Montecaran language

Montecaran
Montecarà
Native toMontecara
RegionEuclea
Native speakers
1.5 million (2015)
Hyndo-Euclean
Official status
Official language in
 Montecara
Regulated byUniversity of Montecara
Language codes
ISO 639-3mon

Montecaran (Montecaran: Montecarà or lèngua Montecarà) is a Caesenic language spoken as a native tongue by approximately 1.5 million people, mostly in the city-state of Montecara. It is sometimes spoken and often well understood in the surrounding region, with perhaps 400,000 second-language speakers.

History

Montecaran ultimately descends from ancient Solarian. Montecaran, as a written language, emerged in the 11th century. The language enjoyed substantial prestige during the height of the old Montecaran trade empire in the 15th and 16th centuries, when it attained the status of a lingua franca in the surrounding areas.

At present, the vast majority of native speakers are diglossic and are fluent in another language, typically Gaullican. There is little regional variation within Montecaran given its small geographic distribution, though diasporic populations have historically developed their own dialects.

Phonology

Consonant phonemes
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar
Nasal m n   ɲ
Stop p b t d k ɡ
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Fricative f v s z ʃ
Approximant   j w
Lateral l   ʎ
Trill r
Vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Writing system

Alphabet

The Montecaran alphabet consists of 23 letters: the standard Latin alphabet with the omission of J, K, W, and Y, and the addition of Ç. The omitted letters are occasionally seen in loanwords and names, but are not part of regular orthography.

The grave accent (açènt gràve) is used to indicate stress. It is mandatory on all feminine nouns and on all polysyllabic masculine nouns which are not naturally stressed on the second-to-last syllable. If a masculine noun requires an accent in the singular, it also requires one in the plural, even if the stress naturally falls on the second-to-last syllable.

The acute accent (açènt acùt) is used to distinguish between homonyms.

Letter Name IPA Diacritics
Aa a /a/ à á
Bb bi /b/
Cc ci /k/ /s/
Çç çi /s/ /tʃ/
Dd di /d/
Ee e /e/ /ɛ/ è é
Ff efe /f/
Gg gi /ɡ/ /dʒ/
Hh àca (silent)
Ii i /i/ /j/ ì í
Ll el /l/
Mm em /m/
Nn en /n/
Oo o /o/ /ɔ/ ò ó
Pp pi /p/
Qq cu /k/
Rr ere /r/ /ɾ/
Ss es /s/ /z/
Tt ti /t/
Uu u /u/ /w/ ù ú
Vv vi /v/
Xx exe /ʃ/
Zz zi /dz/

Gender

Nouns and pronouns are either masculine or feminine, with some vestigial neuter pronouns. Nouns ending in A, E, L, and R are typically feminine, while those ending in I, O, U, M, N, and T are usually masculine.

Grammar

Articles

Definite Indefinite "Of" + definite "At/to" + definite "And" + definite
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
Singular il ia un ùna di da al àia el eia
Plural i uni unà dei dèa ai aià eià

Pronouns

Verbs

esèr - "to be"
Present Imperfect Perfect Future
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st io su noi sumu io erò noi eramu io fu noi fumu io suò noi seramu
2nd ti te si voi sei ti te eì voi erà tu fuse voi ferà ti te sea voi serà
3rd ui/ei ede ló/Loi ede ui/ei/Lu ere ló/Loi eràn ui/ei/Lu fuè ló/Loi feràn ui/ei/Lu seà ló/Loi seràn