World War (Iearth)
|The World War|
Clockwise from top left: Drambenburgian troops during the Battle of Selleaux (1949), Avergnon troops advance to the Western Front, Zamastanian troops during the Battle of Spreitenneuve (1949), the sinking of the ZMS Purai, the aftermath of the Bombing Raid of Titania, a Vulkarian soldier comforts his comrade
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
10,000,000 civilians killed9,446,000 - 15,000,000 total killed
The World War, also known as the Aurelia War or the Great Euronia War, was a global war that lasted from April 12th, 1949 to November 12th, 1954 and saw fighting all across Iearth, formed by two opposing military alliances: the Allied Powers and the League Powers. The war initially started after the Holy Empire of Drambenburg invaded western Avergnon, which prompted Zamastan to rush to its aid. A state of total war emerged after a few months of stalemates in the fighting, directly involving more than 100 million people from 15 countries across the world. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. It included massacres, genocides, strategic bombing, and premeditated death from starvation and disease. It was the deadliest and costliest war in history, costing anywhere from 9,446,000 to 15,000,000 total killed, including 1-3 million civilians.
In April of 1949, Drambenburg invaded Avergnon, seizing nearly a third of the country by June. Zamastan joined the war after Drambenburg refused to withdraw, leading to intensive fighting as Zamastan pushed into northern Drambenburg. The Sanguine (DSC), determined to expand its borders and natural resources, joined the war on the side of Drambenburg in June of 1950, invading Avergnon and opening up a second front in the east. Sanguine invaded Vulkaria in the winter of 1950 in order to capture seaports on the Toyana Ocean, leading to Vulkaria's entry in the war on the side of Avergnon and Zamastan. The front on the Zamastan/Drambenburg border became a stalemate in 1951, with prolonged trench warfare leading to months without major territorial gains. In the spring of 1952, Zamastanian and Vulkarian forces led a series of campaigns that expelled the DSC from the northern half of Vulkaria, culminating in the recapture of the stretch of coast which cut off Sanguine forces' access to the Toyana Ocean. Key setbacks in 1953, which included a series of Sanguine defeats on the Eastern Front of Avergnon, a successful breach of Drambenburgian lines on the Zamastanian Front, and Allied victories in the Toyana Ocean, cost the League its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. Eventually, the war stalled as each side attempted to push back, and it once again descended into trench warfare until an armistice was signed on November 19th, 1954.
The World War largely changed the political alignment and social structure of the globe. Simmering tensions following the war erupted into many smaller-scale conflicts such as the Gladysynthian Civil War and the Tariel War in 1972. In 1975, 21 years after the war ended, the Coalition of Crown Albatross was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future global conflicts. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery and expansion. Political integration, especially in Euronia, began as an effort to forestall future hostilities, end pre-war enmities and create a common identity.
- 1 Chronology
- 2 Pre-war events
- 3 Course of war
- 3.1 Drambenburg invades Avergnon (1949)
- 3.2 Sanguine joins the war (1950)
- 3.3 Invasion of Vulkaria (1950)
- 3.4 Trench Warfare on the Western Front (1951)
- 3.5 Ruskayn joins the Allied Powers (1951)
- 3.6 Retaking of Vulkaria (1952-53)
- 3.7 Invasion of Drambenburg
- 4 Aftermath
- 5 Impact
See also: Timeline of the World War (Iearth)
The start of the war in Euronia is typically held to be April 12th, 1949, marking the Drambenburgian invasion of Avergnon. Other suggestions put the start of the war on February 3rd, 1949, when the Drambenburgian Empire put down an insurgency in their northeastern region and annexed the nation of Chaesia. The massive troop movement is believed by many experts to have been strategically manufactured by Emperor Geoff III von Wettin to build up forces on their historical enemy's border.
From 1932-1944, a violent civil war engulfed Greater Chanchajilla, with the government backed by Drambenburg and the rebel-republicans backed by Zamastan. The rebels successfully broke away, ultimately forming East Chanchajilla and West Chanchajilla. This was one of the first-known proxy wars in history, seeing different ideological governments backing their like-minded sides in the conflict through supplying and intelligence.
Drambenburg/Avergnon border conflicts
In the mid-to-late 1930s, Drambenburgian forces in their northeastern territory had sporadic border clashes with the Avergnonians. The Drambenburg war doctrines emphasized Drambenburg's expansion north and eastward, and was favored by Emperor von Wettin during this time. With the Drambenburgian defeat at Povaleax in 1939, however, this policy would prove difficult to maintain. Drambenburg and Avergnon eventually signed a Neutrality Pact in January 1940, which each country followed for 9 years until the World War would break out.
President Tyler Kordia's policies surrounding taking economic-advantages from raw resources led to the seven-day Danaska War in 1945. Gladysynthia had recently broken apart from its imperial reign and had newly formulated into a Republic, but was faced with the war path from President Kordia and his ambition was to conquer the oil rich territory of the Northern Isle and the Danaska region. As the Premiere of Gladysynthia, Laurence Clarkson, rallied his troops, tensions became dangerously heightened. On August 2nd, Zamastan launched what it claimed were a series of preemptive airstrikes against Gladysynthian airfields. The Gladysynthians were caught by surprise, and nearly the entire Gladysynthian air force was destroyed with few Zamastan losses, giving the Zamastanians air supremacy. Simultaneously, the Zamastanians launched a ground offensive into the city of Danaska and Tariel Heights, which again caught the Gladysynthians by surprise. After some initial resistance, Gladysynthian leader Laurence Clarkson ordered the evacuation of Danaska. Zamastan forces rushed westward in pursuit of the Gladysynthians, inflicted heavy losses, and conquered the Danaska region.
Gladysynthia agreed to a World Assembly joint ceasefire on August 9th. In the aftermath of the war, Zamastan had crippled the Gladysynthian military, having killed over 20,000 troops while only 3,000 of its own were lost. The Zamastan success was the result of a well-prepared and enacted strategy, the unprepared leadership of the Gladysynthian states, and their poor military leadership and strategy. Zamastan seized Danaska and the Tariel Heights from Gladysynthia. The speed and ease of Zamastan's victory would later lead to a dangerous overconfidence within the ranks of the Zamastan Defense Forces (ZDF), and by the time of the World War, much of the nation's military was still active and constantly drilling for conflict.
Insurrections in Northern Drambenburg
In February of 1949, a series of uprisings by rebel forces in northeastern Drambenburg led to Emperor von Wettin sending hundreds of thousands of soldiers to the region to quell the unrest. It is believed by many experts that this was the deciding phase for von Wettin to initiate a troop buildup on Avergnon's border without international condemnation.
Course of war
Drambenburg invades Avergnon (1949)
On April 12th, over 500,000 troops of the Drambenburgian forces stormed across the Avergnonian border after they staged several false flag border incidents as an excuse to initiate the attack. The invading forces crushed the defending Avergnonian forces. Initially, the campaign saw incredible success due to the methods of the Drambenburgian commanders and a variety of new weaponry, including the DM09 anti-infantry rocket system. On the 15th, Drambenburgians pushed into the city of Selleaux, where for the first time during the invasion, they faced stiff resistance. It took two days to push the Avergnonians out of their tightly held city, but a Avergnonian counter offensive to the west on the 18th halted the Drambenburgian advance for several days. To secure the city and avoid embarrasement at the possible defeat of their forces, the Drambenburgian High Command ordered aerial bombing of Selleaux. The Avergnonian army was soon outflanked and encircled by the Drambenburgians. The Battle of Selleaux resulted in the deaths of over 60,000 troops, as well as several thousand civilians caught in the crossfire.
Zamastanian President Marvin Gaviria, recognizing the reality of Drambenburg's lack of distinction from military and civilian targets, called Emperor von Wettin on April 24th and pleaded for the Drambenburgian armies to cease their invasion. The Emperor refused, and Gaviria ordered the bulk of the Zamastanian military to move to the eastern border with Drambenburg as a precaution as per Congressional Hall's request. By May 7th, Drambenburg had seized a third of Avergnon but had been largely stalled by the now resurgent defending forces, who had for the first time pushed their invaders back at the Battle of Devenstaal. The fighting soon descended into trench warfare, and neither side gained any significant claims of land until June. On June 2nd, a Drambenburgian push through the Avergnon lines threatened the capital of Vessalia, prompting the Avergnonian President, Abelard Montellogne, to ask President Gaviria to join forces and declare war on their enemy.
Zamastan sides with Avergnon
On June 10th, after days of deliberation in Congress, Zamastan declared war on Drambenburg and launched a full-scale assault into the northern region of Drambenburg in two flanks. One prong of the invasion smashed southeast to surround the invading Drambenburgian army and create a double front which would theoretically exhaust their forces. The second flank headed directly south to try and cut off the route from Drambenburg's capital of Lerbin and the front lines. At the Battle of Spreitenneuve, Zamastanian forces routed Drambenburgians headed towards the Avergnonian lines into a strategic retreat. However, the fighting in the interior of Drambenburg also stalled and resulted in miles of trenches being dug, once again descending both fronts of the war into stalled and grizzly, un-moving warfare. Luimnigh eventually took notice of this and due to their hatred of Drambenburg trying to coup their government in the past, decided to begin a aid program to Zamastan giving medical supplies, military equipment and trained volunteers.
In an attempt to break the stalemate, Zamastan sent naval forces to blockade and try and invade the southwest coast of Drambenburg through Titania Bay. While the blockade was successful, the invasion fleet failed to break through the heavy shore defenses. Drambenburg lacked the strength to challenge the combined Zamastanian and Avergnonian Navy for command of the sea. Instead, Drambenburg naval strategy relied on commerce raiding using capital ships, armed merchant cruisers, submarines and aircraft. Many Drambenburgian warships were already at sea when war was declared, including most of the available U-boats and "pocket battleships" which had sortied into the Toyana Ocean in June. These ships immediately attacked Zamastanian and Avergnonian shipping. The submarine fleet, which was to dominate so much of the Battle of the Toyana, was small at the beginning of the war; many of the 57 available U-boats were the small and short-range Type IIs, useful primarily for minelaying and operations in Zamastanian and Avergnonian coastal waters. Much of the early Drambenburgian anti-shipping activity involved minelaying by destroyers, aircraft and U-boats off Zamastanian ports. Over 13,000 civilian sailors would be killed at sea during the course of the war.
Overwhelmed and largely trapped by the Zamastanian forces, Drambenburg's air force began a series of rapid and quick strike bombing attacks on October 2nd of 1949. Bomber squadrons began rushing over the border under the cover of night and striking Zamastanian towns, causing thousands of civilian deaths. Night raids progressed in severity as the Zamastanian Air Force struggled to defend against the attacks, until the Bombing Raid of Titania on October 19th resulted in over 9,800 civilian deaths in one night and leading to a shift in Zamastanian policy. In turn, the Zamastanians launched their own attacks, with their planes having longer range due in part to superior engines and the use of aircraft carriers. They were able to strike dozens of major Drambenburgian cities, including the capital of Lerbin.
Sanguine joins the war (1950)
On June 15, in the early hours of the morning, troops from the Dominion of the Sanguine Church broke through Avergnon's eastern border, beginning a war on two fronts in Avergnon. To this day it is still unclear as to whether Pontifex Maximus Cornelius Dexus from the DSC and Emperor von Wettin of Drambenburg conspired together, or the DSC simply took advantage of the situation to try and gain more territory. Whatever the case, within days, Drambenburg and the DSC had officially joined forces and created the League Powers. Whatever Avergnonian troops could be spared from the western front scrambled to meet with the eastern threat, and thanks to some tactical blunders on the side of the DSC, as well as some brilliant and bold maneuvering on the Avergnonian side, the advance of the invaders was stopped and DSC troops were kept from advancing any farther.
On July 7th, Zamastanian forces, alongside East Chanchajillans who had joined the war, navigated Avergnon's northern mountain passes to reach the eastern front and assist their Avergnonian allies. For several months, the eastern front appeared to be a stalemate, serving only to advance the DSC border around 45 miles into Avergnon as well as to funnel some precious Avergnonian troops away from the western front. During the early months of the occupation, Avergnonian citizens in DSC controlled territory were allowed to remain in their homes. However, after the sabotage of several DSC military bases by an Avergnonian resistance, hundreds of thousands of Avergnonian citizens in the occupied area were rounded up and taken back into DSC territory and placed in internment camps. The resulting Aveirs Genocide killed over 800,000 Avergnonian citizens, largely members of the Wacee minority population, and was the event that would eventually be the founding basis for the Coalition of Crown Albatross' Human Right's Council in 1976.
Invasion of Vulkaria (1950)
Despite the apparent stalemate on the eastern front of Avergnon, the Dominion of the Sanguine Church was not yet content with the advances they had made. At 3:35 AM, November 17, DSC troops began a brutal, rapid campaign south into the thus far peaceful Vulkaria. Rather than attempting to extend their whole southern border into Vulkaria, DSC forces instead captured only about a 70 mile wide area all the way through Vulkaria simply to be able to reach several key port cities on the Gulf of Ausiana. The morning of the 17th was cold, and extremely foggy in the descent from mountain clearings, and between the cover of the darkness and the fog, the DSC advance was more or less undetectable until it was too late. Phone lines were cut, families were held hostage, any military forces at the border were overwhelmed before word could get through to the greater Vulkarian forces.
By the time the Vulkarian government realized what had happened, the DSC had already pushed about a third of the way down to the ocean. Vulkarian military forces rushed to meet the invading army, but were unable to successfully stop the advance. Within an astounding four weeks, the DSC held a strip of land all the way down through Vulkaria to several key port cities, including Svedalburg and Bredehuizen which they began using to speed up trade in arms, food, and other items with Malvare. Historians have determined that the massive success of this campaign came from the utter speed and element of surprise that the DSC used against Vulkaria. DSC military leaders had apparently learned from their earlier failures in Avergnon and improved on their military strategies before invading Vulkaria. This move was apparently frowned upon by Drambenburg's leadership, but despite the warnings, the DSC went ahead with their invasion plan.
Vulkaria, having been forced into the war, reached out to Zamastan and Avergnon to join the Allies, and their country leaders began tactical meetings trying to decide how best to deal with the League threat. It was first determined that Drambenburg was the greater threat, and the Allies began to double down on the western front against Drambenburg.
On January 4th, 1951, Rumaztria invaded southern Vulkaria, driving deep into the interior of the country as the bulk of the Vulkarian forces were occupied in defending the northern corridor from DSC forces. Rumaztria had sided with the DSC and Drambenburg in secret during the 1950 Colteaux Conference, and had agreed to divide Vulkaria in half for "living space" with the Dominion of the Sanguine Church. Rumaztrian forces were stalled in their advance in March, stopping roughly 100 miles south of Vulkar and Amstelveen, leaving the Canal Routes under Vulkarian and Allied control.
Trench Warfare on the Western Front (1951)
Ruskayn joins the Allied Powers (1951)
In the fall of 1951, leadership in the allied powers realized that the support the League Powers were receiving from Malvare were critical for the war effort, and to cut off the ports that the DSC controlled in Vulkaria would be a great step to crippling enemy forces. However, Vulkarian troops could not push DSC forces back out of Vulkaria on their own, while Avergnonian and Zamastanian troops were stretched thin across the eastern and western fronts of Avergnon. Zamastan encouraged the other members of the Allies to pool resources to hire an unheard of amount of Ruskaynian troops to aid Vulkaria against the DSC. After some persuasion, an agreement was finally reached, and the Allied Powers reached out to Ruskayn's president, Brian McCready with an offer. Ruskayn had apparently been anticipating such an offer and immediately excepted, shipping out troops within days of the agreement being reached.
Ruskaynian and Vulkarian warships joined forces against the DSC navy which had been patrolling the Toyana Ocean to protect Malvarian trade vessels. The combined allied navy cut through the technologically inferior DSC navy with ease, and won several decisive battles both on sea and in the air. After successfully retaking the Toyana, Ruskayn sent over 200,000 mercenary troops on MacCàba Class Attack Transports to the Toyana ocean, prepared to begin a land invasion.
Retaking of Vulkaria (1952-53)
Zamastanian, Ruskaynian, and contingents of Emmirian forces landed on the northern stretch of Vulkaria early in the morning of April 7, 1952, in Operation Pelican Spanning. The troops split up in two groups, and marched north through Vulkarian territory parallel on both east (to the Zamastanians) and west (Ruskayn and Emmiria) of the territory occupied by the DSC. Vulkarian troops joined them as DSC forces began to prepare for a counter-attack. In the evening of April 16, Allied troops began an incredibly effective campaign against the northern half of DSC-controlled territory in Vulkaria, utilizing Vulkarian knowledge of the area the great extent. Within weeks, the northern DSC troops had either been driven out, or killed in the face of the terrific onslaught of Allied firepower, and the northern half of the strip was back in Vulkarian possession. The southern half of the DSC-controlled territory was cut off from their own country, and in many instances, they were offered terms of surrender, which most promptly refused. The bulk of DSC forces were at this point preoccupied with the battle on the eastern front of Avergnon and were unable to send reinforcements to the troops in Vulkaria. Allied forces took precautions to protect the northern border of Vulkaria, just in case the DSC had a change of heart and decided to aid their trapped men.
Once the border was determined to be fully secure, the Allied forces began closing in on DSC-held territory and slowly but surely began retaking it. The remaining DSC forces are said to have fought with increasing desperation and tenacity, but were simply unable to withstand the Allied forces. Eventually, they were forced back into the strongly fortified Vulkarian port city of Bredehuizen. Sanguine forces managed to keep the Allied forces at bay for over three weeks, until they finally were starved out. However, DSC forces still would not surrender. Instead, they piled into whatever boats they had and tried to escape into the Toyana Ocean, where they were easily stopped by the Allied Navy. Yet again, the DSC troops were unwilling to give up, and almost all of them were either killed trying to fight against the Allied ships, or drowned by the purposeful sinking of their own ships. In all, only one squad of their men agreed to surrender. It was later discovered that DSC soldiers were under strict orders from their commanders to never surrender, even if that meant killing themselves, which many of them ended up doing. Zamastanian estimates say that 61,000 Sanguine troops died in the nearly month-long siege.
It was due to this tragic waste of life that the Allied forces determined to stay their celebration of victory. However the next day celebrations were underway, and Ruskayian and Vulkarian forces were treated as heroes by the beleaguered populace of the previously occupied Bredehuizen. It was during this celebration that the famous photo of a Ruskaynian soldier carrying a little Vulkarian girl on his shoulders was taken. The photo was used at the end of the war as a model to create a bronze statue by commission of the Vulkarian government, which was gifted to Ruskayn as a token of thanks. This statue still stands in front of the Ruskaynian Capitol building in Forgeheim.
Southern Front and the Exit of Gladysynthia (1953)
Initially, Gladysynthian and Emmirian forces comprised of a bulk of the attacking force against Rumaztrian armies in the south of Vulkaria. However, on July 29th 1953, the Gladysynthian province of Tetrazoa declared war on Saphiria over cultural and economic disputes. Tetrazoa sent troops via air and sea and starts to invade Saphiria on the northern coast. On August 4, the Gladysynthian Civil War began when Saphiria declared war on Tetrazoa. The Federal Government of Gladysynthia in the Capitol District of Mönusÿnthys officially declared war on Tetrazoa, and on August 6, the military was activated and began preparing to defend Saphiria and preserve the union. Premiere of Gladysynthia, Malcolm Kirchner was faced with the aspect of a many-faction-sided war, with the federal government losing control of provinces in the autumn months of the war, leaving Gladysynthian armies in Ausiana either in disarray or full withdrawls to return to their homeland.
Invasion of Drambenburg
Surrender of Drambenburg
The conclusion of the World War had widespread and severe impacts across the world. In Drambenburg's unconditional surrender, they ceded much of their northern territory to Avergnon and Zamastan, while also ceding much to newly formed independent nations such as Lutharia, Angouburg, Trevivona, Chaesia, Shoassau, and Blaoria. They also lost all of their overseas territories with the excemption of the Achtundachtzig Islands.