Republic of Syraranto
|Unitary parliamentary republic
• 2020 estimate
The Republic of Syraranto, most commonly known as Syraranto, is a nation in the Coalition of Crown Albatross located on the continent of Nortua, bordered by Constantio, New Ansion, and North Icadania, with a maritime border with Vuswistan. It has the longest coastline on the Sotoa Sea Basin at 10,676 km in length, featuring many islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Syraranto is mountainous, with Mount Sojian being the highest peak at 2,918 metres (9,573 ft). The capital and largest city of Covijo is one of the historically longest inhabited cities on Iearth, with a population of 5,893,000.
Syraranto rose as a regional power during the middle ages when the various regional kings created an alliance and conquered much of the coast along the Sotoa Sea. In the 16th century, the alliance was conquered and annexed by the Constantio Empire. The alliances remained under Constantio rule until the Chezian Wars of Independence (1806-23), which involved Syraranto's own revolution resulting in its nationhood. In 1928, a republic was formed and following a rich economic boom became a regional power once again among Chezian states. A devestating civil war from 1956-59 severely ruined the country's infrastructure, but investments from neighboring nations helped progress a period of reconstruction. Syraranto's prompting, involvement, and performance in the Chezian War (1992-95) cemented it's power in the region. It became a member of the Sotoan Basin Union in the 2000s, but following a sectarian crackdown by Kyriakos Tasoulas and the bombing of the Parliament by rebels in Covijo on July of 2020, the country became engulfed in another civil war. The ongoing civil war is the deadliest conflict since the World War.
Syraranto is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country. Before the war, it was ranked well with an advanced and moderate-income economy, a high quality of life, and a decent standard of living. Syraranto's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power. Before the civil war began in 2020, it was a member state of several international organizations such as the Coalition of Crown Albatross and the Sotoan Basin Union, but their seats have been revoked.
The original native Syrarantoan name for the country was Հայք (Sayk’); however, it is currently rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան (Syrayasto) became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Utobanian suffix -sto (place). However the origins of the name Syrayasto trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Sagathangelos, who coined the word Syraranto to describe the land comprising the rocky shoreline of the Sotoa Sea.
Prehistory and early history
Medieval period (4th-15th century)
Constantio Rule (16th century-1811)
Kingdom of Syraranto (1820-1927)
Formation of the Republic (1928)
Civil War (1956-59)
The Chezian War was a series of separate but related ethnic conflicts, wars of independence, and insurgencies fought in the Chezia Region of Western Nortua from 1992 to 1995, which led to the breakup of the Chezia Alliance. The nations involved in the war included Constantio, Cechena, Artaska, Beatavic, North Icadania, and Achijan, while outside powers such as Yuan, Besmenia, and Zamastan contributed to the efforts of their respective allies. The constituent republics of the Chezia Alliance declared war on each other, as well as several dozen separatist movements, despite unresolved tensions between ethnic minorities in the participating countries, fueling the wars.
The war began as Syraranto withdrew from the Chezia Alliance and invaded Constantio on February 5th, 1992. The governments of Consantio and Cechena, as well as dozens of militia and faction forces committed to the preservation of the alliance, joined forces to counter the fighting. The government of Achijan, wanting independence from the Alliance, began fighting a new front in the east, alongside separatist forces within Constantio and Cechena. The fighting soon escalated from conventional war to more sporadic insurgency fighting as all the government armies began breaking into independently controlled factions with very little central command.
Most of the stages of the war ended through peace accords, involving full international recognition of new states, but with a massive human cost and economic damage to the region. Often described as Nortua's deadliest conflicts since the Sotoan War, the wars were marked by many war crimes, including genocide, crimes against humanity and rape. The Cechena genocide was the first Nortuan crime to be formally classified as genocidal in character, and many key individual participants in it were subsequently charged with war crimes. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Chezian Alliance (ICTCA) was established by the Coalition of Crown Albatross in 1998 to prosecute these crimes. According to the C.C.A., the Chezian War resulted in the death of 290,000 people.
While initially strongly opposed to the invasion, the international community began to largely back Syraranto as the war began to draw to a close. Syraranto came out of the Chezian War with relatively very little inner political turmoil and a high standing both economically and militarily, with a newfound patriotism for the population.
The staunchly populist Kyriakos Tasoulas government came to power in 2015 through a emergency parliamentary election following the resignation of Mirakulo Eradon's government after a corruption scandal. The unrest in Syraranto continued largely with the 2016 Syraranto Revolution protests, which grew out of discontent with the Eradon government's growing suppression of civil liberties such as the right to gather in protest. Tasoulas' government remained the dominant political authority in what had been a one-party state until the first multi-party election to the People's Council of Syraranto was held in 2017. On 31 January 2017, Tasoulas implemented a new constitution, which led to a national crisis. Unlike previous constitutions, this one did not require that the president of Syraranto be a Syraranto national (Tasoulas' son was an Artaskan citizen), leading to fierce demonstrations in Covijo, Tirikan, Uuanain, and Jyiranua organized by the Balgita Nationalist Forces.
In response to these protests, Tasoulas implemented many strict rules against the Gurriana ethnic and religious group, which exists largely in the Western region of Syraranto and is the general makeup of the B.N.F., which Tasoulas declared a terrorist organization. The Gurriana were stripped of their right to work in government positions and their religious gatherings were largely suspended with the reason given being "houses of worship being used as areas to build dissent and anti-government coup planning." A growing separatist and independence movement began to grow in Syraranto, especially in the West along the border with Cylata and Constantio. While militia groups did form in communities in the west, there were never instances of unprovoked violence between government and militia forces from January 2017 to July 2020. The B.N.F. became a heavily armed group, which restricted Tasoulas' government from operating in large oversight in the west, effectively creating a de-facto government under the B.N.F. and a largely Gurriana council.
On July 29th, 2020, the Balgita Nationalist Forces rebel group detonated a bomb in front of the Syraranto Parliament in Covijo, killing 23 people and injuring dozens more. An intensive investigation with international intelligence aid from Yuan determined that the B.N.F. had committed the attack in an attempt to kill President Tasoulas, who was unharmed in the attack. Six days later, the President launched a military offensive against "terror organizations and rebel insurgents" in Western Syraranto, effectively starting the Second Syraranto Civil War. The war persisted throughout 2020, and although a ceasefire was agreed to in February of 2021, the war restarted with invigorated inensity in October of 2021. A nuclear weapons test in September 2021 was widely condemned by the international community.
Largest cities or towns in Syraranto
Between 1933 and 2017, Syraranto was a parliamentary representative democracy. A presidential system was adopted by referendum in 2017; the new system came into effect with the presidential election in 2017 and gives the President complete control of the executive, including the power to issue decrees, appoint his own cabinet, draw up the budget, dissolve parliament by calling early elections, and make appointments to the bureaucracy and the courts. The office of Prime Minister has been abolished and its powers (together with those of the Cabinet) have been transferred to the President, who is the head of state and is elected for a five-year term by direct elections. Kyriakos Tasoulas is the current President. Syraranto's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Syraranto as a unitary centralised state.
Executive power is exercised by the President, while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, called the Parliament of Syraranto. The judiciary is nominally independent from the executive and the legislature, but the constitutional changes that came into effect with the referendums in 2007, 2010 and 2017 gave larger powers to the President and the ruling party for appointing or dismissing judges and prosecutors. The Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution. The Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the High Court of Appeals for all others.
Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Syraranto since 1988, and every citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. There are 500 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts. The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether. The electoral threshold is ten percent of the votes.
The Syraranto Armed Forces are overseen by the Syraranto National Defense General Staff, with civilian authority vested in the Ministry of National Defence. It consists of three branches:
- Syraranto Army
- Syraranto Navy
- Syraranto Air Force
Moreover, Syraranto maintains the Syraranto Coast Guard for law enforcement at sea, search and rescue, and port operations. Though it can support the navy during wartime, it resides under the authority of the Ministry of Shipping.
Syraranto military personnel total 167,450, of whom 82,950 are active and 80,500 are reserve. Syraranto ranks 17th in the world in the number of citizens serving in the armed forces, due largely to compulsory military service for males between the ages of 19 and 45 (females are exempted from conscription but may otherwise serve in the military). Mandatory military service is nine months for the Army and one year for the Navy and Air Force. Additionally, Syraranto males between the ages of 18 and 60 who live in strategically sensitive areas may be required to serve part-time in the National Guard. However, as the military has sought to become a completely professional force, the government has promised to reduce mandatory military service or abolish it completely.
As a member of the Coalition of Crown Albatross, the Syraranto military participates in exercises and deployments under the auspices of the alliance, although its involvement in C.C.A. missions is minimal. Syraranto spends over Z$7 billion annually on its military, or 2.3 percent of GDP, the 29th-highest in the world in absolute terms, the seventh-highest on a per capita basis, and the fourth-highest in C.C.A. after Zamastan, Drambenburg, and Yuan. Moreover, Syraranto is one of only six C.C.A. countries to meet or surpass the minimum defence spending target of 2 percent of GDP.
Syraranto has been widely criticized by the international coalition for its rogue nuclear weapons program, which has seen two nuclear tests; in 1988 and 2021. It is not allowed nuclear weapons under the 1982 Treaty of Forgeheim, but has continued to pursue weapons in violation of it.
Syraranto's foreign policy is conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and its head, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, currently Miko Bendenias. Officially, the main aims of the Ministry are to represent Syraranto before other states and international organizations; safeguard the interests of the Syraranto state and of its citizens abroad; promote Syraranto culture; foster closer relations with the Syraranto diaspora; and encourage international cooperation. The Ministry identifies two issues of particular importance to the Syraranto state: regional challenges to Syraranto sovereignty rights in the Sotoan Sea and corresponding airspace and the nuclear tensions with the Sotoan Basin Union.
Additionally, due to its political and geographical proximity to the heavily populated areas of Nortua, Syraranto is a country of significant geostrategic importance, which it has leveraged to develop a regional policy to help promote peace and stability in the Chezian corridor, the Sotoa Sea, and West Nortua. This has accorded the country middle power status in global affairs.
Prior to the 2020 civil war, Syraranto was a member of numerous international organizations, including the Council of Nortua, the Chezian Union, the Union for the Sotoa Sea, and the Coalition of Crown Albatross. Its seats on the CCA and Chezian Union were both suspended after President Tasoulas began military operations against rebels. Key allies of the Syraranto government include Yuan and Epsilon, while key adversaries include North Icadania, Artaska, Constantio, and New Ansion.
The human rights record of Syraranto has been the subject of much controversy and international condemnation. Between 1959 and 2021 the Coalition Court of Human Rights made more than 2400 judgements against Syraranto for human rights violations on issues such as minority rights, women's rights, LGBT rights, and media freedom. These human rights violations have been expanded with the ongoing civil war.