Republic of Constantio
|Official languages||Constanti, English|
|Government||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|1 April 1846|
• Last constitutional amendment
|8 August 2012|
|423,967 km2 (163,695 sq mi)|
• 2020 estimate
|63.42/km2 (164.3/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2021 estimate|
• Per capita
The Republic of Constantio, most commonly known as Constantio, is a nation in the Coalition of Crown Albatross located on the continent of Nortua, bordered by Birnir, Cechena, Syraranto, and a maritime border with Karabakhi. Constantio's location and prominent political influence in the Sotoa Sea region makes it a middle power, often competing with neighboring Syraranto for dominance in the region. Constantio's jagged coast line on the Sotoa Sea, the second longest on the body of water after Syraranto, is dotted with rocky islands and shallow reefs, making it a hotspot for bidiversity. Inland mountains and rolling hills dominate the mainland geographical buildup.
With a rich history extending back tens of thousands of years with early human civilization, Constantio rose to prominence with the foundation of the Constantio Empire in 1591 with the conquest of neighboring Cechena. As the empire grew, it expanded to become one of the largest in the history of the world, encompassing nearly a third of the continent of Nortua, with a range from northeastern Birnir to central Besmenia. The empire collapsed at the conclusion of the Chezian Wars of Independence (1806-23), and became a republic in the mid 1800s.
The nation is known for extensive civil rights and political freedoms, though recent years have seen rampant corruption scandals. Constantio was one of the nations involved in the extensive and bloody Chezian War (1992-95), which left tens of thousands dead in the effected areas of the country. It is considered a middle power, and is a member state of several international organizations such as the Coalition of Crown Albatross, the Coalition Trade Organization, and the Sotoan Basin Union. Its population of 26.9 million is largely urbanized, with the capital of Apelnisse (Constantinopolis) and the cities of Norasa and Balgita accounting for nearly a half of the country's total population. Its economy is well developed thanks to international cooperation and investment, with a GDP around 402.638 billion and a per capita GDP of 16,872.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Culture
- 6 Economy
The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in West Nortua, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Betralona cave, in the Constantioan province of Vasy.
Constantio is home to the first advanced civilizations in Western Nortua and is considered the birthplace of Nortuan civilization, beginning with the Vayma civilization on the islands of the Sotoa Sea at around 3200 BC, the Tanoan civilization in Apollonian islands (2700–1500 BC), and then the Rataean civilization on the mainland in Byana (1600–1100 BC). These civilizations possessed writing.
Lack of political unity within Constantio resulted in frequent conflict between states. The most devastating intra-Constantio war was the Aponnesian War (412–391 BC), won by Aporana and marking the demise of the Balgita Empire as the leading power in ancient Constantio. Both Balgita and Aporana were later overshadowed by Spyro and eventually Norasa, with the latter uniting most of the city-states of the hinterland in the League of Tunaka (also known as the Constantio League) under the control of Nisaa II. Despite this development, the Constantioan world remained largely fragmented and would not be united under a single power until the imperial years. Balgita did not join the League and actively fought against it, raising an army led by Tagis I to secure the city-states for Karabakhi.
Facing a string of domestic tension from economic downturns and droughts impacting crop production, the king of Norasa, Justano I, called a meeting of regional warlords and patriarchs from neighboring towns and cities and proposed a unification of the Tyakri River valley kingdoms. The Treaty of the Tyrakri was ratified in 1572, and a Council of Administrators serving as a semi-democratic system established the Kingdom of Greater Constantio. As the benefits of a greater alliance and combined territorial control became clear, the Kingdom began preparations for further expansion. The Empire was founded in 1591 after Justano's son, Justano II, led a brutal conquest of Cechena. The title of 'king' was adapted to 'Emperor', and the Constantioan influence in Western Nortua began to grow prominently.
The 1600s marked a consolidation of Constantioan power, as expansions were made in the conquests of Judsi, Ansion, and Achijan. The empire expanded dramatically in the 1700s when a series of conquests under Emperor Politari I in 1701 annexed Syraranto, Icadania, Vuswistan, Utobania, and further expansion in the decade following under Politari II resulted in conquests of Besmenia, Siniapore, and northeastern Birnir. The Empire became a dominant naval force, controlling the entirity of the Sotoa Sea.
The Constantio Empire began to make relations with other major powers at the time, including the Skithan Empire, the Elbresian Kingdoms, and the Vitaso Kingdom under Alexander Agostinio in the late 1700s. In the first half of the eighteenth century, the Constantio Empire came under increasing strain from inflation and the rapidly rising costs of warfare and expansion that were impacting both Constantio and the rest of their empire across Nortua. These pressures led to a series of crises around the year 1750, placing great strain upon the Constantioan system of government. The empire underwent a series of transformations of its political and military institutions in response to these challenges, enabling it to successfully adapt to the new conditions of the last half of the century and remain powerful, both militarily and economically.
The capital of the empire was moved in 1752 from Norasa to the newly created city of Apelnisse on the shore of the Sotoa Sea.
The Constantio Empire began to decline in the early 1800s, specifically during the Chezian Wars of Independence, sometimes referred to as the Great Nortuan War. They were a series of wars that marked multiple revolutions and secessions from the empire, including the Syraranto War of Independence (1811-18), the Vuswistan Revolutionary War (1817-21), the Icadanian Secession (1822), the Besmenian War of Independence (1815-1821), and the Utobanian War of Independence (1812-16).
The endless military defeats and the wide range of conflicts raging at the same time strained the Constantio Empire, and Emperor Isidoros declared the dissolving of the empire on April 8th, 1827 with the Armistace of Gurikans. Upon the dissolution of the empire, Emperor Isidoros took his own life, passing the still united but fragile alliance of Constantio to his nephew, King Adonis Kalliadis. The period in between the end of the empire to the establishment of the Republic, the Council of Administrators were frought with corruption and infighting as either establishment base attempted to sway the opinions of King Kalliadis.
Kalliadis was assassinated on March 26th, 1831, by a member of the Council of Administrators. As Kallidas had no heir and no relatives able to replace him, the Council held a vote to place Tasos Andrelis into the position of an interim administrator rule in place of the monarchy. Andrelis, in turn, was assassinated on December 1st, 1838, replaced again by a vote by Thomas Anagnoulis.
The Republic of Constantio was established with the signing of the Constitution on April 1st, 1846. Thomas Anagnoulis stepped down and dissolved the Council of Administrators as the Assembly of Constantio was established, and Vassilis Ioannakis was elected the first President of Constantio.
Constantio remained a relatively poor country throughout the 19th century. The country lacked raw materials, sound infrastructure, and capital due to the prolonged conflicts of the Chezian Wars. Agriculture was mostly at the subsistence level, and the only important export commodities were currants, raisins and tobacco. Some Constantioans grew rich as merchants and shipowners, and Balgita became a major port, but little of this wealth found its way to the peasantry. Constantio remained hopelessly in debt to foreign finance houses.
The 1882 Constantio Reform under Erotas Valilis saw a major revitalization of industry and agriculture, and the economy of Constantio rebounded as the global maritime industry began to expand and take advantage of the Constantioan ports in the Sotoa Sea.
In 1904, President Rafail Garatos initiated a major reform program, including a new and more liberal constitution and reforms in the spheres of public administration, education and economy. Zamastanian and Vitosium military missions were invited for the army and navy respectively, and arms purchases were made.
In 1949 at the outbreak of the World War, Constantio remained neutral militarily but helped supply the allies and host East Besmenian and Emmirian armies before the invasions of eastern Beatavic and Vulkaria. Following the war, Constantio's maritime industry boosted significantly as the former allied powers provided Constantio with investment and ship-building permits.
In 1961, the Communist Party of Constantio rose to power with the election of Finn Hill. Constantio flirted with a reform to full communism during his administration and his 1964 reelection, as the Beleroskovians attempted to make headways in Nortua. However, the Communist Party was thuroughly defeated in the 1967 general election as New Democracy candidate Aleksander Scott was elected President. The Communist Party fractured and reorganized in multiple factions, most prominently as the Constantio Socialist Movement (CSM). In the years following communist rule, several thousand suspected communists and political opponents, including Finn Hill, were imprisoned or exiled to remote Constantioan islands. Alleged Zamastanian support for the government in arresting and detaining the communist is claimed to be the cause of rising anti-Zamastanian influence. However, the return to capitalism in its early years saw a marked upturn in the economy, with increased foreign investment and large-scale infrastructure works. The Scott administration was widely condemned abroad for human rights violations, but inside the country, discontent began to increase only after 1980, when the economy slowed down.
On February 5th, 1995, Syraranto withdrew from the Chezia Alliance and invaded Constantio, starting the Chezian War. The governments of Consantio and Cechena, as well as dozens of militia and faction forces committed to the preservation of the alliance, joined forces to counter the fighting. The government of Achijan, wanting independence from the Alliance, began fighting a new front in the east, alongside separatist forces within Constantio and Cechena. The fighting soon escalated from conventional war to more sporadic insurgency fighting as all the government armies began breaking into independently controlled factions with very little central command.
Most of the stages of the war ended through peace accords, involving full international recognition of new states, but with a massive human cost and economic damage to the region. Often described as Nortua's deadliest conflicts, the wars were marked by many war crimes, including genocide, crimes against humanity and rape. The Cechena genocide was the first Nortuan crime to be formally classified as genocidal in character, and many key individual participants in it were subsequently charged with war crimes. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Chezian Alliance (ICTCA) was established by the Coalition of Crown Albatross in 1998 to prosecute these crimes. According to the C.C.A., the Chezian War resulted in the death of 290,000 people. At the conclusion of the war, Achijan was annexed and unified by Constantio, and became the provinces of Baleas and Gyhada.
In 1996, Constantio was a founding member of the Sotoan Basin Union, an intergovernmental group of nations meant to promote West Nortuan unity, economic stability, and human rights.
In 1997, Sebastian Murray was elected President, although he died 6 months into his term due to undisclosed cancer.
On June 2nd, 2000, Constantio joined the Coalition of Crown Albatross.
On 26 November 2009, a 6.4 magnitude earthquake ravaged northwest Constantio with the epicenter positioned 16 km (10 mi) southwest of the town of Alifplio. The tremor was felt in Norasa and in places as far away as Apelnisse and Covijo, Syraranto. The most affected areas were the mountain towns of Aurrës and Aodër-Thuman, and a total of 7,829 people died in the quake. Response to the earthquake included substantial humanitarian aid, designed to help the Constantioan people from several countries around the world.
Tony Blanian was elected President in 2018.
At the outbreak of the civil war in neighboring Syraranto in 2020, Constantio closed its borders and instituted massive humanitarian aid programs to respond to the growing refugee crisis that resulted. Since June of 2020, more than 4 million people have fled Syraranto by coming into Constantio either over the border via land or the much more dangerous crossing by ocean. Initially supportive of the rebels of against the government of Kyriakos Tasoulas, President Tony Blanian secretly organized supply routes for the resistance. However, the support for rebels stopped in September as the war escalated dramatically. Among the ramifications of the migrant crisis was a series of bus bombings committed by a radical Syrarantoan resistance fighter in Norasa, which killed 48 people. Constantioan delegates supported the Tyrnatini II Peace Talks which began on February 29th, 2021 and concluded in March with a ceasefire agreement. Since then, the war has remained largely quelled despite occassional clashes.
Located in Western Nortua, Constantio is bordered to the west by Birnir and Cechena, to the northeast by Syraranto, and to the south by the Sotoa Sea and the maritime border with the Karabakhi Archipelago. The highest point is Mount Torabe at 2,764 m (9,068.24 ft) in the westernmost corner of the country along the border with Cechena; the lowest point is the Sotoa Sea at 0 m (0.00 ft). Eighty percent of Constantio consists of mountains or hills, making the country one of the most mountainous in Nortua. Western Constantio contains a number of lakes and wetlands and is dominated by the Birnir Mountains and the Chezian Mountains.
Due to its highly indented coastline and numerous islands, the nation has an extensive coastline. It is dotted with rocky islands and shallow reefs, making it a hotspot for bidiversity. Patches of plain regions are primarily located in the northern regions. They constitute key economic regions as they are among the few arable places in the country. Rare marine species such as the pinniped seals and the loggerhead sea turtle live in the seas surrounding mainland Constantio, while its dense forests are home to the endangered brown bear, the Nortuan lynx, the roe deer and the wild goat.
The climate of Constantio is primarily dry summer climate, featuring mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. This climate occurs at all coastal locations, including Balgita. The Chezian mountain range strongly affects the climate of the country, as areas to the west of the range are considerably wetter on average (due to greater exposure to south-westerly systems bringing in moisture) than the areas lying to the east of the range (due to a rain shadow effect).
The mountainous areas of Northwestern Constantio feature an Alpine climate with heavy snowfalls. The inland parts of northern Constantio feature a temperate climate with cold, damp winters and hot, dry summers with frequent thunderstorms. Snowfalls occur every year in the mountains and northern areas, and brief snowfalls are not unknown even in low-lying southern areas near the coast.
The Republic of Constantio is a federal republic of 16 provinces and a federal district. It is a federal republic and a representative democracy. The nation's politics operate under a framework laid out in the constitution wherein the President of Constantio functions as the head of state and the Vice President and the 152-seat Assembly of Constantio operate jointly as the head of government. The government is based on the separation and balancing of powers among the legislative (Assembly of Constantio), judiciary (Supreme Court of Constantio) and executive (President). The executive power is exercised by the president. The president is the commander-in-chief of the military and the representative of the unity of the Constantioan people. Presidential elections and Assembly elections occur at the same time every three years, with the most recent election having been held on August 21st, 2021.
The capital is located in Apelnisse, which serves as a federal district.
Upon the foundation of the Republic on April 1st, 1846, the dominant party in Constantio was the liberal-conservative New Democracy (ND) and the social-democratic Constantio Socialist Movement (CSM). In the 21st century, other parties have gained prominence such as the Progressive Party, the Green Party
Constantio is divided into 16 provinces and one federal district which constitutes the capital of Apelnisse.
Constantio military personnel total 364,050, of whom 142,700 are active and 221,350 are reserve. Mandatory military service, abolished in 2014, was nine months for the Army and one year for the Navy and Air Force. Additionally, Constantio males between the ages of 18 and 60 who live in strategically sensitive areas may be required to serve part-time in the National Guard.
Foreign relations in Constantio are constituted through the Foreign Ministry of Constantio, and its head, the Foreign Affairs Minister, currently Toby Kennedy. Officially, the main aims of the Ministry are to represent Constantio before other states and international organizations; safeguard the interests of the Constantio state and of its citizens abroad; promote Constantio culture; and encourage international cooperation.
Constantio is a member of the Coalition of Crown Albatross, the Coalition Trade Organization, the Sotoan Basin Union, and other organizations centered around international cooperation. Constantio hosts more than 80 embassies within the capital and other cities like Norasa and Balgita, and has more than 70 consulates and embassies overseas. Its closest ally is generally considered to be Vuswistan, with other key allies including Utobania, Artaska, and Besmenia.
According to 2020 census data, Constantio has a population of 26,889,053.
While the Constitution of Constantio states there is freedom of religion in the country, the overwhelming majority of Constantioans are members of Nortuan Orthodoxy. 79% of citizens responded that they "believe there is a God". According to other sources, 15.8% of Constantioans describe themselves as "very religious", which is the highest among all Nortuan countries. Around 2% of people in Constantio are Muslim, with many of them being from Syraranto's diaspora.
Constantio has universal health care. The system is mixed, combining a national health service with social health insurance.
Compulsory education in Constantio comprises primary schools and gymnasium. Nursery schools are popular but not compulsory. Kindergartens are now compulsory for any child above four years of age. Children start primary school aged six and remain there for six years. Attendance at gymnasia starts at age 12 and lasts for three years.
Constantio's post-compulsory secondary education consists of two school types: unified upper secondary schools and technical–vocational educational schools. Post-compulsory secondary education also includes vocational training institutes which provide a formal but unclassified level of education. As they can accept both Gymnasio and Lykeio graduates, these institutes are not classified as offering a particular level of education.
See also: Cities in Constantio
More than 70% of the population of Constantio live in urban areas. The most populous city is Norasa with more than 4.35 million inhabitants. Two other cities - Apelnisse and Balgita - have more than 1 million residents. Other major cities in the country with populations above 100,000 include Pocia, Iliougara, Caltaci, Tunaka, Tarralusia, Cesegliari, Trapapolis, and Folina.
Metropolitan areas in Constantio
Constantioan cuisine is largely the heritage of Nortuan cuisine stemming from their 300-year empire. In the early years of the Republic, a few studies were published about regional dishes but cuisine did not feature heavily in folkloric studies until the 1980s, when the fledgling tourism industry encouraged the Constantio state to sponsor two food symposia. The papers submitted at the symposia presented the history of Constantio cuisine on a "historical continuum".
Constantio is a developed country with a high standard of living and a high ranking in the Human Development Index. The GDP is measured at 402.6 billion annually. Its economy mainly comprises the service sector (85.0%) and industry (12.0%), while agriculture makes up 3.0% of the national economic output. Important Constantioan industries include tourism (with 14.9 million international tourists in 2019, it is ranked as one of the most visited countries in the world and Nortua) and merchant shipping (at 6.2% of the world's total capacity, the Constantioan merchant marine is among largest in the world), while the country is also a considerable agricultural producer (including fisheries).
In 2010, Constantio was one of the world's largest producer of cotton (183,800 tons) and pistachios (8,000 tons) and ranked second in the production of rice (229,500 tons) and olives (147,500 tons) on the continent of Nortua, third in the production of figs (11,000 tons), almonds (44,000 tons), tomatoes (1,400,000 tons), and watermelons (578,400 tons) and fourth in the production of tobacco (22,000 tons). Agriculture contributes 3.8% of the country's GDP and employs 12.4% of the country's labor force.
The shipping industry has been a key element of Constantio economic activity since ancient times. Shipping remains one of the country's most important industries, accounting for 4.5 percent of GDP, employing about 160,000 people (4 percent of the workforce), and representing a third of the trade deficit. The Constantio Merchant Navy is the fourth largest in the world at 6.2 percent of total global capacity, up from 5.96 percent in 2010, but below the peak of 8.2 percent in 2006. The country's merchant fleet ranks third in total tonnage (122 million dwt), fourth in total number of ships (at 3,150), first in both tankers and dry bulk carriers, fourth in the number of containers, and fifth in other ships. However, today's fleet roster is smaller than an all-time high of 5,000 ships in the late 1970s. Additionally, the total number of ships flying a Constantio flag (includes non-Constantio fleets) is over 1,500, or 5.3 percent of the world's deadweight tonnage.
During the 1960s, the size of the Constantio fleet nearly doubled, primarily through the investment undertaken by the shipping magnate Benson Schroder. The basis of the modern Constantio maritime industry was formed after the World War when Constantio shipping businessmen were able to amass surplus ships sold to them by the Zamastanian and Besmenian governments. Constantio has a significant shipbuilding and ship maintenance industry. The six shipyards around the port of Balgita are among the largest in Nortua. In recent years, Constantio has also become a leader in the construction and maintenance of luxury yachts.