Xiaodong Regeneration Society
|Founded||14th July 1935|
|Dissolved||7st April 1970|
|Headquarters||14, Donfang District, Rongzhuo|
|Youth wing||Youth Front for National Revival|
|Political position||Left-wing (economic)|
|Colors||Red, gold, blue|
The Xiaodong Regeneration Society (晓东再生会; Xiǎodōng Zàishēnghuì) was a Xiaodongese secret society and later political party that ruled Xiaodong from the creation of the Auspicious Republic of Xiaodong on the 13thOctober 1940 to its dissolution following the 1970 Xiaodongese coup d'état. Founded by Lu Keqian, it was defined as a nationalist party of power that upheld the ideology of National Principlism and was sought to represent the interests of senior governmental figures, the military and the state bureaucracy.
The Xiaodong Regeneration Society was formed in the 1930's following the conclusion of the Great War as a secret society within the military that advocated for republicanism, aggressive modernisation, ultranationalism and the rejection of the recently-signed Treaty of Keisi being dominated by war hero Lu Keqian. In September 1935 the Regeneration Society led a coup d'état known as the Corrective Revolution which precipitated the Xiaodongese Civil War. The war saw the Regeneration Society in alliance with the socialist Workers' and Peasants' Party emerge victorious with the Auspicious Republic being declared.
As the Regeneration Society was less a political party and more resembling a loose grouping of generals, bureaucrats and ideologues supportive of Lu it was at first outclassed by the organisational strength of the Workers' and Peasants' party. This led to in 1942 for the Workers' and Peasants' Party to be purged and the 1942 constitution (named the "Wu constitution" after its primary drafter, State Chairman Wu Jinmo) to be introduced. This created under the leadership of Lu a de facto single-party state under the guise of a guided democracy which professed adherence to the ideology of National Principlism which advocated the principles of the revolution - nationalism, socialism, social conservatism and statism. Up until Lu's death the Xiaodong Regeneration Society ruled Xiaodong as an isolationist, authoritarian state with industrialisation occurring in the framework of state sponsorship ("dirigisme").
Lu was succeeded by military men, Qiao Zhaohui and Zhou Hongkui, until 1950 when bureaucrat Ma Renzhong became State Chairman. Under Ma and his successor Li Zhaozheng Xiaodong would recover from the disastrous effects of the Great War and subsequent civil war whilst in foreign affairs aligning with other Coian countries in a united front against Euclean colonialism. During the 1950's and 1960's the military character of the Regeneration Society dissipated as civilian figures increasingly took control leading to a powerful bureaucratic state apparatus based around the society to emerge.
During the late 1960's State Chairman Li sought to further marginalise the military when he appointed the daughter of Lu Keqian, Lu Fangliang, to the position of Premier in 1967. This alongside a more assertive Senria and the proliferation of anti-colonial struggles in Coius taking place seemingly without Xiaodongese action led to a radical group of young officers known as the Committee to Defend the Revolution to emerge who called for an end to the Regeneration Society's rule. In 1970 these officers under the command of Shao Yuzhang attempted to overthrow the government; this spurred the leadership of the army, airforce and Shujichu to support the putschists leading to Li to step down as State Chairman. Shortly afterwards the Regeneration Society was dissolved by State Chairman Sun Yuting.
- 1 History
- 2 Ideology
- 3 Organisation
Between the Great Collapse to the 1922 Jiayun Uprising the Heavenly Xiaodongese Empire suffered from political instability, leading to a group of ultra-nationalist military officers to take power, where it subsequently created a totalitarian state militarising society, launching genocidal policy on ethnic minorities and attempting to expand the empire. They were led by the Shanrong Emperor who shared much of the military's ultranationalism, pro-functionalism and imperialist motives. In 1927 the newly formed Senrian Republic annexed the Xiaodongese concession of Sakata, resulting in 1927 to Xiaodong to declare war on Senria, starting the Great War. During the initial invasion of Senria, general Lu Keqian led Xiaodongese forces to advance deep into the island of Tousuu turning him overnight into a war hero. Lu was a member of the socialist nationalist Xiaodong National Restoration Group (晓东国家复辟小组; Xiǎodōng Guójiā Fùbì Xiǎozǔ) which was republican in contrast to other military cliques.
Xiaodongese occupation forces would fare well in the first few months of the conflict, by 1929 the tide of the war was favouring Senria as Xiaodongese occupation authorities began to conduct the Senrian Genocide. In 1930 Xiaodongese commanding officer in Senria Qiu Hanjie removed Lu Keqian from active duty in Senria, where he was sent back to Xiaodong. Lu was first appointed Commander of the Northern Expeditionary Army but when Xiaodong was invaded by Senria in 1933 he was recalled to serve as Military Governor of the Anqian Province, where he organised a successful defence against Senrian forces. In late 1934 he was made Military Governor of Rongzhuo after the capital Baiqiao fell to organise the defence of the city, but shortly afterwards the Xiaodongese government unexpectedly announced a surrender. The surrender led to the Treaty of Keisi to be signed which led to Xiaodong paying reparations to allied powers alongside cede land to independent countries, dismantle war industry and dissolve the empire amongst other conditions. Lu escaped across the border to Pardaran with a handful of his supporters.
The Treaty of Keishi was hugely unpopular in Xiaodong being seen as an insult to the Xiaodongese nation and people. Xiaodongese nationalists in particular criticised the Treaty. Lu, in exile in Pardaran, wrote several articles denouncing the treaty and worked with former peers in the military to create the Xiaodong Regeneration Society (晓东再生会; Xiǎodōng Zàishēnghuì), a secret society that aimed to overthrow the government and create a single-party socialist republic.