Nuvanian Free State
Motto: "Ons land, ons vryheid"(Asteriaans)
"Our Land, Our Freedom"
Anthem: Die Liedjie van Nuwanië
The Song of Nuvania
Location of Nuvania in Asteria Inferior
and largest city
|Official languages||Asteriaans |
|S.P van Heerdens|
|12 October 1673|
|20 July 1720|
|20 February 1811|
|1 September 1886|
|1,055,828 km2 (407,657 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• January 2022 estimate
• 2015 census
|47.9/km2 (124.1/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||January 2022 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||January 2022 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Nuvanian shilling (NS) (NUS)|
|Time zone||UTC+12 (Nuvanian Standard Time)|
Nuvania (Asteriaans: Nuwanië), officially the Nuvanian Free State (Asteriaans: Nuwanse Vrystaat) is a sovereign state located in western Asteria Inferior. It is bordered to the west by Satavia, to the northeast by Aucuria, and to the east by Belmonte, with coasts on the Vehmens Ocean and the Arucian Sea. With 50.3 million inhabitants, Nuvania is the second most populous country in Asteria Inferior. It also has the second largest economy on the continent, and play an important part in regional affairs.
First inhabited some 41,000 years ago by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, Nuvania was inhabited by a variety of people groups before the arrival of Eucleans. These early inhabitants settled permanently and formed the first pre-Euclean civilisations which then expanded into the tribes and civilisations that existed when the first Eucleans mapped the northern and western coasts in x.
The Duchy of Flamia and the First Hennish Republic began colonisation in 1540, with the Republic forming the South Asterian Company (ZAK) and Flamia establishing the New Asterian Company (NAK) for the purpose of reinforcing collective Hennish claims in western Asteria Inferior, with the first settlement established at Fort Willem in the far northwest of Nuvania. With the advent of the Sotirian Commonwealth, Nuvanian colonisation began in earnest and culminated in the conquest of the Mwiska at the end of the Mwiska Wars in 1640, a century after the first settlement was established. The Sotirian Commonwealth expanded its control into the interior of Nuvania, establishing the first settlements in what is today Pomeronia in central Nuvania. Simultaneously, the Flamian colonists spread along the coast of Nuvania, establishing numerous trading ports, the largest and most prosperous of which was Niekerk, located in the far southeast of the country.
Events in Euclea came to have significant rammifications for Hennish colonies in Nuvania; the Ten Years' War and the Amendist Wars seeing the end of the Sotirian Commonwealth, and with it, the Commonwealth's colonies in central and eastern Nuvania. This, alongside the conquest of additional Commonwealth settlements in neighbouring Satavia, saw the creation of Flamian Asteria, the first time Nuvania had been united into a single polity. Flamia faced difficulties in administering its new colonies, as the vast majority of the inhabitants were Kasperists, while the Flamian monarchy and colonial government were predominantly Catholic. The same internal strife in Euclea began to appear in the colonies, and while Nuvania did not revolt, local leaders took the initiative to prevent any form of secession from Flamian rule.
Flamia would lose her Asterian colonies to Estmere after the Estmerish-Hennish War in 1747, sparking a new wave of Euclean settlements as well as internal strife within the colonies. Nuvania, in addition to Satavia, were the scene of a series of land in naval battles during the war, in which Estmerish soldiers defeated both the NAK and ZAK. This brought about a period of instability within the colonies, in which the Nuvanians attempted and failed to remove the Estmerish from Nuvania. Estmere would solidify its control over Nuvania, splitting the colonies in 1778 between Nuvania and Satavia, creating Nuvania as a separate entity. In 1811, Nuvania gained some political autonomy and became a self-governing colony, a status which lasted until the War of the Arucian in 1883, after which Nuvania became an independent state in 1886.
Nuvania experienced a substantial period of economic growth between the War of the Arucian and the Great Collapse, which saw the rise of a far right nationalist government to power in 1918. Under G.B Deventer, Nuvania invaded Aucuria during the early months of the Great War, quickly defeating it and becoming drawn into a long guerilla conflict with what remained of the Aucurian military. After invading Belmonte alongside Satucin, Nuvania suffered a series of military and naval defeats that resulted in its withdrawl from both countries and the loss of territories gained during the peace negotiations.
Post-war, Nuvania began to expand its social policies under the government of J.P van Vollenhoven, as well as rebuild economically. The van Vollenhoven government was significant in its expansion of rights and privileges to the working class, as well as the establishment of national education, healthcare, pension, and welfare systems, precipitating another period of economic growth until the outbreak of the Solarian War in 1943, which severely hampered economic activity. Nuvania experienced a protracted period of economic and social malaise during the late 1960's and early 1970's suffering from the effects of the Sugar Crash, with the country emerging from the recession of 1980 in a precarious financial state. The government of Johnathan Keaton oversaw an economic revolution which precipitated greater social reforms in the 1990's under the New Society campaign led by David van Deventer. A banking crisis in the 1990's and another recession in 2005 significantly affected modern Nuvania, shaping social and economic policy to this day.
Nuvania remains a diverse nation both socially and in terms of biodiversity, with one of the highest rates of biodiversity anywhere in the world. The country, however, continues to struggle with social issues surrounding wealth inequality and indigenous rights. It is a member of several supranational organisations, namely the Community of Nations, the Organisation of Asterian Nations, and the International Council for Democracy.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Precolonial History
- 2.2 Euclean Exploration
- 2.3 Colonisation
- 2.4 Sotirian Commonwealth
- 2.5 Mwiska Wars
- 2.6 Duchy of Flamia
- 2.7 Kingdom of Estmere
- 2.8 Dominion
- 2.9 War of the Triple Alliance
- 2.10 Free State
- 2.11 War of the Arucian
- 2.12 Independence
- 2.13 Great Collapse
- 2.14 Great War
- 2.15 Post War
- 2.16 Conservative Rule
- 2.17 Sugar Crash
- 2.18 Recovery
- 2.19 Economic Reforms
- 2.20 New Society
- 2.21 Great Recession
- 2.22 Modern History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Biodiversity
- 5 Government
- 6 Administrative Divisions
- 7 Economy
- 8 Transport
- 9 Demographics
- 10 Culture
Nuvania is a portmanteau of words belonging to the Estmerish and Hennish languages, as well as the Asteriaans language. The first part of the name comes from the Asteriaans word nuut, meaning "new". This is derived from the Hennish word nieuw and was changed during the evolution of the Asteriaans language during the 18th and 19th centuries. The second part, "van" comes from the Estmerish language and means the "foremost part of a group", reflective of Nuvania being the location of the first Hennish colony in the Asterias. The final suffix is used in the formation of nouns, especially in the naming of countries.
Nuvania was first mentioned during the early Estmerish colonial period, when the Hennish colonies acquired by Estmere after the conclusion of the Estmerish-Hennish War were split into two separate entities. Colonial governor George Ratcliffe popularised the use of the name during the 1780's, and the name was officially adopted by the Estmerish government on December 9, 1799.
Historically Nuvania was referred to collectively as the "Asterias" alongside Satavia. During the early colonial period, the area of Hennish colonies was referred to as the "Hennish Asterias", making no differentiation between colonies of the First Hennish Republic, and later Sotirian Commonwealth, and those of the Duchy of Flamia. After Hennehouwe was unified, the name changed again to the Flamian Asterias. Hennish settlers and colonial authorities themselves did not have names for Nuvania prior to the Estmerish-Hennish War.
Human habitation of the territory that would become Nuvania has been estimated to have been confirmed as early as 41,000 years before present, with some of the oldest pottery in Asteria Inferior found at a number of sites in the Arucian Range, the largest being the Poebenza and Zipakwirë sites in the Arucian Range. These nomadic peoples eventually settled in Nuvania, establishing the many indigenous cultures and civilisations that existed prior to Euclean colonisation.
From these early settlers arose a number of cultures that would inhabit Nuvania prior to the arrival of Eucleans. One of the earliest to arise out of these settlements was the Inza culture, whose origins date to around 3300 BCE. The Inza predominantly inhabited the southern highlands of the Great Asterian Range in southern Nuvania, and were one of the longest extant cultures in Nuvania in the pre-Euclean period. They inhabited areas close to other cultures and tribes, particularly the Pajaan to the southwest and the Tumako to the south along the coast close to the border with Belmonte. The Kalima and Kimbaja inhabited the Great Asterian Range further to the west, with some influences on the coastal peoples who lived there.
Nuvania's northern coastline was inhabited by a range of peoples and cultures. In the northwest, the predominant culture was the Zenû, which was known for goldworking and extensive waterworks of the rivers in the region, with the Zenû being the largest and most advanced culture in the northwest of Nuvania. Further east, the Tairona inhabited a region consisting of modern-day Etten, their domain extending from the coast well into the highlands of the North Asterian Range, border with the Mwiska that lived to the south and southwest of them. Between the Zenû and Tairona were the Mokana peoples, a subgroup of the Kalina that inhabited a wide area of the north coast of Asteria Inferior. In particular, four tribes occupies the area between modern day Pietersburg and the domain of the Tairona; the Barû, the Kalamari, the Karex, the Kospike, and the Jurbako.
Central Nuvania was inhabited by a number of tribes, including the Akwe, Akuwe, Awen, Ini, Krahô, and Rikbaktsa. These tribes were less developed than those in the mountains or along the coast, and share a common language family. The tribes that inhabited central Nuvania were known for their body painting, colourful headdresses made from parrot feathers, as well as body modifications.
Nuvania was discovered by Hennish explorer Johannes van Twiller in 1512 during his voyage along the northern coastline, detailing the northwestern portion of the continent. Although not landing on the continent, he was the first Euclean to not only discover the continent, but to affirm that the two continents were separate landmasses. Van Twiller's expedition was intent on ascertaining the extent of the continent and to look for possible sites for suitable colonisation. Van Twiller was the first Euclean to sight Native Asterians on Asteria Inferior, making a note that the continent contained "a number of thatched hamlets inhabited by people of a darker complexion." Van Twiller had identified two potential areas of possible colonial sites on the mainland, one at the tip of the Mascarenhas Peninsula, and one located at the eastern base of the peninsula. He returned to Hennehouwe in 1533 with a map of the northwestern portion of Nuvania's northern coastline.
Simultaneously, Iusitan explorer Álvaro de Mascarenhas launched his expedition on the behalf of the Empire of Gaullica, with the intent of finding additional colonial territories for the Gaullicans. Mascarenhas sailed down the western coast of the continent and discovered the island of Satavia, assuming it to be an extension of the continental landmass. During this expedition, Mascarenhas landed at what is now Colonist's Beach in the far northwest of Nuvania, having spent the better part of six months at sea. The landing, on August 10 1533, marked the first landing of Eucleans in Nuvania. Mascarenhas noted that while the peninsular was "most excellent for the regarding of shipping", the lack of suitable water sources would likely hamper the development of any settlements. He also noted that the area appeared to be sparsely populated, writing of the "scattered glimpses of what I assume to be natives in the jungle beyond". Mascarenhas departed on August 12, and sailed south, marking out the coastline of the western side of the peninsular, the northern coast of Satavia, and the southwestern coastline of Asteria Inferior. He then made for Gaullican trading ports in southern Coius on August 21, 1533.
The Hennish crown approved the creation of the Asterian Company (AK) in 1533 to pursue colonisation and trade in Asteria Inferior, and to join the rush to acquire territories in the Asterias alongside other Euclean colonial powers. Plans were drawn up for two trading ports in the areas recommended by van Twiller. In order to get a better lie of the land, the Crown sent Jacobus van Achelen, who sailed on September 1, 1533, to gather more information. Van Achelen sailed to the northern Mascarenhas Peninsula and down its eastern coast to the area where Pietersburg would later be founded. Van Achelen noted that "many people inhabit the coast in this area", and would be beneficial for prospective trade. Landing at what would become the settlement of Fort Willem and at the site of Pietersburg, van Achelen affirmed the decision to promote this area for Hennish colonisation. He returned to Hennehouwe and arrived there in October 1534.
King Adriaan-Willem I approved the Asterian Company's plan for two settlements in northwestern Nuvania on February 9, 1537. However, these plans were shelved as the death of the king prompted civil war in Hennehouwe and the partition of the country between the Kasperist north, supported by the Kingdom of Estmere, and the Catholic south, which became the Duchy of Flamia under the rule of Adriaan-Willem II. The latter had inherited the plans for the establishment of colonies in the Asterias, including those of the now-defunct Asterian Company. Adriaan-Willem II established the New Asterian Company (NAK) on June 1538 for the purpose of establishing colonies in the Asterias. The first colonists were recruited from those that had lost their homes during the partition of Hennehouwe. They set sail on December 19, 1540, and landed in Nuvania on May 19, 1541. The colonists were lead by Jacobus van Achelen, who had extensive knowledge of the area. There, they established Fort Willem, in honour of the Duke of Flamia.
Fort Willem was intended to act as a trading and military outpost from which further expansions and settlements could originate. Unsure of the intent or the number of the native inhabitants of the region, Fort Willem was fortified from its inception, which made it one of the more better defended settlements from native attacks. In 1542, Petrus Boerhaave landed to the southeast of Fort Willem at the mouth of the Konrad river, and established the settlement of Pietersburg after his sponsor, Pieter van Meetkercke, the first settlers following four years later in 1546. A number of smaller settlements and bartering posts were progressively established by a number of colonists from different countries with the permission and oversight of the NAK.
Following partition, the First Hennish Republic explored the possibility of establishing colonies in the Asterias themselves. They were aware of the existence of both the Asterian Company prior to the dissolution of the Kingdom of Hennehouwe, as well as the existence of the New Asterian Company. In 1545, Stadtholder Cornelis van Heemskerck established the South Asterian Company (ZAK) to establish colonies in areas outside the NAK. Under the direction of Fransz de Veer, the first ZAK settlers arrived in northeastern Nuvania on August 5, 1547, establishing the settlement of Port Veer, which later became the city of Windstrad.
By the turn of the century, there were over eighty Hennish settlements in northern Nuvania, the majority of them in the northwest of the country. Most of these were small bartering posts and hamlets supporting small areas of agriculture, often cooperating with or incorporating the native inhabitants. A few attacks on these settlements were reported, but the coexistence between the Eucleans and Native Asterians was largely peaceful.
The early colonisation period marked the beginning of the wider Hennish expansion into northern Nuvania, bringing it into contact with different native peoples. The ZAK in particular began to move into the domain of the Tairona, as well as westwards along the coast, gradually pushing out the tribes that lived there. One of the more notable expeditions was that of Herman Hasselaer, who led an expedition into the mountains of the Arucian Range, and made the first contact with the Mwiska people in October 1556. The discovery of arable lands in the Arucian Range, as well as the vast amounts of gold worked by the Mwiska, prompted further expeditions that established a long-standing trade relationship with the Mwiska that lasted into the 17th century.
Nuvanian colonisation accelerated under the Sotirian Commonwealth, which sought to improve its standing as the greater economic and military power of the two Hennish polities. In particular, the knowledge of the vast amounts of gold that could be taken from both the Tairona and the Mwiska was considered to be very attractive to the Commonwealth leadership, and thus the government under Stadtholder Jan van Etten approved the creation of transferrals of soldiers and materials for the expansion of colonial military units in areas controlled by the ZAK, which the Commonwealth had inherited from the First Hennish Republic. Van Etten appointed Emmanuel van Leeuwenhoek as the commander of these forces, with the first instance of expanding ZAK and by extension, Commonwealth territories, southward.
The first expansion of the ZAK's territory came with the conquest of the Tairona between 1643 and 1647, with the process hampered by the thick jungles of the lower elevations and coastal plains in northern Nuvania, as well as guerilla tactics from the Tairona, and ever present issues with diseases and attacks from wildlife, particularly snakes and crocodiles. However, the ZAK plundered significant amounts of gold and other valuable artefacts from Tairona settlements and tombs, shipping these treasures off to Euclea. Van Leeuwenhoek returned to the Commonwealth in June 1650 to receive commendations from van Etten, before being granted personal command of the Army of the Asterias, a military force that was to
The wealth of the Mwiska had been known to both the Duchy of Flamia and the Sotirian Commonwealth for a number of years, but the rivalry between the two countries inhibited the ability for either government to fully explore the Mwiska domains further. The Sotirian Commonwealth had already been expanding its territory southwards into the North Asterian Range, having already conquered the Tairona by 1650. Emmanuel van Leeuwenhoek, commander of the Army of the Asterias, pushed further to the south in 1654 beyond the domain of the Tairona, encountering a number of other tribes as well as the Mwiska, themselves already well aware of the Euclean presence in the lowlands. The first of these expeditions south saw van Leeuwenhoek lead 800 men into the highlands of the North Asterian Range. The ruler of the eastern domains of the Mwiska, Tiskwesusa, learnt of this expedition south and was suspicious of the intention of the Eucleans, dispatching a force to observe the Eucleans as they progressed southwards. When word reached him that the Eucleans were armed and in significant number, Tiskwesusa ordered a much larger force commanded by his brother, Sajipa, to confront the Eucleans at a site of his choosing. Sajipa then ambushed the force led by van Leeuwenhoek near the indigenous settlement of Chirigwana, successfully stopping the Eucleans and causing many casualties. Having suffered significant losses, van Leeuwenhoek was forced to retreat back to the relative safety of the ZAK settlement of Fort Nieuw Voorzienigheid, today Vryburg.
Van Leeuwenhoek's defeat at Chirigwana spurred the Commonwealth on, and upon his return to Windstrand, van Leeuwenhoek requested more men for further attempts at conquest. His request was granted, and by January 1656, van Leeuwenhoek had amassed a force of 1,200 men. Augmenting that force were a further 1,600 local warriors and volunteers from the settlers on the coastal plains. Van Leeuwenhoek set off to the south again, this time following a different route. The force encountered numerous obstacles along the way, and suffered from attacks by both indigenous peoples as well as from the local wildlife, particularly crocodiles and jaguars, and despite suffering significant losses, managed to make it to the settlement of Tamalameke, abandoned by its inhabitants before the Eucleans and their allies arrived. Sajipa was subsequently sent to defeat van Leeuwenhoek's force with a superior force of 5,000 gwecha warriors. Unlike the previous battle, Sajipa believed he could defeat the Eucleans. In the first pitched battle on Nuvanian soil, Sajipa and his warriors fought against the Eucleans and native allies led by Van Leeuwenhoek in the battle of Tamalameke. The superior armour and weaponry of the Eucleans proved decisive, and Sajipa's force was decimated. Despite this, the force was unable to pursue the defeated Mwiska, and returned to Vryburg.
Sajipa's loss at Tamalameke caused chaos in the domains of the Mwiska and lead to a civil war between the western and eastern portions of the Mwiska domain, the western domain believing it could take advantage of the weakened eastern domain. The zake of the western domain, Kwemuwenchatocha, invaded the eastern domain under the rule of Tiskwesusa, believing that he could conquer and unite the domains of the Mwiska. The conflict began with a confrontation between the two armies at the town of Chokonta, the first major battle of the war. A second battle was fought at Macheta, followed by more battles at Lengwazake and Gwacheta, as the forces of Kwemuwenchatocha attempted to push to the northwest, in an attempt to outflank the main eastern army and approach the eastern capital, Hunza, from the north, the western army defeated at the battle of Sachika in January 1657. Both Twiskesusa and Kwemuwenchatocha were killed at the second battle of Gwacheta, prompting an end to the conflict.
Concurrent with the ZAK attempts at conquering the Mwiska and the Mwiskan Civil War were the Flamian conquests of the Tolima peoples, which brought them into the western part of the North Asterian Range, and on the border with the western domain of the Mwiska. The NAK had similar difficulties and the first expedition in 1649 into the mountains was a failure, its leader Adriaen Berckheyde killed in a jaguar attack just six days into the expedition. The remaining soldiers and men returning to the main settlement of Halsstad on the western coast. The second expedition in 1652, lead by Gerardus Janzoon Seghers, was successful, making good progress and finally coming into contact with the Tolima on July 29, 1653, precipitating a conflict that would last into 1654. Seghers would lose an initial skirmish near Puli in July 1653 before winning decisive victories at Bituwima on August 15 1653, and later victories at the battles of Apulo and Tokaima on January 5, and March 20 respectively, only suffering a small setback at the battle of Chagwani on September 7.
Following the conquest of the Tolima, the NAK involved itself in the conflict between the two Mwiska domains, backing Kwemuwenchatocha against Tiskwesusa. The presence of Eucleans in the western domain alarmed Twiskesusa, who approached the ZAK, requesting a truce between the conflict and to assist in the defence of his rule, promising vast amounts of gold and precious stones in return for their assistance. Van Leeuwenhoek, in command of the Army of the Asterias, agreed, and sent small detachments of his men to Tundama where they camped. ZAK and NAK forces participated in the second battle of Gwacheta on January 27, 1657 but did not come into direct contact with each other. After the battle, ZAK forces relocated to Hunza and NAK forces to Kahika.
The ZAK demanded more gold as payment for their services, and when Sajipa, who had assumed control over the eastern domain after the death of his brother, Twiskesusa, refused to meet the demand, the ZAK contingent seized a proportion of the land and threatened to kill him unless he met their demands, with more gold and allowing the ZAK to keep the seized land. In addition, Sajipa sought promises from the ZAK that his rule would be respected, this state of affairs lasting until an attempted conversion to Sotiranity which he had refused, and was summarily imprisoned and then executed through hanging. A similar fate occurred in the western domain, with Akwiminza, the nephew of Kwemuwenchatocha, who renounced Catholicism after converting in 1658, and was executed via beheading as an apostate in 1659, mere weeks after the execution of Sajipa. The domains of the Mwiska were split between the NAK and ZAK.
Duchy of Flamia
The annexation of the former Sotirian Commonwealth in 1719 was an important part of Nuvanian colonial history, and saw the amalgamation of the various NAK and ZAK colonial settlements and trade posts into one centralised colony, composing most of the conquered lands in the north of Nuvania, the interior over much of the South Arucian Range, as well as the entire west coast of modern day Nuvania. In addition, the colonies on the island of Satavia were incorporated into the new colony, known as Flamian Asteria, representing Flamia's only extant colonies in the New World.
NAK governor Gustaaf van Leeuwenhoek was appointed governor of the new colony by Grande Duke Loudewijk V, and was also given the task of integrating the former ZAK colonies of the Commonwealth into the new colony, particularly that of Pietersburg, which was the largest settlement in the ZAK province of the same name. Van Leeuwenhoek opted to select it as the capital for the new colony, one of the many powers and responsibilities which had been bestowed upon him in order to expedite the integration of Flamia's new colonial possessions. Van Leeuwenhoek travelled to the cities and towns of the former ZAK provinces, believing that listening to the residents and colonial officials there in order to hopefully reduce tensions and anti-Catholic sentiment of the Amendists living along Nuvania's northern coastal plains. Van Leeuwenhoek spent six weeks meeting with political and religious leaders, and assured them that their right to practice their religion as they saw fit was respected. In addition, van Leeuwenhoek made assurances that their way of life would not be changed and that the colonial authorities in place in the former ZAK provinces would be retained with little to no changes.
With the devastation of the Hennish Wars producing thousands of families who had become dispossessed and homeless, the new Flamian government offered to resettle them in their new colony, providing them with land and funding to establish homesteads, farms, and even whole settlements. Entire villages that were razed during the fighting were resettled in Nuvania and Satavia, and numerous new settlements were established, and existing towns began to see substantial population increases. The new migrants were a mixture of Catholics and Amendists, and largely reinforced existing populations in the colony. In addition to the integration of new colonies and a wave of settlers, van Leeuwenhoek presided over the creation of new provinces. In addition to the extant provinces within the ZAK, new provinces were created along the west coast of Nuvania and in Satavia. Albina was created in 1721, and Mahaika followed in 1724, both created out of lands formerly controlled by extant provinces. By 1730, the integration and territorial reorganisation was largely complete.
Van Leeuwenhoek died of malaria in 1731 was succeeded by Laurens van den Gheyn who promoted exploration of what would become Pomeronia. Van den Gheyn was keen on discovering more of the interior of Nuvania, and commissioned a series of expeditions into central Nuvania, both from the South Arucian Range and from the Kinsella Wetlands in the west, sailing up the Pomeron River, opening up lands for more homesteaders as well as relieving the pressure on the fast-growing coastal settlements. The first expedition was launched by Gottfried van Angelbeek in 1736, travelling up the Pomeron River. Van Angelbeek's expedition lasted four weeks, before it was ambushed by members of the Akwe tribe close to modern day Jacobia, with van Angelbeek killed in the ambush himself.
The expedition of Paulus Keun, known as the Overland Expedition, provided one of the few successful explorations of the central Nuvanian veld. Keun noted that the vast central plains were "composed of great tracts of grasslands, describing the lands as "flat lands of great extent" and noting patches of open grasslands interspersed with pockets of dense forest. Keun noted that the land "appeared to be suitable for the raising of beasts". Further expeditions did make some headway into the centre of Nuvania, but often encountered hostile Asterindian tribes, Keun's expeditions notably coming into repeated contact with the Ini, which lived in the northern and northeastern areas of the central plains region. Keun himself would suffer the same fate as earlier explorers, killed by an arrow after encountering the Ini along the Takwarë River, later found to be a tributary of the Pomeron.
Nuvania became the main economic engine of the Duchy of Flamia throughout the remainder of Flamian rule over the colony, with the country producing cash crops as well as precious metals in increasing numbers, allowing for the flourishing of both the colonial and Euclean economies. This growth saw a marked increase in the wealth of the local colonial elite, many of whom were now born and raised in Nuvania and Satavia. The growth of their wealth translated into social influence and increasing political power, which began to alarm not only colonial authorities, but also the government in s'Holle. Significant numbers of soldiers were subsequently transferred to Nuvania and Satavia as a show of force to the local elite, quelling any notions of independence or an uprising. Until the Estmerish-Hennish Wars, the colonies of Flamia were among the wealthiest in the Asterias.
Kingdom of Estmere
Estmere had long harboured ambitions to strengthen their position within Euclea and within the Asterias, owing to their longstanding rivalry with Gaullica and the comparatively smaller colonial empire within the Asterias. The Gaullicans had not only much larger colonies, they also controlled part of the Arucian Straits, through which substantial proportions of trade passed through between the East and West Arucian Seas. In addition, many of their colonies in the tropics were becoming significantly wealthy off the back of fast-growing cash crop production, particularly of crops such as sugar cane and tobacco. Outside of her colonies in Asteria Superior, Estmere possessed just one other colony in the Asterias: the islands of Imagua and the Assimas. Although strategic in of itself, it was alone in a the West Arucian Sea, and within two days sailing for significant Gaullican colonies in Sainte-Chloé and Satucin. Nuvania and Satavia also offered a significant strategic advantage, being close to the western entrance to the West Arucian Sea. Wealth from Nuvania and Satavia had also bankrolled the reconstruction efforts throughout the Duchy of Flamia, and thus was indicative of significant wealth within the colonies.
The ensuring Estmerish-Hennish War was split between the campaign in Euclea and the colonial campaign in the Asterias, in which Nuvania played the most important part as the largest and most populous of the three colonies. Initial engagements between Estmerish and Hennish colonial forces were primarily naval, including the crucial naval battle off North Point in which the Estmerish Asterias Fleet destroyed the similarly named fleet of the Royal Flamian Navy. Successive naval victories allowed the isolation of the remaining Hennish colonies, the Estmerish opting to divide and conquer, beginning with Satavia and then moving into Nuvania. Estmerish Royal Marine Forces came ashore near the city of Witsand in northwestern Etten and began progressively pushing inland. Flamian colonial forces responded, engaging the Estmerish in both pitched battles and hit and run engagements using local militias. A second landing south of the port of Wetting caused the collapse of the Flamian forces in the north of Nuvania, the colonial government abandoning Pietersburg and fleeing to Daalensfontein in an attempt to reach Constantia. A third landing in northern Albina sealed the fate of the colonial government, which after a brief final battle ensured the surrender of the colonial government. An official ceremony took place on October 30, 1749 in which Estmere claimed Nuvania in the name of the reigning monarch, Mary II. Military operations, however, continued, especially in central and southern Nuvania which were yet to have come under Estmerish control. Sporadic conflicts and skirmishes continued until 1778.
The newly conquered colonies were placed under the control of a new colonial governor, Lord Fairburn, who arrived in October 1751 to replace Lord Bolton, the military governor of the Conquered Territories as the former Hennish colonies were known as between 1749 and 1751. Lord Fairburn returned the colonies to their Flamian names, and alongside Imagua and the Assimas, were referred to as Meridian Asterias, differentiating them from the colonies in Asteria Superior. Each colony was administered independently from one another and was ruled from a different capital. In Nuvania, the government was reestablished in Pietersburg, with the Hennish-speaking civil service remaining largely intact. However, as more and more officials were sent into these new colonies, the more and more Hennish speakers were pushed out of the civil service. By 1800, less than five percent of civil servants were Hennish speakers.
Lord Fairburn imposed a wide variety of reforms as to how the colonies functioned as well as new laws, taxes, and restrictions imposed on the Hennish to open up both land and employment for Estmerish settlers. These laws became known by the Hennish name De Oplegging, or "The Imposition", with resistance to these laws and regulations punished severely. Taxes were imposed on materials that previously remained untaxed. Glass, wallpaper, and windows were among the new taxes introduced from 1752 onwards, with other taxes introduced periodically. This had little effect on the colonial settlers, and principally affected those already living there. As with other impositions, tax evasion and resistance was punished severely.
The conquest of Flamia and her Asterian colonies had opened up new lands for settlement for the Estmerish. However, unlike other colonies, the former Flamian colonies were well developed and had plentiful cheap labour, which was expanded further beyond newly freed Bahian slaves, Creoles, and indigenous peoples to include poor or dispossessed Asterianers. While ordinary citizens immigrated to Nuvania by the thousand, it also saw a mass migration of wealthy people who wished to carve for themselves a new landed gentry in the colonies. Estmerish rule also opened up avenues for other migrants from northern Euclea, including Borland and Caldia. In addition, limited migration was allowed from the parts of Hennish-speaking Estmere that had been conquered.
Immigration swelled the numbers of people living in coastal cities, with Pietersburg and Windstrand seeing their respective populations double within two decades. This also created significant migration inland from the northern provinces, as Asterianers moved further into the interior of Nuvania. Initially Asterianers settled in the North Asterian Range, but as more newer migrants also settled within the range due to the more agreeable climate, Asterianers moved further into the interior, beginning a mass settlement of provinces such as Albina and Pomeronia, the latter seeing a substantial amount of internal migration that resulted in significant changes both to the landscape of the central plains and to the indigenous peoples that lived there. By 1770, conflicts between Asterianer settlers and indigenous Nuvanians living in the central plains were common place, and as a result, indigenous communities were decimated from conflict and introduced diseases. Missionaries were also active during this period, actively converting indigenous communities resulting in the destruction and extinction of indigenous religions and languages.
War of the Triple Alliance
The outbreak of hostilities in Euclea in 1853 initially had little impact on Estmere's Asterian colonies. Trade between colonies and between continents was not disrupted and for the first two years of the conflict, this state of affairs continued. However, with the entry of Estmere into the war in March 1854 came the concerns that her colonies could be dragged into a conflict that had nothing to do with them. A petition of concerned residents in Pietersburg was delivered to the Governor at the time, Alexander Moorehouse on April 2, 1854, demanding that the colonial government take no part in the war. Moorehouse accepted the petition and discussed the matter with General Percival Phillips, commander of all of Estmere's colonial military formations in Nuvania and one of the overall military commanders in Estmere's Asterian colonies. Phillips stated that he has received orders to place Nuvania's forces on increased alert, and be aware of any Gaullican movements in the West Arucian Sea.
As the war in Euclea ground to a halt, both Estmere and Gaullica looked to alleviate pressure elsewhere. The colonies, which were within a week's sailing of each other, looked to be the best way to divert attention and resources for both colonial powers. Gaullica mobilised its fleet in the Asterias in November 1854 and moved westwards, rendezvousing near Sainte-Chloé before sailing south to try and blockade Nuvanian ports. The fleet was intercepted by Estmerish vessels based in Imagua, where they clashed near the Assimas Islands. Although a decisive defeat for Estmere, it delayed the rendezvous of the Gaullican fleet in the West Arucian Sea by some time, and allowed a much larger fleet to assemble off Nuvania. As word reached Morwall about the naval engagement and Gaullican intentions, the Estmerish war ministry issued orders to General Phillips for mobilisation. The order caused consternation among the populace, especially Asterianers, many of whom filled the ranks of military formations raised in Nuvania. As the naval campaign raged off the northern coast of Nuvania, where the Estmerish Asterias Fleet and the Gaullican Flotte Orientale engaged in two largely inconclusive battles in the West Arucian, the Admiralty in Morwall planned for a decisive campaign in the West Arucian, both to capture and control entry points into the West Arucian Sea. The plan called for an invasion of Sainte-Chloé, from which the Asterias Fleet could control the western entrance to the sea alongside ships based in Nuvanian and Satavian ports, in addition to an expedition to capture the islands in Parane province in the Arucian Straits, as outright capturing Gatôn was ruled out as being too difficult.
The battles of the West Arucian Sea had not been as decisive as the Admiralty was hoping for, but were nonetheless convinced that the proposal for an invasion of Sainte-Chloé was worthwhile, denying the Flotte Orientale a major port in which to repair and resupply. Sainte-Chloé was very well defended owing to its strategic value. By January 4, 1855, a finalised invasion plan was completed, and General Phillips, now under the command of Rear Admiral Godfrey Proudfoot, was tasked with assembling enough regiments for an invasion force. This included raising additional regiments and training them, while also issuing mobilisation orders for the colonial militia that would garrison important fortifications along the coast. A mixed invasion force composed of regiments from Nuvania and Satavia set sail for the island of Sainte-Geneviève with the intent of securing a foothold in the Gaullican colony before progressing to Sainte-Chloé proper. The invasion of Sainte-Geneviève commenced on February 1, 1855 and took longer than the Admiralty expected, but was successful in capturing the island from the Gaullicans. A decisive Estmerish naval victory at Point Bellay gave the admiralty confidence in attacking the mainland. On March 7, the invasion of Sainte-Chloé began. Estmerish forces took significant casualties and established a beachhead. However, they were unable to progress any further, and two months later on May 10, the force was evacuated.
The Admiralty continue to look for a decisive breakthrough victory in the West Arucian, and reckoned that the damage caused by the fighting to that point had significantly weakened the Gaullican naval forces within the West Arucian Sea enough that, while still posing a threat, were not threatening enough to prevent a new force from being sailed to force the Arucian Straits from the west. The Forcing of the Straits was considered by many to be a suicide mission, and after the failure of Sainte-Chloé, many soldiers within Nuvanian colonial formations refused to board transport ships upon hearing of where they would be going, as rumours spread about the proposal. The July Mutiny began on July 18, 1855 in which thousands of armed soldiers, most of whom were Asterianers, converged on the governor's residence in Pietersburg refusing to board transport ships for the proposed military operation. A tense standoff occurred, before other colonialist ships and threats to bombard the mutineers with artillery fire forced them onboard. In what became one of the most controversial aspects of the West Arucian campaign, the Forcing of the Straits ended in utter failure, with a number of ships picked off by Gaullican Navy attacks or from shore batteries along the Sautcin side of the straits themselves. The rest of the fleet returned, and was greeted by largely Asterianer protesters.
The return of peace to Euclea did not stop the increase of tensions between the colonial government and those who had served in the failed campaigns in the West Arucian. Calls for independence began to grow louder, with threats of armed rebellion being made against the colonial government. These threats were taken seriously by Governor Moorehouse, who issued a message requesting for additional soldiers in August 1855 to the Colonial Office in Morwall. Unwilling to commit to another significant conflict in the Asterias and believing the government in Pietersburg had sufficient numbers to mobilise if such threats were made, the Colonial Office believed that the issue could be dealt with by Pietersburg. On June 16, 1855, a column of kommandos was observed advancing along the coastal road from Wetting, prompting Moorehouse to mobilise all the resources he had in the capital and march eastwards, meeting the Asterianers at Oosteplaas, 12 kilometres east of Pietersburg.
The defeat at Oosteplaas forced Nuvanian nationalists to rethink their approach to their goal of independence from Estmere. Moorehouse's willingnes to use military force demonstrated the resolve of the government to keep Nuvania as a part of the wider Estmerish Empire, and that a war of independence would inflict suffering on the Asterianer population, which many of the moderates within the nationalist movement did not want to see. A rift began to form between the hardliners and the moderates within the nationalist cause, particularly within the National People's Party. These factions formed under two different banners; the matige led by Diederick Laubscher who wanted to achieve independence through the established political system, and the totaaliste who favoured independence by any means necessary. Led by Piet van Kyl, the totaaliste faction was far more militant and willing to use violence, which caused concern among Laubscher and other moderates within the NVP.
Divisions were also present within the government and mainstream Estmerish parties. Issues surrounding Asterianer nationalism and independence came to be referred to as the "Asterianer question", a term coined by journalist Karl de Witte in an opinion column written in the Pietersburg Gazette in September 1855. The column, entitled "Political Solutions for the Asterianer Question", outlined the argument for a more moderate response to the economic, political, and social grievances of Asterianers. Debates arose in the Grand Coalition over which course of action to take in response to increased nationalism and calls for independence. Dominionists under Joseph Kitchens preferred a hardline approach to Asterianer nationalists, calling for mass incarceration and suppression of any nationalist movements and political groups. Liberals and Reformists, lead by Alexander Pickering, prefer to negotiate for a political settlement with Asterianer nationalists, working towards greater autonomy and political representation. Pickering also believed that neither Nuvania nor Estmere could survive another costly war, particularly in Nuvania itself, and wanted to avoid further conflict as much as possible.
The differences between the hardliners and moderates within the Grand Coalition created tensions within the government over differences in policy and on how to handle nationalist political organisations. As the Grand Coalition was more or less a plurality between the three mainstream Estmerish political parties, none of the parties within it could dominate. Kitchens found himself increasingly frustrated by the actions of Pickering and Liberal Party leader Vincent Wickham, and announced his party would leave the coalition in January 1857. Wickham called an earlier election for June, and met with Governor Moorehouse to dissolve parliament in preparation for general elections on January 19. The campaign for the 1857 general election revolved around the differences between factions within opposing parties and coalitions. The Liberal and Reform parties campaigned together on the same ticket and committed to negotiations for greater autonomy as well as reforms for better Asterianer representation, policies which were supported by Laubscher and the NVP. Dominionists campaigned on preserving the status quo and stamping out the "nationalist menace" within Nuvanian society. Hardline nationalists campaigned for more extreme policies and advocated for armed insurrection against the government. In response, Laubscher forced the hardliner nationalists out of the NVP, and under the leadership of van Kyl, announced the formation of a new political party, the Asterianer Emancipation League, in May 1857. The election was conducted without the threats of violence made by both Dominionists and hardliner nationalists, delivering both the Liberal Party and Reform Party a plurality of seats. The NVP would be the largest of the nationalist parties, with the Dominionists and the Emancipationists winning a handful of seats each. As the leader of the moderate faction in the former Grand Coalition, Alexander Pickering was sworn in as Chief Minister on July 2, 1857.
Pickering kept his promise regarding negotiations with the NVP, and on July 30, began the first of a series of formal talks with Laubscher on greater autonomy for Nuvania as well as addressing the grievances of Asterianers. The talks would take place over three years, resulting in substantial changes to how Nuvania would be governed and how greater Asterianer representation could be achieved. In June 1860, the Treaty of Cuanstad was signed between Estmerish Prime Minister Richmond Burke, Nuvanian Chief Minister Alexander Pickering, and NVP leader Diederick Laubscher on greater autonomy for Nuvania within the Estmerish Empire. Nuvania would become a Free State within the Empire, under which the role of Governor would be replaced by a Governor-General who would be able to act independently of both the new Nuvanian government and the Estmerish government. As a result of the negotiations and the Treaty of Cuanstad, Nuvania became de facto independent from Estmere, with the government now having the ability to set up independent bilateral relations and trade agreements, establish high commissions in foreign countries, establish a supreme court independent of Estmere, and raise an army and a navy for national defence. Nuvania would also become known as the Nuvanian Free State internationally.
For the Asterianers, the new Parliament would establish an upper house, the Legislative Council, which would reserve seats for Asterianer representation as well as have more weight towards Asterianer seats in the House of Assembly. Asterianers would also be entitled to the same welfare entitlements for housing and spousal support as Estmerish Nuvanians, and voting restrictions were loosened to allow more Asterianers to vote. This also had the secondary effect of enfranchising a significant number of coloured and black Nuvanians, who voted en masse for Reform and became staunch Reform supporters well into the 20th century. This was enough to assuade most of the Nuvanian nationalists, save for the hardliners in the Asterianer Emancipation League, who criticised the treaty and the derestricting of voting rights for Asterianers, seeing them as ways to placate the populace and prevent Asterianer independence.
Although Pickering and Laubscher were lauded for their achievements, there was significant concern among many Estmerish Nuvanians that the government had made too many concessions to the Asterianers, and that further autonomy threatened their connections with Estmere and the Crown. A majority of Estmerish were still monarchists and believed in a Nuvania still ruled by a monarch in some capacity, and were swayed by the Dominionists and their condemnation of the reforms in the campaign leading up to the 1861 general election. As a result, the Dominionist Party won a plurality of the seats in the House of Assembly, forcing the Liberal and Reform parties to form a coalition with the NVP to form another Grand Coalition in order to isolate the Dominionists. Pickering would remain Chief Minister, now elected to his second term in office.
The Second Grand Coalition would embark on a major infrastructure investment program that would kick off the first period of industrialisation in Nuvania. This primarily focussed around the development of railways, which had begun in the previous decades, with over one hundred kilometres of track completed by 1860. The Pickering Plan would see all major cities and important towns in all Nuvanian provinces connected by the end of the century, and would be an enduring legacy of the Pickering government. Alongside the railways was an expansion of the domestic and international telegraph system; telegraph lines would follow the expansion of railways into areas which had little to no prior infrastructure, as well as connect Nuvania to neighbouring countries. By the end of the decade, telegraph lines linked Nuvania to Aucuria and to Belmonte, undersea cables linked the country to Satavia and to the Estmerish colony in Imagua. This massive expansion of infrastructure resulted in significant economic growth and investment in the Nuvanian economy.
In June 1863, Pickering died in office from a heart attack, and was replaced by his deputy V.F Caufield, who continued the same policies as well as expanding them beyond transport and communications to include social infrastructure, such as schools, hospitals, and public libraries. This lead him to comfortably win two general elections in 1865 and 1869. This stability would end in 1870 when gold miners and prospectors in Pomeronia rose up against the provincial government who failed to prevent attacks from indigenous peoples as well as unfair allocation of mining concessions and lawlessness in many areas of the province. Premier J.M van Dalsen petitioned Caufield for additional support but this did not occur, as Caufield did not regard the complaints as important enough for central government to address, and left it for the provincial government to resolve. Caufield's primary concerns were the creation of a public library system and the establishment of a state railway company to consolidate passenger and freight operations on the growing railway network. As a result of this negligence, miners and others who had grievances against the government rose up, deposing van Dalsen as premier, and establishing the Pomeronia Republic in June 1875. Caufield orders troops into Pomeronia to restore order, and fighting breaks out between government soldiers and local Asterianer kommandos, with order restored after a month of low level conflict. The rebellion in Pomeronia soured relations between the NVP and the Reform Party, with Laubscher blamed for not acting quickly enough to resolve the conflict. As a result, during the NVP conference in the leadup to the 1877 general election, Laubscher stood down from the leadership role and was replaced as leader of the NVP by Piet van Kyl, who readmitted the more militant Asterianer nationalists back into the NVP.
The 1877 election saw the return of more antagonist politics between newly revitalised pro-monarchy and pro-independence parties. The Reform Party saw its vote share collapse amidst infighting and disagreements over how the rebellion in Pomeronia should have been handled. The Dominionist leader, C.K Peacock, became Chief Minister, with van Kyl becoming leader of the opposition. During his single term as Chief Minister, Peacock and van Kyl engaged in bitter debates in the House of Assembly, in which increasingly violent rhetoric was being used. Politics began to be drawn down ethnic lines as the NVP once again returned to being a party purely for Asterianer interests. Eventually, the loss of Estmerish supporters from the NVP and the loss of Asterianer monarchists from the Dominionists had granted the NVP a narrow edge over the Dominionists. In the 1881 general election, van Kyl and the NVP win their first election, van Kyl running his election on a platform of total independence for Nuvania. Following his victory, van Kyl begin Nuvania's path towards independence.
War of the Arucian
On December x, 1913, the Weisstadt Stock Exchange collapsed, precipitating a much wider financial and economic crisis and broader economic recession that became known as the Great Collapse. The economic crisis and downturn did not arrive in Nuvania until mid-January 1914 in which global commodity prices significantly declined. As the Nuvanian economy was predominantly focussed on agriculture and resource extraction, the decline in commodity prices in key export markets, particularly Asteria Superior and Euclea, meant significant hardships and economic impacts on farmers, mining corporations, and other export-dependent industries.
The ways in which the Great Collapse affected Nuvanian society where varied. Asterianers, who were predominantly farmers and working class within white Nuvanian society, suffered from widespread poverty and financial hardship from the loss of income from the collapse of wholesale prices for produce and other agricultural goods. Rural communities began to experience depopulation as farms failed and were subsequently repossessed by banks, often run by Estmerish Nuvanians. Thousands of Asterianers moved into the cities in search of work, and often found themselves competing with black, coloured, and indigenous peoples for employment. This created extensive resentment among Asterianers who blamed government policies and a lack of financial support for farmers and farming communities for the major expansion of poverty among Asterianer communities. For black, coloured, and indigenous Nuvanians, the impacts of the Great Collapse were also severe, as they too relied on largely Asterianer farmers for income and employment. The collapse and loss of farms meant tens of thousands of farm workers migrated into the cities searching for work. Vast shanty towns and slums appeared at the urban fringes of Nuvania's major urban areas, and crime began to increase significantly.
The Greate Collapse also exposed Nuvania's reliance on commodity and agricultural exports and the economic and financial policies that successive governments had instituted as a result of this reliance. Nuvania following independence had still continued to place itself as a primary provider of goods for Estmere, as well as other Estmerish speaking countries and territories in the Asterias, the largest of which was Satavia. Revenue from commodity and agricultural exports drove demand for infrastructure development, with banks and provincial governments encouraged to provide additional funding for these projects through the issuing of bonds and loans acquired by the central government on the behalf of provincial governments. This largely deregulated system collapsed during 1914 and 1915, putting thousands of people out of work and forcing the government to assume the responsibility for outstanding loans issued on the behalf of provincial governments. With drastically reduced tax revenues, the Hardy government was forced to institute a period of financial austerity, beginning in May 1914, which drastically cut spending across all areas of government in order to find money to service debt repayments.
Hardy's austerity policies were widely disliked among the vast majority of the Nuvanian public and alongside rising ethnic and sectarian divisions, contributed to a fracturing of Nuvanian society along ethnic, political, and sectarian lines. This division resulted in the outbreak of sporadic violence and civil disorder, the worst being the Roseverbranding in June 1914 in which Asterianers attacked Estmerish neighbourhoods and businesses. Initially beginning in Pietersburg, the violence soon spread across most of Nuvania's cities, prompting Hardy to declare martial law and mobilise the Nuvanian Army in order to restore peace. The violence began on July 14 and ended on July 28, during which 225 people were killed, 416 wounded, and thousands of homes and businesses damaged or destroyed. This violence would be followed by two more rebellions; Swart's Rebellion in September 1915 that occurred in Constantia in which striking coal miners attempted to seize the city in response to reductions in wages, and the Bruinspels Rebellion in Etten in which a strike by black and coloured factory workers in Vryburg turned into an armed uprising. Both were crushed with heavy loss of life.
The Roseverbranding and the investigation into the cause heavily influenced the outcome of the 1914 general election, during which the political fractures within Nuvanian society were on display. The investigation into the Roseverbranding found that the violence had been caused by the arrest of an unemployed Asterianer worker stealing a loaf of bread from an Estmerish-run bakery, which was later found to have been setup by radical Asterianer nationalists to justify the violence. The Volksfront regarded the investigation as a cause célèbre and used it to further their political ambitions as well as further entrench political division in Nuvanian society, causing a rift between the Volksfront and the NVP as part of the broader right-wing coalition. Opposition also came from the far left, with the United People's Front, a collection of smaller left-wing parties, uniting to challenge the Hardy government. The end result in the election saw both the Volksfront and the UPF make significant electoral gains, and the NVP, which was now almost exclusively a party for right-wing Estmerish, enter into a grand coalition with the Reform Party in order to isolate the Volksfront and UPF.
Although the Reform Party had campaigned on ending the austerity policies of the Hardy government, the party found itself in the position of the junior partner in the coalition, which caused tensions between Reform and the NVP. Hardy continued the policies he had instituted at the beginning of the year and became concerned with the lack of industrialisation in Nuvania. Attempts to attract investment into Nuvania failed as he lacked the support, even from his own coalition partner, to pass legislation that would essentially dismantle the strong union presence within the Nuvanian workforce, viewing the labour unions as an impedence to Nuvania's economic recovery. Further complicating matters was the worsening economic situation and degrading social cohesion, as rival political groups began to openly fight in the streets and millions of Nuvanians became unemployed. Between 1916 and 1917, a further six million Nuvanians found themselves out of work, and strikes began to cripple the economy. Further violence between the state and striking workers culminated in the 1918 Schoemansville massacre in Constantia, in which 5,000 striking farm workers were attacked by 700 armed police and soldiers. Over two days between February 20 and February 22, 77 people were killed and 157 injured. The response to the protest caused significant tensions between Reform politicians and the Hardy government. However, the coalition held until the 1918 general election.
The 1918 general election would see the first ever election loss for the NVP, which had ruled Nuvania since independence, as its vote support declined significantly. Support for Reform collapsed, instead replaced by a collection of smaller parties allied under a reformed political bloc known as the Democratic Action Alliance. Throughout the election, the campaign was marred by violence between rival political groups, resulting in a low turnout as people were either scared to vote or intimidated into not voting. With no effective opposition to the Volksfront, G.B van Deventer became Chief Minister two weeks after the election.
Van Deventer blamed the violence and economic conditions on the political opposition to the Volksfront, although leftist groups and anti-government unions bore the brunt of government persecution. In January 1919, van Deventer publicly announced that a plot to overthrow the government had been discovered, and announced a series of emergency powers and restrictions. In addition, the government began a series of mass incarcerations in which thousands of predominantly leftist politicians, union members, and other activists were imprisoned on a variety of charges, mostly related to sedition. His government also launched a series of seizures of various properties and businesses from prominent Estmerish Nuvanians. Agricultural land was redistributed among personal and political supporters as rewards. Further seizures took place, including the nationalisation of various media companies, banks, construction firms, and manufacturing plants. With substantially boosted government revenues, van Deventer set about implementing policies that would generate rapid industrialisation for Nuvania into the 1920's, attracting foreign investment from numerous private enterprises, particularly those of functionalist Gaullica and Satucin, both of whom were heavy investors in the Nuvanian economy during the immediate pre-war period. This resulted in returned economic growth and prosperity for Nuvania, in spite of continued civil disorder.
In December 1921, white mine workers began striking for better pay and working conditions in southern Etten. The strike was organised by a non-approved labour union, and as a result, the government cracked down on the striking miners, which then led to an armed rebellion against the state. Unlike previous rebellions, what came to be known as the Last Chance Rebellion spread across into Kanaän and Rand, with those taking up arms against the Volksfront regime including both white and coloured workers. The rebellion lasted for a year and ended in December 1922. During the rebellion, 293 people had been killed and 1,968 wounded. It's defeat marked the last large-scale organised resistance against the regime. Following the end of the rebellion, the Volksfront began a series of border disputes with neighbouring Aucuria as a means of distracting the Nuvanian public from the suppression of the Last Chance Rebellion. This did not prevent further uprisings from occurring, with localised rebellions in 1924, and 1925, and 1927, but these were successfully put down by the Volksfront by military force. The Volksfront used these rebellions as a means of justifying increased military spending and a reorganisation of the Nuvanian Armed Forces, including expansion of military capabilities.
With the beginning of rapid industrialisation and the reforms being introduced into the Nuvanian Armed Forces, van Deventer and the Volksfront began to place Nuvania on a path to eventual conflict with its neighbours. Realising that the country would be surrounded in the event of a major regional war, van Deventer and various military officials travelled to Satau in 1925 in order to strengthen ties between Nuvania and Satucin. At the same time, Nuvania strengthened ties with the functionalists in Gaullica, signing a military cooperation and aid agreement in August 1925, as well as signing a secret mutual defence pact with Satucin the following month, with conditions that should either country be attacked that they would come to the aid of the other. The central point of the defence agreement was a future war with Aucuria, which was looking increasingly likely, particularly as the Aucurian government was increasing irredentism as a means of distracting from the continued economic problems within the country. In addition, the Gaullicans approved licenced Nuvanian production of weapons and other materiel that was already in use by Gaullica and Satucin, as well as licenced production of aircraft that had low production or little interest in by the Gaullican authorities.
The irredentism proved to be of benefit for the Volksfront, who used the threat of Aucurian nationalists to crack down on internal dissent within Nuvania, especially with additional uprisings and social unrest. The province which saw the greatest amount of focus was Takana, with the city of Fresenburg subject to a curfew as the military strengthened its presence there, this presence mostly taking the form of army regiments as a means of intimidation and deterrence against an Aucurian invasion. By the end of 1926, at least 40% of Nuvania's standing military strength is deployed to Takana. Commanders within the Nuvanian military were unsure about the country's preparedness for war, owing deficiencies and planned reforms which were not expected to be completed until the following decade.
Soon after hostilities broke out in Euclea, Aucuria declared war on Satucin and launched an invasion on February 18, 1927, with Satucin swiftly responding to the invasion, invoking the treaty signed in 1925. Nuvania, already mobilising, declared war on Aucuria three days later on March 21. Hours after the declaration of war, Nuvanian aircraft bombed Aucurian positions along the border, as well as numerous raids on the cities of Mariunis and Rietavas, with another raid conducted against the port at Apvaizda. Naval vessels began bombarding Aucurian ports further afield, as well as the principal ports of Mariunis and Naujoji Šilokrautė. In some of the first naval engagements of the Great War in the Asterias, Nuvanian capital ships as well as other elements of the surface fleet engaged the Aucurian Navy in a series of one-sided naval engagements, knocking the Aucurian Navy out of the war. The ground invasion began on March 30, 1927, with Nuvanian soldiers making steady progress up the western coast of Aucuria as Aucurian resistance stiffened which began to slow the advance, especially as many major cities in the west of Aucuria lay in the lower ranges of the Vaskaranas Mountains, particularly the cities of Lurivajas and Rietavas which took several weeks to capture. The Nuvanian offensive was finally halted just outside Biržuventis after three months of fighting, where the Nuvanians were forced into a standstill by a combination of the onset of the wet season, geography, and determined Aucurian resistance. Fighting resumed on December 8, 1927, with two more months of fighting before Aucuria surrendered in February 1928, almost a year after the invasion began. The new government lead by Karolis Tarvydas, was permitted by the Entente to create a collaborationist regime, working alongside domestic functionalists. Nuvanian operations in Aucuria subsequently went from conventional warfare to irregular warfare, assisting the Second Aucurian State in increasing control over the Aucurian countryside and fighting against the National Redoubt Government lead by Feliksas Lupeikis.
Prior to the outbreak of war, Nuvania had known that it would have to fight on two fronts and so it had hoped to force Aucuria and Satavia into capitulation in order to avoid this scenario, especially as a substantial amount of Estmerish and Satavian soldiers were stationed in Satavia itself. By mid-1928, Estmere had not taken any offensive actions against Nuvania and had instead fortified itself against any invasion, although the local administration was sceptical of the ability of Satavia to resist invasion for a prolonged period of time. Nuvania did not want to divert resources from ongoing offensives in Aucuria if it didn't need to, and so had spent much of late 1927 and early 1928 trying to get a commitment of neutrality from Satavia, or at least an advanced capitulation requiring only token forces to occupy the island and disarm the military garrison. However, the island's government refused, and so Nuvania began hasty preparations for a seaborne invasion. These preparations were expedited by a series of air raids against Nuvanian port cities along the coast of the Van Horn Strait, which were largely unprotected. Raids were also made against the major naval base at Philipsbaai, but these not as successful owing to the much greater defences, and raids ceased after April 1928 owing to losses of Satavia's bomber fleet.
Nuvania's invasion of Satavia, codenamed Operation Fregatvoël, began on June 19, 1928. Invasion points were made along several areas of the northern Satavian coastline, particularly in Orange and the Western Free State where there were larger Satavian Hennish populations. Simultaneous with the landings, Nuvanian naval vessels and aircraft from the air force attacked various targets around Satavia, focussing on the areas around major ports as well as the capital. A large naval fight, the Battle of the Van Horn Straight, saw a Nuvanian naval force engage and destroy a task force sent north by the Satavian Navy, in which the battlecruiser HMS Satavia was sunk, in addition to a large number of Satavia's surface fleet. The battle proved unique in that conventional land based aircraft proved incredibly important in deciding the battle. While the naval battle was important in determining the outcome of the overall invasion, it exposed vulnerabilities in the Nuvanian Navy, especially in fleet numbers. Furthermore, the battleship NSM Etten had been damaged during the battle and spent several months in Philipsbaai for repairs. Despite the initial landings being successful, the fight for Satavia was a long one, taking just over six months, with the campaign coming to an end with the surrender of all Satavian forces on December 23, 1928.
The invasion of Satavia meant that Nuvania had to relocate valuable resources in the fight against the redoubt government in Aucuria. In addition to the substantial number of soldiers being tied down in fighting in the north of the country, significant numbers were also in central-eastern Nuvania protecting the vulnerable centre of the country against attack. By 1929, these forces were coming under attack themselves, resulting in Nuvania switching from broader conventional operations to counter-insurgency and irregular warfare, something which it had experience in. In order to reduce the redoubt government's ability to conduct offensive operations and secure its principal supply lines, Nuvania launched a series of operations throughout 1929. However, the terrain and the environment that they were fighting in made it difficult for progress to be made, and Nuvanian forces began suffering increased losses, particularly from disease.
These losses made it difficult for Nuvania to maintain full field strength of divisions and regiments, and this came to the fore when it had to start reducing garrisons in cities and important military instalments in order to bring divisions and regiments assigned for the invasion of Belmonte to full strength. Belmonte itself was neutral throughout the initial part of the conflict but had routinely supplied the redoubt government in Aucuria with supplies and weapons, utilising the South Asterian Range as a means of doing so as it was virtually undefended and rarely patrolled. Satucin had long suspected that Belmonte had been supplying Aucuria with weapons and supplies, and this was confirmed by intelligence reports in December 1929. Both Nuvania and Satucin planned their invasion throughout the wet season, and invaded Belmonte on June 1, 1930. Unlike the previous campaigns, Nuvania found itself attempting to advance down Belmonte's west coast against a well organised and well equipped enemy. Satucine forces were also encountering stiff resistance. Nuvania underestimated the time it would take to reach and take the city of Pinheiros, the closest major city to the Nuvanian frontier. As the campaign dragged on, interrupted by the arrival of the wet season, Nuvania's military commanders became increasingly aware that their supply lines and capacity to keep formations at full strength were becoming more difficult.
The demands of fighting partisans and the redoubt government in Aucuria, as well as maintaining a garrison on Satavia, and the needs of the continued offensive into Belmonte meant that supplies and supply lines were being stretched to breaking point. The redoubt government in Aucuria became aware of this, and as Nuvania effectively abandoned the countryside, Aucurian partisans began attacking the roads and railway connections in the interior, and eventually on the coast, forcing most of Nuvania's supplies to be sent by ship. The attacks on Nuvania's supply lines did not stop there, and Nuvanian borders towns came under attack from early 1932, prompting the activation of Nuvania's kommando units in border areas. Increasing losses from naval actions and attacks by Allied aircraft further made supplying soldiers in Aucuria difficult, and this caused significant concern among the Nuvanian high command. By 1934, the only way soldiers in Aucuria could be reliably supplied was by coastal shipping.
The situation worsened in the early part of 1934 when Aucuria and Belmonte opened up major offensives that put significant pressure on Nuvanian forces operating in both countries. Facing these offensives on two fronts, Field Marshal J.S van Stoffel approved a covert plan to launch a coup against the Volksfront government and Chief Minister van Deventer. On April 1, 1933, the Nuvanian Army launched a coup against the government and deposed van Deventer, with van Stoffel becoming Chief Minister. On learning of the coup, Satucine forces in Nuvania, as well as those retreating from Belmonte, launched a counter-coup to place Volksfront hardliners back in government, putting War Minister H.A van der Walt in as Chief Minister, who begins a purge of the army high command. Leaderless and with low morale, the Army fought on. As the situation worsened further, spurred on by the surprise surrender of Gaullica and the collapse of Satucine forces, Nuvania's hardliner government was removed by a final military coup, which installed Rear Admiral C.R Harrington at the head of an interim military government.
Nuvanian forces began pulling out of what footholds they had in Aucuria and Belmonte in September 1934, with Nuvanian government representatives, including reinstated Field Marshal J.S van Stoffel, meeting Allied officials in the newly liberated Assimas Islands to negotiate a return to the pre-1927 borders, the delegation making the argument that Nuvania had no territorial ambitions on Aucuria and therefore should be allowed to keep the pre-1927 borders. Fearing that the Alliance would accept the Nuvanian offer, Aucuria invaded Takana on October 1, 1934. Initially the Nuvanians were determined to resist, but a lack of air cover and heavy weapons prevented them from doing so effectively, the Aucurians making rapid progress, taking the city of Steinau, now Ačukalas, on October 20. On October 22, Aucurian forces reached the coast west of the city of Fresenburg, cutting off 50,000 Nuvanian soldiers in the city. Faced with the prospect of advances further into Nuvania, especially towards the city of Windstrand, the Nuvanian government signed a declaration of unconditional surrender on October 29, 1934. Throughout November, Nuvanian representatives and representatives from the Grand Alliance participated in negotiations around reparations, limitations on military size and equipment, as well as transferrals of territories and population. On December 1, 1934, Nuvania and the Allied powers signed the Treaty of San Pietro in the Allied occupied Assimas Islands, bringing peace to Asteria Inferior once more.
Following the Treaty of San Pietro, the interim cabinet headed by Field Marshal van Stoffel agreed to step down as soon as an interim Allied government could be established. Nuvanian territory in the east and south would also be occupied by soldiers from Aucuria and Belmonte respectively, with occupations of other parts of Nuvania to occur from 1936 onwards. Aucuria assumed control of parts of Nuvania that it had lost in the War of the Arucian, while Belmontese soldiers occupied a ten kilometre deep strip of border between the coast on the Vehemens Ocean and the South Asterian Range. In addition, Belmontese soldiers also occupied Niekerk, including the port, where Belmontese naval vessels were also present. Soldiers and officials from Marchenia and Rizealand arrived in December 1935, and formally assumed control over the government of Nuvania. van Stoffel and the other members of the military leadership were formally placed under arrested and detained inside the Grantleigh Hotel in central Pietersburg under armed guard.
Beginning in January 1936, Nuvania began its defunctionalisation process. Although the Volksfront was not officially a functionalist party, it had functioned in a similar way to many functionalist parties elsewhere, and was therefore treated as one. Trials of higher ranked members began on January 14, and continued throughout the year and well into 1937. Most of the trials were of civil servants and military personnel who had carried out, or issued, orders that contributed to the massacre and mass detention of civilian populations both in Nuvania and in countries it occupied, including an estimated 22,000 civilians in Aucuria, 7,161 civilians in Belmonte, and 4,016 civilians in Nuvania. Those who could be proven to have had direct involvement in the massacres were sentenced to sentences ranging from life imprisonment to death, the latter most often handed down to military personnel. The final trials were held between September and December 1937, in which members of the government and military central command were placed on trial, with many officials also receiving life sentences or capital punishment.
Against the background of this was a rebuilding effort in terms of rebuilding Nuvanian state institutions as well as replacing the existing constitution. A panel of legal experts was convened on January 19, 1936 with the intention of writing a new constitution. In addition, the Allied administration of Nuvania was gradually replaced with Nuvanian civil servants and appointees in the higher offices. Political parties were granted permission to form in June 1936, with the National People's Party and the Democratic Action Party reforming to contest planned elections for 1937, with the election the only one in Nuvania held without a constitution in place. Under the supervision of the Allied Civil Government, the election took place in June 1937, with Nuvania's first post-war Chief Minister, J.P van Vollenhoven, sworn in later the same month.
Van Vollenhoven's first term would be spent rebuilding Nuvania's diplomatic relationships as well as civil service, as the government departments and agencies were progressively returned to Nuvanian control. On December 1, 1937, the Nuvanian House of Assembly unanimously ratified the 1936 Constitution, allowing Nuvania to be completely free from the control of the Allied Civil government, which took place formally on New Years Day in 1938. van Vollenhoven embarked on official diplomatic visits to Aucuria, Belmonte, and Satavia throughout 1938 and 1939, formally re-establishing diplomatic ties and relationships. He also spent much of his first term re-establishing the powers of the state, reconstituting or reforming pre-Volksfront laws and abandoning those deemed unconstitutional. He also began the long process of economic reorganisation, ranging from the approval of the reformation of labour unions to the nationalisation of strategic national industries. Enough progress was made that van Vollenhoven won a second term in office in 1941.
The outbreak of the Solarian War in 1943 created significant economic problems for Nuvania as well as a number of countries in the Asterias. The economic shock caused by the outbreak of hostilities in Euclea and in Coius prompted the government to act, as much of the significant sectors of the Nuvanian economy were under control of the private sector. In what became known as the Great Consolidation, the government nationalised and consolidated numerous companies and entire industries in order to protect them from the economic shock and recession that followed. As the war progressed, the demand for war materials became significant, and this drove economic growth across the Asterias. Having nationalised and consolidated numerous strategic sectors of the Nuvanian economy, the government began to see a massive increase in revenues, and these were reinvested back into infrastructure, healthcare, education, and welfare. Van Vollenhoven utilised the revenue to substantially expand and improve vital infrastructure in Nuvania, as well as improve the literacy and living standards of Nuvania's ethnic minorities. These policies drew ire from the conservative right wing of Nuvanian politics, and were in part responsible for the forced snap elections of 1943 and 1945, both of which van Vollenhoven's government and the DAP easily won. However, these policies were one of the factors that would ultimately see van Vollenhoven and his government defeated at the 1949 general election.
Despite the economic propserity, Nuvania ended the 1940's with growing violence between different ethnic groups as well as violence against and from the state itself. Much of the violence was predominantly centred in Etten, where conflicts between white farmers and the Makusi people had been occurring in the Upper Barimanna Valley since the mid-1940's. Ethnic tensions between the Gowsa and black residents of Windstrand had boiled over into violence and rioting in the streets of Maitland over serveral days in early June 1949, resulting in the deaths of over 140 people as well as tens of thousands of Gowsas who were rendered homeless by the violence. In addition, striking black miners in 1946 were cracked down on by local authorities across both Etten and Kanaän, which the conservative National People's Party alleged was instigated by communist groups looking to overthrow the government. In addition to government policies drawing concern from white Nuvanians, the NVP won the 1949 general election, taking a majority in both houses of Parliament.
The new Chief Minister, Charles Wakefield, campaigned on a promise to address the violence emerging in Nuvania, as well as restoring the rights and dignity of Nuvania's white working class, many of whom had benefitted from the social policies of van Vollenhoven, but were nonetheless convinced that they were being left behind by the government. Wakefield capitalised on this support from the white working class by beginning a policy of privileging poor white families and the broader white working class over other people groups. This was partly achieved through the passing of the Racial Quota Act in January 1950, which allowed government departments and agencies to set quotas ranging from composition of schools to social housing complexes, to unskilled labour, especially in the manufacturing sector. It meant that the white working class received preferential treatment, with Creoles secondary, with both black and indigenous Nuvanians last. The Racial Quota Act also paved the way for additional institutional discrimination across other areas of national and local governance. Beginning in 1951, local authorities controlled by the NVP began implementing restrictions on where Creole and black Nuvanians could live. Confrontations and resistance to the state saw violent responses from state authorities. In November 1950, the dispute in the Upper Barimanna Valley came to a violent conclusion, when police moved in to arrest individuals accused of vandalism. In a series of clashes and gun battles with police, 16 people were killed and dozens injured. More were killed and injured in clashes between police and striking sugar cane plantation workers between June and August that year.
The Wakefield government also utilised the fear of increasing violence to introduce restrictions on union membership, essentially only allowing unions that advocated for the rights of white workers. Restrictions on political membership of certain parties and organisations were introduced. Sedition laws were strengthened. Much of the media at the time, however, remained untouched by the government. Wakefield also pursued a more confrontational foreign policy, aligning himself with the new military regime in Aucuria as well as the hardliners in Belmonte. Outside of the Racial Quota Act and other restrictions on political participation, little else changed from the van Vollenhoven government. One major difference was the introduction of the Franchise System in the manufacturing sector which required joint ventures with local companies and firms by foreign companies looking to establish manufacturing plants in Nuvania. In addition, tariffs protecting Nuvanian manufacturing and agriculture were strengthened. These came into force throughout the early and mid-1950's, and resulted in substantial increases in economic output and significant reductions among the white and Creole work forces.
With the introduction of institutionalised racial discrimination by the Wakefield government, opposition to this discrimination began to materialise. Opposition groups began to appear not only among non-whites opposed to racial discrimination, but also among liberal whites, particularly Estmerish Nuvanians, who not only oppose racial discrimination but also oppose the increasing authoritarianism and populism of the Wakefield government and the NVP as a whole. These were formed mostly from left-wing or progressive politicians, particularly those aligned with the DAP and other opposition parties and political organisations. In addition, support came from a variety of sources, including military personnel and civil servants. Although opposition to the Wakefield government gained significant momentum, the groups organising protests and other actions were disparate and uncoordinated. White support for opposition to the government reached its peak in July 1952, when 75,000 people attended a torchlight protest on July 19, 1952. However, as the movement failed to achieve the task of forcing the government from power or to change any of the laws, the movement began to wane, with the government taking note of the popular sentiment against it. As broader white interest in opposing the government began to fall by late 1952, the anti-government protesters began coalescing around groups that sought to end racial discrimination as well as bring attention to the issues surrounding the exploitation and abuse of black and indigenous workers, particularly in Nuvania's agricultural sector.
In January 1953, the leaders of these groups, including official unions for agricultural labours, among others, organised into a unified front known as the Direct Action Movement, which sought social and legal reform through boycotts, protests, strikes, and other non-violent actions to achieve the goals of ending racial discrimination and worker exploitation. Although the DAM would form later, it has its roots in two protest actions in 1952: the potato boycott, launched in June 1952, and the protests against discrimination in social housing being constructed in Blairmont, near Windstrand, which began November of the same year. While the potato boycott was largely peaceful, the social housing protests became violent, often clashing with police. On January 29, 1953, nine protesters were killed in a police crackdown involving the use of live ammunition. From this protest came a number of leaders of the DAM movement; Abel Malan, the organiser of the protests in Windstrand, and Edmund Liebrecht, one of the leaders of the potato boycott. The boycott attracted enough attention that throughout 1953 and into 1954, it expanded beyond potatoes and into fruit and sugar. It lead to the formation of the Agricultural Labourers Union and the first industry agreements on better wages and working conditions.
Simultaneously, the DAP formed a coalition with the Liberal and Reform parties in Parliament to challenge the rule of the NVP for the 1953 general election. Although there was still substantial opposition to the government from a number of groups, they failed to capitalise on the discontent, and as a result, made little gains in the 1953 general election. The NVP were returned with a slightly reduced majority, with Wakefield winning a second term as Chief Minister. This proved to be fortuitious for the NVP, as not only did the economy continue to improve throughout the 1950's, but with the invasion of Dunhelm by Maracao in 1955, the NVP were able to convince much of white Nuvania of the threat posed internationally and domestically by communism. This paved the way for Wakefield to introduced crackdowns on left-wing groups as well as strengthen existing sedition laws and introduce more wide ranging censorship in domestic media.
In August 1956, Wakefield suffered a heart attack and while on medical leave, announced his resignation as Chief Minister. He was succeeded by his deputy and finance minister Owen Fraser, who acted as interim Chief Minister until being sworn in the following January, with Wakefield recovering and eventually returning to politics in 1957, but remaining a Member of the House of the Assembly. Fraser inherited a cabinet of largely Estmerish Nuvanians, but internal politics meant that the cabinet had bee under the influence of Asterianer nationalists. This was initially tolerated in the short term, but ultimately disagreements about the direction of Fraser's government into the 1960's, while beneficial economically, these policies increasingly became untenable for the nationalists in the NVP. Despite the tensions, the economic prosperity increased the NVP's popularity going into the 1961 and 1965 general elections, and ushered in the years in which the NVP would chieve a supermajority in the House of Assembly, beginning in 1965 under the leadership of F.A Vredeling.
Nuvania's post-war economic growth came to end in the mid-1960's with the advent of the Sugar Crash, a period of economic decline and recession that began in March 1964 and was directly attributed to the massive decline in sugar prices, the effects of which also significantly affected the Nuvanian economy as a whole.
Sugar prices had remained steadily but had climbed to a 44 year peak in 1963, before undergoing a massive decline throughout 1964. The drop in prices resulted in a drop in profitability of a number of sugar manufacturers and sugar cane plantations. As prices continued to drop, in May 1964, the Fraser government initiated a series of protections in order to prevent plantations and manufacturers from going bankrupt, including subsidies and government loans. The crash affected the 1965 general election in which Owen Fraser was ousted from the NVP leadership by the more conservative and protectionist F.A. Vredeling, who lead the NVP to a majority win.
As Nuvania slid into an economic recession, Vredeling expanded state protections for important industries and companies, expanding tariffs and subsidies well beyond agriculture to protect Nuvania's finance, manufacturing, and mining industries. New regulations on bank operations were implemented, along with controls on capital investment. In addition, a range of new tax reforms were implemented between 1965 and 1968 which raised existing income taxes as well as raised the corporate income tax to 20%. However, Nuvania slid further into recession, losing 3.5% in economic growth by 1968. These measures also did little to top unemployment rising, as well as mass bankruptcies of sugar producers and sugar plantations. In 1969, Vredeling passed the Industrial Sugar Production Reform Act, which amalgamated all the sugar mills, refineries, and production in Nuvania into several companies, all with an equal proportion of the domestic market and exports in a policy called "market balance". Attempts to introduce this policy outside of the agricultural sector were made, but were unsuccessful.
Vredeling began an expansion of the welfare state in Nuvania which was intended to reduce the negative social impacts of the Sugar crash on Nuvanians. Beginning in 1969, these including the introduction of employment insurance for all Nuvanians, as well as an expansion of social housing, the latter introduced in a manner that often excluded Nuvania's indigenous population. It also introduced free tertiary education, expanded social benefits for Nuvania's working class white and creole populations, and began to subsidise trades programs for unemployed farm workers and agricultural employees put out of work by the economic situation. Vredeling also began investment in the diversification of the Nuvanian economy, introducing the National Economic Development Program in 1970 which placed significant amounts of government money into an investment fund to be used to grow industries in Nuvania's primary and secondary sectors. These included finance, manufacturing, mining, and tourism.
An increase in sugar prices came with renewed confidence in the economy and economic growth, and Nuvania entered into a period of economic prosperity. In addition to the economic prosperity came a wave of social changes, beginning in 1971 with demands to liberalise existing abortion laws, as well as making homosexuality legal, among other social reforms. In addition, movements regarding labour rights and indigenous rights began to form and demonstrate for greater rights for both workers and indigenous peoples. Nuvania also experienced the formation of its own environmentalist movements during the early 1970's, opposing the expansion of mining activities in different areas of the country. These movements would have an impact on the 1973 general election, in which the DAP would be elected to government for the first time in 36 years, with party leader William Bosman sworn in as Chief Minister on December 20, 1973.
Bosman would preside over the second half of the short period of economic prosperity brought about by the Sugar High, a period of inflated prices for sugar that saw significant reinvestment into the sector as well as overall confidence in the economy return, and economic growth skyrocket, hitting an all time high of 10.33% in 1973. Bosman continued the policy of economic diversification initiated by Vredeling through the National Economic Development Plan with significant investment into manufacturing, construction, and especially in the service sector. The effects of the Sugar Crash were by now mitigated by the large scale development of factories and other manufacturing plants, as well as increased employment opportunities in mining and service sectors, although the latter suffered from a lack of qualified personnel in a number of industries. The latter became a catalyst for a raft of social reforms introduced in the 1970's that would build on the protest movements throughout the Vredeling government.
In 1974, Finance Minister Simon Kirk introduced a budget that would reflect the social changes occurring at the time. These included an expansion of tertiary education access for creole and indigenous Nuvanians, including the abolition of dedicated quotas for white, creole, and native applicants for both university courses and vocational schools, a liberalisation of the income requirements for student allowances and other support, and greater investment into schooling for creole and indigenous Nuvanians, setting a goal of 70% and 50% literacy rates by the end of the decade. In addition, the National Employment Assurance Scheme was introduced, a form of employment insurance that would cover all employed Nuvanians. Government welfare and allowances were expanded significantly, and farmers could access government loans to cover costs during difficult economic times, although this was largely unnecessary as the economy continued to grow significantly.
The Bosman government would pass additional social reforms in 1974 and 1975, beginning with the decriminalisation of abortion with the Pregnancy Termination Act in 1974, which allowed abortions to be performed in cases of rape and incest, if there was significant foetal defects, and for physical and mental health reasons. The abortion reform was considered controversial, although it did not result in substantial drops in government support. In 1975, the government introduced the Sexual Relations Act, which decriminalised same sex acts for men and women, although homosexuality continued to remain illegal. This was also considered controversial, and did result in a drop of support for the government. Paid maternal leave was also increased in 1975 from two weeks to five.
Politically the Bosman government distanced itself from the Sprogys regime in Aucuria, while seeking closer ties with the now democratic government in Belmonte, as well as maintaining the good relationship with the government of Eric Edwards in Satavia. With Bosman's re-election in 1976 and the election of the Satavian Labor Party the same year, relations between the two countries became significantly closer, with both governments signing the Memorandum on Closer Economic Relations and Travel Arrangements in 1977. In addition, Bosman committed Nuvanian military advisers and soldiers to Satavia to support the Edwards government, which was coming under attack from right-wing paramilitaries.
That year the Nuvanian stock market experienced a flash crash when details of that year's budget were leaded before they could be announced, severely damaging the Chief Minister's credibility. Further issues came with a bombing in Pietersburg in August which killed 11 people. The government was alleged to have bungled the investigation, and this further damaged the Bosman government. On February 16, 1978, Bosman was voted out as leader of the Democratic Action Party during the party's annual conference, and Bosman resigned as Chief Minister two days later. He was succeeded by the Deputy Chief Minister, Jan Jonker.
Jonker was unprepared to lead the DAP into the 1977 general election, and while he acquitted himself well in the campaign leading up to the election, the Nuvanian electorate had swung back in favour of the NVP, who under the leadership of P.K Burger, had retained the same kind of broad popular appeal to conservatism that the electorate favoured. Burger and the NVP won the 1978 general election. Burger did not reverse the law changes to the status of abortion or homosexuality, instead refusing to allow further changes to those respective laws in favour of greater liberalisation. Amendments to these acts were passed to place restrictions, principally on abortions, which were made more difficult to access.
In February 1979, NLM Flight 627 was bombed over south-eastern Satavia, resulting in the deaths of 59 passengers and crewmembers onboard, including 26 Nuvanians. While speculation became rampant that the aircraft had broken apart on its own accord, the subsequent investigation into the crash found that a bomb had brought the airliner down. Until that point, Burger had pursued a wider policy to reduce its military commitments in Satavia beyond a token peacekeeping force which had been formed with the intervention of the Organisation of Asterian Nations in 1978. The bombing and the debate precipitated a struggle for control of the NVP between the conservative and neoliberal factions of the party, the latter gaining a foothold having forced Foreign Minister Edgar de Villiers to resign in December 1979 through his refusal to expand Nuvania's involvement in Satavia.
In January 1980, Nuvania launched Operation Granular, the biggest operation the Nuvanian military undertook since the Great War, in which hundreds of military personnel were deployed to Satavia alongside OAN peacekeepers, and the Nuvanian Air Force conducting air strikes in Satavia against right-wing paramilitary camps and positions. Political infighting and military action caused economic uncertainty to rise, and growth slipped below that of 1979, as the Nuvanian economy struggled to recover from the flash crash that occurred in 1977. While the economy stabilised, support for the conservative policies of the NVP waned, especially economic policies in which the state was heavily involved. By 1981, the internal civil war within the NVP became public as the economy began to slide into recession again.
As the economy worsened, it became apparent that the economic policies of previous government were causing significant structural issues in the government and in the economy. There were significant disagreements regarding what direction to take in terms of economic policy, and within the NVP there was fierce debate on where the direction of the party should go. The more radical faction of the party under Johnathan Keaton proposed significant economic reforms to improve efficiency and encourage investment into the economy from overseas, as well as financial reforms to remove restrictions on the flow of capital in and out of Nuvania, which the conservative wing of the party rejected. The party membership disagreed, voting against Burger at the 1981 NVP National Conference, affirming Keaton as the candidate for that year's general election.
Keaton would win the 1981 general election but on a reduced majority within Parliament. He began his cabinet appointments and from 1983, began to enact his reforms. Controls on capital flow were removed, and foreign investment made easier. The goude, which had been pegged to both the Estmerish shilling and the Hallandic pound, was floated for the first time. Tariffs on finished products and manufactured goods were removed, which began to negatively affect Nuvanian manufacturing output and saw unemployment begin to rise, as smaller businesses no longer received support or protection from the government. These were then applied to agriculture, which created additional problems not helped by another fall in agricultural prices, especially that of sugar.
The policies of the Keaton government caused significant rifts between it and conservatives within the NVP, including many of those from rural seats which had seen increased in unemployment and financial hardship when financial support for the sector ceased. In Februrary 1984, Minister of Agriculture, Eric Myburgh, confronted Keaton during that year's annual NVP party conference in Constantia, accusing him of putting ideology before people. The argument became heated, and as a result, over 30 sitting Members of Parliament and three cabinet ministers resigned from the party. This caused concerns among the remaining members of cabinet and within the party to question whether or not Keaton had the leadership to continue them going forwards. However, Keaton managed the crisis well, and confidence was restored in his ability to lead.
In addition to economic reforms, regulation around businesses was slashed, making the ability to start and manage a business much easier. In 1984, the government introduced tax reforms that slashed income taxes for Nuvania's highest incomes, as well as corporate taxes. Stamp duty was abolished, as were wealth taxes, and taxes on luxury goods. Capital gains taxes and windfall taxes were slashed, and the levying of land taxes was transferred to provincial governments. Other charges and fees levied by the government were slashed or removed. Public sector staff levels were also trimmed down beginning in 1984, with the reduction of staff levels or closure of some departments, while others were merged. This saw a spike in unemployment from the public sector, and what could be corporatised or sold of completely was.
Privatisation was one of the key features of the Keaton government throughout the 1980's. Assets sold by the state were often corporatised first, and state owned enterprises were sold to private bidders and corporations. These happened periodically throughout the length of the Keaton government's two terms in power. The first to be broken up and privatised was NLM, which spent 1982 and 1983 restructuring before being split into two entities, NLM and NLM Express, and sold off in 1984. In 1985, the Department of Forestry was corporatised into the Nuvanian Forestry Corporation, and sold off in 1987. This was followed by the Post Office, which included telephone and other telecommunications services, and the railways. The National Ambulance Service was abolished and replaced with a provincial contract system to encourage private investment in emergency medical services.
Following the economic and financial reforms, Nuvania entered into a period of renewed economic growth, although this was considered modest by the standards of the previous decade. Keaton, knowing that further reform was necessary, placed the NVP on a platform of social liberalism and reform of social welfare services going into the 1986 general election. In order to counter the DAP, Keaton promised a full legalisation and liberalisation of laws regarding abortion and homosexuality, as well as a review of the death penalty. These promises gave the NVP a firm majority in both houses of Parliament, although they had lost a number of seats to the newly created Nuvanian Agrarian League, formed in 1984 in response to Keaton's agricultural policies.
Beginning in 1987, the government began reforming social welfare in Nuvania. Public healthcare spending was slashed and privatisation occurred where services could be transferred to the private sector. Education spending was also slashed, and reductions to the eligibility of scholarships at universities was revised. Free tertiary education was limited to public universities. In addition, student allowances and support was revised so only the most needy students could receive assistance. Overall welfare payments were slashed, and public pension contributions from the government were reduced, although the government would honour contributions made prior to 1987. A "work for the dole" scheme was introduced to reduce unemployment. Despite the reductions in overall amounts spent, welfare services were considerably expanded to include greater sections of the creole and indigenous populations. The Employment Reservation Scheme, which prioritised white and predominantly Asterianer workers over creole and indigenous workers, was abolished, and this was met with a broader reduction in overall minimum wage as "parallel rates" were introduced, based on assumed expenses and needs of workers. This meant that creoles and indigenous workers could earn less than their white counterparts and continue to earn an adequate living.
With a greater pool of cheaper labour to be accessed, the composition of workforces in factories began to change dramatically, and as a result, substantial numbers of creole and indigenous workers moved into the cities to find employment. This caused substantial problems for city planning which was unable to deal with the sheer volume of internal migration. As a result, numerous slums and informal settlements began to appear or grow on the fringes of Nuvania's major urban centres.
Social policy changed significantly after 1985, with the government fulfilling its promises made during the campaign during the 1985 general election. In late 1987, an amendment to the Pregnancy Termination Act was introduced to Parliament, and passed votes in both houses of Parliament before coming into force in June 1987. The amendments included reversing the restrictions imposed by P.K Burger in 1979 as well as expanding access, and removing prior restrictions in the original law. Further amendments to the Sexual Relations Act was introduced in mid-1988 and saw substantial protests both for and against it. Initially, the law was set to fail in Parliament, however, a mass shooting in Pietersburg perpetrated by Karl Steyn, who opposed the legalisation of homosexuality, saw a massive swing in public opinion and that of Parliament, with homosexuality legalised in February 1989. Not long after, Nuvania abolished capital punishment.
After six years of substantial economic and social reform, and an increase in material and financial hardship, many Nuvanians began to dislike the policies imposed by Keaton during his two terms as Chief Minister, and by 1990, public opinion had swung back in favour of the Democratic Action Party. Furthermore, Keaton had also created rifts in the National People's Party, and despite being endorsed as the candidate for the 1990 general election, few of those within the conservative faction of the party enthusiastically supported his campaign. The DAP, under David van Deventer, won the 1990 election with ease.
The 1989 general election saw the continuation of social reforms initiated by the Keaton government, this time under the DAP, who won power in the first change in government since 1949. Under the leadership of Keith Hawkins, the DAP would begin its own long period of governance over Nuvania, which would last until 2013.
Hawkins promoted a manifesto to the DAP at the annual conference in the leadup to the 1989 general election as a way to transform Nuvanian society and bring an end to nearly two decades of civil instability and terrorist attacks conducted by organised groups sympathetic to the Direct Action Movement. Negotiations with the latter were part of the manifesto, entitled the New Society. Through this social reform, Nuvania would abolish discriminatory policies against racial minorities and women, as well as expand social programs to increase both the standard of living and level of education for impoverished Nuvanians. Under the New Society program, abortion was fully legalised in 1991 alongside universal suffrage, which was also fully mandated with the passing of the Elections Act 1886 Amendment Act, which removed the barriers for racial minorities to vote and reduced the voting age from 20 to 18. Legislation banning discrimination in employment and by government services was passed in 1992. Healthcare programs and services were expanded into more rural areas and mass literacy programs were introduced into impoverished communities. Between 1990 and 2000, the total literacy rate increased frim 78% of the population to 89%. Economic outcomes for non-whites improved drastically on the back of strong economic growth between 1989 and 1997, particularly after Nuvania's entry into the Asteria Inferior Common Market in 1992.
Negotiations with the Direct Action Movement began in 1990, with the government looking to seek an end to the campaign of attacks against infrastructure as well as government and civilian targets. Although initial negotiations progressed well, two mass shootings at the end of 1992 and mid way through 1993 attempted to derail the talks between the government. Instead, the attacks and the promise of a final agreement allowed the DAP to win a landslide victory in 1993, paving the way for the Pietersburg Agreement between the government and the Direct Action Movement signed in November 1993.
Although the Direct Action Movement had been disbanded following the Pietersburg Agreement, Nuvanian society still contended with the legacy of long term racial discrimination. In spite of strong economic growth and an overall reduction in poverty between 1990 and 1997, crime began to increase in many areas around Nuvania. In addition, the response to the mass shootings in Vryburg and Pietersburg resulted in significant search and seizure powers being awarded to police. This would manifest in a deadly raid in the suburb of Bethania in Pietersburg in December 1993, in which three children were killed by police conducting a search for illegal firearms. Although this practice was stopped, police brutality and discrimination against non-white Nuvanians would be confronted by Nuvanian society throughout the 1990's, particularly in the inquiry into the deaths of 27 predominantly black Nuvanians in a crowd crush at the main stadium in Philipsbaai in June 1991, and again in police clearing out an illicit nightclub in Wetting on New Years Day in 1994 with teargas, resulting in the deaths of ten teenagers.
Despite the success of the New Society policies in reforming and improving social liberties and equality within Nuvanian society, Hawkins had proven to be unpopular overall and his term in office was mired with controversies and gaffes. At the DAP's annual convention in February 1997, Hawkins was replaced as leader of the party by his finance minister, Arnold Hofmeyer, who lead the DAP to a reduced majority in Parliament in the 1997 general election.
Nuvania covers an area of approximately 1.037 million square kilometres, making it the third largest country in Asteria Inferior. Contained within it are numerous geographical formations, rivers, and lakes that give Nuvania a unique landscape. The country is divided into several general geographical and environmental regions reflective of this diversity.
Northern Nuvania beyond the Arucian Range is dominated by the kustveld, a tropical coastal plain that extends beyond Nuvania's border with Aucuria to the east and stops at the Mascarenhas Peninsula to the west, on the border with the Van Horn Strait and the western Arucian Sea. Because of its proximity to the equator, the kustveld is one of the wettest and lushest areas in Nuvania, with fertile soils and numerous streams and rivers. Wetlands and mangrove swamps can be found in the immediate littoral in the north of the country, particularly where rivers and streams flow into the Arucian Sea. Most of these areas were reclaimed, either to support farmland or urban development. In some areas, mangrove swamps were also present, although these too have mostly been lost, save for a few protected or uninhabited areas along the coast. Further inland, the kustveld becomes a wide area of floodplains which gradually rise into the foothills of the Arucian Range in the south. On the Mascarenhas Peninsula, the floodplains give way to a series of low hills call the Westrand, which run up the western portion of the peninsular perpendicular to the Arucian Range. It is formed from an ancient seabed, raised during the same tectonic forces that created the Arucian Sea and the Arucian Range to the southeast.
The Arucian Range runs along most of northern Nuvania and into neighbouring Aucuria. It is the second largest mountain range in the country after the South Asterian Range in the south. The Arucian Range was formed by tectonic activity caused by the rifting in the West Arucian Basin which formed the West Arucian Sea. The range was considerably higher throughout most of its existence, however erosion has reduced the mountains in terms of shape and altitude, although they are still high enough to significantly affect the climate in the north of the country. Because of this, the Arucian Range has different overall climates dependant on location and altitude, with the northern side hotter and wetter, central parts cooler and drier, and southern areas hotter and drier. Contained within the Arucian Range are numerous valleys, which contain numerous cities and towns that were founded to facilitate trade through the mountains. In addition the sources of some of Nuvania's longest rivers can be found within the Arucian Range. At 2,620 metres in altitude, Mount Daalen is the highest point in the Arucian Range.
Central Nuvania is dominated by the bosveld, a vast, open area between the Arucian Range to the north and the South Asterian Range to the south. It is an area of broad flat lands characterised by low, rising terrain and a dry climate. The soils here are as fertile as those on the kustveld, with the climate being the primary factor in the lack of widespread crop agriculture in the region, with much of the region given over to the raising of livestock. The bosveld is one of the most mineral rich areas of Nuvania, producing gold, silver, platinum, iron ore, tin, as well as large amounts of coal. Other minerals can be found in the fringes of the bosveld, which has an economic and cultural significance in Nuvania. Much of the region is fed by seasonal melt from the South Asterian Range that separates the southern coast from the interior.
The South Arucian Range is an extensive mountain chain that runs along southern Nuvania, northern Belmonte, Aucuria and the southern extremes of Satucin. The range was formed from tectonic activity through the clashing of the x Plate and the x Plate. Because of this, the mountains are active seismically and include a number of volcanoes which are among the highest peaks in the Asterias. In addition, the mountains provide a significant proportion of the fresh water that flows down both sides of the range into central and southern areas. Much of the range is composed of mountains although a number of the peaks are volcanoes. The highest peak in Nuvania is Mount Constantyn at a height of 5,147 metres (16,886 feet).
Many rivers flow through Nuvania, with many flowing out from the major mountain ranges. The largest and longest of these is the Ardron River, which flows from the Southeast Highlands in Veld, and flows into the Van Horn Strait, with a length of 1,254 kilometres. The Ardron is important to central Nuvania as it provides much needed drinking and irrigation water for agriculture, as well as important habitat for numerous species of birds, fish, insects, and reptiles. Where the Ardron flows into the Van Horn Strait is the location of the Kinsella Wetlands, the largest in Nuvania.
Nuvania is under the influence of a variety of tropical climates which are influenced heavily by prevailing winds, ocean currents, and topography. Generally the climates in the north and parts of the northeast of the country are much wetter than climates across the rest of Nuvania, which is heavily dependent on seasonal rainfall.
North of the Arucian Range, as well as the northern slopes of the range itself, is under the influence of a tropical rainforest climate with no defined dry season. The climate is influenced predominantly by the South Arucian Current, a warm current that runs along the northwest coast of Asteria Inferior from western Satucin through to Nuvania. It brings much of the warm moisture systems which bring the majority of the rainfall along the northern coast. The Arucian Sea moderates the climate along the coast with onshore breezes, whereas the climate becomes much wetter inland, especially along the north-facing slopes of the Arucian Range which catch the rainfall and prevent it from reaching central regions of Nuvania. Rainfall in northern regions can exceed 1,000 millimetres annually in the wettest spots, with temperatures warm and humid throughout the year.
Nuvania's southern coast and southeast of the country are also under the influence of a tropical rainforest climate. This climate is influenced by the Vehemens Ocean, which acts as both a moderator and a generator of the weather systems that affect the southern coastline. Like the northern coast, the southern coast is humid and tropical, although there is a greater differentiation between wet and dry seasons. However, the South Asterian Range traps much of the moisture-laden weather systems that are generated in the eastern Vehemens Ocean, and as a result, rainfall is often high in these areas during the wet season.
While the Arucian Range prevents northern moisture bearing systems from reaching central and southern Nuvania, and it catches the seasonal rainfall that flows from the east, allowing for the existence of large areas of forests and scrubland in spite of the Hofmeyr Current which runs along the western coast of the continent. In this respect its northern slopes are under the influence of a rainforest climate, while its southern slopes are drier and more monsoonal. In the valleys and basins in the centre of the ranges exists a subtropical highland climate with a much more moderate climate, with rainfall totals around 700-900 millimetres annually.
Central Nuvania is dominated by a tropical savannah climate with monsoonal influences, as the wet season typically produces over 90% of the area's rainfall. As with other tropical climates, temperatures remain warm to hot throughout the year, although a large number of these areas have climates that verge on semi arid, and here the seasonal temperature variations are greatest. The wet season lasts between November and April, and produces over 90% of the total annual rainfall in these areas. Eastern regions of central Nuvania are wetter due to their proximity to the [[Wikipedia:}rainforests|}rainforests]] in central Asteria Inferior, while central and western regions have much drier climates, with western regions bordering on semi-arid.
The South Asterian Range is the most defining topographic feature when it comes to climate, with different areas of the range experiencing different climates, depending on location and altitude. Typically the southern side of the range experiences climates that are much wetter than those on the northern side, with lower elevations experiencing tropical climates and higher elevations subtropical alpine climates. The northern side experiences tropical savanna and semi-arid climates, with higher elevations experiencing more Solarian like climates.
Nuvania's highest recorded temperature is 45.6°C, observed at Dawson's Plain, Veld on November 18, 1979. The lowest recorded temperature is -26.5°C, observed at Windermere in the South Asterian Range on September 15, Template:Wpl1979.
Nuvania's northern coastal plains contain a number of different ecoregions. Coastal areas were once covered in vast mangroves that compose the Southern Arucian equatorial mangroves system. Since the arrival of Eucleans, many of these mangroves were cleared for urban development, and today less than 20% of the original coverage remains in Nuvania. Most of what remains is preserved, including in northeastern Etten and other places along the northern coast. Further inland, the coastal plains were once covered in tropical coastal forests, although these have been cleared significantly for agriculture and urban development, with less than 10% of these forests remaining. Significant restoration is underway across northern Nuvania.
The northern slopes of the Arucian Range are less developed and contain the northern tropical montane forests that stretch along Nuvania's share of the Arucian Range. Because of the lack of development, much of this forest is still intact although it is subject to deforestation. Higher altitudes of the Arucian Range contain a variety of cloud forests that range between 1,800 metres and 2,200 metres in altitude. In the Daule Valley, tropical dry forests can be found.
Much of the interior of Nuvania is covered in the bosveld ecoregion with different subregions located within it. This region ecompasses the vast central plains of Nuvania, as well as the southern slopes of the Arucian Range, and the northern slopes of the South Asterian Range. In the east, the bosveld is much thicker with more trees and shrubs, whereas it takes the appearance of dry grasslands in the centre and west, mostly owing to land clearance for grazing. Tropical dry scrublands and forests are present to the north and south of the plains.
The South Asterian Range is one of the few places where non-tropical regions can be found. Stretching from east to west is the South Central Highlands ecoregion which composes much of the highlands in the centre of the South Asterian Range. These are among some of the best preserved on the continent, owing to a lack of human settlement, although farming and grazing do pose threats.
Southern Nuvania is predominantly dominated by tropical forests, these include the southern montane cloud forests found in Mahaika and western Brabantia as well as the narrow and very threatened tracts of tropical coastal forests. Inland Brabantia is split between more montane forests in the north and northwests, and dry forests in the lowlands.
Western Nuvania is the location of the Kinsella Wetlands ecoregion, which encompasses the entirety of the Ardron River delta. This area is ecologically significant as it is a breeding ground or a stopover point for numerous migratory bird species. In addition, it is also an important breeding ground for fish species, and also contains numerous reptile, mammal, and insect species.
Nuvania's ecoregions support a wide variety of plant species, with tens of thousands of shrubs, trees, flowers, and other plants found across the country. The majority of these plants have evolved in tropical and subtropical climates and support a wide variety of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects.
Coastal areas of Nuvania were predominantly covered in mangrove swamp split between the West Arucian coastal mangroves in northern Nuvania and the Mahaika-Vehemens mangroves in southern Nuvania. West Arucian mangroves experience wetter conditions due to the tropical climate, and contain dozens of plant and tree species. These include red, black, and white mangrove species, as well as buttonwood, with red mangroves the most common tree species. Inland areas include additional species of mangroves, as well as trees such as beach hibiscus and swamp ferns, with other plants including mokomoko and assai palms. Saltwater cordgrass is also found in northern mangroves. Southern mangroves differ in a number of plant species, including different species of mangroves and other plants. These include tea mangroves, black calabash, beach bean, bayhops, and buffalo grass. Southern mangroves have fared better due to the lack of destruction and deforestation, with many tracts of mangroves remaining intact. Northern mangroves have had their overall coverage reduced by upwards of 80%, and today survive principally in protected coastal reserves and parks.
Much of Etten and Kanaän was once covered in tropical lowland forests that were extensively deforested to transform the flat coastal plains into open tropical grasslands. Few tracts of the original forest remain, replaced instead with plants, grasses, and trees typically found in other grasslands. Because of the extensive and intensive agriculture that takes place in these two provinces, many of the plants found within these provinces are introduced. Unlike naturally forming grasslands, the northern plains have more nutrient richer soils and can support greater densities of grass and shrubs. Nine species of grasses can be found in these regions, in addition to two species of sedges. Tree and species differ depending on areas close to the North Asterian Range or those closer to the coast. Coastal species include those that are used to seasonal flooding that occurs during the wet season, with the most well known being the lowland and miriti palms. Further inland, higher elevations see forest patches appear with species like the hog plum, turpentine tree, and possumwood all present.
Most of the North Asterian Range is covered in broadleaf forests, with northern slopes home to tropical moist broadleaf and montane forests and the southern slopes containing tropical dry broadleaf forests. Higher elevations are home to moist montane forests, which share similar characteristics with forests in the South Asterian Range. Common trees include wild cashew, Nuvanian mahogany, Maracan cedar, silk-cotton tree, and stinktoe tree. In addition, over 150 species of orchids can be found in these forests. Higher elevations see the emergence of cloud forests, with plants and tree species differing to elevation. These include salmwood, jakaranda, Nuvanian walnut, Nuvanian oak, and pau d'arco. Six species of wax palms are also found in these forests. Nuvania's national flower, the Christmas orchid, is found in these mountain forests. On southern slopes, the montane forests give way to tropical dry forests which mark the transition between the montane forests and the drier grasslands. Trees and plants common in these forests include aippia, pochote, silk-cotton tree, miriti palm, and hog plum tree. Close to and inside the grasslands, trees such as macaw palm, savanna serrette, and the sandpaper tree are all found.
Central Nuvania is split between two broad scrubland ecoregions: the Miritiveld in eastern Pomeronia, and the Rooilande, which constitutes much of central and western Pomeronia, as well as significant portions of Albina and Demara. The Miritiveld in the east is characterised by more dense scrublands and stands of miriti palms, from which the landscape takes its name from. Similarly the trees and shrubs that can be found within this ecoregion are typical of tropical scrublands, such as the prickly ash, yuka shell tree, and sweetsop. A number of flowering plants, such as the parrot flower and velvet flower can also be found in this particular part of Pomeronia. Further to the west, the drier climate becomes more apparent which coupled with extensive ranching and deforestation, has produced vast grasslands. Despite much of the forest having disappeared, the Rooilande in western Pomeronia is best known for its decorative trees, including the golden trumpet tree, pink trumpet tree, Arucian trumpet tree, and yellow trumpet tree. In addition to several species of jakaranda, these are often used for decorative purposes in many cities in central Nuvania. Among the more well known palm trees native to the region include the kabesura palm, which often marks the transitional between the Miritiveld and the Rooilande.
Among the more unique ecoregions in Nuvania is the Heiveld, which is only found in the South Asterian Range. This unique ecoregion is found along the length of the South Asterian Range at altiutudes between 3,000 (9,800 feet) metres and 4,800 (15,700 feet) metres in altitude above sea level. There are three broad zones within the Heiveld; Hoërveld, Laerveld, and Grasveld. The Hoërveld is at the highest elevation, and contains the most endemic species of plants. Template:Wpll, asters, various legume species, and heathers can be found in the Hoërveld. The largest and most well known part of the Heiveld is the Grasveld, which is typically found at altitudes between 3,500 and 4,100 metres (11,500-13,500 feet) in altitude. As the name implies, the Grasveld is largely composed with grasses, particularly species such as heidegras. It is also composed of small shrubs and flowering plants, the most dominant and notable of these being the grootmonnik, a perennial shrub that is common in Grasveld. Laerveld is found at elevations between 3,000 and 3,500 metres (9,800-11,500 feet) in altitude, and primarily contain principally shrubby or woody vegetation, with plant species such as snakeroot, broom, and holly common.
Mahaika and Brabantia were once completely covered in moist broadleaf forests similar to those of northern Nuvania. There are 8,000 known species of vascular plants in these forests, with estimates of 10,000 potential species overall and at least 20% of these species endemic to these forests. Among the well known tree species include the wild cashew, rubber tree, bongo, and the cow tree, with a rich understory containing hundreds of different plant species. Much of the forest has been cleared for human habitation and agriculture, predominantly in Brabantia where less than 30% of the original forest cover remains.
Nuvania is home to over 400 species of mammals as well as hundreds or thousands of species of reptiles, fish, insects, arachnids, and birds. These species differ depending on the environment and location within Nuvania.
Significant mammal species present within Nuvania include several species of Felidae, several species of canines, as well as some species of primates and other mammals. Many of these species are threatened due to human activities. These include ocelots, who are found predominantly in the north and south of Nuvania, jaguarundi which are found across the country, margays, and oncillas who also have wide distributions. The largest felids that have widespread range across Nuvania are pumas, which can be found across the country in reasonable numbers, although are more common in southern Nuvania which is more sparsely populated. Jaguars are also found in the far east of the centre of the country, although they are considered to be extinct in Nuvania itself. Nuvania's cloud forests support a variety of primates, such has spider monkeys, as well as sloths, peccaries, deer, and the westernmost populations of mountain tapirs.
Nuvania is home to 33 species of turtles, six species of alligators, caimans, and crocodiles, 238 species of lizards, and 300 species of snakes. Most of these species can be found in the tropical forests of northern and southern Nuvania, as well as some species in the far east of the country, particularly in border regions close to Aucuria and the Scythian rainforest. Many of the reptiles can be found in specific regions of the country, while others exist throughout, with a number of species living in close proximity to humans. Some of the more well known species include the Asterian crocodile, black caiman, fer-de-lance, yellow anaconda, and the boa constrictor, among others. Snapping turtles and green iguanas are especially common in urban areas, the latter found in parks and back gardens in suburban properties.
Over 1,800 species of birds are found in Nuvania, the numbers of species second only to that of Satucin. Among the birds found in Nuvania include 25 species of ducks, 168 species of hummingbirds, 34 species of gulls and terns, 49 species of hawks, 20 species of toucans, 112 species of antbirds, and 55 species of parrots. Many of these birds are found in specific regions of Nuvania, some factoring into local folklore and those of the indigenous peoples prior to Euclean settlement. Among the more well known birds include the turkey vulture, which is a common scavenger in many parts of the country, the scarlet macaw, one of the most populous parrot species, the harpy eagle, the yellow and blue macaw, and frigatebirds. Seabirds, in particular the brown pelican, are well liked among the inhabitants of coastal cities.
Nuvania has one of the largest numbers of amphibian species anywhere in the world, with over 200 species recorded in the country. These include numerous species of frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders. Many of these species are endemic to Nuvania and found only in specific locations. Amphibians such as poison dart frogs are among the most well known to exist in Nuvania.
Nuvania is a constitutional parliamentary republic with a codified constitution and separation of powers between the Template:WpL, executive, and judiciary. Like many former colonies of Estmere, Nuvania's government and parliament are administered along the lines of the Northabbey model of government.
Historically Nuvania has been considered to be an authoritarian nation and was considered to be unfree for much of its existence, owing to the electoral rules in which much of its indigenous populations had restricted rights and voting privileges. A series of reforms in the early 1990's improved Nuvania's political image and the voting rights for its indigenous population, but problems remain.
The Constitution of Nuvania is the founding document of the independent Free State and is the document with which all of Nuvania is governed in accordance to the articles and provisions contained within it. It outlines the powers of each branch of government as well as their roles and responsibilities. It also outlines the powers between central and local government, and enshrines the civil rights and liberties that are granted to the citizens and residents of Nuvania.
Nuvania has had two constitutions; the x Constitution, which was created upon independence and ratified in x, and the 1937 Constitution, which was created during the occupation period immediately following the end of the Great War, and ratified by an acting parliament in 1937. The 1937 constitution is the one that remains in force today.
The Constitution of Nuvania is partially administered and amended by the Parliament of Nuvania, specifically the Senate, and the Constitutional Court of Nuvania. The Senate can introduce and approve amendments to the constitution separately, with the Constitutional Court approving the amendments for introduction to the Senate as well as offering advice on constitutional amendments. The passing and ratification of amendments requires a simple majority in the Senate.
The Parliament of Nuvania is the bicameral national legislature of Nuvania. It is a continuation of the legislature that was formed in 1811 to legislate and govern the then Dominion of Nuvania. The Parliament of the independent state retained much of the procedures and traditions that were introduced during Estmerish rule, and functions in line with that of the Northabbey model, one of only x legislatures in the Asterias to do so. The two houses that compose the Parliament of Nuvania are the House of Assembly and the Senate. Both houses meet inside the Volksraadhuis in central Pietersburg.
In accordance with the Northabbey model and enshrined in the 1937 constitution, the Parliament of Nuvania operates on the concept of parliamentary sovereignty, and like other Northabbey model legislatures, members of the executive branch of Nuvania's government are composed of sitting members of the lower house, with the Chief Minister commanding the confidence of both houses of Parliament in order to remain in power.
The lower house of the Parliament of Nuvania is the House of Assembly, and is the oldest and largest of the two houses of Parliament. The House of Assembly was established in 1811 to provide legislation for the government of the newly created Dominion of Nuvania. It is composed of 410 elected representatives who are officially referred to as a Member of the Assembly, and are commonly known by the acronym MA. The House of Assembly is the primary legislative body of the Parliament of Nuvania, with members able to draft, amend, and vote on proposed legislation. The House of Assembly also has limited investigatory powers vested in it, allowing the House to investigate and report on the conduct of its members and of members of the Cabinet of Ministers, the executive branch of the government.
The upper house of the Parliament of Nuvania is the Senate. Under the 1937 constitution, the Senate replaced the Legislative Council but retained its advisory and ratification roles as well as acquired new powers of investigation and legislation. In addition, it became an elected house, as the previous Legislative Council had its members appointed. The Senate is composed of 96 elected senators, with each province of Nuvania electing 12 senators. The Senate's primary role is advisory and ratification, participating in the selection process for government appointments to agencies and institutions, as well as ratifying international treaties, government appointments, and amendments to the constitution. It can also launch inquiries into the actions of government departments, agencies, and institutions, as well as into the conduct of both the Chief Minister and State President. Senators can also introduce legislation into the Senate, but also requires approval from the House of Assembly.
The State President is the head of state of Nuvania. The position was created upon independence in 1886 in which the office of State President replaced that of the Governor-General. It is an elected partisan office despite the role being largely ceremonial with limited legislative intervention.
Officially as the head of state, the State President is the foremost representative of the Free State internationally and thus is the primary host of state visits by other heads of state, heads of government, and other important dignitaries. They also function as the Commander in Chief of the armed forces, and is the only authority in Nuvania that can formally declare war. In addition, the State President appoints all judges to the Supreme Court, all judges to the Constitutional Court, the head of the Reserve Bank of Nuvania, and formally issues promotions to commissioned officers within all branches of the armed forces. In addition, the State President issues pardons to prisoners, signs legislation passed by Parliament into law, and sits as the ceremonial president of the President's Fund, a philanthropic organisation. The State President may also become a patron of an additional charity of their choice.
Requirements to become State President are more stringent than those of Chief Minister. Candidates for State President must have served for a minimum of 10 years in either the General or Provincial Councils, they must have served in Cabinet or some other important function for a minimum of five years, in addition to the same requirements of political party membership and no mental or physical health problems preventing them from fulfilling duties.
The Chief Minister is the head of government of Nuvania, a position inherited from the colonial home rule government which lasted between 1811 and 1886. The Chief Minister functions similarly to the roles of Prime Minister in other former Estmerish colonies as well as the role of Prime Minister in Estmere itself.
Powers vested in the office are principally administrative and advisory, with the Chief Minister's role defined in the Constitution of Nuvania as the most senior role in government and as a "first among equals". They have the powers to set government agendas and policies, appoint and remove ministers from Cabinet, assign Cabinet portfolios, and give advice to the State President on the conferment of Nuvania's honours system, call general elections, and gives advice on the appointment of officials to important positions.
There are few requirements around who can be Chief Minister. An individual must be an elected member of the General Council, be the leader of the party with a majority in the General Council or the leader of the largest party in the governing coalition, and must not be suffering from any physical or mental illnesses that could impact their ability to govern. Chief Ministers are elected to the same renewable four year terms as both houses of Parliament.
Elections in Nuvania are overseen by the National Election Authority which is a child agency of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. It is responsible for the organisation of elections at the national, provincial, and local level, the maintenance of voting registries, advising the government on electoral law, and participating in the redrawing of constituencies for national elections.
Elections are primarily regulated by the National Elections Act 1886, which entitles all Nuvanian citizens to participate in all elections. Initially this was restricted to property owning men, with suffrage extended to all men who pass literacy requirements in 1918, and to all women subject to the same requirements in 1930. Literacy requirements are still enforced in Nuvania, with approximately 5.35% of the population unable to meet the literacy standard required to be able to vote. In addition, all individuals incarcerated in Nuvania lose their voting rights once they enter prison. As of November 2019, around 118,000 people are imprisoned in Nuvania, representing 0.25% of the population. Nuvania's literacy requirements are the subject of domestic and international criticism, as they predominantly affect Nuvania's mixed and indigenous peoples.
General elections are held every four years and determine the composition of both houses of Parliament. Each member of the General Council represents one constituency, divided according to population. The electoral system for the General Council is first-past-the-post voting, with the Provincial Council utilising a ranked voting system due to the lower number of seats.
Presidential elections are held every seven years, with political parties determining presidential candidates through closed primaries. The system to elect the President is two-round instant runoff voting, with different rounds of elections mandated to be separated by a period not exceeding three months. Candidates who fail to obtain at least 15% of the vote in the first round are eliminated from the second round of voting. A candidate must obtain a majority of the vote in order to be elected President. If candidates fail to obtain a majority, a tiebreaker election is held six months from the second round.
Provincial and local elections use similar electoral systems to national elections. Provincial legislatures are elected in the same manner as Parliament, opting for a first-past-the-post system. District and municipal elections utilise open list instant runoff voting to elect district and municipal councilors. Unlike provincial elections, district and municipal elections are largely non-partisan and often have a large number of candidates.
Nuvania has a mixed judicial system combining aspects of both civil and common law. Nuvania's laws are codified in the National Law Code but are open to interpretation by judges, with judicial rulings also setting legal precedents. The National Law Code, the role of the judiciary, as well as the structure of the judicial system and the role of government agencies within the system are defined in Section 7 of the constitution. Nuvania does not have trial by jury.
Courts in Nuvania are divided between different levels of government, and by the roles they play. They are divided into three principal categories: general, administrative, and appellate, and are also divided by local government.
General courts are divided into two types: municipal and district. Municipal courts handle low level criminal offending, civil disputes, and small claims. These are often presided over by one judge and do not have the means of appealing to higher courts. District courts handle more serious civil and criminal cases, randing from criminal trials, to civil matters such as lawsuits, legal challenges, as well as family court cases such as divorce settlements and custody cases.
Administrative courts are those that cover aspects outside of civil disputes and criminal trials, primarily covering aspects of government administration as well as disputes relating to Nuvania's labour and employment laws. There are five courts within the administrative court system: the Administrative Court, which deals with disputes and legal challenges regarding local and central government, the Constitutional Court, the Labour Court, which deals with disputes and challenges regarding labour and employment law, the Environment Court, which relates to challenges involving environment law, and Electoral Court. All are provided over by a panel of three to five judges who are experts in their particular fields of law.
Appellate courts are those that hear appeals from general and administrative courts. These consist of two courts: a Court of Appeals, of which one can be found in each province, and the Supreme Court, which is the final court of appeal. All appellate courts are presided over by a panel of five judges.
Two significant courts in Nuvania are the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court. The Constitutional Court acts both in a judicial and as an advisory role, the former used to review government laws, rules, and other actions against the constitution, and the latter to provide advice to the government. The Supreme Court hears cases referred to from the Court of Appeals, or applied to the court directly, and are tasked with affirming a final decision on a case or legal challenge. The Supreme Court has the power to establish legal precedents in Nuvania. Both the Constitutional Court and Supreme Court are composed of panels of five judges who are appointed for life by the State President.
The National Prosecution Service is the primary agency for conducting criminal prosecutions in Nuvania. The agency employs over 4,500 staff, mostly solicitors and barristers, as well as other legal staff and officials. It's official role is prosecuting criminal cases, offering legal advice to police and other investigative agencies, and to decide whether or not to bring criminal charges against individuals. It is headed by the Prosecutor-General, whose role is primarily administrative. The Prosecutor-General serves a single term of six years and is appointed by the Minister of Justice.
Law enforcement in Nuvania is predominantly carried out by the National Police Service, whose role is to prevent and investigate crime, uphold and enforce laws, and protect all persons and property in Nuvania. It also plays an important role in maintaining internal stability and security. It is one of the largest government agencies in Nuvania, employing approximately 186,846 officers and personnel.
In addition to the National Police Service, there are numerous municipal police services in Nuvania, whose primary role is to provide assistance to the National Police Service when requested, as well as enforce local bylaws and regulations, conduct traffic enforcement, and prevent crime. Municipal police forces have limited powers of detention and enforcement. There are an additional 44,500 or so staff and police officers employed in 187 municipal police forces across Nuvania.
Outside of police, there are other agencies with powers to enforce laws, detain individuals, and have other law enforcement powers. Among these is the National Prison Service, the National Customs and Revenue Service, the National Parks and Conservation Service, and the Financial Crimes Office.
Nuvania has official bilateral relations with 32 countries across Euclea, Coius, the Asterias, and Sublustria. In addition, it is a member of several international organisations. Nuvania's diplomatic relationships stem primarily from three principal categories: geographic proximity, historical or cultural ties, and closer trade relationships.
Nuvania maintains embassies and close bilateral relations with most countries in Asteria Inferior, especially neighbouring countries such as Aucuria, Belmonte and Satavia. Further afield, Nuvania maintains embassies in Caluchia, Satucin, and Zaralaja. In addition to being on the same continent, Nuvania has a good working relationship with all countries, with foreign policy traditionally oriented towards these countries in terms of trade agreements, travel agreements, and regional cooperation. Historically ties between Nuvania and the countries of Satavia and Satucin have been the closest, the former for its cultural and historical similarities as former colonies of Estmere and Hennish states before independence. Satavia is also the only country with which Nuvania maintains a free travel agreement. Relations with Sautcin date after Nuvania became an independent state, and were particularly close during the Kylaris. Since then, both countries have cooperated on setting economic policies and directions for the remainder of the continent. Relations between Nuvania and Aucuria and Belmonte have improved significantly since the end of the Great War, and today form two of the largest trade partners with Nuvania.
Further afield in the Asterias, Nuvania maintains embassies and bilateral relations with most countries in Asteria Superior and in the West Arucian Sea, save for Chistovodia, Maracao, and Marirana. Nuvania previously maintained an embassy in the latter until 2015, when the embassy in Aquinas was closed owing to the outbreak of the civil war. Nuvania also previously maintained an embassy in Porto Leste in Maracao prior to the invasion of Dunhelm Island in 1955. Of these relations, the most important to Nuvania are Marchenia and Tacunia, both of which have significant economic investments in Nuvania, especially in manufacturing. Nuvania also shares some cultural links with Tacunia, as both countries have substantial Caldish populations and both were former Estmerish colonies, and have Estmerish as recognised official languages. Relations with Nuxica developed primarily after the Great War, with both countries looking to expand their economies and trade with other nations, as well as a mutual interest in preventing the spread of communism.
Outside of the Asterias, Nuvania maintains relations with 13 nations in Euclea, principally nations that have had an influence on Nuvania through economic or cultural links. Of these nations, Estmere and Hennehouwe are considered the most important. Nuvania is an Estophone nation and a former Estmerish colony, and is considered the principal diplomatic conveyor between ASTCOM and Estmere, as well as other nations in Asteria Inferior. As a former Hennish colony before becoming part of the Estmerish colonial empire, relations with Hennehouwe are close, with a substantial proportion of Nuvanian culture influenced from Hennehouwe. Outside of these two nations, Nuvania also has bilateral relations with Caldia, Etruria, Gaullica, Montecara, and Soravia among others. In Coius, Nuvania maintains bilateral relations with Senria, Xiaodong, and Zorasan, Senria and Xiaodong especially having significant economic investments in Nuvania.
Nuvania is one of the founding members of the Asteria Inferior Common Market and has been instrumental in its development as well as the maintenance of the organisation. It is also a founding member of the Organisation of Asterian Nations. Nuvania also maintains membership of the Community of Nations, the International Council for Democracy, the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, the International Trade Organisation, and the League of Oil Producing States.
The Nuvanian Armed Forces perform the military functions of the Nuvanian Free State. It is the third largest in terms of personnel in Asteria Inferior, with approximately 87,564 men and women on active service or as reserve personnel. As with other militaries, the Nuvanian Armed Forces consists of three branches: the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy. Nuvania transitioned from a conscription-based military to a professional armed force during the 1980's, although provisions are in place to institute conscription should the need arise.
Nuvania's military has historically been used in both conventional and unconventional conflicts and is directly descended from the colonial military formations raised by both the Hennish and Estmerish colonial governments to maintain stability within the colonies prior to independence, with Nuvania having fought in two conventional wars since independence, in addition to having participated to some extent in unconventional conflicts following the end of the Kylaris. It has also had to become involved in internal policing and internal security operations, especially during times of social unrest. Because of this, the Army and Air Force are among the best trained and experienced in counter-insurgency operations.
Nuvania is classified as a unitary state, and possesses three tiers of internal governance. These are Template:Wplprovinces, districts, and municipalities, all of which have respective areas of competence outlined in the Constitution of Nuvania.
Nuvania is divided into eight provinces, each with its own elected legislature and an elected premier, with the Constitution of Nuvania outlining the powers allocated to the provinces and shared powers between the provinces and central government.
Powers and responsibilities given to the provinces include the ability to pass legislation outside of Parliament if the legislation does not undermine existing national legislation or regulations. They have full control and responsibilities over a number of aspects of governance, ranging from certain infrastructure projects to emergency services, these being firefighting and emergency medical services. Culture and hertiage preservation are under the control of provinces, as well as recreational facilities.
Central and provincial governments cooperate on most other areas not controlled by provinces. These include housing, the environment, civil defence, agriculture, roads and railways included in the national transportation network, education, healthcare, police, public works, among other areas. In this respect provinces and central government cooperate on administration and provide joint funding for these areas.
Each province has its own elected legislature, an elected premier, and an executive council, which overseas the various provincial departments, akin to a national cabinet. All members of provincial legislatures and premiers serve for four year terms, and have no term limits.
Districts are the second tier of local governance in Nuvania, and have more limited powers and responsibilities than provinces. There are 384 districts across Nuvania.
Districts have some powers reserved to them principally relating to infrastructure, utilities, and some emergency services, and cooperate with provincial and central governments elsewhere. Districts do not have powers to legislate on their own, but can levy minor taxes.
Most districts are a combination of urban and rural areas, although some larger cities will have districts within a larger urban or metropolitan area.
Each district is governed by an elected prefect and an elected council, which are subject to the same term limits and term lengths as provincial politicians. Electoral boundaries in districts are set by both the province and central government.
Municipalities are the third tier of local governance in Nuvania, and have a wider number of powers and responsibilities than districts, although these powers and responsibilities are dependent on the type of municipality. There are approximately 1,197 municipalities in Nuvania.
Municipalities are divided between urban and rural municipalities. Although all powers and responsibilities set out in the Constitution of Nuvania apply to all municipal governments, urban municipalities often have more powers and responsibilities incurred upon them than rural municipalities.
Responsibilities for municipal governments include utilities such as waste water and solid waste, as well as stormwater and water treatment. In terms of infrastructure, municipalities are responsible for local roads and public transport infrastructure, ranging from bus routes to commuter rail. In addition, they are also responsible for ports and other harbour facilities that do not handle international passengers or cargo. Outside of these, municipal governments are responsible for a wide variety of aspects of governance, from recreational facilities and public amenities, to street trading and local markets.
Municipal governments have powers of regulation over various local industries, including restaurants, as well as issuing permits and operating licences. Municipal governments may also levy minor taxes and charge fees for services provided, or fees for permits and licences.
Typically a municipality is governed by a mayor, although in rural areas an intendant is sometimes used as the term for the local council executive. Municipal councils are also elected, and are subject to the same term limitations as other politicians.
Nuvania has an upper-middle-income industrialised economy, the third largest in Asteria Inferior after Satucin and Belmonte. It has a nominal GDP of G8.92 trillion ($549.053 billion), and a GDP of G23.06 trillion ($1.49 trillion) if measured by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). Nuvania has a nominal GDP per capita of G183,316 ($11,281). If measured by PPP, the per capita amount is G473,915 ($29,164).
Historically the Nuvanian economy has been subject to both free market economic policies and deregulation alongside periods of controlled economic planning and protectionism. This has created periods of economic growth and stagnation, with prevailing economic policy in response to major global political trends. In recent years, the economy has transitioned towards a mixed-market system with some Weranic ordoliberalist tendencies.
Nuvania is still largely dominated by its primary industries, these being agriculture and mining. It posseses a developed industrial sector that produces numerous goods for ASTCOM markets, and growing teritary industries, especially in information and technology.
Agriculture in Nuvania is the sixth largest sector of the economy, constituting 8.4% of GDP, or approximately G750.11 billion ($46.16 billion). The sector accounts for 4.31% of annual exports, or G110.40 billion ($6.79 billion). In addition, agriculture employs five percent of the workforce, or nearly 1.2 million people. Of the industries within the agricultural sector, the largest is horticulture followed by meat and dairy.
Nuvania's horticultural sector collectively is worth G354.55 billion ($21.8 billion), which is approximately 47.2% of the agricultural sector, in addition to accounting for 93.8% of agricultural exports. The sector is divided into crops, fruit, and vegetables, of which crops is the largest and most valuable in terms of total produce harvested and market value. Nuvania is one of the world's largest producers of cocoa and coffee beans, the seventh largest producer of sugar cane, and a significant producer of corn and soybeans. It is also one of the world's largest producers of sugar, with the majority of sugar cane grown in the country used for sugar production. Collectively, crop growing is worth G179.70 billion ($11.05 billion) to the economy every year in production, and G51.86 billion ($3.19 billion) in exports.
Fruit is the second largest industry in the horticultural sector, and contributes G89.95 billion ($5.53 billion) to the sector annually. Nuvania produces principally fruit that is found or can be grown in tropical climates. It is one of the world's largest producers of assai and acerola fruits, bananas, guavas, mangoes, plantains, and pineapples. It is also a significant producer of citrus fruit, including lemons, oranges, and tangerines, and is one of the largest tropical producers of apples, being one of the few tropical countries to successfully grow apples in a tropical climate. One quarter of the agricultural labour force is employed in Nuvania's fruit industry, making it one of the most labour intensive industries in Nuvania.
Meat production is the second largest industry in the agricultural sector, contributing G226.66 billion ($13.9 billion) annually, in addition to G4.27 billion ($263.19 million) in exports. The most produced meat in Nuvania in terms of tonnage is chicken, followed by cattle and pig meat, with Nuvania producing significant amounts of beef and pork. The industry is largely industrialised and automated, with around ten percent of the agricultural workforce employed in the meat industry.
Dairy is an important industry in Nuvania's agricultural sector, worth G89.49 billion ($5.50 billion) in total annual production and an additional G3.08 billion ($190.01 million) in exports. Most of thes sector's production is concentrated in the production of milk with other dairy products such as butter and cheese secondary. As with the meat industry, the dairy industry is highly automated, and around fifteen percent of the agricultural labour force is employed in the dairy industry.
A number of large companies operate in the agricultural sector, among them Hewitt Agrarian, which is principally involved in the horticultural industry and also is involved in agricultural wholesale, Nyland International, which is Nuvania's largest meat producer, and Melkor, Nuvania's largest dairy company.
Manufacturing is an extremely importand strategic sector in the Nuvanian economy. It is the third largest of Nuvania's economic sectors, contributing G1.15 trillion ($70.82 billion) to the economy annually, approximately 12.9% of GDP. As a sector, industry employs 30.2% of the labour force, or 7.1 million people.
Historically the sector was underdeveloped until the adoption of some liberalisation of investment regulations in the late 1950's by the government of Owen Fraser, which commenced a period of significant growth in the sector. This growth continued with the introduction of the National Economic Development Program by the government of F.A Vredeling in 1970 which saw a massive increase in both domestic and foreign direct investment into manufacturing. This saw the sector grow in size and importance. Growth continued despite a brief contraction in the 1980's, which was replaced by steady investment and moderate protectionism through the Asteria Inferior Common Market.
Nuvania has an active automotive manufacturing industry, which is the second largest in Asteria Inferior. In 2019, over 615,000 vehicles were produced in Nuvania, with the industry contributing G115.40 billion ($7.04 billion) to the economy. The vast majority of vehicles manufactured in Nuvania are from foreign companies, with 12 different manufacturers operating 15 manufacturing and assembly plants. The largest of these companies are Astoria Motor Group, Reynaud, Takahasi Motor Company, and x. In addition, Nuvania also produced motorcycles and commercial vehicles for sale within ASTCOM markets.
Construction is one of the fastest growing industries in the manufacturing sector and is contributes 7.4% to the GDP, approximately G651.31 billion ($40.08 billion) and employing six percent of the workforce. The sector experiencing significant growth in recent decades with the biggest increase have been in housing and commercial construction, with growth driven from the main cities in Nuvania. Commercial construction is predominantly involved in the construction of skyscrapers and other mixed use developments, the greatest growth of which has come from the cities in northern Nuvania, particularly Pietersburg, Vryburg, and Windstrand. The construction industry includes a multitude of different companies engaged in both the construction of buildings and infrastructure, as well as the manufacturing of construction materials. The Beijer Group is one of the largest construction and real estate companies in Nuvania, alongside Fraser-Maritz, which is primarily concerned with infrastructure. In terms of construction materials, the Shand Group is the largest conglomerate in the country producing a wide variety of building materials. Other important companies include Semkor, Nuvania's largest cement production and retail country, and Nasstof, which supplies metal and wood based products for the construction industry.
Heavy industry has historically played in an important part in Nuvania's industrial development, and despite declines in the 1970's and 1980's, has continued to remain an important part of the manufacturing sector. Nuvania's heavy industry is primaruly focused on the refinement and production of metal products such as aluminium and steel, as well as finished products such as locomotives, construction equipment, and ships. Nuvania produced approximately 823,315 tonnes of aluminium, 4.9 million tonnes of pig iron, and 9.11 million tonnes of steel collectively worth G160.39 billion ($9.87 billion). Nuvania's heavy industries primarily revolve around shipbuilding and rolling stock for railways, including locomotives. Genstaal OBM is Nuvania's largest producer of steel, and is one of the country's largest companies. NLW is Nuvania's largest producer of locomotives and rolling stock, with shipbuilding roughly split between Arucor and United Shipyards.
Light industry accounts for 45% of Nuvania's manufacturing sector and is predominantly given over to the manufacture of household appliances and consumer electronics. The industry is highly developed and automated owing to decades of investment as well as the advent of a wider captive market for Nuvanian exports. Currently about 30% of the sector's workforce is employed in light industry. Nuvania's largest appliance and consumer electronics brand Challenger, part of the wider Challenger Group, holds a significant share of the domestic market as well as significant investments throughout ASTCOM member states and in the West Arucian Sea region. Other manufacturers include Kelley-Hughes, which primarily manufactures white goods in addition to air conditioning units, Commax, which manufactures computer accessories as well as portable radio systems, and Telekor, which manufactures televisions and other display screens.
Mining is the fourth largest economic sector in Nuvania, with the sector contributing G1.03 trillion ($63.93 billion) to GDP annually. Mining contributes an additional 15% in annual exports worth G386.43 billion ($23.78 billon) annually. The sector employs 728,219 people, or 3.07% of the labour force.
Nuvania is a significant producer of ferrochromium and ferromanganese, with 3.03 million and one million tonnes respectively mined in Nuvania in 2019. The country is the second largest producer of iron ore behind Satucin, mining 63.1 million tonnes in 2019. In addition, Nuvania is a prolific producer of precious metals, with 160 tonnes of gold, 75 tonnes of platinum, and 66 tonnes of silver, the latter alone worth G525.39 billion ($32.33 billion), or 50.5% of the total value of mineral and metal production.
Mineral production is mostly from the central regions of Nuvania, in particular Veld province where the majority of the mines are located. Many precious metal mines are located in the north of the country in Etten and Kanaän, with some mines located in Rand as well. Nuvania's largest coal mines are located in the north as well. In addition, smaller mining operations exist in Albina on the central west coast.
Alkmaar is the largest Nuvanian mining company in operation, with mines and processing facilities across Nuvania and around the world. Other important companies in the mining sector include Douglas-Hyman and VKM, all of which also operate internationally.
Nuvania's services sector is the largest of the economic sectors in the country, and is composed of multiple different industries and sectors including finance, retail, transportation, and tourism. Collectively the services sector contributes G 4.57 trillion ($281.66 billion) to the economy, approximately 51.3% of total GDP. In addition, the services sector employs 15.3 million people, equivalent to 64.8% of the total workforce. Among the largest service industries in Nuvania include finance, transportation, and tourism.
Finance is the largest of the service sectors in Nuvania, contributing G1.88 trillion ($115.85 billion) to GDP annually. Most of Nuvania's financial sector is devoted to banking and financial services, with insurance, stockbrokers, and other financial services also key components of Nuvania's finance industry. It is the third largest sector in Asteria Inferior after Satucin and Belmonte and one of the largest in the Asterias as a whole. Nuvania has two stock exchanges and one commodities exchange located in Niekerk, Pietersburg, and Windstrand. The largest of these stock exchanges is the Pietersburg Stock Exchange, which has a market capitalisation of G16.63 trillion ($1.00 trillion) and is the second largest in Asteria Inferior behind the Gatôn Stock Exchange in Satucin. The Nierkerk Stock Exchange is the other of Nuvania's stock exchanges and is mostly devoted to companies headquartered in southeastern Nuvania as well as companies from southern Asteria Inferior and southern Coius. Windstrand is the location of the Nuvanian Commodities Exchange which is the largest of its kind in Asteria Inferior and primarily catering to futures contracts, options contracts, and spot trading for agricultural products, oil and gas, as well as previous metals.
Banking is the largest of the industries in the financial sector, and is overseen by the Reserve Bank of Nuvania. Nuvania's banking industry is dominated by the "Big Five" banks, these being the Arucian Investment Bank, the Bank of Nuvania, the Volksbank, Nuvania's largest Asterianer bank, Postbank Nuvania, and National Building Society, Nuvania's largest cooperative bank. Of these, the Bank of Nuvania is the largest followed by the Arucian Investment Bank and the Volksbank. In addition to domestic banks, a number of foreign banks also have operations in Nuvania, especially banks from neighbouring countries as well as some from further afield, the most notable being the Bank of the Orient, a bank based in Imagua and the Assimas. In addition to banks, numerous other financial services companies can be found in Nuvania. These include NAM, Nuvania's largest insurance company, and the Declercq Group, a holdings group with a wide profile of assets and companies based in Pietersburg.
Transportation is an important service sector in Nuvania, contributing seven percent to the national GDP, approximately G624.54 billion ($38.43 billion). The transport sector covers land, sea, and air transportation including road transport, railways, ferry services, and airlines. Among the largest companies in this sector include state-owned enterprises such as NLM, Nuvania's flag carrier airline, and NSW, the national railways operator, both of which are multi-billion dollar companies. Other state owned enterprises, such as the Nuvanian Postal Service also are involved in the transport sector through freight-forwarding services, and Roadways, an inter-city bus service. Dozens of private companies can be found in this sector, including Nuvanian Roadlines, which operate road-based freight services, National Translines, which operate inter-city bus services, and the Van Horn Shipping Company, which operates ferry services between Nuvania and Satavia.
Tourism in Nuvania constitutes 9.4% of the GDP, or G838.67 billion ($51.61 billion) and is one of the larger industries in the service sector. Approximately 10.47 million tourists visited Nuvania in 2019. Most of the visitors are from countries with temperate climates, especially in northern Asteria Superior in Euclea, with the peak travel period occurring during the winter months in the northern hemisphere. The most popular provinces for visitors are Etten, Kanaän, and Brabantia, owing to their tropical cultures and landscapes. Numerous companies cater to international tourists, and some of the largest hotel and resort chains are headquartered in Nuvania, including Blue Marlin Club and the Naudé Group.
Nuvania is a significant energy producer within Asteria Inferior. It has the second largest oil reserves after Satucin, and the largest coal reserves. It is the largest producer of coal and crude oil within Asteria Inferior. Fuel extraction and production contributes approximately $34.4 billion to the economy annually, with Nuvania being a net exporter of fuels.
Nuvania produces 830,271 barrels of oil per day, with an annual production value of $19.1 billion. In addition, Nuvania produces $3.7 billion worth of petroleum, and $3.1 billion worth of fuel oil annually. Most of these products are produced at refineries located in northern Nuvania, in particular the Kronenburg Refinery near Pietersburg, the largest in Nuvania with a production capacity of 430,000 barrels per day. There are six oil refineries located around Nuvania, with the Arucian Oil Company (AOC) and the Nuwanse Oliemaatskappy (NOM) the two largest oil and gas companies operating in Nuvania.
Approximately $14.4 billion in liquid and solid fuels are exported overseas annually, with the majority of these exports going to other nations within the Asteria Inferior Common Market, principally Aucuria and Satavia. Nuvania also supplies oil and gas to countries outside of the common market, notably Imagua and the Assimas, of which Nuvania supplies 47% of its oil and gas needs. Energy exports account for 9.15% of total exports.
Nuvania produces 90.6 million tonnes of coal worth $5.5 billion annually, with coal production accounting for 15.9% of total fuel production and $33.5% of fuel exports. Nuvanian coal is known for its low pollution and high heat generation when burned. Much of the coal is consumed domestically for electricity generation, with coal exports to primarily AFDC countries accounting for the remainder of production. Alkmaar and Veld Koolmaatskappy (VKM) are among the many companies that operate coal mines in Nuvania, with both Alkmaar and VKM the largest coal producers.
The electricity sector in Nuvania is one of the largest in Asteria Inferior, worth $23.3 billion. Nuvania generates an average of 203.18 TWh of electricity annually, second only to that of Satucin. Of that electricity generated, 62.2% comes from fossil fuels and 37.7% comes from renewable sources, with a total of 62,287 MW of installed capacity. The latter is dominated by hydroelectricity, with Nuvania home to the second largest hydroelectric power plant in Asteria Inferior, the Herstelling Dam. Nuvania's electricity generation and retail sectors are dominated by Enerkom, one of Nuvania's largest companies.
Around 26.1 TWh of electricity is exported annually, worth $36.8 billion, the higher value due to the average higher prices demanded by Nuvanian electricity companies. The majority of these exports go to neighbouring countries, with Aucuria receiving the majority of the supply, followed by Satavia.
Nuvania has a total of 313,107 kilometres of roads and highways, 175,084 kilometres of which are paved. In addition, Nuvania has 569 kilometres of expressways, mostly located in the more densely populated northern provinces. As with other countries in Asteria Inferior and most former Estmerish colonies, Nuvania drives on the right side of the road. As of 2017, there were x million registered motor vehicles in Nuvania, including roughly x million cars and light commercial vehicles.
Intercity public transport is primarily provided by independent companies, although Nuvania has large transport providers who have significant networks throughout the country. Roadways is a state owned passenger bus service that operates both domestic and international routes, with National Translines operating as the primary competition. Both of these companies transport over 1.5 million passengers annually.
Nuvania has a total of 17,626 kilometres of Template:Railways in Nuvania, with most of the network utilising 1,500mm standard rail gauge. Nearly one thousand kilometres of the total rail network is composed of 600mm narrow gauge rail exclusively for the sugar cane industry, with these lines run independently of the main railway network, often by independent or private companies within the sugar industry. Most of the network is owned by Infracor with only a few lines owned and maintained independent of the central government. Approximately 42% of the network is electrified.
NSW provides the majority of inter-city freight and passenger rail services in Nuvania, and has a near monopoly on these services, with only a small number of companies providing localised services. NSW is known for its tourist trains, such as the Coconut Express which runs along the northern coast from Pietersburg to Windstrand, and the Southerner that runs from Pietersburg to Niekerk. NSW also provides international rail services to neighbouring countries; between Windstrand and Fresenburg, Aucuria in the north and Niekerk and Pinheiros, Belmonte in the south.
There are 432 airports and airstrips in Nuvania, most of which are private airports or airstrips serving remote communities and a small number of full service commercial airports. Around two thirds have unpaved or grass runways, with the remaining one third of airports having paved runways. There are approximately 179 public access airports in Nuvania, 55 of which have passenger terminal or cargo terminal facilities, with 39 of those airports having scheduled passenger and cargo services. Most of the main airports in Nuvania are owned and managed by Infracor.
Approximately 31 airlines and aviation companies are registered with the Civil Aviation Authority, most of which are charter companies. Nuvania's largest airline is the state owned flag carrier NLM, which provides scheduled domestic and international services. It's regional subsidiary NLM Express is also Nuvania's second largest airline providing regional services around Nuvania and short-haul international services. Other important airlines include Webjet, Nuvania's first low cost airline, as well as Ansell Airways and Premiair.
Nuvania has 18 sea ports located along its northern, western, and southern coastlines. The largest of these ports are Windstrand, Pietersburg, and Niekerk, with important secondary ports at Philipsbaai, Newport, and Wetting. Approximately 2.81 million TEU's passed through Nuvanian ports in 2019, three quarters of which were handled by the nation's three largest ports.
There are 39 ships within Nuvania's merchant marine; six bulk, 21 cargo, five container, two liquefied petroleum gas tanker and five petroleum tanker ships. In addition, there are 11 Nuvanian ships registered in other countries, six in Imagua and the Assimas, four in Sanslumière, and one in Satavia.
The Van Horn Shipping Company is the only company in Nuvania that provides international passenger ferry services, operating a fleet of eleven ferries that operate between a number of port cities on Nuvania's west coast and Satavia. These ferries provide important economic and transportation links between Satavia and the mainland of Asteria Inferior, and carry over 15 million passengers and 40 million tonnes of cargo annually.
Nuvania is a multi-ethnic country, with over a dozen ethnic groups found within its population. The largest of these groups are whites who form a plurality of the population with creoles, Nuvania's mixed white and Native Asterian population. Nuvania's Native Asterian population is the second smallest, with other ethnic groups composing the rest of the population.
White people are the largest demographic in Nuvania, with 49% of the population, or 23.2 million people identifying as white. Roughly 70% of the white population was born in Nuvania, with the remaining 30% born outside of the country. These include others born in both Asteria Inferior and Asteria Inferior, as well as those from further afield, primarily Euclea.
Estmerish people form the largest of the white ethnic groups in Nuvania, at 58.2% of the white population, or 13.5 million people. Estmerish people began arriving in Nuvania during the late 17th century primarily as traders or those permitted to settle in areas administered by the former First Hennish Republic and the Sotirian Commonwealth. Immigration from Estmere skyrocketed after the takeover of the former Flamian colony in 1749, with substantial waves taking place in the early and mid 19th century. Roughly 60% of the Estmerish population was born in Nuvania, with 30% of the population having been born in former Estmerish colonies elsewhere in the Asterias, and the remaining ten percent classified as expatriates from Estmere itself. Estmerish people have enjoyed a privileged lifestyle as well as political control in Nuvania, especially through the home rule period prior to independence, with the highest concentrations in Nuvania's northern provinces.
Asterianers are the second largest of Nuvania's white ethnic groups, at 39.6% of the white population, or 9.2 million people. They are the descendants of Nuvania's first Euclean migrants, the Hennish, who settled in northern Nuvania in the 16th and 17th centuries. They are the group with the highest percentage of native-born residents, with 95% of the population having been born in Nuvania. Asterianers have been more associated with agriculture and industry than other white ethnicities, and there has been a broad rivalry between Asterianers and Estmerish since the Estmerish takeover. Most Asterianer live in the central provinces of Nuvania, particularly Albina and Pomeronia.
There are approximately 493,412 other people classified as belonging to groups outside of Estmerish and Asterianers. These include Chennois, Ghaillies, Hennish, Iusitans, Ruttish, and Weranians. Many of these groups are immigrant groups, migrating during the 19th century or more recently, either in the immediate aftermath of the Great War, or escaping from political instability in neighbouring countries.
Mixed peoples, or creoles, constitute 42% of the population of Nuvania, or some 19.9 million people. Creoles are the descendants of the Euclean migrants who intermarried with Native Asterians during the colonial period. Creoles became the second largest population demographic from the 19th century onwards. Historically, creoles have faced significant discrimination, initially under Flamian rule, and then during the Estmerish colonial period, followed by independence. From the 1970's onwards, and especially in the 1980's, creoles became less discriminated against and saw a substantial rise in quality of life and living standards, with creoles now accounting for one third of the middle class in Nuvania.
Indigenous peoples constitute 5.6% of the population, or around 2.6 million people. These peoples come from a variety of tribes and people groups themselves, some of which have been in existence since before the arrival of Eucleans. There are over 87 different tribes in Nuvania with over 40 different recognised languages. Indigenous Nuvanians are among the most impoverished and discriminated groups in Nuvania, and suffer disproportionately from extreme poverty, illiteracy, and crime, among others.
There are 1.6 million people who are classified as being of a different ethnic group, which account for 3.4% of the population. These are migrant groups or descendants of migrant groups, many of them brought in by various colonial governments as labourers, with some also migrating for economic reasons and as refugees. Among these groups are the Gowsa, as well as Senrians, and Xiaodongese.
Nuvania has two official languages: Asteriaans and Estmerish. These were made the co-official languages with the passing of the Official Languages Act 1937 in January 1938, which did away with the former National Language Act 1887 and the supremacy of Asteriaans as the official language of Nuvania. Both languages are considered to be the lingua franca of Nuvania, although Estmerish has more speakers.
Estmerish is spoken by roughly 65% of the population as a first language, as a second language by 32%, and as a third or fourth language by three percent. Nuvanian Estmerish is the distinct dialect of Estmerish spoken in Nuvania and encompasses a variety of accents and sub-dialects based on geographic location as well as social class. In addition, a wide variety of words are borrowed from indigenous languages, these too dependent on geographic location. The Aru languages predominantly influence Estmerish in the northern coastal provinces, Mwiskubub languages in Rand, and the Jeh languages in Pomeronia, among others. These give distinct sub dialects within the overall Estmerish dialect.
Asteriaans is the second most spoken language in Nuvania in terms of first languages, with around 42% of the population speaking it as a first language, and another 19% speaking it as a second language. It is an official language of Nuvania alongside Estmerish, and is the only Weranic language to have originated in the Asterias. Asteriaans is derived partly from Hennish, partly from Estmerish, and partly from various indigenous languages, leading to regional dialects that differ depending on province and even between districts. One of the most notable and distinct dialects of Asteriaans is the Kustdialek, spoken primarily in Etten, which is heavily influenced by words from the Ika language. A related dialect is Kanpraat from north-eastern Kanaän, influenced by the Aru language of the Aru people.
Gaullican is the third largest spoken language in Nuvania, and is the second language spoken by Nuvanians. Gaullican has been taught in Nuvania since the early Estmerish colonial period in which it became a major lingua franca in the broader Arucian area, owing to the wide presence of Gaullican colonies and later, independent states. Nuvania's strong relationship with Satucin further emphasised the use of the language in diplomacy and trade, and became widely taught in secondary schools. This peaked during the Volksfront era in which Gaullican became the second most-spoken language in Nuvania. Since the end of the Great War, the language has seen a steady decline in speakers, from a peak of 64% in 1926, to 31% as of the 2015 census.
Numerous indigenous languages are spoken in Nuvania as first or second languages. These are often unique to the more than 40 indigenous people groups within Nuvania. Some languages are part of broader language families while others are language isolates. Some indigenous peoples no longer speak their own language as colonial policies have rendered them extinct. Of the 2.6 million indigenous people in Nuvania, 367,358 people are native speakers of their indigenous language, or 13.8% of the indigenous population. Numerous programs and initiatives exist to preserve indigenous languages in Nuvania, most of these coming into existence within the last half century. The most numerous of these native languages are those of the Emberë people from the western coasts of Demara and Kanaän, of which there are 113,902 speakers of six languages. These account for 31% of all native speakers of indigenous languages in Nuvania. The language with the lowest number of native speakers is Koto, spoken by the Koto people from the lowlands of northern Pomeronia, with six native speakers as of 2015.
Around one quarter of the population speaks another language that is not indigenous or one of the principal introduced languages in Nuvania. These include minority Euclean languages, such as Luzelese and Weranian, as well as Coian languages such as Senrian, Xiaodongese, and Ziba.
Education in Nuvania is a joint responsibility by the Ministry of Education and provincial educational departments who jointly provide for and fund schools around Nuvania. Furthermore education is split between public schools, private schools, and reserve schools. Nuvania has one of the lower overall literacy rates in Asteria Inferior, with a combined rate of 88% of its population literate. Approximately 12%, or 5.6 million people, are illiterate. Euclean Nuvanians have the highest literacy rate with less than one percent illiterate. Approximately 18.7% of mixed and 38.7% of indigenous Nuvanians are illiterate. As of 2018, the Nuvanian government spent 7.9% of its GDP, approximately ₲346.06 billion ($41.89 billion) annually on education.
The structure of education in Nuvania is influence by both Estmerish and Hennish schooling, with local adaptations, one of these being the existence of transitional schools (oorgangskole) which bridge the educational gap between primary schools and secondary schools. These were implemented in the 1970's and have since become common place around Nuvania. Schooling is compulsory until age 16, when students may be able to leave provided they have employment and with parental permission. Most primary and secondary schools fall within the public sphere, with 84.9% of students attending public schools, and 15.1% attending private schools.
Nuvania has some of the largest and most prestigious universities in Asteria Inferior. Nuvania has what is known locally as the "Big Three" universities, being the University of Pietersburg, the University of Windstrand, and Straatenburg University. Tertiary education in Nuvania is split between universities, vocational schools, and technological institutes. Universities are oriented towards academic studies, vocational schools provide practical training for trades and other related industries, and technological institutes are oriented towards scientific studies. Both universities and technological institutes are split between public and private universities, and vocational schools receive public funding and government subsidises for specific courses.
Healthcare in Nuvania is delivered through central and provincial governments. Total healthcare spending for 2019 was G1.00 trillion ($65.88 billion), twelve percent of GDP. Of these expenditures, 63% came from the public sector and 37% from the private sector. Approximately 64% of Nuvanians use public healthcare, and have their healthcare covered by public health insurance plans. The remaining 36% of Nuvanians are covered by private schemes and the private healthcare system. The average life expectancy in Nuvania is 72.5 years, with a life expectancy of 75.7 years for women, and 69.3 years for men.
Public healthcare is delivered through both central and provincial governments. At a national level, the Ministry of Health administers the Public Health Service whose primary role is the funding of all public health staff, as well as implementation of national healthcare policy and the provision of funding for research and development in the health sector, and subsidies for medicines and pharmaceutical products. It is also responsible for the management of the Public Insurance Scheme, which provides affordable healthcare plans for all Nuvanian residents and citizens.
Each province delivers healthcare through a Department of Health, which manages the local Provincial Health Board, which itself provides the direct healthcare services to the public. Each PHB provides funding for the upkeep and maintenance of hospitals and medical centres within their province, as well as the wages for all staff employed by the PHB that are not paid for by the Ministry of Health. PHB's have the powers to also implement healthcare policies of their own, notably vaccine campaigns for tropical diseases. They are also responsible for the provision of antivenoms for snakebites and bites from other poisonous creatures.
Nuvania's private healthcare system is composed of companies and charities that operate outside the public health system. These include specialist care providers, general practitioners and family doctors, plastic surgeons, among others. It also includes Nuvania's health insurance and healthcare companies. Nuvania's private healthcare system is among the largest in Asteria Inferior.
Emergency medical services in Nuvania are managed at the provincial level, with each province administering its own ambulance service. These services are funded through taxes levied by provincial governments, as well as funding from central government. These funds go towards the acquisition and maintenance of ambulances, paramedic vehicles, air ambulances, and buildings, among others, as well as front line paramedics and support staff. All paramedics in Nuvania are trained in accordance with national guidelines and standards set by the Ministry of Health. There are also multiple private ambulance services operating in Nuvania.
Education in Nuvania is the joint responsibility of central and provincial government in which both share funding and resource allocation for the public school system. Both governments have different competencies which allow for various levels of control and influence over the system. Approximately eight percent of nominal GDP is spent on education as of 2020, with four percent from central government, three percent from provincial governments, and one percent from the private sector. Nuvania has a literacy rate of 96.6%, with a consequent illiteracy rate of 3.4%. Illiteracy rates are highest among Nuvania's black and indigenous communities.
The Ministry of Education is the primary funder of the public school system in Nuvania, with the majority of funding going towards the payment of the 910,472 teaching staff and instructors in Nuvania at all levels of the schooling system, in addition to providing some funding for schools and universities, including research grants. Primarily the Ministry of Education's role in addition to its funding responsibilities is also the setting of the national curriculum for all schools in Nuvania, as well as administering laws and policies pertaining to education as a whole.
Each province in Nuvania has a Provincial Education Board which sets out its own policies and funding. Provincial Education Boards are the primary source of school funding for secondary and primary schools in Nuvania, of which there are 49,058. Funding goes towards the maintenance of school facilities, construction of new buildings, and the payment of non-educational staff, including administrators, principals, etc. Provinces can set some educational policies themselves, although these pertain to the implementation of the curriculum set by the Ministry of Education.
Education in Nuvania begins in preschool or kindergarten with children largely admitted between the ages of four and five before moving onto primary school at age six. Primary school lasts for six years, in which students then progress onto secondary school, which typically lasts for five years. Secondary school students are expected to complete the full five years of secondary schooling, but are able to leave school to pursue vocational education at age 16. There are approximately 5.18 million primary school students attending 24,583 primary schools, and 3.73 million secondary students attending 24,465 secondary schools.
Tertiary education in Nuvania is composed of universities and vocational schools and is split between a public and private system. The Department of Tertiary Education, which is a part of the Ministry of Education, administers the public university system which includes the 24 campuses of the University of Nuvania, the 35 campuses of the National Institute of Technology, and all eight provincial universities, as well as several university hospitals around the country. The remainder of the 94 universities and 2,072 vocational schools functioning under the private education system.
Nuvanian cuisine is a mixture of native and imported influences from the various people groups that lived in Nuvania prior to Euclean colonisation, and from Euclean colonisation. Additional influences come from immigrant communities, especially those from Coius, who often brought with them their native cuisines. Neighbouring countries also have their influences in Nuvanian cuisine, particularly Aucuria and Belmonte.
One of the primary influences of Nuvanian cuisine is that of the Hennish, who settled the country during the late 16th and throughout the 17th centuries. Although they had brought their dishes and methods of cooking with them, the initial settlers had to adapt their ways to suit the local climate, and often utilise local ingredients. As time passed, the greater availability of ingredients meant that Nuvanian cuisine often took on a more uniqueness to it, while remaining influenced by trends in Euclea. A substantial difference between traditional Hennish cuisine and that of Nuvania is the greater use of spices, such as nutmeg, allspice, and chilli peppers, the latter used frequently during cooking. Traditional Hennish dishes such as halfie, and hachee are served in many restaurants. Snack foods from Hennehouwe are reasonably popular in Nuvania, and include corn cookies, frikadelle, kibbeling (Estocised to kibbling), kaassoufflé (known as kaaskoekie in Asteriaans or cheese rissoles), and pancakes, the latter often served at pancake houses.
Through the Hennish settlement came the development of the Asterianer cuisine which blended native and imported influences. As Asterianer culture developed, their cuisine reflected the incorporation of available ingredients, particularly meats, crops, and fruits. As such, Asterianer cuisine produces a wide variety of dishes and foods. Common snacks such as biltong, piebraai, and varkbas are part of Asterianer cuisine. An example of native influences is the wideaspread consumption of aripo, known in Etten as erepa, which were introduced to the settlers by the Native Asterians inhabiting Nuvania's northern coast. Other important dishes and foods include boerwors, a traditional sausage, bokkoms, frikkadelle, kaiings, potjiekos and skilpadjies. A number of breads are also from Asterianer cuisine.
Estmerish cuisine has had a major effect on Nuvanian cuisine, the country being under Estmerish colonial administration between 1749 and 1886. Most of the dishes and food items in Nuvania that are the most popular are those that were around or have been retained from the colonial period, particularly pastries. Among the most popular of these are pies, which predominantly take the form of savoury hot pies with various meats and flavours, and are available as both snack foods and as meals. In addition, sausage rolls and pasties, the latter taking a form similar to that of an empenada, and indeed, are often compared to empenadas. Outside of pastries, dishes such as Shepherd's pie and bangers and mash are frequently eaten. Fish and chips is one of the most popular fast foods in Nuvania, and in the northern provinces, is frequently accompanied by the gatsby, a sandwich unique to Nuvanian Estmerish people.
Neighbouring countries have had a significant influence on Nuvanian cuisine, with Nuvania sharing a popularity of barbequing with Belmonte, known in Nuvania as a braai. Dulce de leche is commonly available in shops, as are brigadiers and tapioca. In addition, two Belmontese dishes, bobó de camarão and vatapá, are available in restaurants across numerous coastal provinces.
Nuvania is one of the largest coffee producers in Asteria Inferior, and is one of the largest consumers of coffee per capita in the world. Commercial coffee establishments typically take the form of Euclean-style cafes although coffeehouses are also present, typically influenced by Dezevauan coffee traditions. Milk coffee is typical of Nuvanian coffee drinks, which has since given rise to the flat white, popular in Nuvania and Satavia. Nuvania is known for its alcoholic drinks, specifically rum and Stoltzer, an apéritif made from bitter and sweet orange peels. In addition, beer and cachaça are also made, the latter known by the brand name Ehlers. A type of spirit known as firewater is also manufactured, as is chicha, which is an alcoholic beverage made by Nuvania's indigenous inhabitants, in addition to kauwim, which is made from bananas.
Nuvanian literature dates back to the Sotirian Commonwealth with the arrival of the first printing presses that were used to print religious books and texts by the South Arucian Company. These printing presses also printed works of fiction and collections of poetry that were permitted to be printed by colonial authorities in order to reinforce religious messages. Among the first published authors was Laurens van Amerongen, whose literary work De rechtszaak is widely considered to be the first fiction work written and printed in Nuvania. Following the end of the Commonwealth, literature in Nuvania bloomed as restrictions were loosened and commercial printing houses were established, including the famous Visscher Drukkerij which printed numerous works by authors such as Albert van der Hagen and Pieter Gallus van Toutenburg. Notably the first female authors to be published also came from this period, including Maria van Amstel, Maria Schouten, and Elisabeth van Valckenborgh.
Asteriaans literature would develop through the latter part of the 18th century and throughout the 19th century, beginning with the plaasroman movement, which depicted farm life and the trials and tribulations of rural Asterianer society. This movement subsequently evolved into a more nationalistic movement in the 1830's centred around the Ekwet political movement and inspired by the poetry of Cornelius Nagel, the author of Die Asterianer. This movement would outline the cultural and societal uniqueness of Asterianers and define the intellectual arguments for independence based on cultural differences. Towards the latter period of Estmerish rule, a sub-genre of pro-independence literature, kostuumisme, appeared. Led by authors such as Brant Reinders and F.M Vergeer, the movement initially began as a rebuke of Estmerish society but evolved into a movement centred around both the criticism of central government as well as the conservative ruralism of Asterianer society and the hypocrisy of the mainstream independence movement. Known in Estmerish as Costumism, the movement is recognised as the first anti-establishment cultural movement in Nuvania.
The latter part of the 19th and 20th centuries saw converging literary themes and movements merge between Asterianer and Estmerish groups. Antonia Remington gave rise to a number of feminist writers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries following the publishing of the novel A Woman's Place, widely credited with galvanising the suffragette movement in Nuvania. Following the rise of the Volksfront regime saw the concurrent rise of the Nothing Movement, lead by George Anderson, which focussed on works with themse of nihilism and existentialism. The Nothing Movement would reach its peak in the late 1930's in the aftermath of the Great War.
Nuvanian literature began to gain international recognition during the latter half of the 20th century, with award winning authors such as Jacqueline Gibson, Johannes Niemann, Adam Flemming, and Benjamin Cooke are all internationally acclaimed authors. Nuvania has also produced notable other literary figures such as poet Willem Herschel, playwright Alfred Garner, and journalists Yvette Paxton and Andrew Herriot.
Nuvania is a major centre for Estmerish language media and the largest producer of media in the Asteriaans language. The country has ranked highly in recent years in press freedom, although occasional political interference still occurs. Historically, Nuvania had low press freedom owing to the heavy use of anti-sedition laws by numerous NVP governments to suppress left-wing publications and radio broadcasts.
The Nuvanian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known by the acronym NBC/NUK is Nuvania's largest broadcast media company, and operates a number of radio and television stations. It is the second largest state broadcasting company in the Estmerish speaking world, and is the largest Asteriaans broadcaster. It currently operates 19 radio and 20 television stations, broadcasting in both Estmerish and Asteriaans, the former as the primary broadcast language, and the latter specifically for the Asterianer population. The company has existed since 1959, with the radio services first broadcast in 1925. In addition to the NBC/NUK are a number of private broadcasters, the largest being Nuvanian Television (NTV), the largest private Estmerish-language broadcaster and pay-to-view television providers Satkom and NuSat.
Print media is one of the more important mass media in Nuvania. The country saw a small decline in daily newspaper circulation from 1.5 million per day in 2010, to 1.27 million in 2020. Nuvania's print media caters to a wide variety of customers and is printed in a number of languages. The largest newspaper and one that is the newspaper of record is Die Vrystaat, which has a daily circulation of 330,000. It is printed in both Asteriaans and in Estmerish. The largest Estmerish newspaper is The Observer, with Die Nasie being the largest Asteriaans-language newspaper. All three are broadsheet newspapers. Nuvania has a large market for magazines, the most widely circulated being Review, which focuses on current affairs, Whisper, which is a gossip/women's living magazine, and youth-orientated RaiD. Important print media companies include the Pace Media Group, which owns a number of national and provincial newspapers, Mediakor, which owns mostly Asteriaans-language print media, and the Independent Media Group, which owns a wide number of community and local newspapers.
Music has been present in Nuvania since the first civilisations were established, and today is heavily influenced by trends through the Estophone world, particularly Tacunia due to its geographic proximity. Domestic music is dominated by the Asteriaans and Estmerish language, comparatively little music is produced in other languages, including indigenous languages.
Estmerish language music is dominated largely by pop, rap, and hip-hop, the latter two having Bahian, Creole, and indigenous musicians being the most prominent, with pop being largely influenced by white musicians. All of these genres remain popular in Nuvania. Rock and electronic music also have gained significant followings, with bands like The Conies and Surge gaining international success. Rock and metal music continues to be a more niche genre in Nuvania and less popular than other genres. Electronic music has seen a significant increase in popularity in Nuvania due to its popularity as a destination for clubbers and ravers. The scene in Nuvania is comparatively small compared with its perceived popularity, and is principally concentrated in cities on the northern coast such as Pietersburg and Windstrand. A number of festivals take place in these cities annually, attracting internationally known artists and thousands of people annually.
Asteriaans music is predominantly concentrated in genres that fit within the broader country music scene as well as gospel or Sotirian music, with smaller numbers of bands and artists who produce music in other genres such as pop or hip hop. Asterianer music is also different in that the themes of the music in that it focuses on themes surrounding Asterianer identity and Asterianer pride, often reinforcing cultural references unique to Asterianers, in addition to collective collaborations celebrating the more community-oriented nature of Asterianers, particularly reinforcing ideas of self-reliance. Asterianer music also is somewhat political, with a number of musicians and artists finding themselves in controversies surrounding associations with political groups, political parties, and associated movements. Beyond this, Asterianer's broader social conservatism has seen a rise in counter-culture movements, lead by alternative hip-hop group Zef, as well as other groups. These groups have represented the lower class urban Asterianers who were not represented by the mainstream music within Asterianer society.
Well known Estmerish language singers and bands from Nuvania include Duchess, Erica Stevenson, Elliot Sinclair, while singers and musicians like Rodger Walter, Lee Barnes, and Otto Herring all having seen success overseas as part of bands, particularly in Estmere. Well known Asterianer singers and musicians include André Pelser, Carl Reinecke, Pieter Flemming, Stefan Rheeder, Derrick Briel, Martin Nagel, and Elliot Vrey.
Nuvania is widely accomplished in sports, winning numerous world championships in various sporting competitions. The country also participates in global sporting competitions, including the Invictus Games, the Football World Cup, and the Rugby World Cup. Sport administration is highly decentralised, administered by individual leagues and federations that regulate both domestic and international sporting competitions.
Nuvania plays a large number of Estmerish sports that were introduced during the Estmerish colonial period. The most prolific of these sports, and widely regarded as Nuvania's national sport, is rugby. Nuvania's national men's rugby union team is widely regarded as one of the best in the world, and is one of the most successful, winning the Rugby World Cup three times, including the first edition in 1981, and is the only nation to have won the world cup while hosting it, having achieved this feat in 1993. Nuvania has also hosted the Women's Rugby World Cup in 2019, although the women's team has been less successful. In addition, the men's and women's rugby teams have won numerous regional competitions, and there are domestic rugby league and rugby union competitions both for professional teams and for Nuvania's provinces. The current top tier domestic competition in Nuvania for rugby is the Super League, which features teams and players from Nuvania, Satavia, and other neighbouring countries.
Association football is the second most popular sport in Nuvania, and is more popular among non-whites, particularly among Bahians and Creoles. Nuvania's men's association football team has made regular appearances in regional competition and in the Coupe d'Asterias, with little success. It has also made a number of appearances at the Coupe du Monde, with the 2019 edition it's most successful by far, making it all the way to the final. Nuvania's top domestic football competition is Division One, which sees teams from across Nuvania and some West Arucian countries competing.
Cricket is one of the more popular sports in Nuvania, and is traditionally associated with the upper classes within Nuvania society. Nuvania's men's cricket team has seen some success in global and regional competitions, and is one of the better ranked teams in the world. Nuvania has also seen success with women's cricket. Nuvania has sanctioned cricket competitions at a provincial and local level, as well as the Nuvanian Cricket League for professional teams.
Motorsports is a popular sport across all sectors of the Nuvanian population, and the country has produced a number of world champions in a variety of racing series. These included Stanley Allbrook, who won the Prix du Monde five times between 1950 and 1955, and Rys Van Helden, who became champion in 1979. Nuvanian racing drivers have also been prominent in other sports, particularly touring car racing, the majority of them competing in the Nuvanian Touring Car Championship, one of the oldest touring car championships in the Asterias. Nuvanians have also made their mark on regional rallying championships and in motorcycle racing.
Other popular sports include golf, in which Nuvania has produced several successful golfers, field hockey, and netball. Nuvania has also invented sports itself, principally konabal, a game similar to netball which was developed by Asterianer women who were rejected from playing netball during the late colonial period. Blaadjies is also a game developed from indigenous communities by the Asterianers and is now commonly played around the country.