Republic of Siniapore
|Caticeze-English, Siniapory, Kotoan, and Tosichi
|Recognised national languages
|Mulia bin Andika
|Thaaqib bin Abdus Samad
• 2020 estimate
• Per capita
The Republic of Siniapore, most commonly known as Siniapore, is a nation in the Coalition of Crown Albatross located on the continent of Ausiana, bordered by Tosichi to the east and maritime borders with Cong Quoc, Yuan, and Gangkou. The country is comprised of a island continental mass and an archipeligo of branching islands, with the capital and political center in Siniapore serving as the nation's political, economic, and cultural hub. The majority of the country is undeveloped mountainous and forested terrain, with over 80% of the country's 9.56 million inhabitants living in or around the capital city. There are four official languages of Siniapore: Caticeze-English, Siniapory, Itoii, and Tosi; with Caticeze-English being the lingua franca. This reflects in its rich cultural diversity and extensive ethnic cuisine and major festivals. Multiracialism is enshrined in the constitution, and continues to shape national policies in education, housing, and politics.
Although its history stretches back millennia, Siniapore was settled by Quetanan explorers. Modern Siniapore was founded in 1809 by Hyong Nam-Kyu as a trading post of the Yuaneze Heng Dynasty. After the World War, Siniapore gained self-governance in 1956, and in 1963 became part of the new United Federation of Tosichi. Ideological differences led to Siniapore being expelled from the federation two years later, thereby becoming an independent country.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation rapidly developed based on external trade, becoming a highly developed country; it is ranked highly on the Human Development Index, and has one of the highest GDP's per capita in the world. Siniapore is the only country in Ausiana with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies. It is a major financial and shipping hub, consistently ranked the most expensive city to live in since 2013, and has been identified as a tax haven. Siniapore is placed highly in key social indicators: education, healthcare, quality of life, personal safety and housing, with a home-ownership rate of 91%. Siniaporeans enjoy one of the world's longest life expectancies, fastest Internet connection speeds and one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world.
Siniapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Quetanan system of unicameral parliamentary government. Siniapore is widely regarded to have an incorrupt and meritocratic government, with a fair judiciary and strong rule of law. While the country practices parliamentary democracy, the government has significant control over politics and society, and the People's Action Party ruled continuously since independence until 2023, when the Worker's Party and Mulia bin Andika won the general election. Siniapore is regarded as a peaceful country, though recent tensions with Yuan through the Jinchon Sea crisis have led to its government's decision to grow its military. Siniapore is a member of the CCA, WEDA, and CTO.
Siniapore consists of 63 islands, including the main island, Sulau Rujong, which used to be a part of the mainland until a massive manmade canal project in the 1980's and 90's bisected it from the mainland. There are two-man-made connections to its neighboring nation of Tosichi: the Rocklands 1st Link in the north and the Tuas 2nd Link in the east. Burong Island, Sulau Tekong, Sulau Ubin and Mentosa are the largest of Siniapore's smaller islands.
Land reclamation projects had increased Siniapore's land area from 1580 km2 (1220 sq mi) in the 1960s to 1710 km2 (1270 sq mi) by 2015, an increase of some 22% (130 km2). The country is projected to reclaim another 56 km2 (20 sq mi) by 2030. Some projects involve merging smaller islands through land reclamation to form larger, more functional islands, as has been done with Burong Island. The type of sand used in reclamation is found in rivers and beaches, rather than deserts, and is in great demand worldwide. In 2010 Siniapore imported almost 15 million tons of sand for its projects, the demand being such that Yuan and Kalea Confederation have all restricted or barred the export of sand to Siniapore in recent years. As a result, in 2016 Siniapore switched to using polders for reclamation, in which an area is enclosed and then pumped dry.
Siniapore has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen: Af) with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Temperatures usually range from 23 to 32 °C (73 to 90 °F). While temperature does not vary greatly throughout the year, there is a wetter monsoon season from November to February.
From July to October, there is often haze caused by bush fires in neighbouring Tosichi. Siniapore recognises that climate change and rising sea levels in the decades ahead will have major implications for its low-lying coastline. It estimates that the nation will need to spend Z$100 billion over the course of the next century to address the issue. In its 2020 budget, the government set aside an initial Z$5 billion towards a Coastline and Flood Protection Fund. Siniapore is the first country in Ausiana to levy a carbon tax on its largest carbon-emitting corporations producing more than 25,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year, at Z$5 per ton.
To reduce the country's dependence on fossil fuels, it has ramped up deployment of solar panels on rooftops and vertical surfaces of buildings, and other initiatives like building one of the world's largest floating solar farm at Dengeh Reservoir.
Siniapore is a parliamentary republic based on the Vongane system of government. The Constitution of Siniapore is the supreme law of the country, establishing the structure and responsibility of government. The president is head of state and exercises executive power on the advice of her ministers. The prime minister is head of government and is appointed by the president as the person most likely to command the confidence of a majority of Parliament. Cabinet is chosen by the prime minister and formally appointed by the president.
The government is separated into three branches:
Executive: The president is commander-in-chief of the military, can veto laws before they become effective (subject to parliamentary override), and holds limited discretionary powers of oversight over the government. The prime minister and Cabinet are responsible for administering and enforcing laws and policies.
Legislative: The unicameral Parliament enacts national law, approves budgets, and provides a check on government policy.
Judiciary: The Supreme Court and State Courts, whose judges are appointed by the president, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.
The president is directly elected by popular vote for a renewable six-year term. Requirements for this position are extremely stringent, such that no more than several thousand people qualify for candidacy. Presidential elections may be declared "reserved" for a racial community if no one from that ethnic group has been elected to the presidency in the five most recent terms. Only members of that community may qualify as candidates in a reserved presidential election.
Members of Parliament (MPs) are chosen to serve for a term lasting up to five years. The current Parliament has 100 members; 88 were directly elected from the 29 constituencies, nine are nonpartisan nominated members appointed by the president, and three are non-constituency members from opposition parties who were not elected in the last general election but appointed to the legislature to increase opposition party representation. In group representation constituencies (GRCs), political parties assemble teams of candidates (rather than nominate individuals) to contest elections. At least one MP in a GRC must be of an ethnic minority background. All elections are held using first-past-the-post voting. The People's Action Party (PAP) occupies a dominant position in Siniaporean politics, having won large parliamentary majorities in every election since self-governance was granted in 1965. Even its candidates who lose elections are often turned to by constituency residents for assistance. The most effective opposition party is the Worker's Party.
The judicial system is based on Verdusan common law, continuing the legal tradition established during Yuaneze rule but with substantial local differences. Criminal law is based on the Quetanan Penal Code originally intended for Quetanan imperial territories, but was at the time as a crown colony also adopted by the colonial authorities in Siniapore and remains the basis of the criminal code in the country with a few exceptions, amendments and repeals since it came into force. Trial by jury was abolished in 1970, and both caning and capital punishment continue to be administered as penalties for severe offences.
The Siniaporean military, arguably the most technologically advanced in Central Nortua, consists of the army, navy, and the air force. It is seen as the guarantor of the country's independence, translating into Siniapore culture, involving all citizens in the country's defence. The government spends 4.9% of the country's GDP on the military—high by regional standards—and one out of every four dollars of government spending is spent on defence.
After its independence, Siniapore had only two infantry regiments commanded by Tosichi officers. Considered too small to provide effective security for the new country, the development of its military forces became a priority. In addition, in October 1971, Tosichi pulled its military out of Siniapore, leaving behind only a small Tosichi, Yuaneze force as a token military presence. A great deal of initial support came from Quetana, which had commanders who were tasked by the Siniapore government to create the Siniapore Armed Forces (SAF) from scratch, and Vitosium instructors were brought in to train Siniaporean soldiers. Military courses were conducted according to the VDF's format, and Siniapore adopted a system of conscription and reserve service based on the Quetanan model. Siniapore still maintains strong security ties with Vitosium and is one of the biggest buyers of Vitosium arms and weapons systems. Zamastanian contractors, along with trainers from the Zamastanian Armed Forces, also hold exercises with the SAF annually. The Quetanan Navy holds three dry docks in Singana Harbor while the Zamastanian 2nd Fleet also docks at Hanlala Rai Naval Base.
The SAF is being developed to respond to a wide range of issues in both conventional and unconventional warfare. The Defence Science and Technology Agency is responsible for procuring resources for the military. The geographic restrictions of Siniapore mean that the SAF must plan to fully repulse an attack, as they cannot fall back and re-group. The small size of the population has also affected the way the SAF has been designed, with a small active force but a large number of reserves.
Siniapore has conscription for all able-bodied males at age 18, except those with a criminal record or who can prove that their loss would bring hardship to their families. Males who have yet to complete pre-university education or are awarded the Public Service Commission scholarship can opt to defer their draft. Though not required to perform military service, the number of women in the SAF has been increasing: since 1989 they have been allowed to fill military vocations formerly reserved for men. Before induction into a specific branch of the armed forces, recruits undergo at least 9 weeks of basic military training.
Because of the scarcity of open land on the mainland, training involving activities such as live firing and amphibious warfare are often carried out on smaller islands, typically barred to civilian access. However, large-scale drills, considered too dangerous to be performed in the country, have been performed in Quetana since 1975 and in about a dozen other countries. In general, military exercises are held with foreign forces once or twice per week.
Despite its small size, Siniapore has a diversity of languages, religions, and cultures. Former Prime Ministers of Siniapore have stated that Siniapore does not fit the traditional description of a nation, calling it a society-in-transition, pointing out the fact that Siniaporeans do not all speak the same language, share the same religion, or have the same customs. Each Siniaporean's behaviours and attitudes are influenced by, among other things, his or her home language and his religion. Siniapore who speak English as their native language tend to lean toward Euronian culture and Christian culture, while those who speak other languages as their native language tend to lean toward Nortuan and Adulan culture and Islam. Siniapory-speaking Siniaporeans tend to lean toward Sinia culture, which itself is closely linked to Islamic culture.
When Siniapore became independent from the Tosichi in 1965, most Siniapore citizens were transient labourers who had no intention of staying permanently. There was also a sizeable minority of middle-class. With the exception of the Peranakans who pledged their loyalties to Siniapore, most of the labourers' loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Tosichi and Yuan. After independence, the government began a deliberate process of crafting a Siniaporean identity and culture. Siniapore has a reputation as a nanny state. The government also places heavy emphasis on meritocracy, where one is judged based on one's ability.
The national flower of Siniapore is the hybrid orchid, Vanda 'Miss Aldria', named in memory of a Siniapore-born Caspiaan woman, who crossbred the flower in her garden in 1893. Many national symbols such as the Coat of arms of Siniapore and the dragon head symbol of Siniapore make use of the dragon, as Siniapore is known as the Dragon City. Major religious festivals are public holidays.
Sport and recreation
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Siniapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even though health expenditures are relatively low for developed countries. In 2019, Siniaporeans have the longest life expectancy of any country at 84.8 years. Females can expect to live an average of 87.6 years with 75.8 years in good health. The averages are lower for men.
The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three components: Medifund, which provides a safety net for those not able to otherwise afford healthcare, Medisave, a compulsory national medical savings account system covering about 85% of the population, and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance program. Public hospitals in Siniapore have a considerable autonomy in their management decisions, and notionally compete for patients, however they remain in government ownership and government appoints their boards and Chief Executive Officers and management reports and is responsible to these boards. A subsidy scheme exists for those on low income. In 2008, 32% of healthcare was funded by the government. It accounts for approximately 3.5% of Siniapore's GDP.