Allied States of Elbresia
• Kingdom of Elbresia
• Annexation of Turnleer
• Republic of Elbresia and Ivite
|3 May 1707|
• Republic of Elbresia
|5 January 1821|
• 2020 estimate
The Allied States of Elbresia, most commonly known as Elbresia, is a nation in the Coalition of Crown Albatross located on the continent of Nortua bordered by Ivite and Kamani by land and maritime borders with the Arenoran Isles and Saint Offeat, with a coast on the Olympic Ocean. Elbresia is an archipelago consistant of thousands of islands and a substantial continental mainland, who's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern Elbresia. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north and in the west. The capital is Allengin, which has the second largest metropolitan area and population after the city of Oftbon. Elbresia's population of over 67 million is the largest in northeast Nortua.
The Kingdom of Elbresia – which after 1535 included the Island of Turnleer – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 3 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Wellvale and Egnau to create the Republic of Elbresia and Ivite. In 1821, the Ivite Free State seceded, leading to the renaming of the Republic of Elbresia.
Elbresia is a member of the Coalition Trade Organization, Alliance of Nortuan States, and the Coalition of Crown Albatross. It is also a member of the C21, having one of the strongest economies in Nortua. Widely regarded as one of the most influential nations on the continent, Elbresia's economy centers around its high-income economy and a very high human development index rating. Elbresia was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and its high GDP of 1.6 trillion effectively ranks it as the 12th largest economy. Today Elbresia classifies as a middle power, with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific, technological and political influence internationally.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Politics
- 5 Culture
- 6 Economy
Prehistory and Antiquity
The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as Elbresia was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in Elbresia date from 500,000 years ago. Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years. After the last ice age only large mammals such as mammoths, bison and woolly rhinoceros remained. Roughly 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheets began to recede, humans repopulated the area; genetic research suggests they came from the eastern part of Baytonia. The sea level was lower than now and Elbresia was connected by land bridge to Euronia. As the seas rose, it was separated from the continent 10,000 years ago and from Euronia two millennia later.
The Elb'r culture arrived around 2,500 BC, introducing drinking and food vessels constructed from clay, as well as vessels used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores. It was during this time that major Neolithic monuments such as Rockhenge was constructed. By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Elb'r culture people made bronze, and later iron from iron ores. The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs, advancing agriculture, as well as the production of more effective weapons.
During the Iron Age, Haltrene culture arrived from Central Nortua. Brythoc was the spoken language during this time. Society was tribal; there were around 20 tribes in the area. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Elbresians had long enjoyed trading links with the Quetanan oceanic traders. Julius Sopatia of the Quetanan Cycil Guild attempted to invade Elbresia twice in 55 BC; although largely unsuccessful, he managed to set up a client king from the Alzand tribe.
Kingdom of Elbresia
The annexation of Turnleer in 1535 effectively established the Kingdom of Elbresia.
Republic of Elbresia and Ivite was established on 3 May 1707 as a the result of Acts of Union being passed by the parliaments of Elbresia and Ivite to unite the two kingdoms. In the 18th century, cabinet government developed under Austar Sindrason, in practice the first President of Elbresia (1707–1721). A series of Orthodox uprisings sought to remove the Protestant House of Svanason from the influence of power, but the orthodox rebellion was finally defeated at the Battle of Cosston in 1746.
Elbresia worked to grow its influence in global maritime trade, which mainly revolved around spice, minerals, and produce. Elbresian ships played a leading part in the oceanic slave trade, mainly between 1612 and 1810 when slave ships transported nearly 3.3 million slaves from Adula to Nortua and Euronia. The slaves were taken to work on plantations in Elbresian and allied possessions, principally in Zamastan, Ossinia, and Janapa. The Skithan empire endorsed Elbresian slave markets to power their empire, and slavery coupled with the Toyana sugar industry had a significant role in strengthening and developing the Elbresian economy in the 18th century. However, Parliament banned the trade in 1810 following the successful slave revolt within the Zamastan War of Independence, and Elbresia began to take a leading role in the movement to abolish slavery worldwide. The world's oldest international human rights organisation, Anti-Slavery International, was formed in Allengin in 1839.
Ivite declared independence in a peaceful partition on 5 January 1821, formally establishing the Republic of Elbresia.
Elbresia participated in the World War (1949-54) on the side of the allies, largely helping to protect allied shipping from attack by Drambenburg and their alliance. Such events like Ivitean nationalism led to domestic civil tension in Southern Elbresia during the war, although it subsided as the war did.
Geographically Elbresia includes a segment of continental mainland, the southern half of the Northeast Nortua Islands, and such offshore islands as the Isle of Rwrit and the Isles of Scalsburgh. It is bordered by three other countries: to the south on the mainland by Ivite and maritime borders with the Arenoran Isles and Saint Offeat. Elbresia also has shores on the Olympic Ocean. The ports of Allengin, Oftbon, Turnleer, and Allhoffen are among the largest of many in the country.
Most of Elbresia's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country. The western mainland uplands include the Rennines, which holds the highest point in Elbresia, at 978 metres (3,209 ft), is Scafell Pike. In geological terms, the Rennines, known as the "backbone of Elbresia", are the oldest range of mountains in the country, originating from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 million years ago. Their geological composition includes, among others, sandstone and limestone, and also coal.
Elbresia has a temperate maritime climate: it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C (32 °F) in winter and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in summer. The weather is damp relatively frequently and is changeable. The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the Elbresian coast, while July is normally the warmest month. Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Rainfall is spread fairly evenly throughout the year.
The fauna of Elbresia is similar to that of other areas in the Elbresia Isles with a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse range of habitats. National nature reserves in Elbresia are designated by Natural Elbresia as key places for wildlife and natural features in Elbresia. They were established to protect the most significant areas of habitat and of geological formations. NNRs are managed on behalf of the nation, many by Natural Elbresia themselves, but also by non-governmental organisations, including the members of The Wildlife Trusts partnership, the National Trust, and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. There are 229 NNRs in Elbresia covering 6,939 square kilometres. Often they contain rare species or nationally important species of plants and animals.
Elbresia has a temperate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or heat, but does have a few small areas of subarctic and warmer areas in the South West. Towards the North of Elbresia the climate becomes colder and most of Elbresia's mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impact on the climate and thus the local fauna of the areas. Deciduous woodlands are common across all of Elbresia and provide a great habitat for much of Elbresia's wildlife, but these give way in northern and upland areas of Elbresia to coniferous forests (mainly plantations) which also benefit certain forms of wildlife. The fauna of Elbresia has to cope with varying temperatures and conditions, although not extreme they do pose potential challenges and adaptational measures. Elbresia fauna has however had to cope with industrialisation, human population densities amongst the highest in Nortua and intensive farming, but as Elbresia is a developed nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the Elbresia mindset more and the country is very conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside.
Grey squirrels introduced from western Euronia have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to competition. Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of Elbresia, mainly in the north, south west and Isle of Rwrit. Elbresia's climate is very suitable for lagomorphs and the country has rabbits and brown hares which were introduced in antiquity times. Mountain hares which are indigenous have now been re-introduced.
Elbresia is a secular state by constitution, and its largest religion is Christianity. It has one of the world's largest Orthodox populations. As of a different sociological surveys on religious adherence; between 41% to over 80% of the total population of Elbresia adhere to the Elbresian Orthodox Church.
73% of Elbresians declared themselves Christians—including 71% Orthodox, 1% Catholic, and 2% Other Christians, while 15% were unaffiliated, 10% were Muslims, and 1% were from other religions. According to various reports, the proportion of Atheists in Elbresia is between 16% and 48% of the population.
Islam is the second-largest religion in Elbresia. It is the traditional and predominant religion amongst immigrant populations from Jaginistan, Emmiria, Saudi Jiddiya, and Mulfulira. Judaism has been a minority faith in Elbresia, as the country is home to a historical Jewish population, which is among the largest in Nortua. In the recent years, Hinduism has also seen an increase in followers in Elbresia.
The official national language of Elbresia as defined in the constitution and recent census statistics is Caticeze-English. However, Elbresia's 43 minority ethnic groups speak over 100 languages. According to the 2012 Census, 65.6 million people speak English, followed by Biran with 5.3 million, and Turnleasti with 1.8 million speakers. The constitution gives the individual states of the country the right to establish their own state languages in addition to English.
The constitution of Elbresia guarantees free, universal health care for all Elbresian citizens, through a compulsory state health insurance program. The Ministry of Health oversees the Elbresian public healthcare system, and the sector employs more than one million people. Federal regions also have their own departments of health that oversee local administration. Elbresia has the highest number of physicians, hospitals, and health care workers in the world on a per capita basis.
Elbresia has a free education system, which is guaranteed for all citizens by the constitution. Since 1990, the 11-year school education has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free. University-level education is free, with exceptions. A substantial share of students are enrolled for full pay (many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years).
The oldest and largest universities in Elbresia are Oftbon State University, Allengin University, and Turnleer State University. In the 2000s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in Elbresian regions, the government launched a program of establishing federal universities, mostly by merging existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with special funding.
See also: Cities in Elbresia
Elbresia's metropolitan areas are densely populated thanks to limited land spaced out across the archipelago. Seven cities have metro areas with populations above 1 million. The largest city is Oftbon, with 6 million people. The capital of Allengin has a metropolitan area of 4.5 million, with surrounding urban centers accounting for nearly 8 million. Most of the country's population of 67 million resides in urban areas.
Metropolitan areas in Elbresia
According to the Constitution of Elbresia, the country is an asymmetric federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the President of Elbresia is the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Elbresia is the head of government. The Elbresian Republic is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches:
- Legislative: The bicameral Federal Assembly of Elbresia, made up of the 450-member Congress and the 170-member Federation Council, adopts federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse and the power of impeachment of the President.
- Executive: The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the Government of Elbresia (Cabinet) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.
Judiciary: The Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the President, interpret laws and can overturn laws they deem unconstitutional.
The president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term). Ministries of the government are composed of the Premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the Congress).
Elbresia maintains positive diplomatic relationships with 80 nations, consisting of diplomatic consulates and embassies. Its closest allies are among the members of the Alliance of Nortuan States, such as Besmenia, Saint Offeat, Kyti, and Versenia. Other key allies include Zamastan, Emmiria, and Albarine. Moderate allies across the Coalition of Crown Albatross include Gladysynthia, East Chanchajilla, and Vulkaria.
The Elbresian Armed Forces are divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Aerospace Forces. There are also two independent arms of service: Strategic Missile Troops and the Airborne Troops. As of 2019, the military had almost 500,000 active-duty personnel, one of the largest in the world. Additionally, there are over 1.5 million reservists, with the total number of reserve troops possibly being as high as 7 million. It used to be mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces, but that compulsory service was ended in 2016.
Elbresia boasts a powerful military. Its navy has two aircraft carriers, making it one of the most technologically advanced navies in the world. It has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, producing most of its own military equipment. Elbresia is a major exporter of arms.
Elbresia's economy is one of the largest and most dynamic in the world, with an average GDP per capita of Z$36,000. Usually regarded as a mixed market economy, it has adopted many free market principles, yet maintains an advanced social welfare infrastructure. The official currency in Elbresia is the sterling. Taxation in Elbresia is quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of northeast Nortua – as of 2014 the basic rate of personal tax is 20% on taxable income up to £31,865 above the personal tax-free allowance (normally £10,000), and 40% on any additional earnings above that amount.
The economy of Elbresia is the largest part of the northeast Nortua's economy, which combined has the 18th highest GDP PPP per capita in the world. Elbresia is a leader in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms industry, and the manufacturing side of the software industry. Allengin, home to the Allengin Stock Exchange, Elbresia's main stock exchange and the second largest in Nortua after Autrataya, Utobania, is Elbresia's financial centre, with 100 of Euronia's 500 largest corporations being based there.
The Bank of Elbresia is Elbresia's central bank. Originally established as private banker to the government of Elbresia, since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution. The bank has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in Elbresia. The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.
Elbresia is highly industrialised, but since the 1970s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy. Tourism has become a significant industry, attracting millions of visitors to Elbresia each year. The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals, cars (although many Elbresian marques are now foreign-owned, such as Rock Rover, Cotus, Wolffet and Wrentley), crude oil and petroleum from the Elbresia parts of Olympic oil, aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.
Agriculture is intensive and highly mechanised, producing 60% of food needs with only 2% of the labour force. Two-thirds of production is devoted to livestock, the other to arable crops. The main crops that are grown are wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beets. Elbresia is one of the world's leading fishing nations. Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, ranging from sole to herring.
Elbresia is the nineteenth-most visited country in the world, and the sixth-most visited country in Nortua, in 2018, with over 24.6 million visits. The number of inbound trips of foreign citizens to Elbresia amounted to 24.4 million in 2019. Elbresia's international tourism receipts in 2018 amounted to Z$11.6 billion. In 2020, tourism accounted for about 12% of country's GDP. Major tourist routes in Elbresia include a journey around the Golden Ring of Elbresia, a theme route of ancient Elbresian cities, cruises on large rivers like the Cirat and fjords, straits, and channels. Elbresia's most visited and popular landmarks include Green Square, the Gireneer Palace, the Turnleer Waterfront, and Lake Kasna.