Nuvania

Nuvanian Free State

Nuwanse Vrystaat
Flag of
Flag
of
Coat of arms
Motto: "Ons land, ons vryheid"(Asteriaans)
"Our Land, Our Freedom"
Anthem: Die Stem van Nuwanië
The Call of Nuvania
Location of Nuvania in Asteria Inferior
Location of Nuvania in Asteria Inferior
Capital
and largest city
Pietersburg
Official languagesAsteriaans, Estmerish
Demonym(s)Nuvanian
GovernmentParliamentary republic
S.P van Heerdens
Joesoef van Lingen
Establishment
12 October 1673
20 July 1720
• Home rule
20 February 1811
1 September 1886
Area
• Total
1,055,828 km2 (407,657 sq mi)
• Water (%)
0.8
Population
• November 2020 estimate
49,794,647
• 2015 census
47,448,333
• Density
44.9/km2 (116.3/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)July 2020 estimate
• Total
$1.49 trillion
• Per capita
$29,164
GDP (nominal)July 2020 estimate
• Total
$549.053 billion
• Per capita
$11,281
HDI0.776
high
CurrencyGoudë (₲) (NUG)
Time zoneNuvanian Standard Time
Driving sideright
Calling code500
Internet TLD.nu

Nuvania (Asteriaans: Nuwanië), officially the Nuvanian Free State (Asteriaans: Nuwanse Vrystaat) is a sovereign state located in western Asteria Inferior. It is bordered to the west by Satavia, to the northeast by Aucuria, and to the east by Belmonte, with coasts on the Vehmens Ocean and the Arucian Sea. With 47.4 million inhabitants, Nuvania is the second most populous country in Asteria Inferior. It also has the second largest economy on the continent, and play an important part in regional affairs.

First inhabited some 41,000 years ago by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, Nuvania was inhabited by a variety of people groups before the arrival of Eucleans. These early inhabitants settled permanently and formed the first pre-Euclean civilisations which then expanded into the tribes and civilisations that existed when the first Eucleans mapped the northern and western coasts in x.

The Duchy of Flamia and the First Hennish Republic began colonisation in 1540, with the Republic forming the South Asterian Company (ZAK) and Flamia establishing the New Asterian Company (NAK) for the purpose of reinforcing collective Hennish claims in western Asteria Inferior, with the first settlement established at Fort Willem in the far northwest of Nuvania. With the advent of the Sotirian Commonwealth, Nuvanian colonisation began in earnest and culminated in the conquest of the Mwiska at the end of the Mwiska Wars in 1640, a century after the first settlement was established. The Sotirian Commonwealth expanded its control into the interior of Nuvania, establishing the first settlements in what is today Pomeronia in central Nuvania. Simultaneously, the Flamian colonists spread along the coast of Nuvania, establishing numerous trading ports, the largest and most prosperous of which was Niekerk, located in the far southeast of the country.

Events in Euclea came to have significant rammifications for Hennish colonies in Nuvania; the Ten Years' War and the Amendist Wars seeing the end of the Sotirian Commonwealth, and with it, the Commonwealth's colonies in central and eastern Nuvania. This, alongside the conquest of additional Commonwealth settlements in neighbouring Satavia, saw the creation of Flamian Asteria, the first time Nuvania had been united into a single polity. Flamia faced difficulties in administering its new colonies, as the vast majority of the inhabitants were Kasperists, while the Flamian monarchy and colonial government were predominantly Catholic. The same internal strife in Euclea began to appear in the colonies, and while Nuvania did not revolt, local leaders took the initiative to prevent any form of secession from Flamian rule.

Flamia would lose her Asterian colonies to Estmere after the Estmerish-Hennish War in 1747, sparking a new wave of Euclean settlements as well as internal strife within the colonies. Nuvania, in addition to Satavia, were the scene of a series of land in naval battles during the war, in which Estmerish soldiers defeated both the NAK and ZAK. This brought about a period of instability within the colonies, in which the Nuvanians attempted and failed to remove the Estmerish from Nuvania. Estmere would solidify its control over Nuvania, splitting the colonies in 1778 between Nuvania and Satavia, creating Nuvania as a separate entity. In 1811, Nuvania gained some political autonomy and became a self-governing colony, a status which lasted until the War of the Arucian in 1883, after which Nuvania became an independent state in 1886.

Nuvania experienced a substantial period of economic growth between the War of the Arucian and the Great Collapse, which saw the rise of a far right nationalist government to power in 1918. Under G.B Deventer, Nuvania invaded Aucuria during the early months of the Great War, quickly defeating it and becoming drawn into a long guerilla conflict with what remained of the Aucurian military. After invading Belmonte alongside Satucin, Nuvania suffered a series of military and naval defeats that resulted in its withdrawl from both countries and the loss of territories gained during the peace negotiations.

Post-war, Nuvania began to expand its social policies under the government of J.P van Vollenhoven, as well as rebuild economically. The van Vollenhoven government was significant in its expansion of rights and privileges to the working class, as well as the establishment of national education, healthcare, pension, and welfare systems, precipitating another period of economic growth until the outbreak of the Solarian War in 1943, which severely hampered economic activity. Nuvania experienced a protracted period of economic and social malaise during the late 1960's and early 1970's suffering from the effects of the Sugar Crash, with the country emerging from the recession of 1980 in a precarious financial state. The government of Johnathan Keaton oversaw an economic revolution which precipitated greater social reforms in the 1990's under the New Society campaign led by David van Deventer. A banking crisis in the 1990's and another recession in 2005 significantly affected modern Nuvania, shaping social and economic policy to this day.

Nuvania remains a diverse nation both socially and in terms of biodiversity, with one of the highest rates of biodiversity anywhere in the world. The country, however, continues to struggle with social issues surrounding wealth inequality and indigenous rights. It is a member of several supranational organisations, namely the Community of Nations, the Organisation of Asterian Nations, and the International Council for Democracy.

Etymology

History

Precolonial History

Human habitation of the territory that would become Nuvania has been estimated to have been confirmed as early as 41,000 years before present, with some of the oldest pottery in Asteria Inferior found at a number of sites in the Arucian Range, the largest being the Poebenza and Zipakwirë sites in the Arucian Range. These nomadic peoples eventually settled in Nuvania, establishing the many indigenous cultures and civilisations that existed prior to Euclean colonisation.

From these early settlers arose a number of cultures that would inhabit Nuvania prior to the arrival of Eucleans. One of the earliest to arise out of these settlements was the Inza culture, whose origins date to around 3300 BCE. The Inza predominantly inhabited the southern highlands of the Great Asterian Range in southern Nuvania, and were one of the longest extant cultures in Nuvania in the pre-Euclean period. They inhabited areas close to other cultures and tribes, particularly the Pajaan to the southwest and the Tumako to the south along the coast close to the border with Belmonte. The Kalima and Kimbaja inhabited the Great Asterian Range further to the west, with some influences on the coastal peoples who lived there.

Nuvania's northern coastline was inhabited by a range of peoples and cultures. In the northwest, the predominant culture was the Zenû, which was known for goldworking and extensive waterworks of the rivers in the region, with the Zenû being the largest and most advanced culture in the northwest of Nuvania. Further east, the Tairona inhabited a region consisting of modern-day Etten, their domain extending from the coast well into the highlands of the North Asterian Range, border with the Mwiska that lived to the south and southwest of them. Between the Zenû and Tairona were the Mokana peoples, a subgroup of the Kalina that inhabited a wide area of the north coast of Asteria Inferior. In particular, four tribes occupies the area between modern day Pietersburg and the domain of the Tairona; the Barû, the Kalamari, the Karex, the Kospike, and the Jurbako.

Central Nuvania was inhabited by a number of tribes, including the Akwe, Akuwe, Awen, Ini, Krahô, and Rikbaktsa. These tribes were less developed than those in the mountains or along the coast, and share a common language family. The tribes that inhabited central Nuvania were known for their body painting, colourful headdresses made from parrot feathers, as well as body modifications.

Euclean Exploration

Nuvania was discovered by Hennish explorer Johannes van Twiller in 1512 during his voyage along the northern coastline, detailing the northwestern portion of the continent. Although not landing on the continent, he was the first Euclean to not only discover the continent, but to affirm that the two continents were separate landmasses. Van Twiller's expedition was intent on ascertaining the extent of the continent and to look for possible sites for suitable colonisation. Van Twiller was the first Euclean to sight Native Asterians on Asteria Inferior, making a note that the continent contained "a number of thatched hamlets inhabited by people of a darker complexion." Van Twiller had identified two potential areas of possible colonial sites on the mainland, one at the tip of the Mascarenhas Peninsula, and one located at the eastern base of the peninsula. He returned to Hennehouwe in 1533 with a map of the northwestern portion of Nuvania's northern coastline.

Simultaneously, Iusitan explorer Álvaro de Mascarenhas launched his expedition on the behalf of the Empire of Gaullica, with the intent of finding additional colonial territories for the Gaullicans. Mascarenhas sailed down the western coast of the continent and discovered the island of Satavia, assuming it to be an extension of the continental landmass. During this expedition, Mascarenhas landed at what is now Colonist's Beach in the far northwest of Nuvania, having spent the better part of six months at sea. The landing, on August 10 1533, marked the first landing of Eucleans in Nuvania. Mascarenhas noted that while the peninsular was "most excellent for the regarding of shipping", the lack of suitable water sources would likely hamper the development of any settlements. He also noted that the area appeared to be sparsely populated, writing of the "scattered glimpses of what I assume to be natives in the jungle beyond". Mascarenhas departed on August 12, and sailed south, marking out the coastline of the western side of the peninsular, the northern coast of Satavia, and the southwestern coastline of Asteria Inferior. He then made for Gaullican trading ports in southern Coius on August 21, 1533.

The Hennish crown approved the creation of the Asterian Company (AK) in 1533 to pursue colonisation and trade in Asteria Inferior, and to join the rush to acquire territories in the Asterias alongside other Euclean colonial powers. Plans were drawn up for two trading ports in the areas recommended by van Twiller. In order to get a better lie of the land, the Crown sent Jacobus van Achelen, who sailed on September 1, 1533, to gather more information. Van Achelen sailed to the northern Mascarenhas Peninsula and down its eastern coast to the area where Pietersburg would later be founded. Van Achelen noted that "many people inhabit the coast in this area", and would be beneficial for prospective trade. Landing at what would become the settlement of Fort Willem and at the site of Pietersburg, van Achelen affirmed the decision to promote this area for Hennish colonisation. He returned to Hennehouwe and arrived there in October 1534.

Colonisation

King Adriaan-Willem I approved the Asterian Company's plan for two settlements in northwestern Nuvania on February 9, 1537. However, these plans were shelved as the death of the king prompted civil war in Hennehouwe and the partition of the country between the Kasperist north, supported by the Kingdom of Estmere, and the Catholic south, which became the Duchy of Flamia under the rule of Adriaan-Willem II. The latter had inherited the plans for the establishment of colonies in the Asterias, including those of the now-defunct Asterian Company. Adriaan-Willem II established the New Asterian Company (NAK) on June 1538 for the purpose of establishing colonies in the Asterias. The first colonists were recruited from those that had lost their homes during the partition of Hennehouwe. They set sail on December 19, 1540, and landed in Nuvania on May 19, 1541. The colonists were lead by Jacobus van Achelen, who had extensive knowledge of the area. There, they established Fort Willem, in honour of the Duke of Flamia.

Fort Willem was intended to act as a trading and military outpost from which further expansions and settlements could originate. Unsure of the intent or the number of the native inhabitants of the region, Fort Willem was fortified from its inception, which made it one of the more better defended settlements from native attacks. In 1542, Petrus Boerhaave landed to the southeast of Fort Willem at the mouth of the Konrad river, and established the settlement of Pietersburg after his sponsor, Pieter van Meetkercke, the first settlers following four years later in 1546. A number of smaller settlements and bartering posts were progressively established by a number of colonists from different countries with the permission and oversight of the NAK.

Following partition, the First Hennish Republic explored the possibility of establishing colonies in the Asterias themselves. They were aware of the existence of both the Asterian Company prior to the dissolution of the Kingdom of Hennehouwe, as well as the existence of the New Asterian Company. In 1545, Stadtholder Cornelis van Heemskerck established the South Asterian Company (ZAK) to establish colonies in areas outside the NAK. Under the direction of Fransz de Veer, the first ZAK settlers arrived in northeastern Nuvania on August 5, 1547, establishing the settlement of Port Veer, which later became the city of Windstrad.

By the turn of the century, there were over eighty Hennish settlements in northern Nuvania, the majority of them in the northwest of the country. Most of these were small bartering posts and hamlets supporting small areas of agriculture, often cooperating with or incorporating the native inhabitants. A few attacks on these settlements were reported, but the coexistence between the Eucleans and Native Asterians was largely peaceful.

The early colonisation period marked the beginning of the wider Hennish expansion into northern Nuvania, bringing it into contact with different native peoples. The ZAK in particular began to move into the domain of the Tairona, as well as westwards along the coast, gradually pushing out the tribes that lived there. One of the more notable expeditions was that of Herman Hasselaer, who led an expedition into the mountains of the Arucian Range, and made the first contact with the Mwiska people in October 1556. The discovery of arable lands in the Arucian Range, as well as the vast amounts of gold worked by the Mwiska, prompted further expeditions that established a long-standing trade relationship with the Mwiska that lasted into the 17th century.

Sotirian Commonwealth

Nuvanian colonisation accelerated under the Sotirian Commonwealth, which sought to improve its standing as the greater economic and military power of the two Hennish polities. In particular, the knowledge of the vast amounts of gold that could be taken from both the Tairona and the Mwiska was considered to be very attractive to the Commonwealth leadership, and thus the government under Stadtholder Jan van Etten approved the creation of transferrals of soldiers and materials for the expansion of colonial military units in areas controlled by the ZAK, which the Commonwealth had inherited from the First Hennish Republic. Van Etten appointed Emmanuel van Leeuwenhoek as the commander of these forces, with the first instance of expanding ZAK and by extension, Commonwealth territories, southward.

The first expansion of the ZAK's territory came with the conquest of the Tairona between 1643 and 1647, with the process hampered by the thick jungles of the lower elevations and coastal plains in northern Nuvania, as well as guerilla tactics from the Tairona, and ever present issues with diseases and attacks from wildlife, particularly snakes and crocodiles. However, the ZAK plundered significant amounts of gold and other valuable artefacts from Tairona settlements and tombs, shipping these treasures off to Euclea. Van Leeuwenhoek returned to the Commonwealth in June 1650 to receive commendations from van Etten, before being granted personal command of the Army of the Asterias, a military force that was to

Mwiska Wars

Duchy of Flamia

Kingdom of Estmere

Home Rule

War of the Arucian

Independence

Great Collapse

Great War

Post War

J.P van Vollenhoven, Chief Minister of Nuvania between 1937 and 1949, is considered to be one of the most important Chief Ministers of the 20th century in Nuvania.

Nuvania's surrender in 1934 saw the country soon occupied by one of the first Allied Civil Governments of any Entente country. The ACG in Nuvania was predominantly composed of Eldmarker and Hallandic military and civil officials, who began a purge of the armed forces and civil service of those who were members of the Volksfront, or its supporters. Important officials, including the former Chief Minister, and some leading military and political officials, were tried during 1935 and 1935 in Pietersburg in what became known as the Pietersburg War Trials. Many were sentenced to live imprisonment, although some, including Deventer himself, were executed.

As these trials were taking place, the ACG in Pietersburg searched for a number of exiled opposition politicians and those who had gone into hiding, among them leaders of the Democatic Action Party who had fled overseas during the early days of the Volksfront regime. DAP politicians had to rebuild the party from scratch, and soon began recruiting from pre-war supporters and sympethisers. In January 1936, in the first party conference in nearly a decade, the DAP elected Johannes Petrus von Vollenhoven as its leader, and who would be the primary point of contact for the ACG before the reconstitution of the National People's Party later in the year. The NVP retained most of its pre-war structure and support network, and was less damaged by the Volksfront than the DAP, and many of those who had escaped prosecution by the ACG gained NVP membership. Under the guidance of the ACG, an election commission was established to organise elections for 1937, following which an official handover would be made to the elected government.

The first general elections in over a decade were held in October 1937 across Nuvania. In order to prevent violence from Volksfront sympathisers, curfews enforced by a reconstituted police force as well as both Eldmarker and Hallandic military personnel, with the DAP winning by a landslide. Von Vollenhoven was sworn in as Nuvania's first left-wing Chief Minister on December 5, 1937.

Although occupied militarily, Nuvania had largely remained unscathed but was bankrupted by the Great War, with the government largely devoid of funds and under significant debt owed to the Gaullicans for wartime support, although this debt was wiped by the ACG not long after it assumed control. A team of government representatives, including von Vollenhoven and Finance Minister Gerhard Engelbrecht, travelled to Astoria on January 2, 1938 to meet with officials from the newly formed Asterian Monetary Fund to secure loans and discuss reparations with representatives from Aucuria and Belmonte. These discussions were somewhat successful, Nuvanian officials successfully negotiating loans from the Asterian Monetary Fund but failing to reach an agreement with Aucurians and Belmontese on reparations. The Hallandic government intervened, and ordered the government to pay $1.5 billion (1939 dollars) in reparations to Belmonte and $3.5 billion (1939 dollars) to Aucuria, which the Nuvanians were forced to accept.

Public Housing Corporation housing under construction in 1947. Social housing was an important policy of the von Vollenhoven government.

In order to pay for both the loans and reparations, the van Vollenhoven government set about nationalising and consolidating numerous businesses and corporations in strategic industries. By the end of 1941, the government had a monopoly on a large number of businesses ranging from oil extraction to telecommunications, as well as a monopoly on all nationwide transportation services and providers. This was achieved through a number of methods, including forced nationalisation and government legislation. This period, known as the Great Consolidation, gave the government the ability to use revenue from these industries to pay its debts. In addition, the government introduced a raft of new taxes and levies, both domestically and on goods coming into the country. This would go towards the provision of investments into essential industries, as well as an expansion of social welfare. This included an expansion of social housing, compulsory education for all Nuvanians, expansion of welfare payments, among others.

Nuvania entered into a period of strong growth by 1942, which was dampened by the outbreak of the Solarian War. Growth was reduced, owing to economic disruptions with its main trading partners in Euclea. The war forced Nuvania to seek out additional partners in the Asterias, and a number of trade agreements and negotiations were had with Cassier, Eldmark, Halland, and Nuxica to reduce the trade barriers for Nuvanian goods. Additional barriers on investment in Nuvanian industries were reduced, especially in manufacturing, which had been left alone by the van Vollenhoven consolidation. Nuvania began a period of reindustrialisation and reinvestment in manufacturing and industry, which included a substantial expansion of mining operations.

This growth allowed van Vollenhoven and the DAP to win four consecutive elections, including a snap election in 1945 in which the NVP attempted to unseat him through promoting dissatisfaction among the Asterianer voters, many of whom were benefitting from van Vollenhoven's social programs. However, as von Vollenhoven's foreign policy included establishing and maintaining political and trade relationships with Chistovodia and Maracao into the late 1940's, the NVP capitalised on the anti-communist sentiments of Asterianers, and as a result, von Vollenhoven lost the 1949 general election to the NVP, who ran a campaign of fear mongering regarding communism and other leftist ideologies.

Charles Wakefield, Chief Minister between 1949 and 1957 (left) Owen Fraser, Chief Minister between 1957 and 1965 (right)

Charles Wakefield would lead the NVP's first post-war government into the 1950's. Wakefield had assumed the leadership of the NVP in the aftermath of the failure to unseat the DAP in 1945, and had served as leader of the opposition throughout von Vollenhoven's fourth and final term in office. Although Wakefield outwardly criticised von Vollenhoven's economic and social policies, he did little to actually change them, nominally reducing tariffs on certain imported goods, as well as marginal changes to social welfare entitlements. Where he differed from von Vollenhoven was the more antagonistic foreign policy towards communist states, particularly those supporting rebel groups in neighbouring states. Wakefield expanded Nuvanian covert involvement in Aucuria in support of the military regime of Albertas Kalvaitis, a policy continued by his successor, Owen Fraser.

Fraser acceded to the leadership of the NVP at the party's general conference in 1957. Under Wakefield, Fraser was Minister of Agriculture and then during Wakefield's second term, Minister of Industry. During his time as the latter, Fraser began to disagree with the significant number of tariffs and subsidies that the government were levying on foreign businesses and investments. These disagreements were kept secret, but were made public with his challenge to Wakefield's leadership in 1957, and this challenge proved successful. Wakefield carried out the rest of his term, while Fraser campaigned for the NVP, winning with a reduced majority owing to the increasing distrust of his proposed economic plan by farmers and those who exported.

Known as the Fraser Reforms, the Fraser government slashed tariffs, subsidies, and taxes for corporations and businesses across all industries, and abolished laws mandating government monopolies on some industries, as well as providing incentives for foreign investment. New companies began to compete against government corporations in the transport sector, while the government's role in the agricultural sector was significantly diminished. This resulted in significant economic growth between 1958 and 1964, and saw significant reductions in both unemployment and increased workforce participation across multiple different groups. Fraser also maintained the social welfare programs of Wakefield and von Vollenhoven, maintaining reduced spending levels while also removing the requirements that saw Asterianers receive more privileges than both Creoles and indigenous peoples. This angered the Asterianers, who began a series of protests between 1960 and 1961.

Sugar Crash

Nuvania's post-war economic growth came to end in the mid-1960's with the advent of the Sugar Crash, a period of economic decline and recession that began in March 1964 and was directly attributed to the massive decline in sugar prices, the effects of which also significantly affected the Nuvanian economy as a whole.

Sugar prices had remained steadily but had climbed to a 44 year peak in 1963, before undergoing a massive decline throughout 1964. The drop in prices resulted in a drop in profitability of a number of sugar manufacturers and sugar cane plantations. As prices continued to drop, in May 1964, the Fraser government initiated a series of protections in order to prevent plantations and manufacturers from going bankrupt, including subsidies and government loans. The crash affected the 1965 general election in which Owen Fraser was ousted from the NVP leadership by the more conservative and protectionist F.A. Vredeling, who lead the NVP to a majority win.

F.A. Vredeling, Chief Minister between 1965 and 1973.

As Nuvania slid into an economic recession, Vredeling expanded state protections for important industries and companies, expanding tariffs and subsidies well beyond agriculture to protect Nuvania's finance, manufacturing, and mining industries. New regulations on bank operations were implemented, along with controls on capital investment. In addition, a range of new tax reforms were implemented between 1965 and 1968 which raised existing income taxes as well as raised the corporate income tax to 20%. However, Nuvania slid further into recession, losing 3.5% in economic growth by 1968. These measures also did little to top unemployment rising, as well as mass bankruptcies of sugar producers and sugar plantations. In 1969, Vredeling passed the Industrial Sugar Production Reform Act, which amalgamated all the sugar mills, refineries, and production in Nuvania into several companies, all with an equal proportion of the domestic market and exports in a policy called "market balance". Attempts to introduce this policy outside of the agricultural sector were made, but were unsuccessful.

Vredeling began an expansion of the welfare state in Nuvania which was intended to reduce the negative social impacts of the Sugar crash on Nuvanians. Beginning in 1969, these including the introduction of employment insurance for all Nuvanians, as well as an expansion of social housing, the latter introduced in a manner that often excluded Nuvania's indigenous population. It also introduced free tertiary education, expanded social benefits for Nuvania's working class white and creole populations, and began to subsidise trades programs for unemployed farm workers and agricultural employees put out of work by the economic situation. Vredeling also began investment in the diversification of the Nuvanian economy, introducing the National Economic Development Program in 1970 which placed significant amounts of government money into an investment fund to be used to grow industries in Nuvania's primary and secondary sectors. These included finance, manufacturing, mining, and tourism.

An increase in sugar prices came with renewed confidence in the economy and economic growth, and Nuvania entered into a period of economic prosperity. In addition to the economic prosperity came a wave of social changes, beginning in 1971 with demands to liberalise existing abortion laws, as well as making homosexuality legal, among other social reforms. In addition, movements regarding labour rights and indigenous rights began to form and demonstrate for greater rights for both workers and indigenous peoples. Nuvania also experienced the formation of its own environmentalist movements during the early 1970's, opposing the expansion of mining activities in different areas of the country. These movements would have an impact on the 1973 general election, in which the DAP would be elected to government for the first time in 36 years, with party leader William Bosman sworn in as Chief Minister on December 20, 1973.

Recovery

William Bosman, Chief Minister of Nuvania between 1973 and 1977.

Bosman would preside over the second half of the short period of economic prosperity brought about by the Sugar High, a period of inflated prices for sugar that saw significant reinvestment into the sector as well as overall confidence in the economy return, and economic growth skyrocket, hitting an all time high of 10.33% in 1973. Bosman continued the policy of economic diversification initiated by Vredeling through the National Economic Development Plan with significant investment into manufacturing, construction, and especially in the service sector. The effects of the Sugar Crash were by now mitigated by the large scale development of factories and other manufacturing plants, as well as increased employment opportunities in mining and service sectors, although the latter suffered from a lack of qualified personnel in a number of industries. The latter became a catalyst for a raft of social reforms introduced in the 1970's that would build on the protest movements throughout the Vredeling government.

In 1974, Finance Minister Simon Kirk introduced a budget that would reflect the social changes occurring at the time. These included an expansion of tertiary education access for creole and indigenous Nuvanians, including the abolition of dedicated quotas for white, creole, and native applicants for both university courses and vocational schools, a liberalisation of the income requirements for student allowances and other support, and greater investment into schooling for creole and indigenous Nuvanians, setting a goal of 70% and 50% literacy rates by the end of the decade. In addition, the National Employment Assurance Scheme was introduced, a form of employment insurance that would cover all employed Nuvanians. Government welfare and allowances were expanded significantly, and farmers could access government loans to cover costs during difficult economic times, although this was largely unnecessary as the economy continued to grow significantly.

The Bosman government would pass additional social reforms in 1974 and 1975, beginning with the decriminalisation of abortion with the Pregnancy Termination Act in 1974, which allowed abortions to be performed in cases of rape and incest, if there was significant foetal defects, and for physical and mental health reasons. The abortion reform was considered controversial, although it did not result in substantial drops in government support. In 1975, the government introduced the Sexual Relations Act, which decriminalised same sex acts for men and women, although homosexuality continued to remain illegal. This was also considered controversial, and did result in a drop of support for the government. Paid maternal leave was also increased in 1975 from two weeks to five.

Damage to a SuperPrix supermarket after the bombing in 1977.

Politically the Bosman government distanced itself from the Sprogys regime in Aucuria, while seeking closer ties with the now democratic government in Belmonte, as well as maintaining the good relationship with the government of Eric Edwards in Satavia. With Bosman's re-election in 1976 and the election of the Satavian Labor Party the same year, relations between the two countries became significantly closer, with both governments signing the Memorandum on Closer Economic Relations and Travel Arrangements in 1977. In addition, Bosman committed Nuvanian military advisers and soldiers to Satavia to support the Edwards government, which was coming under attack from right-wing paramilitaries.

That year the Nuvanian stock market experienced a flash crash when details of that year's budget were leaded before they could be announced, severely damaging the Chief Minister's credibility. Further issues came with a bombing in Pietersburg in August which killed 11 people. The government was alleged to have bungled the investigation, and this further damaged the Bosman government. On February 16, 1978, Bosman was voted out as leader of the Democratic Action Party during the party's annual conference, and Bosman resigned as Chief Minister two days later. He was succeeded by the Deputy Chief Minister, Jan Jonker.

P.K Burger, Chief Minister of Nuvania between 1977 and 1981.

Jonker was unprepared to lead the DAP into the 1977 general election, and while he acquitted himself well in the campaign leading up to the election, the Nuvanian electorate had swung back in favour of the NVP, who under the leadership of P.K Burger, had retained the same kind of broad popular appeal to conservatism that the electorate favoured. Burger and the NVP won the 1978 general election. Burger did not reverse the law changes to the status of abortion or homosexuality, instead refusing to allow further changes to those respective laws in favour of greater liberalisation. Amendments to these acts were passed to place restrictions, principally on abortions, which were made more difficult to access.

In February 1979, NLM Flight 627 was bombed over south-eastern Satavia, resulting in the deaths of 59 passengers and crewmembers onboard, including 26 Nuvanians. While speculation became rampant that the aircraft had broken apart on its own accord, the subsequent investigation into the crash found that a bomb had brought the airliner down. Until that point, Burger had pursued a wider policy to reduce its military commitments in Satavia beyond a token peacekeeping force which had been formed with the intervention of the Organisation of Asterian Nations in 1978. The bombing and the debate precipitated a struggle for control of the NVP between the conservative and neoliberal factions of the party, the latter gaining a foothold having forced Foreign Minister Edgar de Villiers to resign in December 1979 through his refusal to expand Nuvania's involvement in Satavia.

In January 1980, Nuvania launched Operation Granular, the biggest operation the Nuvanian military undertook since the Great War, in which hundreds of military personnel were deployed to Satavia alongside OAN peacekeepers, and the Nuvanian Air Force conducting air strikes in Satavia against right-wing paramilitary camps and positions. Political infighting and military action caused economic uncertainty to rise, and growth slipped below that of 1979, as the Nuvanian economy struggled to recover from the flash crash that occurred in 1977. While the economy stabilised, support for the conservative policies of the NVP waned, especially economic policies in which the state was heavily involved. By 1981, the internal civil war within the NVP became public as the economy began to slide into recession again.

Economic Reforms

Johnathan Keaton, Chief Minister between 1981 and 1989.

As the economy worsened, it became apparent that the economic policies of previous government were causing significant structural issues in the government and in the economy. There were significant disagreements regarding what direction to take in terms of economic policy, and within the NVP there was fierce debate on where the direction of the party should go. The more radical faction of the party under Johnathan Keaton proposed significant economic reforms to improve efficiency and encourage investment into the economy from overseas, as well as financial reforms to remove restrictions on the flow of capital in and out of Nuvania, which the conservative wing of the party rejected. The party membership disagreed, voting against Burger at the 1981 NVP National Conference, affirming Keaton as the candidate for that year's general election.

Keaton would win the 1981 general election but on a reduced majority within Parliament. He began his cabinet appointments and from 1983, began to enact his reforms. Controls on capital flow were removed, and foreign investment made easier. The goude, which had been pegged to both the Estmerish shilling and the Hallandic pound, was floated for the first time. Tariffs on finished products and manufactured goods were removed, which began to negatively affect Nuvanian manufacturing output and saw unemployment begin to rise, as smaller businesses no longer received support or protection from the government. These were then applied to agriculture, which created additional problems not helped by another fall in agricultural prices, especially that of sugar.

The policies of the Keaton government caused significant rifts between it and conservatives within the NVP, including many of those from rural seats which had seen increased in unemployment and financial hardship when financial support for the sector ceased. In Februrary 1984, Minister of Agriculture, Eric Myburgh, confronted Keaton during that year's annual NVP party conference in Constantia, accusing him of putting ideology before people. The argument became heated, and as a result, over 30 sitting Members of Parliament and three cabinet ministers resigned from the party. This caused concerns among the remaining members of cabinet and within the party to question whether or not Keaton had the leadership to continue them going forwards. However, Keaton managed the crisis well, and confidence was restored in his ability to lead.

In addition to economic reforms, regulation around businesses was slashed, making the ability to start and manage a business much easier. In 1984, the government introduced tax reforms that slashed income taxes for Nuvania's highest incomes, as well as corporate taxes. Stamp duty was abolished, as were wealth taxes, and taxes on luxury goods. Capital gains taxes and windfall taxes were slashed, and the levying of land taxes was transferred to provincial governments. Other charges and fees levied by the government were slashed or removed. Public sector staff levels were also trimmed down beginning in 1984, with the reduction of staff levels or closure of some departments, while others were merged. This saw a spike in unemployment from the public sector, and what could be corporatised or sold of completely was.

Privatisation was one of the key features of the Keaton government throughout the 1980's. Assets sold by the state were often corporatised first, and state owned enterprises were sold to private bidders and corporations. These happened periodically throughout the length of the Keaton government's two terms in power. The first to be broken up and privatised was NLM, which spent 1982 and 1983 restructuring before being split into two entities, NLM and NLM Express, and sold off in 1984. In 1985, the Department of Forestry was corporatised into the Nuvanian Forestry Corporation, and sold off in 1987. This was followed by the Post Office, which included telephone and other telecommunications services, and the railways. The National Ambulance Service was abolished and replaced with a provincial contract system to encourage private investment in emergency medical services.

Following the economic and financial reforms, Nuvania entered into a period of renewed economic growth, although this was considered modest by the standards of the previous decade. Keaton, knowing that further reform was necessary, placed the NVP on a platform of social liberalism and reform of social welfare services going into the 1986 general election. In order to counter the DAP, Keaton promised a full legalisation and liberalisation of laws regarding abortion and homosexuality, as well as a review of the death penalty. These promises gave the NVP a firm majority in both houses of Parliament, although they had lost a number of seats to the newly created Nuvanian Agrarian League, formed in 1984 in response to Keaton's agricultural policies.

Beginning in 1987, the government began reforming social welfare in Nuvania. Public healthcare spending was slashed and privatisation occurred where services could be transferred to the private sector. Education spending was also slashed, and reductions to the eligibility of scholarships at universities was revised. Free tertiary education was limited to public universities. In addition, student allowances and support was revised so only the most needy students could receive assistance. Overall welfare payments were slashed, and public pension contributions from the government were reduced, although the government would honour contributions made prior to 1987. A "work for the dole" scheme was introduced to reduce unemployment. Despite the reductions in overall amounts spent, welfare services were considerably expanded to include greater sections of the creole and indigenous populations. The Employment Reservation Scheme, which prioritised white and predominantly Asterianer workers over creole and indigenous workers, was abolished, and this was met with a broader reduction in overall minimum wage as "parallel rates" were introduced, based on assumed expenses and needs of workers. This meant that creoles and indigenous workers could earn less than their white counterparts and continue to earn an adequate living.

With a greater pool of cheaper labour to be accessed, the composition of workforces in factories began to change dramatically, and as a result, substantial numbers of creole and indigenous workers moved into the cities to find employment. This caused substantial problems for city planning which was unable to deal with the sheer volume of internal migration. As a result, numerous slums and informal settlements began to appear or grow on the fringes of Nuvania's major urban centres.

Social policy changed significantly after 1985, with the government fulfilling its promises made during the campaign during the 1985 general election. In late 1987, an amendment to the Pregnancy Termination Act was introduced to Parliament, and passed votes in both houses of Parliament before coming into force in June 1987. The amendments included reversing the restrictions imposed by P.K Burger in 1979 as well as expanding access, and removing prior restrictions in the original law. Further amendments to the Sexual Relations Act was introduced in mid-1988 and saw substantial protests both for and against it. Initially, the law was set to fail in Parliament, however, a mass shooting in Pietersburg perpetrated by Karl Steyn, who opposed the legalisation of homosexuality, saw a massive swing in public opinion and that of Parliament, with homosexuality legalised in February 1989. Not long after, Nuvania abolished capital punishment.

After six years of substantial economic and social reform, and an increase in material and financial hardship, many Nuvanians began to dislike the policies imposed by Keaton during his two terms as Chief Minister, and by 1990, public opinion had swung back in favour of the Democratic Action Party. Furthermore, Keaton had also created rifts in the National People's Party, and despite being endorsed as the candidate for the 1990 general election, few of those within the conservative faction of the party enthusiastically supported his campaign. The DAP, under David van Deventer, won the 1990 election with ease.

New Society

Great Recession

Modern History

Geography

Nuvania covers an area of approximately 1.037 million square kilometres, making it the third largest country in Asteria Inferior. Contained within it are numerous geographical formations, rivers, and lakes that give Nuvania a unique landscape. The country is divided into several general geographical and environmental regions reflective of this diversity.

Northern Nuvania beyond the Arucian Range is dominated by the kustveld, a tropical coastal plain that extends beyond Nuvania's border with Aucuria to the east and stops at the Mascarenhas Peninsula to the west, on the border with the Van Horn Strait and the western Arucian Sea. Because of its proximity to the equator, the kustveld is one of the wettest and lushest areas in Nuvania, with fertile soils and numerous streams and rivers. Wetlands and mangrove swamps can be found in the immediate littoral in the north of the country, particularly where rivers and streams flow into the Arucian Sea. Most of these areas were reclaimed, either to support farmland or urban development. In some areas, mangrove swamps were also present, although these too have mostly been lost, save for a few protected or uninhabited areas along the coast. Further inland, the kustveld becomes a wide area of floodplains which gradually rise into the foothills of the Arucian Range in the south. On the Mascarenhas Peninsula, the floodplains give way to a series of low hills call the Westrand, which run up the western portion of the peninsular perpendicular to the Arucian Range. It is formed from an ancient seabed, raised during the same tectonic forces that created the Arucian Sea and the Arucian Range to the southeast.

Mount Constantyn, left, is the tallest mountain in Nuvania.

The Arucian Range runs along most of northern Nuvania and into neighbouring Aucuria. It is the second largest mountain range in the country after the South Asterian Range in the south. The Arucian Range was formed by tectonic activity caused by the rifting in the Arucian Basin which formed the Arucian Sea. The range was considerably higher throughout most of its existence, however erosion has reduced the mountains in terms of shape and altitude, although they are still high enough to significantly affect the climate in the north of the country. Because of this, the Arucian Range has different overall climates dependant on location and altitude, with the northern side hotter and wetter, central parts cooler and drier, and southern areas hotter and drier. Contained within the Arucian Range are numerous valleys, which contain numerous cities and towns that were founded to facilitate trade through the mountains. In addition the sources of some of Nuvania's longest rivers can be found within the Arucian Range. At 2,620 metres in altitude, Mount Daalen is the highest point in the Arucian Range.

Central Nuvania is dominated by the bosveld, a vast, open area between the Arucian Range to the north and the South Asterian Range to the south. It is an area of broad flat lands characterised by low, rising terrain and a dry climate. The soils here are as fertile as those on the kustveld, with the climate being the primary factor in the lack of widespread crop agriculture in the region, with much of the region given over to the raising of livestock. The bosveld is one of the most mineral rich areas of Nuvania, producing gold, silver, platinum, iron ore, tin, as well as large amounts of coal. Other minerals can be found in the fringes of the bosveld, which has an economic and cultural significance in Nuvania. Much of the region is fed by seasonal melt from the South Asterian Range that separates the southern coast from the interior.

The South Arucian Range is an extensive mountain chain that runs along southern Nuvania, northern Belmonte, Aucuria and the southern extremes of Satucin. The range was formed from tectonic activity through the clashing of the x Plate and the x Plate. Because of this, the mountains are active seismically and include a number of volcanoes which are among the highest peaks in the Asterias. In addition, the mountains provide a significant proportion of the fresh water that flows down both sides of the range into central and southern areas. Much of the range is composed of mountains although a number of the peaks are volcanoes. The highest peak in Nuvania is Mount Constantyn at a height of 5,147 metres (16,886 feet).

Many rivers flow through Nuvania, with many flowing out from the major mountain ranges. The largest and longest of these is the Ardron River, which flows from the Southeast Highlands in Veld, and flows into the Van Horn Strait, with a length of 1,254 kilometres. The Ardron is important to central Nuvania as it provides much needed drinking and irrigation water for agriculture, as well as important habitat for numerous species of birds, fish, insects, and reptiles. Where the Ardron flows into the Van Horn Strait is the location of the Kinsella Wetlands, the largest in Nuvania.

Climate

Nuvania is under the influence of a variety of tropical climates which are influenced heavily by prevailing winds, ocean currents, and topography. Generally the climates in the north and parts of the northeast of the country are much wetter than climates across the rest of Nuvania, which is heavily dependent on seasonal rainfall.

North of the Arucian Range, as well as the northern slopes of the range itself, is under the influence of a tropical rainforest climate with no defined dry season. The climate is influenced predominantly by the South Arucian Current, a warm current that runs along the northwest coast of Asteria Inferior from western Satucin through to Nuvania. It brings much of the warm moisture systems which bring the majority of the rainfall along the northern coast. The Arucian Sea moderates the climate along the coast with onshore breezes, whereas the climate becomes much wetter inland, especially along the north-facing slopes of the Arucian Range which catch the rainfall and prevent it from reaching central regions of Nuvania. Rainfall in northern regions can exceed 1,000 millimetres annually in the wettest spots, with temperatures warm and humid throughout the year.

Nuvania's southern coast and southeast of the country are also under the influence of a tropical rainforest climate. This climate is influenced by the Vehemens Ocean, which acts as both a moderator and a generator of the weather systems that affect the southern coastline. Like the northern coast, the southern coast is humid and tropical, although there is a greater differentiation between wet and dry seasons. However, the South Asterian Range traps much of the moisture-laden weather systems that are generated in the eastern Vehemens Ocean, and as a result, rainfall is often high in these areas during the wet season.

A thunderstorm off the northern coast of Nuvania.

While the Arucian Range prevents northern moisture bearing systems from reaching central and southern Nuvania, and it catches the seasonal rainfall that flows from the east, allowing for the existence of large areas of forests and scrubland in spite of the Hofmeyr Current which runs along the western coast of the continent. In this respect its northern slopes are under the influence of a rainforest climate, while its southern slopes are drier and more monsoonal. In the valleys and basins in the centre of the ranges exists a subtropical highland climate with a much more moderate climate, with rainfall totals around 700-900 millimetres annually.

Central Nuvania is dominated by a tropical savannah climate with monsoonal influences, as the wet season typically produces over 90% of the area's rainfall. As with other tropical climates, temperatures remain warm to hot throughout the year, although a large number of these areas have climates that verge on semi arid, and here the seasonal temperature variations are greatest. The wet season lasts between November and April, and produces over 90% of the total annual rainfall in these areas. Eastern regions of central Nuvania are wetter due to their proximity to the [[Wikipedia:}rainforests|}rainforests]] in central Asteria Inferior, while central and western regions have much drier climates, with western regions bordering on semi-arid.

The South Asterian Range is the most defining topographic feature when it comes to climate, with different areas of the range experiencing different climates, depending on location and altitude. Typically the southern side of the range experiences climates that are much wetter than those on the northern side, with lower elevations experiencing tropical climates and higher elevations subtropical alpine climates. The northern side experiences tropical savanna and semi-arid climates, with higher elevations experiencing more Solarian like climates.

Nuvania's highest recorded temperature is 45.6°C, observed at Dawson's Plain, Veld on November 18, 1979. The lowest recorded temperature is -26.5°C, observed at Windermere in the South Asterian Range on September 15, Template:Wpl1979.

Biodiversity

Ecoregions

Nuvania has over a dozen ecoregions within its borders, and is one of the most diverse regions in Asteria Inferior, with a number of these areas threatened by human activity.

Nuvania's northern coastal plains contain a number of different ecoregions. Coastal areas were once covered in vast mangroves that compose the Southern Arucian equatorial mangroves system. Since the arrival of Eucleans, many of these mangroves were cleared for urban development, and today less than 20% of the original coverage remains in Nuvania. Most of what remains is preserved, including in northeastern Etten and other places along the northern coast. Further inland, the coastal plains were once covered in tropical coastal forests, although these have been cleared significantly for agriculture and urban development, with less than 10% of these forests remaining. Significant restoration is underway across northern Nuvania.

The northern slopes of the Arucian Range are less developed and contain the northern tropical montane forests that stretch along Nuvania's share of the Arucian Range. Because of the lack of development, much of this forest is still intact although it is subject to deforestation. Higher altitudes of the Arucian Range contain a variety of cloud forests that range between 1,800 metres and 2,200 metres in altitude. In the Daule Valley, tropical dry forests can be found.

Much of the interior of Nuvania is covered in the bosveld ecoregion with different subregions located within it. This region ecompasses the vast central plains of Nuvania, as well as the southern slopes of the Arucian Range, and the northern slopes of the South Asterian Range. In the east, the bosveld is much thicker with more trees and shrubs, whereas it takes the appearance of dry grasslands in the centre and west, mostly owing to land clearance for grazing. Tropical dry scrublands and forests are present to the north and south of the plains.

The South Asterian Range is one of the few places where non-tropical regions can be found. Stretching from east to west is the South Central Highlands ecoregion which composes much of the highlands in the centre of the South Asterian Range. These are among some of the best preserved on the continent, owing to a lack of human settlement, although farming and grazing do pose threats.

Southern Nuvania is predominantly dominated by tropical forests, these include the southern montane cloud forests found in Mahaika and western Brabantia as well as the narrow and very threatened tracts of tropical coastal forests. Inland Brabantia is split between more montane forests in the north and northwests, and dry forests in the lowlands.

Western Nuvania is the location of the Kinsella Wetlands ecoregion, which encompasses the entirety of the Ardron River delta. This area is ecologically significant as it is a breeding ground or a stopover point for numerous migratory bird species. In addition, it is also an important breeding ground for fish species, and also contains numerous reptile, mammal, and insect species.

Flora

Fauna

Nuvania is home to over 400 species of mammals as well as hundreds or thousands of species of reptiles, fish, insects, arachnids, and birds. These species differ depending on the environment and location within Nuvania.

Significant mammal species present within Nuvania include several species of Felidae, several species of canines, as well as some species of primates and other mammals. Many of these species are threatened due to human activities. These include ocelots, who are found predominantly in the north and south of Nuvania, jaguarundi which are found across the country, margays, and oncillas who also have wide distributions. The largest felids that have widespread range across Nuvania are pumas, which can be found across the country in reasonable numbers, although are more common in southern Nuvania which is more sparsely populated. Jaguars are also found in the far east of the centre of the country, although they are considered to be extinct in Nuvania itself. Nuvania's cloud forests support a variety of primates, such has spider monkeys, as well as sloths, peccaries, deer, and the westernmost populations of mountain tapirs.

Nuvania is home to 33 species of turtles, six species of alligators, caimans, and crocodiles, 238 species of lizards, and 300 species of snakes. Most of these species can be found in the tropical forests of northern and southern Nuvania, as well as some species in the far east of the country, particularly in border regions close to Aucuria and the Scythian rainforest. Many of the reptiles can be found in specific regions of the country, while others exist throughout, with a number of species living in close proximity to humans. Some of the more well known species include the Asterian crocodile, black caiman, fer-de-lance, yellow anaconda, and the boa constrictor, among others. Snapping turtles and green iguanas are especially common in urban areas, the latter found in parks and back gardens in suburban properties.

Over 1,800 species of birds are found in Nuvania, the numbers of species second only to that of Satucin. Among the birds found in Nuvania include 25 species of ducks, 168 species of hummingbirds, 34 species of gulls and terns, 49 species of hawks, 20 species of toucans, 112 species of antbirds, and 55 species of parrots. Many of these birds are found in specific regions of Nuvania, some factoring into local folklore and those of the indigenous peoples prior to Euclean settlement. Among the more well known birds include the turkey vulture, which is a common scavenger in many parts of the country, the scarlet macaw, one of the most populous parrot species, the harpy eagle, the yellow and blue macaw, and frigatebirds. Seabirds, in particular the brown pelican, are well liked among the inhabitants of coastal cities.

Nuvania has one of the largest numbers of amphibian species anywhere in the world, with over 200 species recorded in the country. These include numerous species of frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders. Many of these species are endemic to Nuvania and found only in specific locations. Amphibians such as poison dart frogs are among the most well known to exist in Nuvania.

Government

Nuvania is a constitutional parliamentary republic with a codified constitution and separation of powers between the Template:WpL, executive, and judiciary. Like many former colonies of Estmere, Nuvania's government and parliament are administered along the lines of the Northabbey model of government.

Historically Nuvania has been considered to be an authoritarian nation and was considered to be unfree for much of its existence, owing to the electoral rules in which much of its indigenous populations had restricted rights and voting privileges. A series of reforms in the early 1990's improved Nuvania's political image and the voting rights for its indigenous population, but problems remain.

Constitution

The Constitution of Nuvania is the founding document of the Free State, and was drafted between 1884 and 1885 during a series of conventions. On June 6, 1886, the Constitution was formally adopted by Parliament as a prelude to the formal independence of the Free State.

It outlines the relationship between the head of state and the head of government and powers vested in those offices, the roles and responsibilities of the Parliament, and the relationship between the provinces of Nuvania and the state. The constitution does not provide protections for certain rights and privileges, something which has been the subject of considerable controversy.

In its role as the supreme law in Nuvania, the constitution functions as the metric through which government legislation, government decision making, and government policy is measured.

Parliament

The Parliament of Nuvania is the bicameral legislature of Nuvania. It is a continuation of the colonial parliament that existed between 1811 and 1886, and retains much of the same laws and procedures as the pre-republican parliament in Estmere. It is split between two houses: the General Council and the Provincial Council.

The General Council is the lower house of Parliament and is composed of 410 elected members. Officially each member is referred to as a Member of the General Council but the Asteriaans acronym LAK is commonly used. Each member is elected to a renewable term of four years. The General Council's primary function is the creation, amendment, and passing of legislation, as well as the approval of the government's budget and special financial appropriations. Declarations of war, and the approval of candidates for the Supreme and Constitutional Courts are also functions of the General Council.

The Provincial Council is the Template:Wplupper house of Parliament and is composed of 96 elected members, or 12 members for each province in Nuvania. The purpose of the Provincial Council in Parliament is much like that of upper chambers elsewhere, in that it can introduce, amend, and pass legislation, and hold inquiries and hearings into government conduct or significant events. In addition, the Provincial Council has the additional powers of making candidate recommendations to the Supreme Court and Constitutional Court. Members of the Provincial Council are known as MAKs, and are elected to the same renewable four year term as the General Council.

State President

The State President is the head of state of Nuvania. The position was created upon independence in 1886 in which the office of State President replaced that of the Governor-General. It is an elected partisan office despite the role being largely ceremonial with limited legislative intervention.

Officially as the head of state, the State President is the foremost representative of the Free State internationally and thus is the primary host of state visits by other heads of state, heads of government, and other important dignitaries. They also function as the Commander in Chief of the armed forces, and is the only authority in Nuvania that can formally declare war. In addition, the State President appoints all judges to the Supreme Court, all judges to the Constitutional Court, the head of the Reserve Bank of Nuvania, and formally issues promotions to commissioned officers within all branches of the armed forces. In addition, the State President issues pardons to prisoners, signs legislation passed by Parliament into law, and sits as the ceremonial president of the President's Fund, a philanthropic organisation. The State President may also become a patron of an additional charity of their choice.

Requirements to become State President are more stringent than those of Chief Minister. Candidates for State President must have served for a minimum of 10 years in either the General or Provincial Councils, they must have served in Cabinet or some other important function for a minimum of five years, in addition to the same requirements of political party membership and no mental or physical health problems preventing them from fulfilling duties.

Chief Minister

The Chief Minister is the head of government of Nuvania, a position inherited from the colonial home rule government which lasted between 1811 and 1886. The Chief Minister functions similarly to the roles of Prime Minister in other former Estmerish colonies as well as the role of Prime Minister in Estmere itself.

Powers vested in the office are principally administrative and advisory, with the Chief Minister's role defined in the Constitution of Nuvania as the most senior role in government and as a "first among equals". They have the powers to set government agendas and policies, appoint and remove ministers from Cabinet, assign Cabinet portfolios, and give advice to the State President on the conferment of Nuvania's honours system, call general elections, and gives advice on the appointment of officials to important positions.

There are few requirements around who can be Chief Minister. An individual must be an elected member of the General Council, be the leader of the party with a majority in the General Council or the leader of the largest party in the governing coalition, and must not be suffering from any physical or mental illnesses that could impact their ability to govern. Chief Ministers are elected to the same renewable four year terms as both houses of Parliament.

Elections

Elections in Nuvania are overseen by the National Election Authority which is a child agency of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. It is responsible for the organisation of elections at the national, provincial, and local level, the maintenance of voting registries, advising the government on electoral law, and participating in the redrawing of constituencies for national elections.

Elections are primarily regulated by the National Elections Act 1886, which entitles all Nuvanian citizens to participate in all elections. Initially this was restricted to property owning men, with suffrage extended to all men who pass literacy requirements in 1918, and to all women subject to the same requirements in 1930. Literacy requirements are still enforced in Nuvania, with approximately 5.35% of the population unable to meet the literacy standard required to be able to vote. In addition, all individuals incarcerated in Nuvania lose their voting rights once they enter prison. As of November 2019, around 118,000 people are imprisoned in Nuvania, representing 0.25% of the population. Nuvania's literacy requirements are the subject of domestic and international criticism, as they predominantly affect Nuvania's mixed and indigenous peoples.

General elections are held every four years and determine the composition of both houses of Parliament. Each member of the General Council represents one constituency, divided according to population. The electoral system for the General Council is first-past-the-post voting, with the Provincial Council utilising a ranked voting system due to the lower number of seats.

Presidential elections are held every seven years, with political parties determining presidential candidates through closed primaries. The system to elect the President is two-round instant runoff voting, with different rounds of elections mandated to be separated by a period not exceeding three months. Candidates who fail to obtain at least 15% of the vote in the first round are eliminated from the second round of voting. A candidate must obtain a majority of the vote in order to be elected President. If candidates fail to obtain a majority, a tiebreaker election is held six months from the second round.

Provincial and local elections use similar electoral systems to national elections. Provincial legislatures are elected in the same manner as Parliament, opting for a first-past-the-post system. District and municipal elections utilise open list instant runoff voting to elect district and municipal councilors. Unlike provincial elections, district and municipal elections are largely non-partisan and often have a large number of candidates.

Judiciary

Nuvania has a mixed judicial system combining aspects of both civil and common law. Nuvania's laws are codified in the National Law Code but are open to interpretation by judges, with judicial rulings also setting legal precedents. The National Law Code, the role of the judiciary, as well as the structure of the judicial system and the role of government agencies within the system are defined in Section 7 of the constitution. Nuvania does not have trial by jury.

Courts in Nuvania are divided between different levels of government, and by the roles they play. They are divided into three principal categories: general, administrative, and appellate, and are also divided by local government.

General courts are divided into two types: municipal and district. Municipal courts handle low level criminal offending, civil disputes, and small claims. These are often presided over by one judge and do not have the means of appealing to higher courts. District courts handle more serious civil and criminal cases, randing from criminal trials, to civil matters such as lawsuits, legal challenges, as well as family court cases such as divorce settlements and custody cases.

Administrative courts are those that cover aspects outside of civil disputes and criminal trials, primarily covering aspects of government administration as well as disputes relating to Nuvania's labour and employment laws. There are five courts within the administrative court system: the Administrative Court, which deals with disputes and legal challenges regarding local and central government, the Constitutional Court, the Labour Court, which deals with disputes and challenges regarding labour and employment law, the Environment Court, which relates to challenges involving environment law, and Electoral Court. All are provided over by a panel of three to five judges who are experts in their particular fields of law.

Appellate courts are those that hear appeals from general and administrative courts. These consist of two courts: a Court of Appeals, of which one can be found in each province, and the Supreme Court, which is the final court of appeal. All appellate courts are presided over by a panel of five judges.

Two significant courts in Nuvania are the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court. The Constitutional Court acts both in a judicial and as an advisory role, the former used to review government laws, rules, and other actions against the constitution, and the latter to provide advice to the government. The Supreme Court hears cases referred to from the Court of Appeals, or applied to the court directly, and are tasked with affirming a final decision on a case or legal challenge. The Supreme Court has the power to establish legal precedents in Nuvania. Both the Constitutional Court and Supreme Court are composed of panels of five judges who are appointed for life by the State President.

The National Prosecution Service is the primary agency for conducting criminal prosecutions in Nuvania. The agency employs over 4,500 staff, mostly solicitors and barristers, as well as other legal staff and officials. It's official role is prosecuting criminal cases, offering legal advice to police and other investigative agencies, and to decide whether or not to bring criminal charges against individuals. It is headed by the Prosecutor-General, whose role is primarily administrative. The Prosecutor-General serves a single term of six years and is appointed by the Minister of Justice.

Law Enforcement

Law enforcement in Nuvania is predominantly carried out by the National Police Service, whose role is to prevent and investigate crime, uphold and enforce laws, and protect all persons and property in Nuvania. It also plays an important role in maintaining internal stability and security. It is one of the largest government agencies in Nuvania, employing approximately 186,846 officers and personnel.

In addition to the National Police Service, there are numerous municipal police services in Nuvania, whose primary role is to provide assistance to the National Police Service when requested, as well as enforce local bylaws and regulations, conduct traffic enforcement, and prevent crime. Municipal police forces have limited powers of detention and enforcement. There are an additional 44,500 or so staff and police officers employed in 187 municipal police forces across Nuvania.

Outside of police, there are other agencies with powers to enforce laws, detain individuals, and have other law enforcement powers. Among these is the National Prison Service, the National Customs and Revenue Service, the National Parks and Conservation Service, and the Financial Crimes Office.

Foreign Affairs

Nuvania has official bilateral relations with 32 countries across Euclea, Coius, the Asterias, and Sublustria. In addition, it is a member of several international organisations. Nuvania's diplomatic relationships stem primarily from three principal categories: geographic proximity, historical or cultural ties, and closer trade relationships.

Nuvania maintains embassies and close bilateral relations with most countries in Asteria Inferior, especially neighbouring countries such as Aucuria, Belmonte and Satavia. Further afield, Nuvania maintains embassies in Caluchia, Satucin, and Zaralaja. In addition to being on the same continent, Nuvania has a good working relationship with all countries, with foreign policy traditionally oriented towards these countries in terms of trade agreements, travel agreements, and regional cooperation. Historically ties between Nuvania and the countries of Satavia and Satucin have been the closest, the former for its cultural and historical similarities as former colonies of Estmere and Hennish states before independence. Satavia is also the only country with which Nuvania maintains a free travel agreement. Relations with Sautcin date after Nuvania became an independent state, and were particularly close during the Kylaris. Since then, both countries have cooperated on setting economic policies and directions for the remainder of the continent. Relations between Nuvania and Aucuria and Belmonte have improved significantly since the end of the Great War, and today form two of the largest trade partners with Nuvania.

Further afield in the Asterias, Nuvania maintains embassies and bilateral relations with most countries in Asteria Superior and in the West Arucian Sea, save for Chistovoda, Maracao, and Marirana. Nuvania previously maintained an embassy in the latter until 2015, when the embassy in Aquinas was closed owing to the outbreak of the civil war. Nuvania also previously maintained an embassy in Porto Leste in Maracao prior to the invasion of Dunhelm Island in 1955. Of these relations, the most important to Nuvania are Halland and Nuxica, both of which have significant economic investments in Nuvania, especially in manufacturing. Nuvania also shares some cultural links with Halland, as both countries have substantial Caldish populations and both were former Estmerish colonies, and have Estmerish as recognised official languages. Relations with Nuxica developed primarily after the Great War, with both countries looking to expand their economies and trade with other nations, as well as a mutual interest in preventing the spread of communism.

Outside of the Asterias, Nuvania maintains relations with 13 nations in Euclea, principally nations that have had an influence on Nuvania through economic or cultural links. Of these nations, Estmere and Hennehouwe are considered the most important. Nuvania is an Estophone nation and a former Estmerish colony, and is considered the principal diplomatic conveyor between ASTCOM and Estmere, as well as other nations in Asteria Inferior. As a former Hennish colony before becoming part of the Estmerish colonial empire, relations with Hennehouwe are close, with a substantial proportion of Nuvanian culture influenced from Hennehouwe. Outside of these two nations, Nuvania also has bilateral relations with Caldia, Etruria, Gaullica, Montecara, and Soravia among others. In Coius, Nuvania maintains bilateral relations with Senria, Xiaodong, and Zorasan, Senria and Xiaodong especially having significant economic investments in Nuvania.

Nuvania is one of the founding members of the Asteria Inferior Common Market and has been instrumental in its development as well as the maintenance of the organisation. It is also a founding member of the Organisation of Asterian Nations. Nuvania also maintains membership of the Community of Nations, the International Council for Democracy, the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs, the International Trade Organisation, and the League of Oil Producing States.

Military

The Nuvanian Armed Forces perform the military functions of the Nuvanian Free State. It is the third largest in terms of personnel in Asteria Inferior, with approximately 87,564 men and women on active service or as reserve personnel. As with other militaries, the Nuvanian Armed Forces consists of three branches: the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy. Nuvania transitioned from a conscription-based military to a professional armed force during the 1980's, although provisions are in place to institute conscription should the need arise.

Nuvania's military has historically been used in both conventional and unconventional conflicts and is directly descended from the colonial military formations raised by both the Hennish and Estmerish colonial governments to maintain stability within the colonies prior to independence, with Nuvania having fought in two conventional wars since independence, in addition to having participated to some extent in unconventional conflicts following the end of the Kylaris. It has also had to become involved in internal policing and internal security operations, especially during times of social unrest. Because of this, the Army and Air Force are among the best trained and experienced in counter-insurgency operations.

Administrative Divisions

Nuvania is classified as a unitary state, and possesses three tiers of internal governance. These are Template:Wplprovinces, districts, and municipalities, all of which have respective areas of competence outlined in the Constitution of Nuvania.

Provinces

Nuvania is divided into eight provinces, each with its own elected legislature and an elected premier, with the Constitution of Nuvania outlining the powers allocated to the provinces and shared powers between the provinces and central government.

Powers and responsibilities given to the provinces include the ability to pass legislation outside of Parliament if the legislation does not undermine existing national legislation or regulations. They have full control and responsibilities over a number of aspects of governance, ranging from certain infrastructure projects to emergency services, these being firefighting and emergency medical services. Culture and hertiage preservation are under the control of provinces, as well as recreational facilities.

Central and provincial governments cooperate on most other areas not controlled by provinces. These include housing, the environment, civil defence, agriculture, roads and railways included in the national transportation network, education, healthcare, police, public works, among other areas. In this respect provinces and central government cooperate on administration and provide joint funding for these areas.

Each province has its own elected legislature, an elected premier, and an executive council, which overseas the various provincial departments, akin to a national cabinet. All members of provincial legislatures and premiers serve for four year terms, and have no term limits.

Districts

Districts are the second tier of local governance in Nuvania, and have more limited powers and responsibilities than provinces. There are 384 districts across Nuvania.

Districts have some powers reserved to them principally relating to infrastructure, utilities, and some emergency services, and cooperate with provincial and central governments elsewhere. Districts do not have powers to legislate on their own, but can levy minor taxes.

Most districts are a combination of urban and rural areas, although some larger cities will have districts within a larger urban or metropolitan area.

Each district is governed by an elected prefect and an elected council, which are subject to the same term limits and term lengths as provincial politicians. Electoral boundaries in districts are set by both the province and central government.

Municipalities

Municipalities are the third tier of local governance in Nuvania, and have a wider number of powers and responsibilities than districts, although these powers and responsibilities are dependent on the type of municipality. There are approximately 1,197 municipalities in Nuvania.

Municipalities are divided between urban and rural municipalities. Although all powers and responsibilities set out in the Constitution of Nuvania apply to all municipal governments, urban municipalities often have more powers and responsibilities incurred upon them than rural municipalities.

Responsibilities for municipal governments include utilities such as waste water and solid waste, as well as stormwater and water treatment. In terms of infrastructure, municipalities are responsible for local roads and public transport infrastructure, ranging from bus routes to commuter rail. In addition, they are also responsible for ports and other harbour facilities that do not handle international passengers or cargo. Outside of these, municipal governments are responsible for a wide variety of aspects of governance, from recreational facilities and public amenities, to street trading and local markets.

Municipal governments have powers of regulation over various local industries, including restaurants, as well as issuing permits and operating licences. Municipal governments may also levy minor taxes and charge fees for services provided, or fees for permits and licences.

Typically a municipality is governed by a mayor, although in rural areas an intendant is sometimes used as the term for the local council executive. Municipal councils are also elected, and are subject to the same term limitations as other politicians.

Economy

Nuvania has an upper-middle-income industrialised economy, the third largest in Asteria Inferior after Satucin and Belmonte. It has a nominal GDP of G8.92 trillion ($549.053 billion), and a GDP of G23.06 trillion ($1.49 trillion) if measured by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). Nuvania has a nominal GDP per capita of G183,316 ($11,281). If measured by PPP, the per capita amount is G473,915 ($29,164).

Historically the Nuvanian economy has been subject to both free market economic policies and deregulation alongside periods of controlled economic planning and protectionism. This has created periods of economic growth and stagnation, with prevailing economic policy in response to major global political trends. In recent years, the economy has transitioned towards a mixed-market system with some Weranic ordoliberalist tendencies.

Nuvania is still largely dominated by its primary industries, these being agriculture and mining. It posseses a developed industrial sector that produces numerous goods for ASTCOM markets, and growing teritary industries, especially in information and technology.

Agriculture

A farmer and a cattle herd in Pomeronia.

Agriculture in Nuvania is the sixth largest sector of the economy, constituting 8.4% of GDP, or approximately G750.11 billion ($46.16 billion). The sector accounts for 4.31% of annual exports, or G110.40 billion ($6.79 billion). In addition, agriculture employs five percent of the workforce, or nearly 1.2 million people. Of the industries within the agricultural sector, the largest is horticulture followed by meat and dairy.

Nuvania's horticultural sector collectively is worth G354.55 billion ($21.8 billion), which is approximately 47.2% of the agricultural sector, in addition to accounting for 93.8% of agricultural exports. The sector is divided into crops, fruit, and vegetables, of which crops is the largest and most valuable in terms of total produce harvested and market value. Nuvania is one of the world's largest producers of cocoa and coffee beans, the seventh largest producer of sugar cane, and a significant producer of corn and soybeans. It is also one of the world's largest producers of sugar, with the majority of sugar cane grown in the country used for sugar production. Collectively, crop growing is worth G179.70 billion ($11.05 billion) to the economy every year in production, and G51.86 billion ($3.19 billion) in exports.

Fruit is the second largest industry in the horticultural sector, and contributes G89.95 billion ($5.53 billion) to the sector annually. Nuvania produces principally fruit that is found or can be grown in tropical climates. It is one of the world's largest producers of assai and acerola fruits, bananas, guavas, mangoes, plantains, and pineapples. It is also a significant producer of citrus fruit, including lemons, oranges, and tangerines, and is one of the largest tropical producers of apples, being one of the few tropical countries to successfully grow apples in a tropical climate. One quarter of the agricultural labour force is employed in Nuvania's fruit industry, making it one of the most labour intensive industries in Nuvania.

Meat production is the second largest industry in the agricultural sector, contributing G226.66 billion ($13.9 billion) annually, in addition to G4.27 billion ($263.19 million) in exports. The most produced meat in Nuvania in terms of tonnage is chicken, followed by cattle and pig meat, with Nuvania producing significant amounts of beef and pork. The industry is largely industrialised and automated, with around ten percent of the agricultural workforce employed in the meat industry.

Dairy is an important industry in Nuvania's agricultural sector, worth G89.49 billion ($5.50 billion) in total annual production and an additional G3.08 billion ($190.01 million) in exports. Most of thes sector's production is concentrated in the production of milk with other dairy products such as butter and cheese secondary. As with the meat industry, the dairy industry is highly automated, and around fifteen percent of the agricultural labour force is employed in the dairy industry.

A number of large companies operate in the agricultural sector, among them Hewitt Agrarian, which is principally involved in the horticultural industry and also is involved in agricultural wholesale, Nyland International, which is Nuvania's largest meat producer, and Melkor, Nuvania's largest dairy company.

Manufacturing

Sheaford Automotive cars on an assembly line at a factory in Louwsburg, Philipsbaai.

Manufacturing is an extremely importand strategic sector in the Nuvanian economy. It is the third largest of Nuvania's economic sectors, contributing G1.15 trillion ($70.82 billion) to the economy annually, approximately 12.9% of GDP. As a sector, industry employs 30.2% of the labour force, or 7.1 million people.

Historically the sector was underdeveloped until the adoption of some liberalisation of investment regulations in the late 1950's by the government of Owen Fraser, which commenced a period of significant growth in the sector. This growth continued with the introduction of the National Economic Development Program by the government of F.A Vredeling in 1970 which saw a massive increase in both domestic and foreign direct investment into manufacturing. This saw the sector grow in size and importance. Growth continued despite a brief contraction in the 1980's, which was replaced by steady investment and moderate protectionism through the Asteria Inferior Common Market.

Nuvania has an active automotive manufacturing industry, which is the second largest in Asteria Inferior. In 2019, over 615,000 vehicles were produced in Nuvania, with the industry contributing G115.40 billion ($7.04 billion) to the economy. The vast majority of vehicles manufactured in Nuvania are from foreign companies, with 12 different manufacturers operating 15 manufacturing and assembly plants. The largest of these companies are Astoria Motor Group, Reynaud, Takahasi Motor Company, and x. In addition, Nuvania also produced motorcycles and commercial vehicles for sale within ASTCOM markets.

Construction is one of the fastest growing industries in the manufacturing sector and is contributes 7.4% to the GDP, approximately G651.31 billion ($40.08 billion) and employing six percent of the workforce. The sector experiencing significant growth in recent decades with the biggest increase have been in housing and commercial construction, with growth driven from the main cities in Nuvania. Commercial construction is predominantly involved in the construction of skyscrapers and other mixed use developments, the greatest growth of which has come from the cities in northern Nuvania, particularly Pietersburg, Vryburg, and Windstrand. The construction industry includes a multitude of different companies engaged in both the construction of buildings and infrastructure, as well as the manufacturing of construction materials. The Beijer Group is one of the largest construction and real estate companies in Nuvania, alongside Fraser-Maritz, which is primarily concerned with infrastructure. In terms of construction materials, the Shand Group is the largest conglomerate in the country producing a wide variety of building materials. Other important companies include Semkor, Nuvania's largest cement production and retail country, and Nasstof, which supplies metal and wood based products for the construction industry.

Heavy industry has historically played in an important part in Nuvania's industrial development, and despite declines in the 1970's and 1980's, has continued to remain an important part of the manufacturing sector. Nuvania's heavy industry is primaruly focused on the refinement and production of metal products such as aluminium and steel, as well as finished products such as locomotives, construction equipment, and ships. Nuvania produced approximately 823,315 tonnes of aluminium, 4.9 million tonnes of pig iron, and 9.11 million tonnes of steel collectively worth G160.39 billion ($9.87 billion). Nuvania's heavy industries primarily revolve around shipbuilding and rolling stock for railways, including locomotives. Genstaal OBM is Nuvania's largest producer of steel, and is one of the country's largest companies. NLW is Nuvania's largest producer of locomotives and rolling stock, with shipbuilding roughly split between Arucor and United Shipyards.

Light industry accounts for 45% of Nuvania's manufacturing sector and is predominantly given over to the manufacture of household appliances and consumer electronics. The industry is highly developed and automated owing to decades of investment as well as the advent of a wider captive market for Nuvanian exports. Currently about 30% of the sector's workforce is employed in light industry. Nuvania's largest appliance and consumer electronics brand Challenger, part of the wider Challenger Group, holds a significant share of the domestic market as well as significant investments throughout ASTCOM member states and in the West Arucian Sea region. Other manufacturers include Kelley-Hughes, which primarily manufactures white goods in addition to air conditioning units, Commax, which manufactures computer accessories as well as portable radio systems, and Telekor, which manufactures televisions and other display screens.

Mining

The Rooikral Mine in Veld is an important producer of iron ore.

Mining is the fourth largest economic sector in Nuvania, with the sector contributing G1.03 trillion ($63.93 billion) to GDP annually. Mining contributes an additional 15% in annual exports worth G386.43 billion ($23.78 billon) annually. The sector employs 728,219 people, or 3.07% of the labour force.

Nuvania is a significant producer of ferrochromium and ferromanganese, with 3.03 million and one million tonnes respectively mined in Nuvania in 2019. The country is the second largest producer of iron ore behind Satucin, mining 63.1 million tonnes in 2019. In addition, Nuvania is a prolific producer of precious metals, with 160 tonnes of gold, 75 tonnes of platinum, and 66 tonnes of silver, the latter alone worth G525.39 billion ($32.33 billion), or 50.5% of the total value of mineral and metal production.

Mineral production is mostly from the central regions of Nuvania, in particular Veld province where the majority of the mines are located. Many precious metal mines are located in the north of the country in Etten and Kanaän, with some mines located in Rand as well. Nuvania's largest coal mines are located in the north as well. In addition, smaller mining operations exist in Albina on the central west coast.

Alkmaar is the largest Nuvanian mining company in operation, with mines and processing facilities across Nuvania and around the world. Other important companies in the mining sector include Douglas-Hyman and VKM, all of which also operate internationally.

Services

Nuvania's services sector is the largest of the economic sectors in the country, and is composed of multiple different industries and sectors including finance, retail, transportation, and tourism. Collectively the services sector contributes G 4.57 trillion ($281.66 billion) to the economy, approximately 51.3% of total GDP. In addition, the services sector employs 15.3 million people, equivalent to 64.8% of the total workforce. Among the largest service industries in Nuvania include finance, transportation, and tourism.

Finance is the largest of the service sectors in Nuvania, contributing G1.88 trillion ($115.85 billion) to GDP annually. Most of Nuvania's financial sector is devoted to banking and financial services, with insurance, stockbrokers, and other financial services also key components of Nuvania's finance industry. It is the third largest sector in Asteria Inferior after Satucin and Belmonte and one of the largest in the Asterias as a whole. Nuvania has two stock exchanges and one commodities exchange located in Niekerk, Pietersburg, and Windstrand. The largest of these stock exchanges is the Pietersburg Stock Exchange, which has a market capitalisation of G16.63 trillion ($1.00 trillion) and is the second largest in Asteria Inferior behind the Gatôn Stock Exchange in Satucin. The Nierkerk Stock Exchange is the other of Nuvania's stock exchanges and is mostly devoted to companies headquartered in southeastern Nuvania as well as companies from southern Asteria Inferior and southern Coius. Windstrand is the location of the Nuvanian Commodities Exchange which is the largest of its kind in Asteria Inferior and primarily catering to futures contracts, options contracts, and spot trading for agricultural products, oil and gas, as well as previous metals.

Banking is the largest of the industries in the financial sector, and is overseen by the Reserve Bank of Nuvania. Nuvania's banking industry is dominated by the "Big Five" banks, these being the Arucian Investment Bank, the Bank of Nuvania, the Volksbank, Nuvania's largest Asterianer bank, Postbank Nuvania, and National Building Society, Nuvania's largest cooperative bank. Of these, the Bank of Nuvania is the largest followed by the Arucian Investment Bank and the Volksbank. In addition to domestic banks, a number of foreign banks also have operations in Nuvania, especially banks from neighbouring countries as well as some from further afield, the most notable being the Bank of the Orient, a bank based in Imagua and the Assimas. In addition to banks, numerous other financial services companies can be found in Nuvania. These include NAM, Nuvania's largest insurance company, and the Declercq Group, a holdings group with a wide profile of assets and companies based in Pietersburg.

Transportation is an important service sector in Nuvania, contributing seven percent to the national GDP, approximately G624.54 billion ($38.43 billion). The transport sector covers land, sea, and air transportation including road transport, railways, ferry services, and airlines. Among the largest companies in this sector include state-owned enterprises such as NLM, Nuvania's flag carrier airline, and NSW, the national railways operator, both of which are multi-billion dollar companies. Other state owned enterprises, such as the Nuvanian Postal Service also are involved in the transport sector through freight-forwarding services, and Roadways, an inter-city bus service. Dozens of private companies can be found in this sector, including Nuvanian Roadlines, which operate road-based freight services, National Translines, which operate inter-city bus services, and the Van Horn Shipping Company, which operates ferry services between Nuvania and Satavia.

Tourism in Nuvania constitutes 9.4% of the GDP, or G838.67 billion ($51.61 billion) and is one of the larger industries in the service sector. Approximately 10.47 million tourists visited Nuvania in 2019. Most of the visitors are from countries with temperate climates, especially in northern Asteria Superior in Euclea, with the peak travel period occurring during the winter months in the northern hemisphere. The most popular provinces for visitors are Etten, Kanaän, and Brabantia, owing to their tropical cultures and landscapes. Numerous companies cater to international tourists, and some of the largest hotel and resort chains are headquartered in Nuvania, including Blue Marlin Club and the Naudé Group.

Energy

The Akwero Coal Mine in eastern Kanaän is the largest in Nuvania.

Nuvania is a significant energy producer within Asteria Inferior. It has the second largest oil reserves after Satucin, and the largest coal reserves. It is the largest producer of coal and crude oil within Asteria Inferior. Fuel extraction and production contributes approximately $34.4 billion to the economy annually, with Nuvania being a net exporter of fuels.

Nuvania produces 830,271 barrels of oil per day, with an annual production value of $19.1 billion. In addition, Nuvania produces $3.7 billion worth of petroleum, and $3.1 billion worth of fuel oil annually. Most of these products are produced at refineries located in northern Nuvania, in particular the Kronenburg Refinery near Pietersburg, the largest in Nuvania with a production capacity of 430,000 barrels per day. There are six oil refineries located around Nuvania, with the Arucian Oil Company (AOC) and the Nuwanse Oliemaatskappy (NOM) the two largest oil and gas companies operating in Nuvania.

Approximately $14.4 billion in liquid and solid fuels are exported overseas annually, with the majority of these exports going to other nations within the Asteria Inferior Common Market, principally Aucuria and Satavia. Nuvania also supplies oil and gas to countries outside of the common market, notably Imagua and the Assimas, of which Nuvania supplies 47% of its oil and gas needs. Energy exports account for 9.15% of total exports.

Nuvania produces 90.6 million tonnes of coal worth $5.5 billion annually, with coal production accounting for 15.9% of total fuel production and $33.5% of fuel exports. Nuvanian coal is known for its low pollution and high heat generation when burned. Much of the coal is consumed domestically for electricity generation, with coal exports to primarily AFDC countries accounting for the remainder of production. Alkmaar and Veld Koolmaatskappy (VKM) are among the many companies that operate coal mines in Nuvania, with both Alkmaar and VKM the largest coal producers.

The electricity sector in Nuvania is one of the largest in Asteria Inferior, worth $23.3 billion. Nuvania generates an average of 203.18 TWh of electricity annually, second only to that of Satucin. Of that electricity generated, 62.2% comes from fossil fuels and 37.7% comes from renewable sources, with a total of 62,287 MW of installed capacity. The latter is dominated by hydroelectricity, with Nuvania home to the second largest hydroelectric power plant in Asteria Inferior, the Herstelling Dam. Nuvania's electricity generation and retail sectors are dominated by Enerkom, one of Nuvania's largest companies.

Around 26.1 TWh of electricity is exported annually, worth $36.8 billion, the higher value due to the average higher prices demanded by Nuvanian electricity companies. The majority of these exports go to neighbouring countries, with Aucuria receiving the majority of the supply, followed by Satavia.

Transport

Land

Nuvania has a total of 313,107 kilometres of roads and highways, 175,084 kilometres of which are paved. In addition, Nuvania has 569 kilometres of expressways, mostly located in the more densely populated northern provinces. As with other countries in Asteria Inferior and most former Estmerish colonies, Nuvania drives on the right side of the road. As of 2017, there were x million registered motor vehicles in Nuvania, including roughly x million cars and light commercial vehicles.

Intercity public transport is primarily provided by independent companies, although Nuvania has large transport providers who have significant networks throughout the country. Roadways is a state owned passenger bus service that operates both domestic and international routes, with National Translines operating as the primary competition. Both of these companies transport over 1.5 million passengers annually.

Nuvania has a total of 17,626 kilometres of [[Railways in Nuvania|railways}}, with most of the network utilising 1,500mm standard rail gauge. Nearly one thousand kilometres of the total rail network is composed of 600mm narrow gauge rail exclusively for the sugar cane industry, with these lines run independently of the main railway network, often by independent or private companies within the sugar industry. Most of the network is owned by Infracor with only a few lines owned and maintained independent of the central government. Approximately 42% of the network is electrified.

NSW provides the majority of inter-city freight and passenger rail services in Nuvania, and has a near monopoly on these services, with only a small number of companies providing localised services. NSW is known for its tourist trains, such as the Coconut Express which runs along the northern coast from Pietersburg to Windstrand, and the Southerner that runs from Pietersburg to Niekerk. NSW also provides international rail services to neighbouring countries; between Windstrand and Fresenburg, Aucuria in the north and Niekerk and Pinheiros, Belmonte in the south.

Air

There are 432 airports and airstrips in Nuvania, most of which are private airports or airstrips serving remote communities and a small number of full service commercial airports. Around two thirds have unpaved or grass runways, with the remaining one third of airports having paved runways. There are approximately 179 public access airports in Nuvania, 55 of which have passenger terminal or cargo terminal facilities, with 39 of those airports having scheduled passenger and cargo services. Most of the main airports in Nuvania are owned and managed by Infracor.

Approximately 31 airlines and aviation companies are registered with the Civil Aviation Authority, most of which are charter companies. Nuvania's largest airline is the state owned flag carrier NLM, which provides scheduled domestic and international services. It's regional subsidiary NLM Express is also Nuvania's second largest airline providing regional services around Nuvania and short-haul international services. Other important airlines include Webjet, Nuvania's first low cost airline, as well as Ansell Airways and Premiair.

Sea

Nuvania has 18 sea ports located along its northern, western, and southern coastlines. The largest of these ports are Windstrand, Pietersburg, and Niekerk, with important secondary ports at Philipsbaai, Newport, and Wetting. Approximately 2.81 million TEU's passed through Nuvanian ports in 2019, three quarters of which were handled by the nation's three largest ports.

There are 39 ships within Nuvania's merchant marine; six bulk, 21 cargo, five container, two liquefied petroleum gas tanker and five petroleum tanker ships. In addition, there are 11 Nuvanian ships registered in other countries, six in Imagua and the Assimas, four in Sanslumière, and one in Satavia.

The Van Horn Shipping Company is the only company in Nuvania that provides international passenger ferry services, operating a fleet of eleven ferries that operate between a number of port cities on Nuvania's west coast and Satavia. These ferries provide important economic and transportation links between Satavia and the mainland of Asteria Inferior, and carry over 15 million passengers and 40 million tonnes of cargo annually.

Demographics

Ethnicity

Nuvania is a multi-ethnic country, with over a dozen ethnic groups found within its population. The largest of these groups are whites who form a plurality of the population with creoles, Nuvania's mixed white and Native Asterian population. Nuvania's Native Asterian population is the second smallest, with other ethnic groups composing the rest of the population.

White people are the largest demographic in Nuvania, with 49% of the population, or 23.2 million people identifying as white. Roughly 70% of the white population was born in Nuvania, with the remaining 30% born outside of the country. These include others born in both Asteria Inferior and Asteria Inferior, as well as those from further afield, primarily Euclea.

Estmerish people form the largest of the white ethnic groups in Nuvania, at 58.2% of the white population, or 13.5 million people. Estmerish people began arriving in Nuvania during the late 17th century primarily as traders or those permitted to settle in areas administered by the former First Hennish Republic and the Sotirian Commonwealth. Immigration from Estmere skyrocketed after the takeover of the former Flamian colony in 1749, with substantial waves taking place in the early and mid 19th century. Roughly 60% of the Estmerish population was born in Nuvania, with 30% of the population having been born in former Estmerish colonies elsewhere in the Asterias, and the remaining ten percent classified as expatriates from Estmere itself. Estmerish people have enjoyed a privileged lifestyle as well as political control in Nuvania, especially through the home rule period prior to independence, with the highest concentrations in Nuvania's northern provinces.

Asterianers are the second largest of Nuvania's white ethnic groups, at 39.6% of the white population, or 9.2 million people. They are the descendants of Nuvania's first Euclean migrants, the Hennish, who settled in northern Nuvania in the 16th and 17th centuries. They are the group with the highest percentage of native-born residents, with 95% of the population having been born in Nuvania. Asterianers have been more associated with agriculture and industry than other white ethnicities, and there has been a broad rivalry between Asterianers and Estmerish since the Estmerish takeover. Most Asterianer live in the central provinces of Nuvania, particularly Albina and Pomeronia.

There are approximately 493,412 other people classified as belonging to groups outside of Estmerish and Asterianers. These include Chennois, Ghaillies, Hennish, Iusitans, Ruttish, and Weranians. Many of these groups are immigrant groups, migrating during the 19th century or more recently, either in the immediate aftermath of the Great War, or escaping from political instability in neighbouring countries.

Mixed peoples, or creoles, constitute 42% of the population of Nuvania, or some 19.9 million people. Creoles are the descendants of the Euclean migrants who intermarried with Native Asterians during the colonial period. Creoles became the second largest population demographic from the 19th century onwards. Historically, creoles have faced significant discrimination, initially under Flamian rule, and then during the Estmerish colonial period, followed by independence. From the 1970's onwards, and especially in the 1980's, creoles became less discriminated against and saw a substantial rise in quality of life and living standards, with creoles now accounting for one third of the middle class in Nuvania.

Indigenous peoples constitute 5.6% of the population, or around 2.6 million people. These peoples come from a variety of tribes and people groups themselves, some of which have been in existence since before the arrival of Eucleans. There are over 87 different tribes in Nuvania with over 40 different recognised languages. Indigenous Nuvanians are among the most impoverished and discriminated groups in Nuvania, and suffer disproportionately from extreme poverty, illiteracy, and crime, among others.

There are 1.6 million people who are classified as being of a different ethnic group, which account for 3.4% of the population. These are migrant groups or descendants of migrant groups, many of them brought in by various colonial governments as labourers, with some also migrating for economic reasons and as refugees. Among these groups are the Gowsa, as well as Senrians, and Xiaodongese.

Language

Asteriaans is the sole official language in Nuvania and is spoken as a first language by 47.6% of the population as a first language, 42.9% of the population as a second language. The remaining 9.5% of the population speaks Asteriaans as a third or even fourth language. Asteriaans is a Weranic language descended from Hennish spoken in the 17th century. It has developed since then into a distinct language, retaining the broad vocabulary structure but with different spelling of words, or even different vocabulary altogether. It became the sole official language of Nuvania in 1892, replacing Estmerish.

Estmerish is the second most spoken language in Nuvania with 44.3% of the population speaking it as a first language, and 42.4% speaking it as a second language. Approximately 13.3% of Nuvanians speak Estmerish as a third language or do not speak it at all.

Numerous different indigenous language groups are spoken in Nuvania. These languages have been subject to controvery as the Nuvanian government's language policy has seen the promotion of Asteriaans over indigenous languages, with no indigenous language being recognised officially nor receiving any government protections. Linguists have estimated that there are four principal language families and over two dozen languages. Most of these languages are severely threatened, although some of the largest ones continue to be preserved in Nuvania's reserve system.

Religion

Education

Education in Nuvania is a joint responsibility by the Ministry of Education and provincial educational departments who jointly provide for and fund schools around Nuvania. Furthermore education is split between public schools, private schools, and reserve schools. Nuvania has one of the lower overall literacy rates in Asteria Inferior, with a combined rate of 88% of its population literate. Approximately 12%, or 5.6 million people, are illiterate. Euclean Nuvanians have the highest literacy rate with less than one percent illiterate. Approximately 18.7% of mixed and 38.7% of indigenous Nuvanians are illiterate. As of 2018, the Nuvanian government spent 7.9% of its GDP, approximately ₲346.06 billion ($41.89 billion) annually on education.

The structure of education in Nuvania is influence by both Estmerish and Hennish schooling, with local adaptations, one of these being the existence of transitional schools (oorgangskole) which bridge the educational gap between primary schools and secondary schools. These were implemented in the 1970's and have since become common place around Nuvania. Schooling is compulsory until age 16, when students may be able to leave provided they have employment and with parental permission. Most primary and secondary schools fall within the public sphere, with 84.9% of students attending public schools, and 15.1% attending private schools.

Nuvania has some of the largest and most prestigious universities in Asteria Inferior. Nuvania has what is known locally as the "Big Three" universities, being the University of Pietersburg, the University of Windstrand, and Straatenburg University. Tertiary education in Nuvania is split between universities, vocational schools, and technological institutes. Universities are oriented towards academic studies, vocational schools provide practical training for trades and other related industries, and technological institutes are oriented towards scientific studies. Both universities and technological institutes are split between public and private universities, and vocational schools receive public funding and government subsidises for specific courses.

Healthcare

Nuvania has a mixed system of public and private hospitals, medical centres, doctors, and other medical institutions. It is ranked as the third most effective healthcare system in Asteria Inferior, and third for quality of care. The system reflects the disparities between Euclean, mixed, and indigenous Nuvanians, with the better healthcare services found in areas that are predominantly Euclean and wealthy. Poorer areas do not have as greater access to the same kinds of facilities and services that wealthier areas enjoy, which contributes to a wider disparity in terms of health outcomes and life expectancy.

Public healthcare in Nuvania is funded primarily by central government but administered by each province through a localised Department of Public Health. Each department is responsible for the maintenance of public hospitals and health clinics in each province, and also implements central government health policy. The system covers 3,863 health clinics and medical centres, and 407 public hospitals. These provide free at the point of use medical care for all citizens of Nuvania, and permanent residents with citizenship from certain countries.

Private healthcare is provided through a number of private healthcare providers, with the majority of specialist practioners operating within the private healthcare system. It is illegal for private healthcare providers to refuse treatment for those that cannot otherwise afford it, and much of the treatment that private healthcare providers provide is covered under some form of government subsidy. The private healthcare system covers approximately 610 medical centres and health clinics, and 203 hospitals.

Each citizen in Nuvania is legally required to have some form of health insurance, which guarantees that person free or subsidised healthcare no matter if they receive treatment in the private or public health system. Children under the age of 18 are covered by the health insurance plan of their parents or legal guardians. The Nuvanian government provides a Basic Health Plan (Basiese Gesondheidsplan, BGP) which is administered by the National Insurance Commission (Nasionale Versekeringskommissie, NVK), a child agency of the Ministry of Health. It provides insurance plans that cover 67.8% of all Nuvanians.

Emergency medical services are provided through both public and private institutions. Nuvania maintains a National Ambulance Service (Nasionale Ambulansdiens, NAD) which is provided for by the Ministry of Health. NAD personnel and vehicles are usually attached to fire stations around Nuvania. Each province also provides an ambulance service which is subsidised. These services are provided for areas which have minimal coverage from the National Ambulance Service.

As of 2018 the Nuvanian government spends 8.7% of its GDP on healthcare, approximately ₲381.18 billion ($46.13 billion), or ₲8,033 ($972) per person.

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