the range experiences climates that are much wetter than those on the northern side, with lower elevations experiencing tropical climates and higher elevations subtropical alpine climates. The northern side experiences tropical savanna and semi-arid climates, with higher elevations experiencing more Solarian like climates.

Nuvania's highest recorded temperature is 45.6°C, observed at Dawson's Plain, Veld on November 18, 1979. The lowest recorded temperature is -26.5°C, observed at Windermere in the South Asterian Range on September 15, Template:Wpl1979.

Biodiversity

Ecoregions

Nuvania has over a dozen ecoregions within its borders, and is one of the most diverse regions in Asteria Inferior, with a number of these areas threatened by human activity.

Nuvania's northern coastal plains contain a number of different ecoregions. Coastal areas were once covered in vast mangroves that compose the Southern Arucian equatorial mangroves system. Since the arrival of Eucleans, many of these mangroves were cleared for urban development, and today less than 20% of the original coverage remains in Nuvania. Most of what remains is preserved, including in northeastern Etten and other places along the northern coast. Further inland, the coastal plains were once covered in tropical coastal forests, although these have been cleared significantly for agriculture and urban development, with less than 10% of these forests remaining. Significant restoration is underway across northern Nuvania.

The northern slopes of the Arucian Range are less developed and contain the northern tropical montane forests that stretch along Nuvania's share of the Arucian Range. Because of the lack of development, much of this forest is still intact although it is subject to deforestation. Higher altitudes of the Arucian Range contain a variety of cloud forests that range between 1,800 metres and 2,200 metres in altitude. In the Daule Valley, tropical dry forests can be found.

Much of the interior of Nuvania is covered in the bosveld ecoregion with different subregions located within it. This region ecompasses the vast central plains of Nuvania, as well as the southern slopes of the Arucian Range, and the northern slopes of the South Asterian Range. In the east, the bosveld is much thicker with more trees and shrubs, whereas it takes the appearance of dry grasslands in the centre and west, mostly owing to land clearance for grazing. Tropical dry scrublands and forests are present to the north and south of the plains.

The South Asterian Range is one of the few places where non-tropical regions can be found. Stretching from east to west is the South Central Highlands ecoregion which composes much of the highlands in the centre of the South Asterian Range. These are among some of the best preserved on the continent, owing to a lack of human settlement, although farming and grazing do pose threats.

Southern Nuvania is predominantly dominated by tropical forests, these include the southern montane cloud forests found in Mahaika and western Brabantia as well as the narrow and very threatened tracts of tropical coastal forests. Inland Brabantia is split between more montane forests in the north and northwests, and dry forests in the lowlands.

Western Nuvania is the location of the Kinsella Wetlands ecoregion, which encompasses the entirety of the Ardron River delta. This area is ecologically significant as it is a breeding ground or a stopover point for numerous migratory bird species. In addition, it is also an important breeding ground for fish species, and also contains numerous reptile, mammal, and insect species.

Flora

Nuvania's ecoregions support a wide variety of plant species, with tens of thousands of shrubs, trees, flowers, and other plants found across the country. The majority of these plants have evolved in tropical and subtropical climates and support a wide variety of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects.

Coastal areas of Nuvania were predominantly covered in mangrove swamp split between the West Arucian coastal mangroves in northern Nuvania and the Mahaika-Vehemens mangroves in southern Nuvania. West Arucian mangroves experience wetter conditions due to the tropical climate, and contain dozens of plant and tree species. These include red, black, and white mangrove species, as well as buttonwood, with red mangroves the most common tree species. Inland areas include additional species of mangroves, as well as trees such as beach hibiscus and swamp ferns, with other plants including mokomoko and assai palms. Saltwater cordgrass is also found in northern mangroves. Southern mangroves differ in a number of plant species, including different species of mangroves and other plants. These include tea mangroves, black calabash, beach bean, bayhops, and buffalo grass. Southern mangroves have fared better due to the lack of destruction and deforestation, with many tracts of mangroves remaining intact. Northern mangroves have had their overall coverage reduced by upwards of 80%, and today survive principally in protected coastal reserves and parks.

Much of Etten and Kanaän was once covered in tropical lowland forests that were extensively deforested to transform the flat coastal plains into open tropical grasslands. Few tracts of the original forest remain, replaced instead with plants, grasses, and trees typically found in other grasslands. Because of the extensive and intensive agriculture that takes place in these two provinces, many of the plants found within these provinces are introduced. Unlike naturally forming grasslands, the northern plains have more nutrient richer soils and can support greater densities of grass and shrubs. Nine species of grasses can be found in these regions, in addition to two species of sedges. Tree and species differ depending on areas close to the North Asterian Range or those closer to the coast. Coastal species include those that are used to seasonal flooding that occurs during the wet season, with the most well known being the lowland and miriti palms. Further inland, higher elevations see forest patches appear with species like the hog plum, turpentine tree, and possumwood all present.

Most of the North Asterian Range is covered in broadleaf forests, with northern slopes home to tropical moist broadleaf and montane forests and the southern slopes containing tropical dry broadleaf forests. Higher elevations are home to moist montane forests, which share similar characteristics with forests in the South Asterian Range. Common trees include wild cashew, Nuvanian mahogany, Maracan cedar, silk-cotton tree, and stinktoe tree. In addition, over 150 species of orchids can be found in these forests. Higher elevations see the emergence of cloud forests, with plants and tree species differing to elevation. These include salmwood, jakaranda, Nuvanian walnut, Nuvanian oak, and pau d'arco. Six species of wax palms are also found in these forests. Nuvania's national flower, the Christmas orchid, is found in these mountain forests. On southern slopes, the montane forests give way to tropical dry forests which mark the transition between the montane forests and the drier grasslands. Trees and plants common in these forests include aippia, pochote, silk-cotton tree, miriti palm, and hog plum tree. Close to and inside the grasslands, trees such as macaw palm, savanna serrette, and the sandpaper tree are all found.

Central Nuvania is split between two broad scrubland ecoregions: the Miritiveld in eastern Pomeronia, and the Rooilande, which constitutes much of central and western Pomeronia, as well as significant portions of Albina and Demara. The Miritiveld in the east is characterised by more dense scrublands and stands of miriti palms, from which the landscape takes its name from. Similarly the trees and shrubs that can be found within this ecoregion are typical of tropical scrublands, such as the prickly ash, yuka shell tree, and sweetsop. A number of flowering plants, such as the parrot flower and velvet flower can also be found in this particular part of Pomeronia. Further to the west, the drier climate becomes more apparent which coupled with extensive ranching and deforestation, has produced vast grasslands. Despite much of the forest having disappeared, the Rooilande in western Pomeronia is best known for its decorative trees, including the golden trumpet tree, pink trumpet tree, Arucian trumpet tree, and yellow trumpet tree. In addition to several species of jakaranda, these are often used for decorative purposes in many cities in central Nuvania. Among the more well known palm trees native to the region include the kabesura palm, which often marks the transitional between the Miritiveld and the Rooilande.

Among the more unique ecoregions in Nuvania is the Heiveld, which is only found in the South Asterian Range. This unique ecoregion is found along the length of the South Asterian Range at altiutudes between 3,000 (9,800 feet) metres and 4,800 (15,700 feet) metres in altitude above sea level. There are three broad zones within the Heiveld; Hoërveld, Laerveld, and Grasveld. The Hoërveld is at the highest elevation, and contains the most endemic species of plants. Template:Wpll, asters, various legume species, and heathers can be found in the Hoërveld. The largest and most well known part of the Heiveld is the Grasveld, which is typically found at altitudes between 3,500 and 4,100 metres (11,500-13,500 feet) in altitude. As the name implies, the Grasveld is largely composed with grasses, particularly species such as heidegras. It is also composed of small shrubs and flowering plants, the most dominant and notable of these being the grootmonnik, a perennial shrub that is common in Grasveld. Laerveld is found at elevations between 3,000 and 3,500 metres (9,800-11,500 feet) in altitude, and primarily contain principally shrubby or woody vegetation, with plant species such as snakeroot, broom, and holly common.

Mahaika and Brabantia were once completely covered in moist broadleaf forests similar to those of northern Nuvania. There are 8,000 known species of vascular plants in these forests, with estimates of 10,000 potential species overall and at least 20% of these species endemic to these forests. Among the well known tree species include the wild cashew, rubber tree, bongo, and the cow tree, with a rich understory containing hundreds of different plant species. Much of the forest has been cleared for human habitation and agriculture, predominantly in Brabantia where less than 30% of the original forest cover remains.

Fauna

Nuvania is home to over 400 species of mammals as well as hundreds or thousands of species of reptiles, fish, insects, arachnids, and birds. These species differ depending on the environment and location within Nuvania.

Significant mammal species present within Nuvania include several species of Felidae, several species of canines, as well as some species of primates and other mammals. Many of these species are threatened due to human activities. These include ocelots, who are found predominantly in the north and south of Nuvania, jaguarundi which are found across the country, margays, and oncillas who also have wide distributions. The largest felids that have widespread range across Nuvania are pumas, which can be found across the country in reasonable numbers, although are more common in southern Nuvania which is more sparsely populated. Jaguars are also found in the far east of the centre of the country, although they are considered to be extinct in Nuvania itself. Nuvania's cloud forests support a variety of primates, such has spider monkeys, as well as sloths, peccaries, deer, and the westernmost populations of mountain tapirs.

Nuvania is home to 33 species of turtles, six species of alligators, caimans, and crocodiles, 238 species of lizards, and 300 species of snakes. Most of these species can be found in the tropical forests of northern and southern Nuvania, as well as some species in the far east of the country, particularly in border regions close to Aucuria and the Scythian rainforest. Many of the reptiles can be found in specific regions of the country, while others exist throughout, with a number of species living in close proximity to humans. Some of the more well known species include the Asterian crocodile, black caiman, fer-de-lance, yellow anaconda, and the boa constrictor, among others. Snapping turtles and green iguanas are especially common in urban areas, the latter found in parks and back gardens in suburban properties.

Over 1,800 species of birds are found in Nuvania, the numbers of species second only to that of Satucin. Among the birds found in Nuvania include 25 species of ducks, 168 species of hummingbirds, 34 species of gulls and terns, 49 species of hawks, 20 species of toucans, 112 species of antbirds, and 55 species of parrots. Many of these birds are found in specific regions of Nuvania, some factoring into local folklore and those of the indigenous peoples prior to Euclean settlement. Among the more well known birds include the turkey vulture, which is a common scavenger in many parts of the country, the scarlet macaw, one of the most populous parrot species, the harpy eagle, the yellow and blue macaw, and frigatebirds. Seabirds, in particular the brown pelican, are well liked among the inhabitants of coastal cities.

Nuvania has one of the largest numbers of amphibian species anywhere in the world, with over 200 species recorded in the country. These include numerous species of frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders. Many of these species are endemic to Nuvania and found only in specific locations. Amphibians such as poison dart frogs are among the most well known to exist in Nuvania.

Government

Nuvania is a constitutional parliamentary republic with a codified constitution and separation of powers between the Template:WpL, executive, and judiciary. Like many former colonies of Estmere, Nuvania's government and parliament are administered along the lines of the Northabbey model of government.

Historically Nuvania has been considered to be an authoritarian nation and was considered to be unfree for much of its existence, owing to the electoral rules in which much of its indigenous populations had restricted rights and voting privileges. A series of reforms in the early 1990's improved Nuvania's political image and the voting rights for its indigenous population, but problems remain.

Constitution

The Constitution of Nuvania is the founding document of the independent Free State and is the document with which all of Nuvania is governed in accordance to the articles and provisions contained within it. It outlines the powers of each branch of government as well as their roles and responsibilities. It also outlines the powers between central and local government, and enshrines the civil rights and liberties that are granted to the citizens and residents of Nuvania.

Nuvania has had two constitutions; the x Constitution, which was created upon independence and ratified in x, and the 1937 Constitution, which was created during the occupation period immediately following the end of the Great War, and ratified by an acting parliament in 1937. The 1937 constitution is the one that remains in force today.

The Constitution of Nuvania is partially administered and amended by the Parliament of Nuvania, specifically the Senate, and the Constitutional Court of Nuvania. The Senate can introduce and approve amendments to the constitution separately, with the Constitutional Court approving the amendments for introduction to the Senate as well as offering advice on constitutional amendments. The passing and ratification of amendments requires a simple majority in the Senate.

Parliament

The Volksraadhuis in central Pietersburg.

The Parliament of Nuvania is the bicameral national legislature of Nuvania. It is a continuation of the legislature that was formed in 1811 to legislate and govern the then Dominion of Nuvania. The Parliament of the independent state retained much of the procedures and traditions that were introduced during Estmerish rule, and functions in line with that of the Northabbey model, one of only x legislatures in the Asterias to do so. The two houses that compose the Parliament of Nuvania are the House of Assembly and the Senate. Both houses meet inside the Volksraadhuis in central Pietersburg.

In accordance with the Northabbey model and enshrined in the 1937 constitution, the Parliament of Nuvania operates on the concept of parliamentary sovereignty, and like other Northabbey model legislatures, members of the executive branch of Nuvania's government are composed of sitting members of the lower house, with the Chief Minister commanding the confidence of both houses of Parliament in order to remain in power.

The lower house of the Parliament of Nuvania is the House of Assembly, and is the oldest and largest of the two houses of Parliament. The House of Assembly was established in 1811 to provide legislation for the government of the newly created Dominion of Nuvania. It is composed of 410 elected representatives who are officially referred to as a Member of the Assembly, and are commonly known by the acronym MA. The House of Assembly is the primary legislative body of the Parliament of Nuvania, with members able to draft, amend, and vote on proposed legislation. The House of Assembly also has limited investigatory powers vested in it, allowing the House to investigate and report on the conduct of its members and of members of the Cabinet of Ministers, the executive branch of the government.

The upper house of the Parliament of Nuvania is the Senate. Under the 1937 constitution, the Senate replaced the Legislative Council but retained its advisory and ratification roles as well as acquired new powers of investigation and legislation. In addition, it became an elected house, as the previous Legislative Council had its members appointed. The Senate is composed of 96 elected senators, with each province of Nuvania electing 12 senators. The Senate's primary role is advisory and ratification, participating in the selection process for government appointments to agencies and institutions, as well as ratifying international treaties, government appointments, and amendments to the constitution. It can also launch inquiries into the actions of government departments, agencies, and institutions, as well as into the conduct of both the Chief Minister and State President. Senators can also introduce legislation into the Senate, but also requires approval from the House of Assembly.

State President

The State President is the head of state of Nuvania. The position was created upon independence in 1886 in which the office of State President replaced that of the Governor-General. It is an elected partisan office despite the role being largely ceremonial with limited legislative intervention.

Officially as the head of state, the State President is the foremost representative of the Free State internationally and thus is the primary host of state visits by other heads of state, heads of government, and other important dignitaries. They also function as the Commander in Chief of the armed forces, and is the only authority in Nuvania that can formally declare war. In addition, the State President appoints all judges to the Supreme Court, all judges to the Constitutional Court, the head of the Reserve Bank of Nuvania, and formally issues promotions to commissioned officers within all branches of the armed forces. In addition, the State President issues pardons to prisoners, signs legislation passed by Parliament into law, and sits as the ceremonial president of the President's Fund, a philanthropic organisation. The State President may also become a patron of an additional charity of their choice.

Requirements to become State President are more stringent than those of Chief Minister. Candidates for State President must have served for a minimum of 10 years in either the General or Provincial Councils, they must have served in Cabinet or some other important function for a minimum of five years, in addition to the same requirements of political party membership and no mental or physical health problems preventing them from fulfilling duties.

Chief Minister

The Chief Minister is the head of government of Nuvania, a position inherited from the colonial home rule government which lasted between 1811 and 1886. The Chief Minister functions similarly to the roles of Prime Minister in other former Estmerish colonies as well as the role of Prime Minister in Estmere itself.

Powers vested in the office are principally administrative and advisory, with the Chief Minister's role defined in the Constitution of Nuvania as the most senior role in government and as a "first among equals". They have the powers to set government agendas and policies, appoint and remove ministers from Cabinet, assign Cabinet portfolios, and give advice to the State President on the conferment of Nuvania's honours system, call general elections, and gives advice on the appointment of officials to important positions.

There are few requirements around who can be Chief Minister. An individual must be an elected member of the General Council, be the leader of the party with a majority in the General Council or the leader of the largest party in the governing coalition, and must not be suffering from any physical or mental illnesses that could impact their ability to govern. Chief Ministers are elected to the same renewable four year terms as both houses of Parliament.

Elections

Elections in Nuvania are overseen by the National Election Authority which is a child agency of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. It is responsible for the organisation of elections at the national, provincial, and local level, the maintenance of voting registries, advising the government on electoral law, and participating in the redrawing of constituencies for national elections.

Elections are primarily regulated by the National Elections Act 1886, which entitles all Nuvanian citizens to participate in all elections. Initially this was restricted to property owning men, with suffrage extended to all men who pass literacy requirements in 1918, and to all women subject to the same requirements in 1930. Literacy requirements are still enforced in Nuvania, with approximately 5.35% of the population unable to meet the literacy standard required to be able to vote. In addition, all individuals incarcerated in Nuvania lose their voting rights once they enter prison. As of November 2019, around 118,000 people are imprisoned in Nuvania, representing 0.25% of the population. Nuvania's literacy requirements are the subject of domestic and international criticism, as they predominantly affect Nuvania's mixed and indigenous peoples.

General elections are held every four years and determine the composition of both houses of Parliament. Each member of the General Council represents one constituency, divided according to population. The electoral system for the General Council is first-past-the-post voting, with the Provincial Council utilising a ranked voting system due to the lower number of seats.

Presidential elections are held every seven years, with political parties determining presidential candidates through closed primaries. The system to elect the President is two-round instant runoff voting, with different rounds of elections mandated to be separated by a period not exceeding three months. Candidates who fail to obtain at least 15% of the vote in the first round are eliminated from the second round of voting. A candidate must obtain a majority of the vote in order to be elected President. If candidates fail to obtain a majority, a tiebreaker election is held six months from the second round.

Provincial and local elections use similar electoral systems to national elections. Provincial legislatures are elected in the same manner as Parliament, opting for a first-past-the-post system. District and municipal elections utilise open list instant runoff voting to elect district and municipal councilors. Unlike provincial elections, district and municipal elections are largely non-partisan and often have a large number of candidates.

Judiciary

The Palace of Justice (Justisiepaleis) in central Pietersburg.

Nuvania has a mixed judicial system combining aspects of both civil and common law. Nuvania's laws are codified in the National Law Code but are open to interpretation by judges, with judicial rulings also setting legal precedents. The National Law Code, the role of the judiciary, as well as the structure of the judicial system and the role of government agencies within the system are defined in Section 7 of the constitution. Nuvania does not have trial by jury.

Courts in Nuvania are divided between different levels of government, and by the roles they play. They are divided into three principal categories: general, administrative, and appellate, and are also divided by local government.

General courts are divided into two types: municipal and district. Municipal courts handle low level criminal offending, civil disputes, and small claims. These are often presided over by one judge and do not have the means of appealing to higher courts. District courts handle more serious civil and criminal cases, randing from criminal trials, to civil matters such as lawsuits, legal challenges, as well as family court cases such as divorce settlements and custody cases.

Administrative courts are those that cover aspects outside of civil disputes and criminal trials, primarily covering aspects of government administration as well as disputes relating to Nuvania's labour and employment laws. There are five courts within the administrative court system: the Administrative Court, which deals with disputes and legal challenges regarding local and central government, the Constitutional Court, the Labour Court, which deals with disputes and challenges regarding labour and employment law, the Environment Court, which relates to challenges involving environment law, and Electoral Court. All are provided over by a panel of three to five judges who are experts in their particular fields of law.

Appellate courts are those that hear appeals from general and administrative courts. These consist of two courts: a Court of Appeals, of which one can be found in each province, and the Supreme Court, which is the final court of appeal. All appellate courts are presided over by a panel of five judges.

Two significant courts in Nuvania are the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court. The Constitutional Court acts both in a judicial and as an advisory role, the former used to review government laws, rules, and other actions against the constitution, and the latter to provide advice to the government. The Supreme Court hears cases referred to from the Court of Appeals, or applied to the court directly, and are tasked with affirming a final decision on a case or legal challenge. The Supreme Court has the power to establish legal precedents in Nuvania. Both the Constitutional Court and Supreme Court are composed of panels of five judges who are appointed for life by the State President.

The National Prosecution Service is the primary agency for conducting criminal prosecutions in Nuvania. The agency employs over 4,500 staff, mostly solicitors and barristers, as well as other legal staff and officials. It's official role is prosecuting criminal cases, offering legal advice to police and other investigative agencies, and to decide whether or not to bring criminal charges against individuals. It is headed by the Prosecutor-General, whose role is primarily administrative. The Prosecutor-General serves a single term of six years and is appointed by the Minister of Justice.

Law Enforcement

Law enforcement in Nuvania is predominantly carried out by the National Police Service, whose role is to prevent and investigate crime, uphold and enforce laws, and protect all persons and property in Nuvania. It also plays an important role in maintaining internal stability and security. It is one of the largest government agencies in Nuvania, employing approximately 186,846 officers and personnel.

In addition to the National Police Service, there are numerous municipal police services in Nuvania, whose primary role is to provide assistance to the National Police Service when requested, as well as enforce local bylaws and regulations, conduct traffic enforcement, and prevent crime. Municipal police forces have limited powers of detention and enforcement. There are an additional 44,500 or so staff and police officers employed in 187 municipal police forces across Nuvania.

Outside of police, there are other agencies with powers to enforce laws, detain individuals, and have other law enforcement powers. Among these is the National Prison Service, the National Customs and Revenue Service, the National Parks and Conservation Service, and the Financial Crimes Office.

Foreign Affairs

Nuvania House in Morwall, Estmere, is Nuvania's largest embassy.

Nuvania has official bilateral relations with 32 countries across Euclea, Coius, the Asterias, and Sublustria. In addition, it is a member of several international organisations. Nuvania's diplomatic relationships stem primarily from three principal categories: geographic proximity, historical or cultural ties, and closer trade relationships.

Nuvania maintains embassies and close bilateral relations with most countries in Asteria Inferior, especially neighbouring countries such as Aucuria, Belmonte and Satavia. Further afield, Nuvania maintains embassies in Caluchia, Satucin, and Zaralaja. In addition to being on the same continent, Nuvania has a good working relationship with all countries, with foreign policy traditionally oriented towards these countries in terms of trade agreements, travel agreements, and regional cooperation. Historically ties between Nuvania and the countries of Satavia and Satucin have been the closest, the former for its cultural and historical similarities as former colonies of Estmere and Hennish states before independence. Satavia is also the only country with which Nuvania maintains a free travel agreement. Relations with Sautcin date after Nuvania became an independent state, and were particularly close during the Kylaris. Since then, both countries have cooperated on setting economic policies and directions for the remainder of the continent. Relations between Nuvania and Aucuria and Belmonte have improved significantly since the end of the Great War, and today form two of the largest trade partners with Nuvania.

Further afield in the Asterias, Nuvania maintains embassies and bilateral relations with most countries in Asteria Superior and in the West Arucian Sea, save for Chistovodia, Maracao, and Marirana. Nuvania previously maintained an embassy in the latter until 2015, when the embassy in Aquinas was closed owing to the outbreak of the civil war. Nuvania also previously maintained an embassy in Porto Leste in Maracao prior to the invasion of Dunhelm Island in 1955. Of these relations, the most important to Nuvania are Marchenia and Tacunia, both of which have significant economic investments in Nuvania, especially in manufacturing. Nuvania also shares some cultural links with Tacunia, as both countries have substantial Caldish populations and both were former Estmerish colonies, and have Estmerish as recognised official languages. Relations with Nuxica developed primarily after the Great War, with both countries looking to expand their economies and trade with other nations, as well as a mutual interest in preventing the spread of communism.

Outside of the Asterias, Nuvania maintains relations with 13 nations in Euclea, principally nations that have had an influence on Nuvania through economic or cultural links. Of these nations, Estmere and Hennehouwe are considered the most important. Nuvania is an Estophone nation and a former Estmerish colony, and is considered the principal diplomatic conveyor between ASTCOM and Estmere, as well as other nations in Asteria Inferior. As a former Hennish colony before becoming part of the Estmerish colonial empire, relations with Hennehouwe are close, with a substantial proportion of Nuvanian culture influenced from Hennehouwe. Outside of these two nations, Nuvania also has bilateral relations with Caldia, Etruria, Gaullica, Montecara, and Soravia among others. In Coius, Nuvania maintains bilateral relations with Senria, Xiaodong, and Zorasan, Senria and Xiaodong especially having significant economic investments in Nuvania.

Nuvania is one of the founding members of the Asteria Inferior Common Market and has been instrumental in its development as well as the maintenance of the organisation. It is also a founding member of the Organisation of Asterian Nations. Nuvania also maintains membership of the Community of Nations, the International Council for Democracy, the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, the International Trade Organisation, and the League of Oil Producing States.

Military

The Nuvanian Armed Forces perform the military functions of the Nuvanian Free State. It is the third largest in terms of personnel in Asteria Inferior, with approximately 87,564 men and women on active service or as reserve personnel. As with other militaries, the Nuvanian Armed Forces consists of three branches: the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy. Nuvania transitioned from a conscription-based military to a professional armed force during the 1980's, although provisions are in place to institute conscription should the need arise.

Nuvania's military has historically been used in both conventional and unconventional conflicts and is directly descended from the colonial military formations raised by both the Hennish and Estmerish colonial governments to maintain stability within the colonies prior to independence, with Nuvania having fought in two conventional wars since independence, in addition to having participated to some extent in unconventional conflicts following the end of the Kylaris. It has also had to become involved in internal policing and internal security operations, especially during times of social unrest. Because of this, the Army and Air Force are among the best trained and experienced in counter-insurgency operations.

Administrative Divisions

Nuvania is classified as a unitary state, and possesses three tiers of internal governance. These are Template:Wplprovinces, districts, and municipalities, all of which have respective areas of competence outlined in the Constitution of Nuvania.

Provinces

Nuvania is divided into eight provinces, each with its own elected legislature and an elected premier, with the Constitution of Nuvania outlining the powers allocated to the provinces and shared powers between the provinces and central government.

Powers and responsibilities given to the provinces include the ability to pass legislation outside of Parliament if the legislation does not undermine existing national legislation or regulations. They have full control and responsibilities over a number of aspects of governance, ranging from certain infrastructure projects to emergency services, these being firefighting and emergency medical services. Culture and hertiage preservation are under the control of provinces, as well as recreational facilities.

Central and provincial governments cooperate on most other areas not controlled by provinces. These include housing, the environment, civil defence, agriculture, roads and railways included in the national transportation network, education, healthcare, police, public works, among other areas. In this respect provinces and central government cooperate on administration and provide joint funding for these areas.

Each province has its own elected legislature, an elected premier, and an executive council, which overseas the various provincial departments, akin to a national cabinet. All members of provincial legislatures and premiers serve for four year terms, and have no term limits.

Districts

Districts are the second tier of local governance in Nuvania, and have more limited powers and responsibilities than provinces. There are 384 districts across Nuvania.

Districts have some powers reserved to them principally relating to infrastructure, utilities, and some emergency services, and cooperate with provincial and central governments elsewhere. Districts do not have powers to legislate on their own, but can levy minor taxes.

Most districts are a combination of urban and rural areas, although some larger cities will have districts within a larger urban or metropolitan area.

Each district is governed by an elected prefect and an elected council, which are subject to the same term limits and term lengths as provincial politicians. Electoral boundaries in districts are set by both the province and central government.

Municipalities

Municipalities are the third tier of local governance in Nuvania, and have a wider number of powers and responsibilities than districts, although these powers and responsibilities are dependent on the type of municipality. There are approximately 1,197 municipalities in Nuvania.

Municipalities are divided between urban and rural municipalities. Although all powers and responsibilities set out in the Constitution of Nuvania apply to all municipal governments, urban municipalities often have more powers and responsibilities incurred upon them than rural municipalities.

Responsibilities for municipal governments include utilities such as waste water and solid waste, as well as stormwater and water treatment. In terms of infrastructure, municipalities are responsible for local roads and public transport infrastructure, ranging from bus routes to commuter rail. In addition, they are also responsible for ports and other harbour facilities that do not handle international passengers or cargo. Outside of these, municipal governments are responsible for a wide variety of aspects of governance, from recreational facilities and public amenities, to street trading and local markets.

Municipal governments have powers of regulation over various local industries, including restaurants, as well as issuing permits and operating licences. Municipal governments may also levy minor taxes and charge fees for services provided, or fees for permits and licences.

Typically a municipality is governed by a mayor, although in rural areas an intendant is sometimes used as the term for the local council executive. Municipal councils are also elected, and are subject to the same term limitations as other politicians.

Economy

Nuvania has an upper-middle-income industrialised economy, the third largest in Asteria Inferior after Satucin and Belmonte. It has a nominal GDP of G8.92 trillion ($549.053 billion), and a GDP of G23.06 trillion ($1.49 trillion) if measured by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). Nuvania has a nominal GDP per capita of G183,316 ($11,281). If measured by PPP, the per capita amount is G473,915 ($29,164).

Historically the Nuvanian economy has been subject to both free market economic policies and deregulation alongside periods of controlled economic planning and protectionism. This has created periods of economic growth and stagnation, with prevailing economic policy in response to major global political trends. In recent years, the economy has transitioned towards a mixed-market system with some Weranic ordoliberalist tendencies.

Nuvania is still largely dominated by its primary industries, these being agriculture and mining. It posseses a developed industrial sector that produces numerous goods for ASTCOM markets, and growing teritary industries, especially in information and technology.

Agriculture

A farmer and a cattle herd in Pomeronia.

Agriculture in Nuvania is the sixth largest sector of the economy, constituting 8.4% of GDP, or approximately G750.11 billion ($46.16 billion). The sector accounts for 4.31% of annual exports, or G110.40 billion ($6.79 billion). In addition, agriculture employs five percent of the workforce, or nearly 1.2 million people. Of the industries within the agricultural sector, the largest is horticulture followed by meat and dairy.

Nuvania's horticultural sector collectively is worth G354.55 billion ($21.8 billion), which is approximately 47.2% of the agricultural sector, in addition to accounting for 93.8% of agricultural exports. The sector is divided into crops, fruit, and vegetables, of which crops is the largest and most valuable in terms of total produce harvested and market value. Nuvania is one of the world's largest producers of cocoa and coffee beans, the seventh largest producer of sugar cane, and a significant producer of corn and soybeans. It is also one of the world's largest producers of sugar, with the majority of sugar cane grown in the country used for sugar production. Collectively, crop growing is worth G179.70 billion ($11.05 billion) to the economy every year in production, and G51.86 billion ($3.19 billion) in exports.

Fruit is the second largest industry in the horticultural sector, and contributes G89.95 billion ($5.53 billion) to the sector annually. Nuvania produces principally fruit that is found or can be grown in tropical climates. It is one of the world's largest producers of assai and acerola fruits, bananas, guavas, mangoes, plantains, and pineapples. It is also a significant producer of citrus fruit, including lemons, oranges, and tangerines, and is one of the largest tropical producers of apples, being one of the few tropical countries to successfully grow apples in a tropical climate. One quarter of the agricultural labour force is employed in Nuvania's fruit industry, making it one of the most labour intensive industries in Nuvania.

Meat production is the second largest industry in the agricultural sector, contributing G226.66 billion ($13.9 billion) annually, in addition to G4.27 billion ($263.19 million) in exports. The most produced meat in Nuvania in terms of tonnage is chicken, followed by cattle and pig meat, with Nuvania producing significant amounts of beef and pork. The industry is largely industrialised and automated, with around ten percent of the agricultural workforce employed in the meat industry.

Dairy is an important industry in Nuvania's agricultural sector, worth G89.49 billion ($5.50 billion) in total annual production and an additional G3.08 billion ($190.01 million) in exports. Most of thes sector's production is concentrated in the production of milk with other dairy products such as butter and cheese secondary. As with the meat industry, the dairy industry is highly automated, and around fifteen percent of the agricultural labour force is employed in the dairy industry.

A number of large companies operate in the agricultural sector, among them Hewitt Agrarian, which is principally involved in the horticultural industry and also is involved in agricultural wholesale, Nyland International, which is Nuvania's largest meat producer, and Melkor, Nuvania's largest dairy company.

Manufacturing

Sheaford Automotive cars on an assembly line at a factory in Louwsburg, Philipsbaai.

Manufacturing is an extremely importand strategic sector in the Nuvanian economy. It is the third largest of Nuvania's economic sectors, contributing G1.15 trillion ($70.82 billion) to the economy annually, approximately 12.9% of GDP. As a sector, industry employs 30.2% of the labour force, or 7.1 million people.

Historically the sector was underdeveloped until the adoption of some liberalisation of investment regulations in the late 1950's by the government of Owen Fraser, which commenced a period of significant growth in the sector. This growth continued with the introduction of the National Economic Development Program by the government of F.A Vredeling in 1970 which saw a massive increase in both domestic and foreign direct investment into manufacturing. This saw the sector grow in size and importance. Growth continued despite a brief contraction in the 1980's, which was replaced by steady investment and moderate protectionism through the Asteria Inferior Common Market.

Nuvania has an active automotive manufacturing industry, which is the second largest in Asteria Inferior. In 2019, over 615,000 vehicles were produced in Nuvania, with the industry contributing G115.40 billion ($7.04 billion) to the economy. The vast majority of vehicles manufactured in Nuvania are from foreign companies, with 12 different manufacturers operating 15 manufacturing and assembly plants. The largest of these companies are Astoria Motor Group, Reynaud, Takahasi Motor Company, and x. In addition, Nuvania also produced motorcycles and commercial vehicles for sale within ASTCOM markets.

Construction is one of the fastest growing industries in the manufacturing sector and is contributes 7.4% to the GDP, approximately G651.31 billion ($40.08 billion) and employing six percent of the workforce. The sector experiencing significant growth in recent decades with the biggest increase have been in housing and commercial construction, with growth driven from the main cities in Nuvania. Commercial construction is predominantly involved in the construction of skyscrapers and other mixed use developments, the greatest growth of which has come from the cities in northern Nuvania, particularly Pietersburg, Vryburg, and Windstrand. The construction industry includes a multitude of different companies engaged in both the construction of buildings and infrastructure, as well as the manufacturing of construction materials. The Beijer Group is one of the largest construction and real estate companies in Nuvania, alongside Fraser-Maritz, which is primarily concerned with infrastructure. In terms of construction materials, the Shand Group is the largest conglomerate in the country producing a wide variety of building materials. Other important companies include Semkor, Nuvania's largest cement production and retail country, and Nasstof, which supplies metal and wood based products for the construction industry.

Heavy industry has historically played in an important part in Nuvania's industrial development, and despite declines in the 1970's and 1980's, has continued to remain an important part of the manufacturing sector. Nuvania's heavy industry is primaruly focused on the refinement and production of metal products such as aluminium and steel, as well as finished products such as locomotives, construction equipment, and ships. Nuvania produced approximately 823,315 tonnes of aluminium, 4.9 million tonnes of pig iron, and 9.11 million tonnes of steel collectively worth G160.39 billion ($9.87 billion). Nuvania's heavy industries primarily revolve around shipbuilding and rolling stock for railways, including locomotives. Genstaal OBM is Nuvania's largest producer of steel, and is one of the country's largest companies. NLW is Nuvania's largest producer of locomotives and rolling stock, with shipbuilding roughly split between Arucor and United Shipyards.

Light industry accounts for 45% of Nuvania's manufacturing sector and is predominantly given over to the manufacture of household appliances and consumer electronics. The industry is highly developed and automated owing to decades of investment as well as the advent of a wider captive market for Nuvanian exports. Currently about 30% of the sector's workforce is employed in light industry. Nuvania's largest appliance and consumer electronics brand Challenger, part of the wider Challenger Group, holds a significant share of the domestic market as well as significant investments throughout ASTCOM member states and in the West Arucian Sea region. Other manufacturers include Kelley-Hughes, which primarily manufactures white goods in addition to air conditioning units, Commax, which manufactures computer accessories as well as portable radio systems, and Telekor, which manufactures televisions and other display screens.

Mining

The Rooikral Mine in Veld is an important producer of iron ore.

Mining is the fourth largest economic sector in Nuvania, with the sector contributing G1.03 trillion ($63.93 billion) to GDP annually. Mining contributes an additional 15% in annual exports worth G386.43 billion ($23.78 billon) annually. The sector employs 728,219 people, or 3.07% of the labour force.

Nuvania is a significant producer of ferrochromium and ferromanganese, with 3.03 million and one million tonnes respectively mined in Nuvania in 2019. The country is the second largest producer of iron ore behind Satucin, mining 63.1 million tonnes in 2019. In addition, Nuvania is a prolific producer of precious metals, with 160 tonnes of gold, 75 tonnes of platinum, and 66 tonnes of silver, the latter alone worth G525.39 billion ($32.33 billion), or 50.5% of the total value of mineral and metal production.

Mineral production is mostly from the central regions of Nuvania, in particular Veld province where the majority of the mines are located. Many precious metal mines are located in the north of the country in Etten and Kanaän, with some mines located in Rand as well. Nuvania's largest coal mines are located in the north as well. In addition, smaller mining operations exist in Albina on the central west coast.

Alkmaar is the largest Nuvanian mining company in operation, with mines and processing facilities across Nuvania and around the world. Other important companies in the mining sector include Douglas-Hyman and VKM, all of which also operate internationally.

Services

Nuvania's services sector is the largest of the economic sectors in the country, and is composed of multiple different industries and sectors including finance, retail, transportation, and tourism. Collectively the services sector contributes G 4.57 trillion ($281.66 billion) to the economy, approximately 51.3% of total GDP. In addition, the services sector employs 15.3 million people, equivalent to 64.8% of the total workforce. Among the largest service industries in Nuvania include finance, transportation, and tourism.

Finance is the largest of the service sectors in Nuvania, contributing G1.88 trillion ($115.85 billion) to GDP annually. Most of Nuvania's financial sector is devoted to banking and financial services, with insurance, stockbrokers, and other financial services also key components of Nuvania's finance industry. It is the third largest sector in Asteria Inferior after Satucin and Belmonte and one of the largest in the Asterias as a whole. Nuvania has two stock exchanges and one commodities exchange located in Niekerk, Pietersburg, and Windstrand. The largest of these stock exchanges is the Pietersburg Stock Exchange, which has a market capitalisation of G16.63 trillion ($1.00 trillion) and is the second largest in Asteria Inferior behind the Gatôn Stock Exchange in Satucin. The Nierkerk Stock Exchange is the other of Nuvania's stock exchanges and is mostly devoted to companies headquartered in southeastern Nuvania as well as companies from southern Asteria Inferior and southern Coius. Windstrand is the location of the Nuvanian Commodities Exchange which is the largest of its kind in Asteria Inferior and primarily catering to futures contracts, options contracts, and spot trading for agricultural products, oil and gas, as well as previous metals.

Banking is the largest of the industries in the financial sector, and is overseen by the Reserve Bank of Nuvania. Nuvania's banking industry is dominated by the "Big Five" banks, these being the Arucian Investment Bank, the Bank of Nuvania, the Volksbank, Nuvania's largest Asterianer bank, Postbank Nuvania, and National Building Society, Nuvania's largest cooperative bank. Of these, the Bank of Nuvania is the largest followed by the Arucian Investment Bank and the Volksbank. In addition to domestic banks, a number of foreign banks also have operations in Nuvania, especially banks from neighbouring countries as well as some from further afield, the most notable being the Bank of the Orient, a bank based in Imagua and the Assimas. In addition to banks, numerous other financial services companies can be found in Nuvania. These include NAM, Nuvania's largest insurance company, and the Declercq Group, a holdings group with a wide profile of assets and companies based in Pietersburg.

Transportation is an important service sector in Nuvania, contributing seven percent to the national GDP, approximately G624.54 billion ($38.43 billion). The transport sector covers land, sea, and air transportation including road transport, railways, ferry services, and airlines. Among the largest companies in this sector include state-owned enterprises such as NLM, Nuvania's flag carrier airline, and NSW, the national railways operator, both of which are multi-billion dollar companies. Other state owned enterprises, such as the Nuvanian Postal Service also are involved in the transport sector through freight-forwarding services, and Roadways, an inter-city bus service. Dozens of private companies can be found in this sector, including Nuvanian Roadlines, which operate road-based freight services, National Translines, which operate inter-city bus services, and the Van Horn Shipping Company, which operates ferry services between Nuvania and Satavia.

Tourism in Nuvania constitutes 9.4% of the GDP, or G838.67 billion ($51.61 billion) and is one of the larger industries in the service sector. Approximately 10.47 million tourists visited Nuvania in 2019. Most of the visitors are from countries with temperate climates, especially in northern Asteria Superior in Euclea, with the peak travel period occurring during the winter months in the northern hemisphere. The most popular provinces for visitors are Etten, Kanaän, and Brabantia, owing to their tropical cultures and landscapes. Numerous companies cater to international tourists, and some of the largest hotel and resort chains are headquartered in Nuvania, including Blue Marlin Club and the Naudé Group.

Energy

The Akwero Coal Mine in eastern Kanaän is the largest in Nuvania.

Nuvania is a significant energy producer within Asteria Inferior. It has the second largest oil reserves after Satucin, and the largest coal reserves. It is the largest producer of coal and crude oil within Asteria Inferior. Fuel extraction and production contributes approximately $34.4 billion to the economy annually, with Nuvania being a net exporter of fuels.

Nuvania produces 830,271 barrels of oil per day, with an annual production value of $19.1 billion. In addition, Nuvania produces $3.7 billion worth of petroleum, and $3.1 billion worth of fuel oil annually. Most of these products are produced at refineries located in northern Nuvania, in particular the Kronenburg Refinery near Pietersburg, the largest in Nuvania with a production capacity of 430,000 barrels per day. There are six oil refineries located around Nuvania, with the Arucian Oil Company (AOC) and the Nuwanse Oliemaatskappy (NOM) the two largest oil and gas companies operating in Nuvania.

Approximately $14.4 billion in liquid and solid fuels are exported overseas annually, with the majority of these exports going to other nations within the Asteria Inferior Common Market, principally Aucuria and Satavia. Nuvania also supplies oil and gas to countries outside of the common market, notably Imagua and the Assimas, of which Nuvania supplies 47% of its oil and gas needs. Energy exports account for 9.15% of total exports.

Nuvania produces 90.6 million tonnes of coal worth $5.5 billion annually, with coal production accounting for 15.9% of total fuel production and $33.5% of fuel exports. Nuvanian coal is known for its low pollution and high heat generation when burned. Much of the coal is consumed domestically for electricity generation, with coal exports to primarily AFDC countries accounting for the remainder of production. Alkmaar and Veld Koolmaatskappy (VKM) are among the many companies that operate coal mines in Nuvania, with both Alkmaar and VKM the largest coal producers.

The electricity sector in Nuvania is one of the largest in Asteria Inferior, worth $23.3 billion. Nuvania generates an average of 203.18 TWh of electricity annually, second only to that of Satucin. Of that electricity generated, 62.2% comes from fossil fuels and 37.7% comes from renewable sources, with a total of 62,287 MW of installed capacity. The latter is dominated by hydroelectricity, with Nuvania home to the second largest hydroelectric power plant in Asteria Inferior, the Herstelling Dam. Nuvania's electricity generation and retail sectors are dominated by Enerkom, one of Nuvania's largest companies.

Around 26.1 TWh of electricity is exported annually, worth $36.8 billion, the higher value due to the average higher prices demanded by Nuvanian electricity companies. The majority of these exports go to neighbouring countries, with Aucuria receiving the majority of the supply, followed by Satavia.

Transport

Land

Nuvania has a total of 313,107 kilometres of roads and highways, 175,084 kilometres of which are paved. In addition, Nuvania has 569 kilometres of expressways, mostly located in the more densely populated northern provinces. As with other countries in Asteria Inferior and most former Estmerish colonies, Nuvania drives on the right side of the road. As of 2017, there were x million registered motor vehicles in Nuvania, including roughly x million cars and light commercial vehicles.

Intercity public transport is primarily provided by independent companies, although Nuvania has large transport providers who have significant networks throughout the country. Roadways is a state owned passenger bus service that operates both domestic and international routes, with National Translines operating as the primary competition. Both of these companies transport over 1.5 million passengers annually.

Nuvania has a total of 17,626 kilometres of Template:Railways in Nuvania, with most of the network utilising 1,500mm standard rail gauge. Nearly one thousand kilometres of the total rail network is composed of 600mm narrow gauge rail exclusively for the sugar cane industry, with these lines run independently of the main railway network, often by independent or private companies within the sugar industry. Most of the network is owned by Infracor with only a few lines owned and maintained independent of the central government. Approximately 42% of the network is electrified.

NSW provides the majority of inter-city freight and passenger rail services in Nuvania, and has a near monopoly on these services, with only a small number of companies providing localised services. NSW is known for its tourist trains, such as the Coconut Express which runs along the northern coast from Pietersburg to Windstrand, and the Southerner that runs from Pietersburg to Niekerk. NSW also provides international rail services to neighbouring countries; between Windstrand and Fresenburg, Aucuria in the north and Niekerk and Pinheiros, Belmonte in the south.

Air

There are 432 airports and airstrips in Nuvania, most of which are private airports or airstrips serving remote communities and a small number of full service commercial airports. Around two thirds have unpaved or grass runways, with the remaining one third of airports having paved runways. There are approximately 179 public access airports in Nuvania, 55 of which have passenger terminal or cargo terminal facilities, with 39 of those airports having scheduled passenger and cargo services. Most of the main airports in Nuvania are owned and managed by Infracor.

Approximately 31 airlines and aviation companies are registered with the Civil Aviation Authority, most of which are charter companies. Nuvania's largest airline is the state owned flag carrier NLM, which provides scheduled domestic and international services. It's regional subsidiary NLM Express is also Nuvania's second largest airline providing regional services around Nuvania and short-haul international services. Other important airlines include Webjet, Nuvania's first low cost airline, as well as Ansell Airways and Premiair.

Sea

Nuvania has 18 sea ports located along its northern, western, and southern coastlines. The largest of these ports are Windstrand, Pietersburg, and Niekerk, with important secondary ports at Philipsbaai, Newport, and Wetting. Approximately 2.81 million TEU's passed through Nuvanian ports in 2019, three quarters of which were handled by the nation's three largest ports.

There are 39 ships within Nuvania's merchant marine; six bulk, 21 cargo, five container, two liquefied petroleum gas tanker and five petroleum tanker ships. In addition, there are 11 Nuvanian ships registered in other countries, six in Imagua and the Assimas, four in Sanslumière, and one in Satavia.

The Van Horn Shipping Company is the only company in Nuvania that provides international passenger ferry services, operating a fleet of eleven ferries that operate between a number of port cities on Nuvania's west coast and Satavia. These ferries provide important economic and transportation links between Satavia and the mainland of Asteria Inferior, and carry over 15 million passengers and 40 million tonnes of cargo annually.

Demographics

Ethnicity

  Creoles (32%)
  Black Nuvanians (10%)
  Satrian Nuvanians (0.96%)
  Gowsa (0.84%)
  Kabuese Nuvanians (0.18%)
  Shangean Nuvanians (0.11%)
  Other ethnicities (0.43%)

Nuvania is a multi-ethnic country, with over a dozen ethnic groups found within its population. Euclean Nuvanians are the largest group of peoples, with Creoles forming the second largest group. Black Nuvanians, indigenous Nuvanians, and Coian ethnicities constitute the remainder of Nuvania's ethnic demographics.

Euclean Nuvanians are the largest people group in Nuvania, constituting 49% of the population, or approximately 23.6 million people. Eucleans first settled Nuvania in the mid-16th century and during the colonial and early independence periods, experienced substantial waves of migration from various Euclean countries. As a result, Nuvania's Euclean majority is often mixed with different Euclean ethnicities, with many Nuvanians claiming heritage from multiple Euclean ethnic groups. Estmerish Nuvanians are the largest of the Euclean people groups in Nuvania, with 8.6 million people identifying as Estmerish Nuvanian or claiming some sort of ancestry. Asterianers form the second largest group, with 4.3 million people. Weranians, Gaullicans, and Etrurians are the next three largest ancestry groups. Nuvanians also claim ancestry from a wide variety of Euclean ethnic groups, including Amathians, Caldians, Chennois, Luzelese, Miersans, Novalians, Piraeans, and Soravians, with many of these groups forming some of the largest ethnic communities outside of their respective nations.

Creoles are the second largest ethnic group in Nuvania, forming 32% of the population, or 15.1 million people. Creoles are people with mixed heritage between different people groups, particularly Eucleans and indigenous Nuvanians. Nuvania's Creoles are principally considered to be individuals who have mixed Euclean and indigenous heritage and identify with the broader Creole culture that has developed since colonisation. In recent years, Creole has come to encompassed all mixed heritage people in Nuvania as well as those who identify with Creole culture.

Nuvania's black population encompasses ten percent of the population, or 4.7 million people. Black Nuvanians are predominantly the descendants of slaves who were brought over during the Hennish colonial period for use on plantations and other forced labour work, with recent waves of black migrants from newly independent West Arucian island states, particularly Imagua and the Assimas. Black Nuvanians have faced a long history of racial discrimination in Nuvania, have have developed a unique culture within Nuvania based on influences from Euclean, indigenous, and Bahian cultures.

Indigenous Nuvanians account for 5.6% of the population, or 2.6 million people from over 71 recognised tribal and people groups. Indigenous Nuvanians have a myriad of different cultural beliefs and traditions often predating the arrival of Eucleans. Among the most well known are the Mwiska and the Wayu, while the Chami, Embera, and Zenu peoples form some of the largest indigenous peoples. Like Black Nuvanians, indigenous Nuvanians have experienced a history of racial discrimination.

Around 3.4% of Nuvanians belong to a number of Coian ethnic groups. The largest of these are the Satrians with around 460,000 people. Satrians originated predominantly from Pardaratha and were brought into Nuvania by the Estmerish as indentured workers. A similar background is shared by the Gowsas, of which there are around 400,000 in Nuvania. Most modern Gowsas can trace their lineage to the 55,000 that immigrated to Nuvania for work in the late 19th century. Like other minority groups, the Gowsas established close knit communities and retained aspects of their culture that have now been broadly accepted by wider Nuvanian society. Nearly 90,000 Kabuese live in Nuvania as of the 2015 census, with most being descendants of those bought in as labourers. Over 56,000 Shangeans live in Nuvania, with a mixture of Shangean citizens and descendants of migrants accounting for the population. Just over 206,000 Nuvanians identify with or belong to a number of other minority ethnicities.

Language

Nuvania has two official languages: Asteriaans and Estmerish. These were made the co-official languages with the passing of the Official Languages Act 1937 in January 1938, which did away with the former National Language Act 1887 and the supremacy of Asteriaans as the official language of Nuvania. Both languages are considered to be the lingua franca of Nuvania, although Estmerish has more speakers.

Estmerish is spoken by roughly 65% of the population as a first language, as a second language by 32%, and as a third or fourth language by three percent. Nuvanian Estmerish is the distinct dialect of Estmerish spoken in Nuvania and encompasses a variety of accents and sub-dialects based on geographic location as well as social class. In addition, a wide variety of words are borrowed from indigenous languages, these too dependent on geographic location. The Aru languages predominantly influence Estmerish in the northern coastal provinces, Mwiskubub languages in Rand, and the Jeh languages in Pomeronia, among others. These give distinct sub dialects within the overall Estmerish dialect.

Asteriaans is the second most spoken language in Nuvania in terms of first languages, with around 42% of the population speaking it as a first language, and another 19% speaking it as a second language. It is an official language of Nuvania alongside Estmerish, and is the only Weranic language to have originated in the Asterias. Asteriaans is derived partly from Hennish, partly from Estmerish, and partly from various indigenous languages, leading to regional dialects that differ depending on province and even between districts. One of the most notable and distinct dialects of Asteriaans is the Kustdialek, spoken primarily in Etten, which is heavily influenced by words from the Ika language. A related dialect is Kanpraat from north-eastern Kanaän, influenced by the Aru language of the Aru people.

Gaullican is the third largest spoken language in Nuvania, and is the second language spoken by Nuvanians. Gaullican has been taught in Nuvania since the early Estmerish colonial period in which it became a major lingua franca in the broader Arucian area, owing to the wide presence of Gaullican colonies and later, independent states. Nuvania's strong relationship with Satucin further emphasised the use of the language in diplomacy and trade, and became widely taught in secondary schools. This peaked during the Volksfront era in which Gaullican became the second most-spoken language in Nuvania. Since the end of the Great War, the language has seen a steady decline in speakers, from a peak of 64% in 1926, to 31% as of the 2015 census.

Numerous indigenous languages are spoken in Nuvania as first or second languages. These are often unique to the more than 40 indigenous people groups within Nuvania. Some languages are part of broader language families while others are language isolates. Some indigenous peoples no longer speak their own language as colonial policies have rendered them extinct. Of the 2.6 million indigenous people in Nuvania, 367,358 people are native speakers of their indigenous language, or 13.8% of the indigenous population. Numerous programs and initiatives exist to preserve indigenous languages in Nuvania, most of these coming into existence within the last half century. The most numerous of these native languages are those of the Emberë people from the western coasts of Demara and Kanaän, of which there are 113,902 speakers of six languages. These account for 31% of all native speakers of indigenous languages in Nuvania. The language with the lowest number of native speakers is Koto, spoken by the Koto people from the lowlands of northern Pomeronia, with six native speakers as of 2015.

Around one quarter of the population speaks another language that is not indigenous or one of the principal introduced languages in Nuvania. These include minority Euclean languages, such as Luzelese and Weranian, as well as Coian languages such as Senrian, Xiaodongese, and Ziba.

Religion

Education

Education in Nuvania is a joint responsibility by the Ministry of Education and provincial educational departments who jointly provide for and fund schools around Nuvania. Furthermore education is split between public schools, private schools, and reserve schools. Nuvania has one of the lower overall literacy rates in Asteria Inferior, with a combined rate of 88% of its population literate. Approximately 12%, or 5.6 million people, are illiterate. Euclean Nuvanians have the highest literacy rate with less than one percent illiterate. Approximately 18.7% of mixed and 38.7% of indigenous Nuvanians are illiterate. As of 2018, the Nuvanian government spent 7.9% of its GDP, approximately ₲346.06 billion ($41.89 billion) annually on education.

The structure of education in Nuvania is influence by both Estmerish and Hennish schooling, with local adaptations, one of these being the existence of transitional schools (oorgangskole) which bridge the educational gap between primary schools and secondary schools. These were implemented in the 1970's and have since become common place around Nuvania. Schooling is compulsory until age 16, when students may be able to leave provided they have employment and with parental permission. Most primary and secondary schools fall within the public sphere, with 84.9% of students attending public schools, and 15.1% attending private schools.

Nuvania has some of the largest and most prestigious universities in Asteria Inferior. Nuvania has what is known locally as the "Big Three" universities, being the University of Pietersburg, the University of Windstrand, and Straatenburg University. Tertiary education in Nuvania is split between universities, vocational schools, and technological institutes. Universities are oriented towards academic studies, vocational schools provide practical training for trades and other related industries, and technological institutes are oriented towards scientific studies. Both universities and technological institutes are split between public and private universities, and vocational schools receive public funding and government subsidises for specific courses.

Healthcare

An ambulance in Kanäan.

Healthcare in Nuvania is delivered through central and provincial governments. Total healthcare spending for 2019 was G1.00 trillion ($65.88 billion), twelve percent of GDP. Of these expenditures, 63% came from the public sector and 37% from the private sector. Approximately 64% of Nuvanians use public healthcare, and have their healthcare covered by public health insurance plans. The remaining 36% of Nuvanians are covered by private schemes and the private healthcare system. The average life expectancy in Nuvania is 72.5 years, with a life expectancy of 75.7 years for women, and 69.3 years for men.

Public healthcare is delivered through both central and provincial governments. At a national level, the Ministry of Health administers the Public Health Service whose primary role is the funding of all public health staff, as well as implementation of national healthcare policy and the provision of funding for research and development in the health sector, and subsidies for medicines and pharmaceutical products. It is also responsible for the management of the Public Insurance Scheme, which provides affordable healthcare plans for all Nuvanian residents and citizens.

Each province delivers healthcare through a Department of Health, which manages the local Provincial Health Board, which itself provides the direct healthcare services to the public. Each PHB provides funding for the upkeep and maintenance of hospitals and medical centres within their province, as well as the wages for all staff employed by the PHB that are not paid for by the Ministry of Health. PHB's have the powers to also implement healthcare policies of their own, notably vaccine campaigns for tropical diseases. They are also responsible for the provision of antivenoms for snakebites and bites from other poisonous creatures.

Nuvania's private healthcare system is composed of companies and charities that operate outside the public health system. These include specialist care providers, general practitioners and family doctors, plastic surgeons, among others. It also includes Nuvania's health insurance and healthcare companies. Nuvania's private healthcare system is among the largest in Asteria Inferior.

Emergency medical services in Nuvania are managed at the provincial level, with each province administering its own ambulance service. These services are funded through taxes levied by provincial governments, as well as funding from central government. These funds go towards the acquisition and maintenance of ambulances, paramedic vehicles, air ambulances, and buildings, among others, as well as front line paramedics and support staff. All paramedics in Nuvania are trained in accordance with national guidelines and standards set by the Ministry of Health. There are also multiple private ambulance services operating in Nuvania.

Education

Education in Nuvania is the joint responsibility of central and provincial government in which both share funding and resource allocation for the public school system. Both governments have different competencies which allow for various levels of control and influence over the system. Approximately eight percent of nominal GDP is spent on education as of 2020, with four percent from central government, three percent from provincial governments, and one percent from the private sector. Nuvania has a literacy rate of 96.6%, with a consequent illiteracy rate of 3.4%. Illiteracy rates are highest among Nuvania's black and indigenous communities.

The Ministry of Education is the primary funder of the public school system in Nuvania, with the majority of funding going towards the payment of the 910,472 teaching staff and instructors in Nuvania at all levels of the schooling system, in addition to providing some funding for schools and universities, including research grants. Primarily the Ministry of Education's role in addition to its funding responsibilities is also the setting of the national curriculum for all schools in Nuvania, as well as administering laws and policies pertaining to education as a whole.

Each province in Nuvania has a Provincial Education Board which sets out its own policies and funding. Provincial Education Boards are the primary source of school funding for secondary and primary schools in Nuvania, of which there are 49,058. Funding goes towards the maintenance of school facilities, construction of new buildings, and the payment of non-educational staff, including administrators, principals, etc. Provinces can set some educational policies themselves, although these pertain to the implementation of the curriculum set by the Ministry of Education.

Education in Nuvania begins in preschool or kindergarten with children largely admitted between the ages of four and five before moving onto primary school at age six. Primary school lasts for six years, in which students then progress onto secondary school, which typically lasts for five years. Secondary school students are expected to complete the full five years of secondary schooling, but are able to leave school to pursue vocational education at age 16. There are approximately 5.18 million primary school students attending 24,583 primary schools, and 3.73 million secondary students attending 24,465 secondary schools.

Tertiary education in Nuvania is composed of universities and vocational schools and is split between a public and private system. The Department of Tertiary Education, which is a part of the Ministry of Education, administers the public university system which includes the 24 campuses of the University of Nuvania, the 35 campuses of the National Institute of Technology, and all eight provincial universities, as well as several university hospitals around the country. The remainder of the 94 universities and 2,072 vocational schools functioning under the private education system.

Culture

Art

Cinema

Cuisine

Potjiekos is considered the national dish of Nuvania.

Nuvanian cuisine is a mixture of native and imported influences from the various people groups that lived in Nuvania prior to Euclean colonisation, and from Euclean colonisation. Additional influences come from immigrant communities, especially those from Coius, who often brought with them their native cuisines. Neighbouring countries also have their influences in Nuvanian cuisine, particularly Aucuria and Belmonte.

One of the primary influences of Nuvanian cuisine is that of the Hennish, who settled the country during the late 16th and throughout the 17th centuries. Although they had brought their dishes and methods of cooking with them, the initial settlers had to adapt their ways to suit the local climate, and often utilise local ingredients. As time passed, the greater availability of ingredients meant that Nuvanian cuisine often took on a more uniqueness to it, while remaining influenced by trends in Euclea. A substantial difference between traditional Hennish cuisine and that of Nuvania is the greater use of spices, such as nutmeg, allspice, and chilli peppers, the latter used frequently during cooking. Traditional Hennish dishes such as halfie, and hachee are served in many restaurants. Snack foods from Hennehouwe are reasonably popular in Nuvania, and include corn cookies, frikadelle, kibbeling (Estocised to kibbling), kaassoufflé (known as kaaskoekie in Asteriaans or cheese rissoles), and pancakes, the latter often served at pancake houses.

Through the Hennish settlement came the development of the Asterianer cuisine which blended native and imported influences. As Asterianer culture developed, their cuisine reflected the incorporation of available ingredients, particularly meats, crops, and fruits. As such, Asterianer cuisine produces a wide variety of dishes and foods. Common snacks such as biltong, piebraai, and varkbas are part of Asterianer cuisine. An example of native influences is the wideaspread consumption of aripo, known in Etten as erepa, which were introduced to the settlers by the Native Asterians inhabiting Nuvania's northern coast. Other important dishes and foods include boerwors, a traditional sausage, bokkoms, frikkadelle, kaiings, potjiekos and skilpadjies. A number of breads are also from Asterianer cuisine.

Estmerish cuisine has had a major effect on Nuvanian cuisine, the country being under Estmerish colonial administration between 1749 and 1886. Most of the dishes and food items in Nuvania that are the most popular are those that were around or have been retained from the colonial period, particularly pastries. Among the most popular of these are pies, which predominantly take the form of savoury hot pies with various meats and flavours, and are available as both snack foods and as meals. In addition, sausage rolls and pasties, the latter taking a form similar to that of an empenada, and indeed, are often compared to empenadas. Outside of pastries, dishes such as Shepherd's pie and bangers and mash are frequently eaten. Fish and chips is one of the most popular fast foods in Nuvania, and in the northern provinces, is frequently accompanied by the gatsby, a sandwich unique to Nuvanian Estmerish people.

Neighbouring countries have had a significant influence on Nuvanian cuisine, with Nuvania sharing a popularity of barbequing with Belmonte, known in Nuvania as a braai. Dulce de leche is commonly available in shops, as are brigadiers and tapioca. In addition, two Belmontese dishes, bobó de camarão and vatapá, are available in restaurants across numerous coastal provinces.

Nuvania is one of the largest coffee producers in Asteria Inferior, and is one of the largest consumers of coffee per capita in the world. Commercial coffee establishments typically take the form of Euclean-style cafes although coffeehouses are also present, typically influenced by Dezevauan coffee traditions. Milk coffee is typical of Nuvanian coffee drinks, which has since given rise to the flat white, popular in Nuvania and Satavia. Nuvania is known for its alcoholic drinks, specifically rum and Stoltzer, an apéritif made from bitter and sweet orange peels. In addition, beer and cachaça are also made, the latter known by the brand name Ehlers. A type of spirit known as firewater is also manufactured, as is chicha, which is an alcoholic beverage made by Nuvania's indigenous inhabitants, in addition to kauwim, which is made from bananas.

Literature

Jacqueline Gibson is widely considered to be the most accomplished author in Nuvanian history.

Nuvanian literature dates back to the Sotirian Commonwealth with the arrival of the first printing presses that were used to print religious books and texts by the South Arucian Company. These printing presses also printed works of fiction and collections of poetry that were permitted to be printed by colonial authorities in order to reinforce religious messages. Among the first published authors was Laurens van Amerongen, whose literary work De rechtszaak is widely considered to be the first fiction work written and printed in Nuvania. Following the end of the Commonwealth, literature in Nuvania bloomed as restrictions were loosened and commercial printing houses were established, including the famous Visscher Drukkerij which printed numerous works by authors such as Albert van der Hagen and Pieter Gallus van Toutenburg. Notably the first female authors to be published also came from this period, including Maria van Amstel, Maria Schouten, and Elisabeth van Valckenborgh.

Asteriaans literature would develop through the latter part of the 18th century and throughout the 19th century, beginning with the plaasroman movement, which depicted farm life and the trials and tribulations of rural Asterianer society. This movement subsequently evolved into a more nationalistic movement in the 1830's centred around the Ekwet political movement and inspired by the poetry of Cornelius Nagel, the author of Die Asterianer. This movement would outline the cultural and societal uniqueness of Asterianers and define the intellectual arguments for independence based on cultural differences. Towards the latter period of Estmerish rule, a sub-genre of pro-independence literature, kostuumisme, appeared. Led by authors such as Brant Reinders and F.M Vergeer, the movement initially began as a rebuke of Estmerish society but evolved into a movement centred around both the criticism of central government as well as the conservative ruralism of Asterianer society and the hypocrisy of the mainstream independence movement. Known in Estmerish as Costumism, the movement is recognised as the first anti-establishment cultural movement in Nuvania.

The latter part of the 19th and 20th centuries saw converging literary themes and movements merge between Asterianer and Estmerish groups. Antonia Remington gave rise to a number of feminist writers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries following the publishing of the novel A Woman's Place, widely credited with galvanising the suffragette movement in Nuvania. Following the rise of the Volksfront regime saw the concurrent rise of the Nothing Movement, lead by George Anderson, which focussed on works with themse of nihilism and existentialism. The Nothing Movement would reach its peak in the late 1930's in the aftermath of the Great War.

Nuvanian literature began to gain international recognition during the latter half of the 20th century, with award winning authors such as Jacqueline Gibson, Johannes Niemann, Adam Flemming, and Benjamin Cooke are all internationally acclaimed authors. Nuvania has also produced notable other literary figures such as poet Willem Herschel, playwright Alfred Garner, and journalists Yvette Paxton and Andrew Herriot.

Media

Nuvania is a major centre for Estmerish language media and the largest producer of media in the Asteriaans language. The country has ranked highly in recent years in press freedom, although occasional political interference still occurs. Historically, Nuvania had low press freedom owing to the heavy use of anti-sedition laws by numerous NVP governments to suppress left-wing publications and radio broadcasts.

The Nuvanian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known by the acronym NBC/NUK is Nuvania's largest broadcast media company, and operates a number of radio and television stations. It is the second largest state broadcasting company in the Estmerish speaking world, and is the largest Asteriaans broadcaster. It currently operates 19 radio and 20 television stations, broadcasting in both Estmerish and Asteriaans, the former as the primary broadcast language, and the latter specifically for the Asterianer population. The company has existed since 1959, with the radio services first broadcast in 1925. In addition to the NBC/NUK are a number of private broadcasters, the largest being Nuvanian Television (NTV), the largest private Estmerish-language broadcaster and pay-to-view television providers Satkom and NuSat.

Print media is one of the more important mass media in Nuvania. The country saw a small decline in daily newspaper circulation from 1.5 million per day in 2010, to 1.27 million in 2020. Nuvania's print media caters to a wide variety of customers and is printed in a number of languages. The largest newspaper and one that is the newspaper of record is Die Vrystaat, which has a daily circulation of 330,000. It is printed in both Asteriaans and in Estmerish. The largest Estmerish newspaper is The Observer, with Die Nasie being the largest Asteriaans-language newspaper. All three are broadsheet newspapers. Nuvania has a large market for magazines, the most widely circulated being Review, which focuses on current affairs, Whisper, which is a gossip/women's living magazine, and youth-orientated RaiD. Important print media companies include the Pace Media Group, which owns a number of national and provincial newspapers, Mediakor, which owns mostly Asteriaans-language print media, and the Independent Media Group, which owns a wide number of community and local newspapers.

Music

Music has been present in Nuvania since the first civilisations were established, and today is heavily influenced by trends through the Estophone world, particularly Tacunia due to its geographic proximity. Domestic music is dominated by the Asteriaans and Estmerish language, comparatively little music is produced in other languages, including indigenous languages.

Estmerish language music is dominated largely by pop, rap, and hip-hop, the latter two having Bahian, Creole, and indigenous musicians being the most prominent, with pop being largely influenced by white musicians. All of these genres remain popular in Nuvania. Rock and electronic music also have gained significant followings, with bands like The Conies and Surge gaining international success. Rock and metal music continues to be a more niche genre in Nuvania and less popular than other genres. Electronic music has seen a significant increase in popularity in Nuvania due to its popularity as a destination for clubbers and ravers. The scene in Nuvania is comparatively small compared with its perceived popularity, and is principally concentrated in cities on the northern coast such as Pietersburg and Windstrand. A number of festivals take place in these cities annually, attracting internationally known artists and thousands of people annually.

Asteriaans music is predominantly concentrated in genres that fit within the broader country music scene as well as gospel or Sotirian music, with smaller numbers of bands and artists who produce music in other genres such as pop or hip hop. Asterianer music is also different in that the themes of the music in that it focuses on themes surrounding Asterianer identity and Asterianer pride, often reinforcing cultural references unique to Asterianers, in addition to collective collaborations celebrating the more community-oriented nature of Asterianers, particularly reinforcing ideas of self-reliance. Asterianer music also is somewhat political, with a number of musicians and artists finding themselves in controversies surrounding associations with political groups, political parties, and associated movements. Beyond this, Asterianer's broader social conservatism has seen a rise in counter-culture movements, lead by alternative hip-hop group Zef, as well as other groups. These groups have represented the lower class urban Asterianers who were not represented by the mainstream music within Asterianer society.

Well known Estmerish language singers and bands from Nuvania include Duchess, Erica Stevenson, Elliot Sinclair, while singers and musicians like Rodger Walter, Lee Barnes, and Otto Herring all having seen success overseas as part of bands, particularly in Estmere. Well known Asterianer singers and musicians include André Pelser, Carl Reinecke, Pieter Flemming, Stefan Rheeder, Derrick Briel, Martin Nagel, and Elliot Vrey.

Sports

Nuvania is widely accomplished in sports, winning numerous world championships in various sporting competitions. The country also participates in global sporting competitions, including the Invictus Games, the Football World Cup, and the Rugby World Cup. Sport administration is highly decentralised, administered by individual leagues and federations that regulate both domestic and international sporting competitions.

Nuvania plays a large number of Estmerish sports that were introduced during the Estmerish colonial period. The most prolific of these sports, and widely regarded as Nuvania's national sport, is rugby. Nuvania's national men's rugby union team is widely regarded as one of the best in the world, and is one of the most successful, winning the Rugby World Cup three times, including the first edition in 1981, and is the only nation to have won the world cup while hosting it, having achieved this feat in 1993. Nuvania has also hosted the Women's Rugby World Cup in 2019, although the women's team has been less successful. In addition, the men's and women's rugby teams have won numerous regional competitions, and there are domestic rugby league and rugby union competitions both for professional teams and for Nuvania's provinces. The current top tier domestic competition in Nuvania for rugby is the Super League, which features teams and players from Nuvania, Satavia, and other neighbouring countries.

Association football is the second most popular sport in Nuvania, and is more popular among non-whites, particularly among Bahians and Creoles. Nuvania's men's association football team has made regular appearances in regional competition and in the Coupe d'Asterias, with little success. It has also made a number of appearances at the Coupe du Monde, with the 2019 edition it's most successful by far, making it all the way to the final. Nuvania's top domestic football competition is Division One, which sees teams from across Nuvania and some West Arucian countries competing.

Cricket is one of the more popular sports in Nuvania, and is traditionally associated with the upper classes within Nuvania society. Nuvania's men's cricket team has seen some success in global and regional competitions, and is one of the better ranked teams in the world. Nuvania has also seen success with women's cricket. Nuvania has sanctioned cricket competitions at a provincial and local level, as well as the Nuvanian Cricket League for professional teams.

Motorsports is a popular sport across all sectors of the Nuvanian population, and the country has produced a number of world champions in a variety of racing series. These included Stanley Allbrook, who won the Prix du Monde five times between 1950 and 1955, and Rys Van Helden, who became champion in 1979. Nuvanian racing drivers have also been prominent in other sports, particularly touring car racing, the majority of them competing in the Nuvanian Touring Car Championship, one of the oldest touring car championships in the Asterias. Nuvanians have also made their mark on regional rallying championships and in motorcycle racing.

Other popular sports include golf, in which Nuvania has produced several successful golfers, field hockey, and netball. Nuvania has also invented sports itself, principally konabal, a game similar to netball which was developed by Asterianer women who were rejected from playing netball during the late colonial period. Blaadjies is also a game developed from indigenous communities by the Asterianers and is now commonly played around the country.