This article belongs to the lore of Kylaris.

Carucere

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Republic of Carucere

République d' Caruquère (Gaullican)
Repiblik Karuku (Papotement)
Flag
Flag
Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Motto: "Libète, Patri, Inite" (Papotement)
("Liberty, Fatherland, Unity")
Anthem: "Karuku Tere Nou"
("Carucere Our Land")
MediaPlayer.png
Location of Carucere (green), within the Golden Isles (light grey)
Location of Carucere (green), within the Golden Isles (light grey)
Carucere info map.png
Capital
and largest city
COA of Kingston Carucere.svg Kingston
Official languagesGaullican
Papotement
Recognized languagesCarucerean Ziba
Ethnic groups
(2021)
Religion
(2021)
Demonym(s)Caruquèrais
Karukais
Carucerean
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Neil Gaubina
• Premier
Dazadiu Dogo
Roy Dazeje
Zegodu Dazeda
LegislatureSenate
Independence from Functionalist Gaullica
• Part of the Arucian Federation
1935
• Part of the United Provinces
1945
• Independence
1953
• Current constitution
1961
• Joined the ACO
1988
Area
• Total
8,165.51 km2 (3,152.72 sq mi)
Population
• 2021 census
537,238
• Density
65.79/km2 (170.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
$9.6 billion
• Per capita
$17,937
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$5.7 billion
• Per capita
$10,607
Gini (2021)Negative increase 37.4
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.75
high
CurrencyArucian shilling (ARS)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Internet TLD.cr

Carucere (Gaullican: Caruquère; Papotement: Karuku), formally known as the Republic of Carucere (Gaullican: République d' Caruquère; Papotement: Repiblik Karuku), is a small island nation between Asteria Superior and Asteria Inferior in the Arucian. It is geographically situated as part of the Golden Isles archipelago in the Western Arucian Sea. Consisting of the main islands of Marien and Magua, and numerous much smaller islands, it shares maritime borders with Sainte-Chloé to the west, Imagua and the Assimas to the north, and Aucuria to the east and south.

Before the arrival of Euclean settlers, the islands were home to a confederation of Nati tribes who traded with their neighbors. Carucere was discovered by Euclean explorers during the voyage of the Gaullican explorer Auguste de Antibes, who named it after the Queen of Gaullica, Anne the Financier. The Colony of St John was established in 1533, founding Kingston next to the strait between Marien and Magua, which formed a large natural harbor. The island's strategic location and ideal geography for a naval base played a critical role in Estmere's attempts to contest Gaullica's control over Arucian Sea. Following Estmere's defeat in the Ten Years' War in 1721, St John was annexed by Gaullica and renamed Saint-Brendan. Gaullican control would only last for fifty years before Estmere regained control of the islands after the Asterian War of Secession and restored its Estermish name. After Estmere banned slavery in 1795, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to continue working on plantations. The islands were finally regained by Gaullica after the War of the Triple Alliance, reverting the colony back to its Gaullican name.

Without slave labor, the Gauillican government imported tens of thousands of gowsas to the islands for labor. By the turn of the century, they formed a significant minority of the population. After the Great War, ownership of the islands was stripped from Gaullica's possession and transferred to a joint Allied commission which later established the Arucian Federation which consisted of former Gaullican colonial possessions, including Sainte-Chloé. Under the Federation, experienced a political, economic, and social revolution as part of the wider Arucian Naissance. In 1945, both states formed an independent federation with Bonaventure and Imagua and the Assimas, forming the United Provinces of the Golden Isles. Under the United Provinces, the islands was ruled by the former colonial elite which bred resentment and further social change. A military coup by Jean Préval sparked the Carucerean Revolution and its independence as the Republic of Carucere in 1953. In 1957, Carucere adopted a new constitution with Préval as President. The new republic was characterized by increased authoritarianism and centralization of power under President Jean Préval, although Carucere grew into a pluralistic and inclusive state. Préval remained in office until his death in 1972. His Presidency oversaw the promotion of multiracialism, the creation of a national identity, and the development and diversification of the economy from a purely extractive and agriculture based one.

Today Carucere is an upper-middle income country with a rapidly growing and diversifying economy. The legacy of colonial rule is reflected in the country's ethnic and religious makeup. Carucere continues to experience occasional tensions between the Bahian and the Gosa population and to a lesser degree between the Catholic majority and the mostly Evangelical Amendist minority. The islands’ rapidly growing economy consists of a mix of agriculture, manufacturing, and various service-based businesses. However the disparities between the richer coast and the poorer interior are very visible especially in income inequality and standards of living. Carucere is a member of the Community of Nations, the Organization of Asterian Nations, and the Arucian Cooperation Organization.

Etymology

The archipelago was called "The Island of Beautiful Waters" (Karukera) by the native Nati chiefdoms. At its initial founding as an Estermish colony and when it was under Estmerish rule, the colony was named St John after John the Amender. When the island was under Gaullican rule the colony was officially named Saint-Brendan after Brendan the Sailor, which remained up until the island was incorporated into the Arucian Federation. However among the island's nonwhite population, the Papotement name Karuku was the most widely used name for the islands. Upon the country's independence from United Provinces in 1953, it adopted the Papotement name Karuku and its Gaullican translation Caruquère as its official name.

History

Prehistory

Archeological evidence suggests humans may have first settled or visited Carucere around 1600 BCE, but this remains a highly debated topic. It is definitively known that the Nati peoples first appeared on the island around the 4th to 7th centuries CE, with permanent settlements beginning around 1000 CE. Following the rise of the Cutinsua, the island became a major trading center for the Arucian oceanic trade network in the mid-14th century. The Anne Strait served as a massive safe harbor for ships to safely anchor and conduct business. When Euclean explorers arrived to the island in 16th century, the island was governed by the Karukera Confederacy, a confederation of five chiefdoms centered around the Anne Strait. They lived in small clusters of villages led by a cacique or chief, who in turn represented their chiefdom in a council of chiefs that led the confederation. The tribes extensively traded with those sailing around the Arucian; usually exchanging guayacán wood for other trade goods. Recent archeological explorations have uncovered the extensive trading activities of the Nati of Carucere. When first contact was made with Euclean explores in 1528, the population of the Confederacy was estimated to be about 40,000 people.

Colonial era

The island of Carucere was discovered by Eucleans in the year 1498 by the Gaullican explorer Auguste de Antibes, who named the island after Queen Anne of Gaullica and claimed it on behalf of her country. Antibes did not step foot on the island, but his expedition noted the island's mountainous terrain and rocky coast during a pass of the island and reported it as unsuited for settlement. For unknown reasons, he failed to notice the Anne Strait, possibly due to poor weather. Eucleans did not return to the island until 1528, when an expedition of Estmerish surveyors were tasked with properly exploring the island. During the expedition, they discovered the strait and quickly realized the strategic value of the strait that formed a large natural harbor. After scouting out the strait, they quickly returned to Estmere.

In 1530 an Estmerish fleet arrived at Carucere with the intent of settling the island. The collapse of Cutinsua two years prior had significantly disrupted the trading network that the tribes had relied on and there was significant infighting within the confederation. The commander of the fleet, Captain James Edwards, exploited this to his advantage by attacking the tribes one at a time before massacring a small army that formed to oppose him. Afterwards Captain Edwards founded Kingston on the northern island of Magua on the spot of a razed village, establishing the Colony of St John. The massive natural harbor formed by the Strait made the location of Kingston an ideal place for a large naval base and anchorage. The first naval facilities around Kingston were built a year after; the settlement quickly became a major trade port and home to one of the largest naval bases in the Asterias. Alongside Port de la Sainte in the Sainte-Chloé archipelago, it was the center of early naval activity in the Asterias, containing docking, construction, and repair facilities. Despite its small size compared to the Sainte-Chloé archipelago, Carucere played a large role in being the "Gateway to the Asterias". Carucere's strategic role was highlighted during the Amendist Wars, when Estmere used the island to launch attacks against Sainte-Chloé.

The colonial government experienced fierce resistance by the indigenous population against attempts to convert them to the Estmerish branch of Amendism and to use them as forced labor. While diseases devastated the population on both islands, the terrain offered many places for indigenous people to hide and resist. They descended from the mountains to attack Gaullican settlements while the colonial authorities raided their villages for slaves. In 1543, the Estmerish successfully defeated a rebellion and massacred hundreds of people on Magua and forced them to retreat to Marien, which offered greater safety. When they revolted again in 1578, the Viceroy retaliated with a military expedition; many were killed by the Estmerish and those captured were enslaved to work on the plantations. The rebellion marked the end of major resistance on the island, with the survivors fleeing further into the interior. Thereafter the native population went into terminal decline, but it is believed that isolated pockets of Nati continued to live in the mountains of Marien until the late 19th century.

Carucere remained as a highly strategic location for Estmere, as Satucin became the center of the Gaullican empire in Asteria Inferior. In addition to its major port and naval base, Carucere developed a small plantation economy. While it was overshadowed by the economic production of the Sainte-Chloé islands, Carucere developed sugar and tobacco plantations centered around settlements. Nevertheless the islands' mountainous terrain and its geopolitical position hindered the widespread expansion of cash crops. The development of new plantations in Carucere were largely concentrated on the island of Magua and around the Anne Strait. By the late 17th century, the total population of the islands were roughly 10,000 people. The sparse settlement and limited development made Carucere one of the less populated colonies of the Arucians, with the least developed plantation infrastructure.

The Gaullican raid on modern-day in 1713

Piracy around Carucere became a significant issue by the end of the 17th century as corrupt local authorities and military officials allowed pirates to operate openly. The era of true pirate control occurred when Kingston was razed by a Gaullican fleet during the Ten Years' War in 1713. Afterwards the islands were abandoned by colonial authorities and were taken over by pirates who were already based on the coast of Marien. Carucere became a pirate republic, a stronghold for pirates which allowed them to raid and cause havoc with trade and shipping in the Western Acurian Islands. It was governed by an informal clique of pirates, led by the captains Firebeard and Graves. Following the war, Estmere’s colonies, including Carucere, were annexed by Gaullica. To restore order, they launched an anti-piracy operation coupled with an offer for clemency and an opportunity to become privateers. After the establishment of Gaullican rule, Carucere was renamed after Saint Brendan and incorporated into the Viceroyalty of the New Aurean.

The new colonial administration expelled the majority of Estmerish settlers and their slaves and renamed many settlements and landmarks. Afterwards, its recorded population in 1724 was a mere 20,000 people, so they sought to further develop the Theme of Riene Anne. To attract more settlers, the government granted free land and tax exemption for 10 years to Solarian Catholic settlers who were willing to swear allegiance to the Gaullican monarchy. Sailors were also attracted by the offer to become state sponsored privateers and raid foreign shipping. However attempts to expand the production of cash crops suffered the same problems that the colony experienced in the centuries prior. While there was interest in developing plantations, the mountainous terrain continued to limit development to the flat areas on the eastern and around the Anne Strait. Furthermore the eastern coastal plain known as the Plaine Orientale; while flat, was swampy and riddled with malaria. While there were some tobacco plantations and a salt harvesting operation, the death rates among slaves were very high. The main industry of the islands continued to be shipbuilding and repair work at the islands' rebuilt and expanded shipyards in the Anne Strait. By 1770, the islands' economy and population started growing rapidly. A census taken in 1771 showed that the island's population had grown to over 50,000 people. The vast majority of the population were slaves, but also included a varied population of mixed race individuals, free Bahians, Dezevauni workers, retired pirates and Gaullican settlers.

Carucere was a key target for Estmere during the Asterian War of Secession and was attacked several times by the Estmerish fleet. Following the war Carucere was returned to Estmere, along with several other former Estmerish colonies. The new colonial administrators expelled most of the Gaullican settlers who refused to pledge allegiance to Estmere and most of their slaves were confiscated by the state to work on the formerly Gaullican plantations. The Estmerish ban on the trade of slaves halted the arrival of slaves to the country completely, resulting in a shortage of slave labor. In 1795, Estmere banned slavery throughout its empire, including in Carucere. Amendist churches were heavily involved during the emancipation process, leading to many of the former slaves converting to Amendism. A major consequence of emancipation was a second, more severe, labor shortage as after the Bahian slaves were emancipated many refused to continue working on the plantations. The plantation economy on Carucere ground to a halt and many plantations were simply abandoned as the newly freed slaves moved away to form their own private farms. Estmere did little to revitalize Carucere's stagnant economy, as they were more concerned with the islands' strategic location in the Arucian.

Late Gaullican rule

Newly arrived indentured gowsas on Marien.

In 1854, Carucere was again embroiled in war after Estmere intervened in the War of the Triple Alliance. After a decisive naval battle in favor of the Triple Alliance, Gaullican troops landed on the island with the intent of seizing the island. After a few battles, the island’s garrison surrendered and the island was occupied by Gaullica. In the Congress of Torrazza, their control of the island was affirmed, restoring the Theme of Riene Anne. Estmerish settlers were again largely expelled, although the free blacks of the islands were permitted to stay provided that they pledge loyalty to Gaullica. Gaullica sought to revitalize the plantation economy of Carucere which had nearly disappeared under Estmerish rule. Though various methods, Gaullica confiscated farm land from free Bahians for the plantation families arrving from Sainte-Chloé. Gaullica began to import gowsas, emigrants from modern-day Dezevau, to work on the new plantations. It is estimated that from 1855 to 1890, over 70,000 gowsas arrived to Carucere. The vast majority of gowsans arrived under indentureship contracts, although a few migrated freely. These contracts were often exploitative, but after their contracts expired, Gaullica offered portions of land to gowsas to encourage settlement across Magua. Over 90% of gowsas accepted the offer instead of returning to Dezevau.

The discovery of anti-malarial medication and better agricultural technology and techniques, led to another rapid expansion of the island's economy. The War of the Arucian in 1883 to 1884, brought further development to the naval facilities of Carucere. Development was concentrated on the island of Magua, where they quickly became the majority population of the island. By then Carucere became the center of Gowsa migration to the Arucian; while the majority of gowsas arriving to the islands continued to be indentured servants, a growing number of free Gowsas came to Carucere. Gowsas were subject to intense Gaullicanization programs by the colonial government by promoting the Gaullican language over Ziba and converting them to Solarian Catholicism. Although many gowsas converted to Sotirianity, they largely kept their culture and identity. The large number of Gowsas migrating to Carucere, colonial authorities granting Gowsas land, and the tendency of Gowsa men to take Bahian wives led to racial tensions with the Bahian population.

The Great Collapse beginning in 1913 led to the near total collapse of the agricultural sector on Carucere, resulting in widespread depression among rural and agricultural workers. Worsening conditions on the islands led to outbreaks of violence; the most significant incident occurred in May 1914 when a violent attempt to break up a strike led to several days of riots. The conditions led to cooperation between Gosan-Carucereans and Bahio-Carucereans workers which marked the first major instance of cooperation between the two ethnic groups of the time. However large scale attempts to organize strikes were stopped by Gaullican colonial authorities. Carucere's economy slowly recovered over the following decade as demand for sugar and coca recovered. The social and economic instability was a contributor to the spread of Carucerean Fraternalism, a new religious movement centered around the liberation of the poor and oppressed. Due to the economic situation, it had a receptive audience among the poor. The colonial authorities sought to suppress the religion, deeming it dangerous and heretical, but it continued to expand throughout the 1910s and 1920s.

Post-independence period

To administer the District of Carucere, the Trusteeship Council appointed Pierre Belain as Governor. A member of Carucere's wealthiest family who sided with the Grand Alliance, Pierre was also appointed due to his broad support among the old planter class of the island. His administration worked closely with other prominent members of the oligarchy to repair and clean up the damage to the island's plantations and other infrastructure caused by the Great War. However some attempts to help urban workers and farmers who were made homeless and unemployed by the war were hampered by a lack of support, corruption, and poor bureaucracy. Furthermore land that were previously owned by small farmers and abandoned during the war were often confiscated by the District government, despite one or more legitimate claims. Confiscated land were usually sold to new owners, who were often wealthier than the previous ones.

The slow recovery of private farms compared to large plantations owned by the upper class led to resentment and encouraged the rise of a broad class-based reform movement in 1937. The movement aimed to unite the urban working class and agricultural laborers to promote labor rights and land reform. As the movement grew, calls for political and economic reform became widespread. Carucerean Fraternalism began spreading throughout Carucere during this time, due to its focus on social and economic justice. While many were uneasy due to its unorthodox doctrine, the movement as a whole was largely sympathetic to its teachings and many supported the church. The movement as a whole, was strongly opposed by the local elite and by the Arucian Federation and the Grand Alliance who feared the spread socialism within the Federation. The government began a series of measures to crackdown on the movement including strikebreaking, arbitrary arrest and detainment of the movement's leaders, police harassment of its supporters, and legal threats. Finally poor rural and urban voters were further defranchised to ensure the elite's dominance in District Senate.

Despite suppression by the government, the Reform Movement was a key part of a time period known as the Arucian Naissance in Carucere, a period of immense social, political, and economic change. As the country transitioned away from its former status as a colony to being a part of a sovereign state, the most radical change occurred with the economy. Despite opposition by local planters and the reluctance of Governor Belain, the Arucian Senate pressured Carucere into perusing moderate land reform to stem further radicalism. The government purchased land to sell to farmers at heavily discounted prices as well as returning most of the confiscated land to their original owners and establishing a court of arbitration to handle disputes over land. These modest reforms, only satisfied a few well off farmers and the land reform movement continued to gain popularity. The government was only able to stave off violent dissent by up opening further land for development by independent farmers. While many farmers chose to continue producing sugarcane, some decided to plant other crops, like coffee and tropical fruit, especially bananas and breadfruit. This marked the beginning of the islands' diversification and transition away from an agricultural sector that was originally centered based upon sugarcane production.

The era marked a new era of positive Gosa-Bahian relations, largely driven by the younger generations. As hostility declined, cross-cultural interactions became common, allowing both cultures to influence the other. This cultural exchange was most prominent in music and cuisine, leading to new musical styles and food dishes that would form the basis for Carucerean cuisine. In addition as traditional stigma for interethnic interactions declined, relations between Gosa and Bahian men and women grew more common. While interracial relationships had existed, they were often subject to hostility and prejudice. These interactions between the Gosa and Bahian peoples in the 1920s and 1930s would form the basis of a Medi or "mixed" Gosa-Bahio culture in Caurcere.

Crucially the period saw the rise of a unique Carucerean identity among disaffected liberals and the rural and urban poor. Formed in reaction to the dominance of the Chloéois and Euclean elite in control of the country, it emphasized the common background of the "native" people of Carucere and drew a distinction between them and the foreign elite. However distinct Gosan and Bahian identities also formed due to racial and sectarian differences which drove divisions between the two ethnic groups. Nevertheless a sense of identity led to the rise of Carucerean nationalism throughout the 1930s and 1940s, espoused by political clubs, labor movements, and the country's first official political party, the Social Liberation Movement of Carucere in 1933. The formation of the Social Liberation Movement, formed to represent Carucerean nationalists of all political affiliations. However Carucerean politics continued to work on a personal basis between individual politicians who knew each other well and operated through consensus.

Although Carucere had many cultural differences with Sainte-Chloé, Carucere was governed by many Chloéois planter families who owned land in both archipelagos. When the Districts of Sainte-Chloé began discussions on seeking independence from the Arucian Federation, many Chloéois planters pushed for Carucere form a political union with an independent Sainte-Chloé. They sought to consolidate their control over Carucere and ensure they continued to have access to their homes and plantations on Sainte-Chloé. In addition many businessmen around the Arucian saw another potential market and source of raw materials. In 1944, the District Senate voted to join the nascent United Provinces which officially came into existence on 4 May 1945. Carucere's population largely opposed the move, but they were largely shut out of the decision making process. That year Pierre Belain was elected Governor of the Province of Carucere, in an election determined to be neither free or fair.

By the mid-1940s Carucere began a period of rapid economic development coupled with a large population boom as living standards increased. Although there were improvements in the lives of the average Carucerean, the growth largely benefited the colonial elite who continued to profit from their plantations. Under the United Provinces, Carucere was effectively a banana republic and economic vassal of planters from Sainte Chloé and businessmen from the wider United Provinces. Although de jure universal suffrage was introduced to Carucere in 1945, tactics such as intimidation of voters and restrictions like literacy tests ensured that the colonial elite maintained their political dominance. Despite being shut out of the political process, the opposition movement, led by the Social Liberation Movement, was the largest political movement in Carucere. The Liberationists were able to maintain a broad multiethnic and nonsectarian coalition of liberals and leftists throughout the era. The party's ultimate goal was for the "decolonization" of Carucere but its many factions disagreed on how it would be achieved.

Riots in Kingston during the Carucerean Revolution in September 1953.

A series of political crises within the United Provinces beginning with the secession of Imagua and the Amissas in 1948, greatly weakened the power of the ruling class as they succumbed to infighting over the future of the federation. Divisions grew between pro-Chloéois planters, who wanted to side with Sainte-Chloé's independence movement and pro-Voloix business interests who wanted Carucere to remain in the UP. The political dispute escalated into a constitutional crisis in August 1953, when Pierre Belain was forced to resign after the departure of Sainte-Chloé from the Federation became certain. The opposition movement used the resulting political crisis as an opportunity to achieve independence. August 3rd 1953, a series of worker strikes and protests shut down Carucere. When ordered to disband the protests by force, Jean Préval commander of the islands' security force launched a coup, beginning the Carucerean Revolution. His coup was met with overwhelming popular support, forcing the political elite to flee the country. The Social Liberation Movement formed a provisional government shortly thereafter to prevent violence and more radical elements from sizing control. Its first act was to declare independence from the United Provinces on 14 September 1953.

Republican period

The new provisional government maintained the institutions and norms created under the United Provinces including a parliamentary system. For his role in the Carucerean Revolution, Jean Préval was elected President by the provisional Senate, a largely ceremonial role. One of their first major acts of the new government was to seize thousands of acres of farmland and other property from wealthy landowners that fled the country during the Revolution. Despite causing a minor diplomatic incident, the Carucerean governmeny were able to raise hundreds of thousands of euclos in funds from the seized property. However plans to distribute confiscated land to Carucerean farmers ground to a halt after major disagreements between Gosan and Bahian politicians. Attempts to pass other reforms were hampered as political infighting between the two ethnic groups set in.

As President, Jean Préval served as a mediator between the opposing sides, which greatly increased his popularity and the power of the office of the President. Nevertheless an attempt to draft a new constitution was beset by disagreements over political structure, languages, religious rights, and the future of the power sharing agreement. The fear of being marginalized among Bahians led to the rise of the Black Power movement. Protests and strikes became common, with events coming to head in October 1954 when police shot dead a protester named Basil Davis. Fearing a breakdown of law and order, President Préval declared a state of emergency and ordered that many of the Black Power leaders be arrested. Some army leaders who were sympathetic to the Black Power movement attempted to mutiny but the conspiracy was quashed.

In response, Préval published the People's Charter for Change, Peace, and Progress in 1955 which declared three fundamental principles that the new constitution should embody which were establishing ethnic and religious equality, preventing racial politics, and embracing the country's multiracial nature. The new consitution incorporated Préval's Charter and granted greater power to the President. After the ratification of the consitution, Préval was releected President after the legislative elections in 1958. His Presidency oversaw reconciliation efforts between the Gosa and the Bahian peoples and the creation of economic programs to transition the country away from an extractive and agriculture based economy; for these reasons he is widely seen as the as "The Father of The Nation". However he acted far beyond the authority granted to the Presidency in the original constitution and he continued to centralize power within the Presidency, leading to accusations of authoritarianism. He formalized his expanded powers through a constitutional amendment in 1965, formally ending Carucere's parliamentary system. He would remain President until his forced resignation ahead of the elections in 1974.

The turmoil of the Sugar Crash and Sugar High during the 1960s and 1970s greatly impacted the economy of Carucere. The extreme fluctuation in the price of sugar bankrupted many of the old sugar plantations and represented the final time agriculture formed the basis of the country's economy. A collapse of the national economy was prevented by government intervention and the ongoing diversification of Carucere's economy into the tourism and manufacturing sectors. Despite Préval's effort, Carucere's economy remained stagnant throughout the 1960s, which contributed to social unrest. Following the death of Préval in 1975, Premier Victorin Lurel ascended to the Presidency. President Lurel accused of economic mismanagement, which led to the rapid disintegration of the Social Liberation Movement. A crash in the price of sugar and a rise in the price of commodities in 1980 only further increased political instability. The collapse of the Movement led to the formation of over a dozen successor parties centered around political figures rather than ideology. These parties were often short-lasting and many political parties rose and fell from 1976 to the mid-1980s.

After a period of political dysfunction caused by a series of close election results, the political system stabilized with the rise of the National Labour Party in the early 1980s. Founded upon an ideological basis, instead of revolving around a single political personality, the National Labour Party became a fixture of Carucerean politics. Shortly thereafter the Liberal Party emerged as a major contender. President James Serville from the National Labor Party was elected in 1982, retaining that position until 1990. President Serville's administration focused on handling Carucere's explosive population growth after 1950, improving transportation and public utilities.

The 1990s saw the emergence of the Bahian People's Democratic Party as a major kingmaker in Carucerean politics. After the 1996 election, which saw the PDP support the Liberal Party, their support would be a crucial factor in election afterward. Under the Liberal administration, restricts on abortion and same-sex marriage were relaxed. Carucere's tourism sector began to promote eco-tourism and cultural landmarks in addition to traditional tourist attractions. The Liberals were remain in power until 2006 after a major economic downturn. However allegations corruption surrounded the National Labor Party government leading to a major scandal. They were defeated in 2018 by the Liberal Party and Neil Gaubina.

Geography

Raider's Cove in nothern Marien
Repulse Bay in southern Marien
Providence Falls in central Maugua.
Rainforest in Western Marien
The Boiling Lake in DuBois National Park
Detailed map of Carucere.

Carucere lies 6 degrees north and 78 degrees east in the Western Arucian Sea. The islands are considered to be part of the Golden Isles archipelago which includes the island countries of Sainte-Chloé, Imagua and the Assimas, Bonaventure, and parts of Aucuria and Eldmark. There is considerable debate among geographers on whether the region should be considered geographically part of Asteria Superior or Asteria Inferior. In recent decades, a growing number of people consider the Arucian as a whole to be its own subregion based upon a common political, cultural, and historical heritage. Geologically the islands sits upon the Asteria Inferior plate, with the Arucian rift to the north.

Known as "The Nature Island of the Golden Isles" due to its lush scenery and varied flora and fauna, Carucere is largely covered by rainforest and is home to the world's second-largest hot spring, the Boiling Lake. Covering an area of 8,165.51 km2 (3152.7 sq mi), the country consists of two main islands, Marien and Magua, separated by the Anne Strait which forms a large natural harbor, plus a number of much smaller islands. Marien is 6,708 km2 (2589.9 sq mi), comprising 82.1% of the country's area. Magua is 1,433.8 km2 (553.6 sq mi), comprising 17.5% of the country's area. The remaining area is distributed among the country's small islands.

Marien is very mountainous, with Mount Valérie as the highest peak at 3223 m (10,574 ft), and around 120 other summits of more than 2,000 m (6561 ft). The country's central spine, a west to east axis of steep volcanic slopes and deep gorges, generally varies in elevation around 1,600 metres (4,593 ft) above sea level. Several east-west trending mountain spurs extend to the narrow coastal plains in the west and south, which are studded with sea cliffs. The interior features rugged mountains of volcanic origin, including several dormant volcanoes. Active volcanism contributes to the island's many hot springs, including one of the largest hot springs in the world, the Boiling Lake and its outflow the Boiling River. Marien is water-rich with swift-flowing highland streams, which cascade into deep gorges and form natural pools and crater lakes. The streams are not navigable, but many are sources of hydroelectric power. The southeastern region of the island, known as the Plaine Orientale, is a coastal plain and the flattest region of the island. The Plains has a number of coastal lagoons separated from the oceans by small sandbars. In addition marshland is also extensive on the coast in this region. As a result, malaria has historically been a problem near the marshlands and swamps in the area, which limited its development in the past. The major bodies of freshwater on Marien are all artificial, formed by dams to create reservoirs.

The Anne Strait divides the two main islands. The strait consists of four channels; two in the west and two in the east, with a large bay in the center. It has a shallow sandy bottom, averaging about 30 m (100 ft) deep. The natural harbor has an area of 271.98 km2 (105 sq mi). Magua is the smaller of the two main islands. The majority of the island is covered by the Magua Range, a series of mountains and highlands western half of the island, which contains the island's highest peak the Smitt's Peak at 1,447 meters (1,640 ft). North of the Range, is the Capesterre Plains, a region of gently sloping lands and rolling hills. Unlike Marien, Maugua contains no active or dormant volcanoes; a large collapsed caldera of an extinct volcano lies in the western half of the island. The island's terrain is less rugged than the island of Marien.

Magua is the more populated of the two islands despite its smaller size due to its earlier settlement and less harsh terrain. The population centers of the islands are largely centered around the Anne Strait. There are four major municipalities on the islands, the capital Kingston and the cities of Crique, Pointe Henri, and Sainte Chloé.

Geology

Carucere consists of geologically young volcanic islands, formed by volcanism from the Carucerean hotspot. It is also speculated that uplift from a rising magma plume played a role in the island's formation. As a result, the island of Marien is highly geologically active with several major volcanoes, such as Monte Cinto. Carucere is part of a large cluster of hotspots and large igneous provinces that form the Golden Isles, formed by tectonic activity from the rift between the Asteria Superior and Asteria Inferior tectonic plates. The region is one of the most geologically active places in the world.

Climate

Carucere has a maritime tropical climate with characteristically warm temperatures and heavy rainfall. Excessive heat and humidity are tempered somewhat by a steady flow of the northwest trade winds. There are two seasons annually: the dry season from January to June, and the rainy season from July to December. Winds are predominantly from the northwest and are dominated by the northwest trade winds. The climate varies significantly on the islands based upon elevation and the side of the island. In higher elevation in Marien, the climate is often cooler than that of the sweltering heat of the plains below due to constant cloud and mist cover and heavy rains in the mountains. The leeward side of the islands are noticeably drier due to the rain shadow effect, which is especially notable during the dry season.

Biodiversity

The Arucian fruit bat can found across the country.

Carucere shares a similar biological diversity with other neighboring islands. The country contains five terrestrial ecoregions; moist forests, Lesser dry forests, montane warm forests, xeric scrub, and mangroves. The main ecosystems in Carucere are coastal, marine, forest, freshwater, karst, man-made ecosystems, and savanna.

The islands' fertile volcanic soils, heavy rainfall and a warm climate result in lush vegetation. Most of the islands' remaining forests are on Marien, containing such plants such as mahogany, ironwood, and chestnut trees. Mangrove swamps are common on the coasts and the river mouths of Marien. However much of the forest on Magua has been cleared, with only a few patches remaining.

The rainforest lies between 300 and 1,000 m of altitude on the windward side of the islands, home to trees such as white gum and the chestnut tree; shrubs and herbaceous plants like the mountain palm, the ballsier or ferns. Above 1,000 m, is a humid savannah composed of mosses, lichens, sphagnum and larger plants such as high altitude violet or mountain thyme. On the leeward side of Marien are tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests. The most prominent plant in the biome are the guaiacwood and the holywood trees which were valued for the quality of their wood.

Few terrestrial mammals, aside from bats and raccoons, are native to the islands. Bird species include the endemic purple-throated carib, Carucere woodpecker and the Sisserou parrot which is the country's national bird and is endemic to the islands. The waters of the islands support a rich variety of marine life. Most notably a group of sperm whales live in this area year-round. Other cetaceans commonly seen in the area include spinner dolphins, pantropical spotted dolphins and bottlenose dolphins.

Environmental preservation

Carucere's environment suffered significant damage during the colonial era from the development of intensive crops, especially tobacco and sugarcane, as well the large-scale harvesting of guaiacwood and holywood trees. Prior to the 20th century, it is estimated that Marien lost between 20-30 percent of its original forests and Magua lost up to 80 percent of its original forests. Threats to the country's biodiversity today include over-hunting and poaching, habitat loss and fragmentation, water pollution, and introduction of invasive species and pathogens. Habitat loss is a major issue largely caused by land clearance for quarrying, agriculture, squatting, housing and industrial development and road construction. Proposals to build more dams have been halted due to environmental concerns.

Government & Politics

Carucere's politics occurs in the framework of an independent unitary de facto presidential republic. The government is based on the Constitution of the Republic of Carucere which describes the country as a parliamentary republic with power centered in the legislature. In reality, political power is centered around the powerful President of Carucere, who is both head of state and head of government. The legislature of the country is the unicameral Senate of Carucere which plays a secondary, but important role in national politics. Judicial authority is delegated to the national court system led by the Court of the Republic and the Council of State. Carucere is a centralized unitary state, although the Western Region is granted autonomy. Unlike other democracies in the world, the country's politics are divided by ethnic groups rather than ideology.

Under the country's provisional constitution at independence, Carucere was a parliamentary state with a President as head of state and a Premier as head of government. However under Jean Préval's constitution and Presidency, political power was centralised within the office. After Préval's death, his successors formalized the powers of the presidency through several constitutional amendments. As a result, Carucere's politics combines aspects from the parliamentary and presidential political systems. Since the President remains indirectly elected, political scholars continue to debate whether the country is a presidential republic or has created a new system entirely.

Governance

The President of Carucere is head of state and head of government of the country. The Presidency is granted wide ranging powers and responsibilities; mainly serving as chief diplomat, chief legislator, and the commander in chief of the armed forces. The president is responsible for conducting foreign relations, such as approving treaties, declaring war, and making peace, as well acting as commander in chief of the Carucere Defence Force. The president, by approval of the Cabinet of Carucere, can issue broad decrees with the force of legislation as long as it is determined to be constitutional. However, decrees cannot override existing legislation and the Senate can pass legislation to override a decree. The President lacks veto powers and must promulgate all laws presented to them, although they can refer a law to the Council of State for constitutional review. Other powers of the president include granting amnesty, pardon, or clemency on recommendation by the Senate, declaring martial law, and conferring honors and decorations. The President is nominated by political parties running for the Senate during legislative elections; the party or parties that receive the plurality of the popular vote has their candidate automatically elected President.

The President is assisted by the Premier of Carucere as deputy head of government. The Premier largely serves to implement policy on direction of the President, instead of making it. As both part of the executive and legislative branch, the Premier serves as the link between the Senate and the Presidency. The Premier is a member of the Cabinet of Carucere, which consists of various high-ranking state officials, including the President and over a dozen ministers. The Cabinet largely functions as an advisory council by providing opinions and advice for the President. However the Cabinet's approval for measures regarding certain matters such as decrees and submitting legislation to the Senate is required. The President has the power to nominate the Premier and the rest of the Cabinet, but they must be approved by the Senate; in addition the Premier must be a current member of the Senate. The President formally lacks the power to dismiss the Premier and the Cabinet, although in practice the President can ask for their resignation.

The Senate of Carucere is the country's legislative body. The Senate consists of 79 members democratically elected by nationwide proportional representation with a 5% electoral threshold. The Senate is the supreme legislative authority, but by convention it usually debates and votes on legislation submitted by the Premier instead. Nevertheless, the Senate wields several important powers over the President. It has the power to approve appointments by the President which includes the Premier and the appointed members of the Cabinet, as well has the power to dismiss them by a simple majority vote. Although the Senate generally allows the executive to begin the legislative procedure, ultimately the Senate's legislative authority supersedes the executive's, which allows it to have final say on any measure proposed by the executive. Finally it has the power to impeach and dismiss a President from office with a two-thirds majority vote.

Judiciary and Law Enforcement

National Police car in Kingston.

The Carucrean legal system based upon the Gaullican system which is in turn based on Solarian Law, Verliquoian Law and the allgemeines gesetzbuch. The Carucrean court system is split into two court types and three jurisdictional levels. The two types of courts are judicial courts which handle criminal and civil cases and administrative courts which handle cases that concern the exercise of public power. The three levels of the judiciary are the prefecture court, the regional appeal courts, and the two national courts. The highest court concerning civil and criminal law is the Court of the Republic and the administrative courts are headed by the Council of State. The Council of State is the highest judicial authority in the country, serving as the supreme administrative and constitutional court in the country. In addition, it serves as the legal adviser of the executive branch on matters of constitutional law.

The two main national law enforcement agencies of Carucere are the civilian National Police of Carucere and the military Gendarmerie of Carucere. The National Police is the country's primary law enforcement agency with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. It closely cooperates with the three regional police forces of Carucere. The Gendarmerie's primary jurisdiction is in smaller towns, as well as in rural and offshore areas. For operations offshore, the Gendarmerie cooperates with the Coast Guard. The three regional police forces of Carucere cover the entire island of Magua, and the western and eastern regions of Marien. No local police forces exist; instead units are stationed within a settlement or assigned to cover a small region.

Foreign relations

As a former member of the United Provinces, Carucere is closely linked to its island neighbors. It is a full member of the Arucian Cooperation Organization and participates in the organisation's customs area, visa free area, and common market. Carucere's shares especially close cultural and economic ties with Sainte-Chloé due to its geographical proximity and a common colonial history under Gaullica. The country also has good ties with the countries bordering the Western Arucian Sea. Carucere is also a member of the global Community of Nations and the continental Organization of Asterian Nations.

Due to its colonial legacy, Carucere shares many ties with countries around the world. It has many ties with its former colonisers, Gaullica and Estmere; Carucere is a member of their respective organizations the Association of Gaullophone States and the Estmerish Community respectively. Carucere has a unique relationship with Dezevau due to significant migration of gowsas to the country during the 19th century. Due to a common heritage, the two countries have cultivated social, cultural, scientific, and economic ties since the 1990s. For the past two decades, Dezevau has assisted with the economic development of the country, focusing on hydropower and geothermal energy. However Dezevau's social and cultural links are significantly more controversial, especially with the Bahio-Carucerean population as Dezevau is commonly perceived to favor the Gosan population. For this reason, Carucere's relations with Dezevau have been described as bipolar and largely determined by the current political party in power.

Military

The Carucere Defence Force is the nation's military and is responsible for the defence of the country. It consists of the Battalions, the Coast Guard, and the Gendarmerie. Its primary mission is to defend Carucere and protect the territorial integrity of Carucere. The largest active branch of the Defence Force is the Coast Guard, who is tasked with patrolling its waters and providing assistance and relief in times of disaster. In addition to a small surface fleet, the Coast Guard operates several helicopters and light patrol aircraft that functions as the country's air force. The Battalions functions as the main standing land forces of the country, organized into two battalions of 1000 personnel each. The Gendarmerie operates as the national police force and supplements the sole national police forces and the three regional police forces of the island.

The Defence Forces originates from the Provincial Guard of the Province of Carucere under the United Provinces, which functioned as a national police force. Following the country's independence, the Guard was reorganised and expanded into the Defence Forces in 1955. Today, the Defence Force largely operates as an internal security keeping force and disaster response agency.

Administrative divisions

Carucere is a unitary state divided into nine prefectures. These subdivisions generally lack autonomy and largely serve for ease of administration by the central government. Prefectures are governed by a prefecture and are governed by an Senate consisting of a mixture of elected and appointed members. The country's sole municipality, the capital city of Kingston, is governed by a mayor and an elected council. These bodies largely serve to assist in the administration of their subdivisions. Elections for these bodies are held every four years. The western region of Carucere known as Côte Azure, is granted significantly more autonomy than the other administrative divisions. It is governed by a regional Senate who elects a prefect who has control over some spending such as infrastructure and education.

Map County Capital Population (2021)
Grand Port Crique 87,418
Kingston Kingston 77,231
Plaines Anne Pointe Henri 75,829
Colline Sud Tiberon 50,697
Deshaies Capesterre 49,207
Sainte-Rose Sainte-Rose 47,031
Côte Nord Sainte-Chloé 40,786
Pointe-Noire Caracol 40,652
New Sheaford New Sheaford 26,287
Vallée Verte Vertmont 21,849
Côte Azure Jamestown 20,697

Largest cities

Demographics

The population of Carucere is estimated to be around 540 thousand people in 2022, making it the least populated country in the Golden Isles. The last census conducted in 2021, recorded a population of 537,238 of whom 270,073 were males and 267,165 were females.The population on the island of Marien is 272,420 and that of Mauga is 264,818. Ethnic, racial, and religious statistics are tracked by the government. Carucere is a multiethnic society, mainly drawn from Southeast Coian and Bahian origins with major Euclean influences.

Ethnic groups

Ethnic groups of Carucere
Ethnic group percent
Gosan
43.7%
Bahian
32.8%
Medi
11.1%
Other mixed
3.4%
Other
3.8%

The diverse ethnic composition of Carucere reflects its colonial legacy. While the earliest inhabitants were of Indigenous heritage, the two dominant groups in the country are now those of Southeast Coian and of Bahian heritage. Bahio-Carucereans are the descendants of slaves brought by Estmerish and Gaullican colonial authorities from the 16th century up to the late 18th century. Gosa-Carucereans are the descendants of indentured workers brought by Gaullica during the later half of the 19th century. As a result, Carcere is commonly considered as a multicultural society.

Gosa-Carucereans make up the country's largest ethnic group, consisting of 43% of population. Carucere is the only country in the Asterias where the descendants of Gowsa migrants form a plurality of the population. In Carucere the term "Gowsa" or "Gausa" is a term usually used to refer to the indentured workers brought from Southeast Coius during the 19th century, while the modern term Gosa is used to refer to their descendants. The vast majority of Gosans originate from modern-day Dezevau, for this reason they are sometimes labeled as Dezevauani Carucreans, but this is uncommon. Gosans are generally considered to be part of the Gaullophone population, although they primarily speak Papotement, and practice Solarian Catholicism. Some Gosans can speak and understand Ziba, although the number of primary speakers are low and many continue to practice Badi. Since independence many have converted to Evangelical Amendism.

Bahio-Carucereans are the country's second largest ethnic group, with approximately 36% of the population identifying as being of Bahian descent. The majority of people of an Bahian background are the descendants of slaves forcibly transported to the islands from as early as the 16th century. The majority of Bahio-Carucereans primairly speak Papotement and are evenly divided between Evangelical Amendism and Solarian Catholicism. Like Gosans, their culture reflects a syncretism of their originating cultures in Bahia with Gaullican and Estmerish influences.

Approximately 15% of the population identifies as mixed or métis in Gaullican. Of this population, about 16% identify as Medi or mixed in Ziba, who are people of mixed Gosan and Bahian descent. Medi culture is very diverse and reflects the mix of the cultural traditions and other aspects from its parent cultures. While Gosans-Bahian pairings existed in the past, the Medi population did not become significant until the 1970s; today it is the fastest growing ethnic group on the island. Medis generally has a cosmopolitan identity that draws upon their parent cultures. The remainder of the mixed population originate from many different ethnic groups that came during the colonial era. There are also small but significant minorities of people of Indigenous, Euclean, Shangean, and Senrian descent.

Religion

Religion in Carucere
Religion percent
Solarian Catholicism
47.9%
Evangelical Amendism
34.9%
Fraternalism
4.7%
Other Sotirian
2.9%
Badi
5.8%
Other
1.1%
Irreligious/not stated
2.3%

Religion in Carucere is characterized by a range of religious beliefs and practices due to its ethnic diversity. The government is vocally supportive of religious diversity and tolerance, and these attitudes are generally present in society as well. Over 90% of the population is Sotirian of which largely consists of Catholics and Amendists, 5.8% are Badi, about 1% followed other faiths, and 2% professed no religion.

The largest religion in Carucere is Sotirianity which is largely divided between Solarian Catholicism and Amendism, but also includes Carucerean Fraternalism and other minor sects. Amendism was initially brought to Carucere during the initial colonization of Carucere in the 16th century. However the majority of Amendists today, mainly Bahio-Carucereans, were converted during the second era of Estermish rule from 1771 to 1855. Solarian Catholicism was brought to Carucere by Gaullican colonial authorities during periods of their rule. The Solarian Catholic Church took an active role in the Gaullisation of Gowsan migrants through church operated schools. As a result Catholicism is mainly practiced by Gosans today. The third major sect of Sotirianity is Carucerean Fraternalism, also known as the Communion of Carucerean Brothers and Sisters. Variously described as a Sotrian sect, new age religion, or syncretic faith, the Fraternalism religious movement was originally borne from Catholicism but drew significant influence from Amendism, Badi, and Boku. Despite its unorthodox doctrine, low number of followers, and controversy surrounding it, the movement has had an outsized impact on Carucerean society and politics.

Religion in Carucere is characterized by a high degree of religious syncretism due to the diverse origins of its people. There are at least three syncretic faiths or religions in Carucere; Carucerean Badi, Spiritual Amendist, and Boku. The complex interactions between the three faiths and mainstream Sotirianity has been described as a "Bahio-Gosa religious complex", where its practitioners practice common forms of worship that borrow religious elements from each other. Some commentators include Fraternalism within this category.

Some Gosans in Carucere continue to practice the Badi religion in Carucere. The religion in Carucere is known for its significant doctrinal diversity for its small population, religious syncretism with Solarian Catholicism and Boku, and the existence of a formalized religious hierarchy. Despite intense conversion efforts by Gaullica, it is estimated that over half of Gosans practice Badi alongside Sotirianity. It is believed that this practice is common due to the nature of the two religions; Badi largely deals with the physical plane and life on earth and deemphasizes the afterlife, deities, or salvation; while Sotrianity places greater emphasis on an explanation for life, death, and the afterlife. Such people simultaneously observe rites from both religions, a practice jokingly known in Carucere as being a "Badi in life but Sotirian in death." Even among those who solely identify as Sotirian, many they still believe in at least some parts of Badi such as the elemental system or acknowledge it as a cultural heritage. Since 1970, the Badist Council of Carucere represents the Badi population in the country, promoting Badi interests and organizing public festivals and rituals.

Carucere has a distinct religious tradition among Bahio-Carucereans known as Boku that originates from Bahian Fetishism and Ifran. Its origins lies from colonial times in which slaves disguised their traditional religious beliefs as the Catholic faith, and incorporated many aspects of Sotirianity into their beliefs. A major shift in the religion occurred with the arrival of Gowsas during the 18th century, who practiced various Tendencies of Badi. Badi introduced several tenants to Boku, especially the incorporation of the Badi elemental system and its associated rituals. The proportion of Bahio-Carucereans that practice Boku is disputed, due to the often syncretic manner in which it is practiced alongside Catholicism. It is estimated that a majority of Bahio-Carucereans, mostly Catholics, practice both religions simultaneously.

The Spiritual Amendist faith is a Sotrian religion that was formed by newly emancipated Bahians under Estmerish rule in the late-18th to early 19th centuries. It is a syncretic Bahio-Arucian religion that combines elements of Boku with Amendism. it is generally divided between "orthodox" and "non-orthodox" groups, where the former is more inline with mainstream Amendism and the latter is more Bahianized. Nevertheless Spiritual Amendists consider themselves to be Sotrian.

Languages

First language of Carucereans (2022)
Language percent
Papotement
81.3%
Ziba
10.8%
Gaullican
5.2%
Estmerish
1.7%
Other
1.7%

Carucere's official languages are Gaullican and Papotement. While Gaullican is the sole language for all administration and legal matters, Papotement is the predominant language used on Carucere. Gaullican is Papotement's base language and it draws significant influence from Bahian languages and Estmerish. While its vocabulary is largely derived from Gaullican, it has many loanwords from Ziba and Estmerish and its grammar resembles that of some Bahian languages. While Gaullican continues to be the language of prestige, the government of Carucere acknowledges the cultural and historical importance of Papotement. In recent decades, official government documents, new legislation, ballots, among others, are usually translated into Papotement. Since 2003, all schools in the country are entirely bilingual in both Gaullican and Papotement.

Carucrean Ziba is the second most spoken langauge in Carucere. Although only 10% of Carucereans, nearly exclusively Gosan, speak it as a first language, a significant plurality of them use the language on a daily basis. However its usage is has been in decline for decades in favor of Papotement, although there has been attempts to revive its use. Carucrean Ziba has undergone significant change, such as loaning a large number of words from Gaullican, the formation of new words unique to Carucere, and major influence in vocabulary and grammar by the Papotement creole. As a result, Carucrean Ziba is distinct from the varieties spoken in Dezevau, although it remains largely mutually intelligible. Carucerean Ziba is a recognized language by the Carucerean government.

A small minority of Bahio-Carucereans speak Estmerish, a legacy of Estmerish rule from 1771 to 1856. While Estmerish church authorities focused on converting Bahio-Carucereans to Amendism, only a few churches taught the language to them. In addition the use of the language has declined in favor of Papotement; today only 10,000 Bahio-Carucereans use it on a daily basis and even fewer learn it as their first language.

Education

Jean Préval University is the country's most prestigious educational institution.

Carucere's education system is managed by the Carucere Academy, a government institution under the Ministry of Education, which oversees primary and secondary schooling in the entire country. It oversees 300 elementary schools, including 1 private kindergarten under contract and 14 private elementary schools under contract. It also has 52 middle schools, including 6 private under contract. Finally, it oversees 38 high schools, 13 of which are private under contract. Enrollment in the Academy is mandatory with primary school lasting until age 12 and secondary school lasting until age 16. Children generally start pre-school at two and a half years but this is not mandatory. They are, however, expected to have basic reading and writing skills when they join the Academy.

Tertiary education is provided by Jean Préval University, Félix Éboué Institute of Technology, Reine-Anne College, and the National Institute for Development. With the exception of Reine-Anne College, they are all public state funded institutions that provide certificate, diploma, and degree-level education programs. The National Institute for Development is a government backed graduate university, founded in 2013 with an emphasis on educational programs promoting economic and social development. There are discussions underway of reorganizing all public higher education institutions into a national university. Reine-Anne College is a private, pontifical college supported by the Catholic Church.

Healthcare

Carucere has a universal health care system managed by the Ministry of Health. Medical centers in Carucere include: University Hospital Centre (CHU) in Kingston, Regional Hospital Centre (CHR) in Fort-Royal, and four hospitals located in Pointe-Noire, Caracol, Tiberon and Saint-Cholé. The University Hospital Centre is the largest hospital in the country with more than 900 beds; which includes 660 medical, 243 surgical, and 70 obstetrics beds, with another 10 in its intensive care unit. The hospital operates a 24-hour emergency service. In addition there are about a dozen smaller medical clinics in smaller towns around the islands. The population of who live on the western half of Marien island report a lack of health services available nearby.

Economy

Economic exports of Carucere in 2021.

Carucere has an upper-middle-income economy reliant upon tourism with the financial services industry and passport sales becoming the island's largest source of income. It is the smallest economy in the Golden Isles and the Arucian as a whole, with a nominal GDP of S5.7 billion and a GDP per capita of S10,607. If measured by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), Carucere's economy is $9.6 billion, with a GDP per capita of $17,937.

As a former Estmerish and Gaullican colony, Carucere's economy was historically dependent on agriculture, particularly in the production of sugar. Carucere's economy remained dependent on sugar production until the Sugar Crash of the 1960s and 1970s caused significant economic turmoil. Following the Crash, the government diversified the country's commercial agricultural exports such as tropical fruit and coffee. Since the 1980s, the government has promoted tourism into Carucere's largest economic sector and established a small manufacturing base centered around processing agricultural goods.

The service sector accounts for over 60% of GDP; 12% for manufacturing; 22% for agriculture; tourism overwhelmingly comprises the service sector followed by finance and telecommunications. Carucere is a member of the Arucian Cooperation Organization and participates in its customs area, free movement area, and common market. As a result, Carucere's economy and international trade is strongly tied to its neighbors in the ACO. Carucere's international diaspora, mostly to other ACO member states, sends millions of dollars to Carucerean families in remittances. Carucere's government maintains a Citizenship by Investment program, to attract economic investment in the country in exchange for Carucerean citizenship. Corruption, high unemployment, and ecological sustainability are long-term challenges.

Agriculture and Fishing

A coffee field in southeastern Marien.

Agriculture is the second largest sector of the economy, worth approximately $1.254 billion, and employs about 35% of the population. About 22.6% of the total land area of Carucere is arable. Carucerean agriculture was formerly centered around sugar production until the Sugar Crash of the 1970s forced the agricultural sector to diversify. Today Carucerean farms grow crops such as coffee, barley, aloe vera, and fruit such as mangoes, banana, breadfruit, guavas, and papayas. Most agricultural products are produced on small farms, the majority of which of which are banded together in about 10 cooperatives. The majority of agricultural products, especially vegetables, are made for domestic consumption but there are also several large commercial farms that grow bananas, coconuts, and citrus fruits such as lemons, limes, and oranges for export. There is a relatively large fishing industry in Carucere, but it is not modernized and almost exclusively serves the domestic market.

Mining and forestry

Carucere's mining sector plays a minor role in its economy as the fourth largest sector. Pumice from volcanic activity is the most heavily mined resource in the country; Carucere also produces clay, limestone, volcanic ash, and sand and gravel. These resources are primarily used for the Carucerean construction industry. Carucere has the potential for a lumber industry, but due to environmental concerns remains largely underutilized. The national government has allocated 280 hectares (690 acres) of government land allocated to commercial forestry. Commercially valuable woods include mahogany, blue and red mahoe, and teak are grown in plantations.

Industry

Manufacturing is Carucere's third largest sector, worth approximately $712 million and employs about 25% of the workforce. Most of the main products and exports produced by Carucere's small manufacturing sector are derived from the agricultural sector. These products include copra, coconut oil, soap, bay oil, and fruit juices. Carucere's soap industry utilizes coconut oil and citrus, which is produced in large enough quantities for international export. Barley, usually grown during the winter, is used to produce beer and malta for domestic consumption. Since the 1990s, Carucere's concrete production industry has grown at a steady pace and has become a major share of exports.

Services

Since the 1980s, the services has become the dominant sector of the economy, with a net worth of approximately 3.42 billion and employing over half the population. Today tourism forms the largest share of the Carucerean service sector and the economy as a whole in terms of worth and employment. Within the past couple decades, Carucere has become a center for offshore financing and payment processing.

Carucere's beaches are popular tourist destinations and were until recently the main tourist attraction. Within the past couple decades, the Carucerean government has promoted its unique flora and fauna to attract tourists and currently markets itself as the “nature island” of the region. Carucere's mountains, rainforests, freshwater lakes, hot springs, waterfalls, and diving spots have made it particularly attractive ecotourism destination. The government has particularly focused on the country's hot springs, forming the DuBois National Park in the early 1990s to promote the Boiling Lake and the Boiling River as the primary destination for ecotourists. The towns of Zebedize, Mhanajia, and Boune have been the primary beneficiaries in the growth of tourism. Cruise ship stopovers have increased following the development of modern docking and waterfront facilities in Kingston in the late 1990s. Tourism overtook sugar production as the single biggest revenue earner in the 1980s and today it is one of the country's most important sources of foreign exchange. Approximately 800,000 “stay-over” tourists visit Carucere each year, while the ports of Kingston and Crique serve more than 2 million cruise-ship passengers on day visits annually.

Carucere is a notable financial center in the West Arucian, focusing on offshore banking and payment processing provided by various Asterian financial institutions. Regulation and supervision of the financial services industry is the responsibility of the Financial Service Unit under the supervision of the Ministry of Finance.

Economic immigrants

Carucere offers economic citizenship as part of an immigrant investor program. In exchange for a minimum donation of $150,000 to the National Economic Fund or a minimum investment of $250,000 in a pre-approved sector of the economy, the government can waive the normal requirement of seven years of legal residence to acquire citizenship. On average the program contributes to 15% of national revenue, and the funds generated are largely used to invest in Carucere's ecotourism sector. Carucere's program is widely considered to be one of the most attractive due to its affordability, simple application process, and Carucere's membership in ACO. The latter is especially appealing as Carucerean citizens are granted permanent residency in other ACO member states. However the program has been criticized for a lack of transparency despite strict security checks and the government's refusal to make the process completely transparent.

Infrastructure

Energy

Préval Dam near Gourbeyre.

Carucere's energy production relies on a combination of fossil fuels and hydroelectric. Petroleum is Carucere's primary energy source, representing 60% of the country's total installed energy capacity. As there is no domestic oil production in Carucere, the country is reliant on international fuel imports. Hydropower overwhelmingly represents the remainder of Carucere's installed energy capacity. Despite the country's great potential for renewable energy, it would not be until the 1990s when the first small hydro plants were built in Carucere. The country, especially the island of Marien, has many swift-flowing highland streams which are ideal for inexpensive run-of-the-river power plants; however these plants are very vulnerable to seasonal changes in rainfall. As a result, energy from fossil fuels has to accommodate for the lack of hydroelectric energy production during the dry months from January to June. In 2014, Carucere completed construction of a large dam on Marien, forming a reservoir with a capacity of 2.5 million cubic meters. It provides Carucere with energy storage in the form of potential energy from dammed water flowing through a water turbine that powers a generator. However construction of additional dams are uncertain due to environmental concerns.

Transportation

Rainfall and rugged terrain have historically impeded road building in Carucere, especially on the island of Marien. Marien did not have a major road network until the 1950s and it wasn't until the 1970s before the island had a road that encircled the entire island. Today the road network primarily runs along the coastline and along river valleys. Carucere has approximately 319 kilometers of major roads, a three-lane highway, on both Marien and Magua; the Magua highway encircles the entire island, while the Marien highway arches only halfway around the island's coast. Carucere has another couple thousand kilometers of paved roads on both islands. While there are no bridges across the Anne Strait, the two islands are indirectly connected by around a dozen ferry lines capable of transporting passengers, cargo, and vehicles. The majority of the ferry lines are operated by independent private companies, although the main passenger ferries are operated by the government. Bicycles, motorcycles and motor scooters are the most popular forms of private road transport in the country. Public road transportation relies on two types of publicly operated bus routes, the BL routes that operate inside major towns and the BR routes that travel between major towns and pass between small towns.

International travel into and from Carucere is mainly done through Saint-Pierre International Airport and the ports of Crique and Kingston. Tiberion airport is Carucere's sole international airport, handling an average of 1.5 million passengers a year. It receives daily flights by several major airlines from across the Asterias, as well as several smaller regional commercial airlines and charters. Carucere has two small local airports located near Sainte-Cholé and New Sheaford that can only handle light aircraft. The Port of Kingston is the primary port of call for commercial container and cruise traffic arriving at Carucere.

Culture

Carucere has a rich and diverse culture that reflects the syncretization of Gaullican, Estmerish, Bahian, creole, and Gowsan influences in Carucere over the centuries. However Bahio-Carucereans have Estmerish and Gaullican influences while Gosans-Carucereans were solely influenced by Gaullica. Furthermore Carucere is one of the few countries in Asteria where the descendants of the Gowsas are a plurality of the population; as a result their cultural presence is significant and Carucere is considered to be their cultural center in the Asterias. Nevertheless most Carucereans share a common cultural heritage due to cultural syncretism, especially among the Medi. Carucere's culture greatly reflected in its cuisine, music, and literature.

Cuisine

Rendu is considered to be the national dish of Carucere.

Carucerean cuisine is a culinary fusion formed from Gaullican, Estmerish, Bahian, and Gowsan influences. Carucrean cuisine shares many characteristics with the culinary traditions of the rest of the Golden Isles; however Carucerean cuisine is distinct due to its influence from the gowsas and Estmere. Ingredients from Southeast Coius such as breadfruit, taro, coconut, fish sauce, and tofu are widely used in Carucerean cuisine. Popular Bahio-Carucerean ingredients include sweet potato, okra, plantain, tomatoes, onions, and cabbages. Garlic, cumin, turmeric, and chilis are the dominant spices. The culinary staple of Carucere is breadfruit (venge) and rice. Breadfruit is often boiled or fried as part of a dish or as a snack. Rice is usually served steamed as part of a dish or as a congee.

Carucerean dishes are generally served spicy and in large portions. The largest meal of the day is traditionally breakfast, with a medium lunch, and a light dinner. The typical meal would include breadfruit or rice served with goat meat or chicken cooked with okra and eggplant. Rendu is considered to be the national dish of Carucere. It usually consists of seasoned goat, fish, or poultry that has been slow cooked and braised in coconut milk and served with venge or rice, and vegetables like okra and eggplant. Dishes regarded as distinctly Carucerean include griot, pork shoulder marinated in citrus then braised and fried; dobo medi, rice congee topped with shredded chicken meat and various savory condiments; dombrés, a dish consisting of small flour balls cooked with coconut and meat; and tonmtonm, steamed mashed breadfruit with okra sauce and goat meat seasoned with savory spices. Carucerean cuisine has also been significantly influenced by Estmerish cuisine during the second phase of Estmerish colonial administration between 1772 to 1855. Many of the Estmerish dishes and food items that continue to be cooked today are cooked using local ingredients. The two most popular of these dishes are a variation of shepherd's pie and sausage and mash which are topped with mashed breadfruit instead of potatoes.

The most popular dessert is jedhi, a sweet dessert soup made with coconut and topped with tapioca, taro, gelatin, agar, and other fruit. Other desserts include pen patat, a soft sweet bread made using cinnamon, evaporated milk, and sweet potato and buko, a pie made from breadfruit flour, filled with taro and a sweet coconut sauce. Shaved ice desserts are very popular in Carucere which include cendol, containing droplets of green rice flour jelly, coconut milk and sugarcane syrup; melanje, consisting of evaporated milk or coconut milk, and various sweet ingredients, usually diced; and fresco made with a sweet fruit syrup and topped with fruit.

Bake and fish is one of the most popular street foods.

Street food and snacks are very popular in Carucere. The tradition originates from vendors selling food to workers on plantations in the late 18th century; today it is usually sold in open air food markets or street vendors. Popular street food includes pâté, a baked puff pastry-type pastry filled with spiced meat; bake and fish, fried flatbread topped with fish and tomatoes, and gainge, which consists of seasoned skewered meat grilled over an open fire and served with a sauce. Popular snacks are usually fried fruit, sliced or served whole, such as banana, plantains, and breadfruit. Desserts like cendol and mélangé are also commonly served by street vendors.

Malta is widely considered to be the Carucerean national beverage. A lightly carbonated and non-alcoholic malt drink, it is typically served with ice and mixed with condensed or evaporated milk. Coconut water can be found throughout the islands, although it is more commonly used as an ingredient. Rum is the most popular alcoholic drink, and is often used to make mixed drinks such as ponche-de-cream, puncheon wonm, and home-made wines from local fruits.

Music

Like Carucere's society as a whole, the country's music is a syncretic mix of Bahain, Guasans, Gaullican, and Estmerish elements. This mix of elements is reflected in its distinctive national styles of folk and popular music, particularly through its song types and styles, instrumentation, dances, and aesthetic principles. The most popular forms of music in Carucere are calypso, soca, and to a lesser extent reggae and dancehall.

Folk music in Carucere largely originates from the musical traditions of Bahian slaves that they brought from their homelands. While their own music was usually banned in favor of Euclean music and dance, they incorporated their own musical styles, forming a syncretic tradition. Many distinctive Carucerean musical and other cultural traditions derive from parodies of Catholic church hymns and the practices of white authorities. These include the Tuk band, based upon Estmerish regimental bands stationed on the island from the 1770s to 1850s and the Kingston, a parody of the dances that were popular with Gaullican planters. These were originally used to mock the slave masters and to communicate with each other. In addition, religious music of the Carucerean Christian churches played an important role in Carucerean musical identity, especially in urban areas. The arrival of the gowsas in the mid to late 19th century brought significant change to Carucerean folk music. Bahian-Carucerean folk music from early in this era was often hostile and disparaging toward gowsas, reflecting the tensions over work opportunities. However by the early 20th century, Guasan music began contributing to Carucerean folk music by influencing existing musical styles and introducing new ones.

Popular music in Carucere reflects the general pop music of the Golden Isles. Carucere is some regionally popular musicians such as Marie Braithwaite. In addition it has created a well-developed local scene playing imported styles like jazz, salsa samba, and calypso, as well as the indigenous spouge style. Spouge is a mixture of calypso and other styles, such as jazz and salsa. Modern Carucerean popular music is largely based around these styles..

Sports

Carucere's sporting traditions can largely be traced to Sainte-Chloé and the Holistique movement during the mid to late 19th century. Arucian football, casse, and baseball were promoted by the movement to the Gowsas and Bahio-Carucereans of Carucere, as they believed it would develop their moral character and abilities. Since then, both sports continue to be widely popular in Carucere and far outrank other sports in terms of viewership. Both sports played a major role in Jean Préval's attempts to create a multiethnic national identity with racially integrated teams that were heavily promoted by the government.

The most popular sport in Carucere in terms of viewership and participation is Arucian football. Although it was largely developed in Sainte-Chloé, Carucere significantly contributed to the development of the modern sport. The sport was popular among plantation workers who usually played it casually in fields. The first amateur club was formally founded in 1883 with the formation of an amateur league in the 1890s. The first professional competition of Arucian football was held between a Chloéois and Carucrean club in 1938 and a club from Carucere jointly founded the Arucian Football Association (AAF) in 1946, formally codifying the sport and establishing a professional sports league. The country's two premier football clubs, the Kingston Football Club and the Marien Pirates represent the two main islands of Carucere in the Western Division of the Association. There is an intense inter-island rivalry between the two clubs known as the Strait Rivalry; the matches between the two clubs are the most watched events in Carucere. Semi-professional and amateur clubs participate in the National League, which functions as the country's only domestic league for the sport and as the feeder system for the two top clubs.

The second-most popular sport in the country is baseball. Baseball arrived in Carucere around the late 19th century and was casually played by plantation workers along with Arucian football. The first amateur clubs were founded in the 1870s, with the first formal amateur club was founded in 1888, which would become the Carrefour Stars. The club participated in several amateur baseball leagues in Carucere until the Stars joined the Arucian Baseball League in 1947. Today the Stars have eight (8) Arucian Series appearances and four (4) Arucian Series wins, with the last series victory in 2011. Jean Préval University plays a distinct code of baseball, known as Préval baseball, usually between teams of students currently enrolled at the school and between current students and alumni. The game differs significantly from traditional baseball and has several distinct features; its most notable difference is that points are scored by players touching any bases, instead of just home plate.

The third most popular sport in the country is casse. Casse is a sport traditionally played by those living in modern-day Dezevau that was arrived in Carucere with the gowsas in the later half of the 19th century. After some initial reluctance, the Gaullican colonial authorities incorporated the sport into the Holistique movement on Carucere, where it was promoted alongside baseball and Arucian football to Gowsas and Bahio-Carucereans. While it is ranked third in popularity and resources as well as lacking a professional scene, it has a large amateur following and has the one of the highest overall participation rates.

Other sports popular in Carucere are association football and tennis. Tennis is widely popular across Carucerean society but is only played casually. While tennis was introduced to Carucere in the early 20th century, it has only become popular with the past couple decades; today there is a growing professional and amateur scene on the national level. Association football is most popular among the Estmerophone population, but is not widely played across Carucere. The Estmerophone community established an amateur association football league in 1983 and includes about a dozen teams.

Celebrations and Holidays

Date Estmerish name Papotement name Day off? Notes
January 1 New Year’s Day Nouvel An Yes Marks the first day of the Gregorian calendar year.
January 6 Epiphany Épiphanie Yes Celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ.
variable Ash Wednesday Mercredi des Cendres No Marks the beginning of Lent.
variable Good Friday Vendredi saint Yes Commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus Soter.
variable Easter Lundi de Pâques Yes Celebrates the resurrection of Jesus Soter.
May 1 Labor Day Fête du Travail Yes Celebrates the international labor movement and the Carucerean working class.
variable Pentecost Lundi de Pentecôte No Celebrates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles.
June 4 National Day Fête Nationalel Yes Celebrates the signing of the People's Charter for Change, Peace, and Progress and the recognition of its principles.
August 15 Assumption Assomption No Celebrates the ascension of the Virgin Mary to Heaven.
September 3 Day of the Revolution Jour de la Révolution Yes Celebrates the 1953 Carucerean Revolution and Carucere's independence from the United Provinces.
November 1 All Saints' Day Toussaint Yes Commemorates all Sotirian saints, known or unknown. Also commemorates the souls of all deceased, regardless of faith; generally reflective and somber.
November 2 All Souls' Day Commémoration Yes Celebration of life and the lives of the deceased. Held concurrently with the Festival of Souls.
December 24 Nativity Eve Réveillon de Noël Yes The day preceding Nativity.
December 25 Nativity Noël Yes Celebrates the birth of Jesus Soter.
December 31 New Year's Eve la Saint Sylvestre Yes The day preceding New Year's Day.