Politics of Mascylla
|State type||Constitutional monarchy|
|Constitution||Grand Constitution of the Realm|
|Name||Parliament and Council of the Crown|
|Meeting place||Reichsrat building|
|Presiding officer||Walther Steinetz|
Prime Speaker of the Parliament
|Head of State|
|Currently||Queen Lyanna I|
|Head of Government|
|Name||Council of the Crown of Mascylla|
|Current cabinet||First Falkner Cabinet|
|Deputy leader||Minister of the Realm|
|Name||High Court of the Realm|
|High Constitutional Court|
|Chief judge||Lukas Pretschgen|
|Seat||Seat of the Court, Lehpold|
The Crowned Republic of Mascylla is a unitary state with devolution that is governed within the framework of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch, currently Queen Lyanna I, is the head of state while the Prime Minister of Mascylla, currently Thomas Falkner, is the head of the government. Executive power is exercised by both the Mascyllary government and the Monarchy of Mascylla, on behalf of and by the consent of the monarch, as well as by the devolved governments of its principalities. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Parliament of Mascylla and the Council of the Crown, assisted with various assemblies in its dependencies and overseas territories. The judiciary is independent of the executive and he legislative. The highest court is the High Court of the Realm. The political system of Mascylla is a multi-party system. Since the 1920s, the two dominant parties have been the National Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Mascylla. Before the Social Democratic Party rose in Mascyllary politics, the Free Citizen's Bound was the other major political party, along with the National Democrats. While coalition and minority governments have been an occasional feature of parliamentary politics, the first-pass-the-most electoral systemused for general elections tend to maintainthe dominance of these two parties, though each have in the past relied upon a third party, such as the Free Citizens or the Lefts, to deliver a working majority in Parliament. A National Democratic-Left coalition government held office from 2010 until 2015, the first coalition since 1956. The coalition ended following parliamentary elections on 7 May 2015, in which the National Democratic Union won an outright majority of 230 seats in the Parliament, while their coalition partners lost all but eight seats.
The constitution emphasizes the protection of individual liberty to an extensive catalogue of human and civil rights and divides powers both between the federal and state levels and between the legislative, executive, and juidiciary branches. It also supports the use of a tradition of liberalism, and a national centrist ideology. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Mascylla as a "full democracy" in 2017.
Main article: Grand Constitution of the Realm
The "Grand Constitution of the Realm" (Alemannic: "Große Verfassung des Reiches") is the current Constitution of Mascylla. It was formally approved on 23 May 1793 with the final peace negotiations and the establishing of Mascylla after the War of the Five Kings, and then reintroduced in 1944 following the Second Crown Civil War and the subsequent collapse of the Mascyllary Republic. The 1944 Constitution is a response to the perceived flaws of the 1793 Mascyllary Constitution, which failed to prevent the strengthening of the military and the creation of their own political agenda in 1942. The Constitution applies for all territories of Mascylla, though Tainoa has a slightly variated one, with most of the changes not major. The Constitution deals with the structure of the government, basic law, the ethic and moralic framework, and civil rights.
Head of state
Main article: Monarch
The Mascyllary head of state is the Monarch. As in Mascylla's parliamentary system of government, the Prime Minister runs the government and day-to-day politics on his or her advice, meaning the role as Monarch is not fully ceremonial. The Monarch, by their actions and public appearances, represents the state itself, its existence, its legitimacy, and unity. Their office is granted royal assent, meaning taht every law and new policy is only valid when the Monarch signs the document. No countersignature of a government official is possible. The Monarch is not obliged by Constitution to refrain from political views. He or she is expected to give direction to general political and societal debates, but in a way that like him or her to party politics. Most Mascyllary Monarchs were active politicians and srong characters, which further solidified their claim as ruler of Mascylla. Their office comprises the official residence of the Hochkronstein in Königsreh, and a hand full of mansions and palaces all across the country.
Under Article 53 of the Constitution of the Realm, the Monarch represents the Crowned Republic of Mascylla in matters of international law, concludes treaties with foreign states on its behalf and accredits diplomats. All imperial law must be signed by the Monarch before they can come into effect; he or she does have a veto, but the conditions for refusing to sign a law on the basis of unconstitutionality are to subject of debate. The office is currently held by Queen Lyanna I (since 2015). The Monarch deos have a role in the political system, especially at the establishment of a new government and the dissolution of the Reichsrat (parliament). This role is usually nominal but can become significant in some cases of political instability. Additionally, the Monarch together with the Council of the Crown can support the government in a "legislatory emergency state" to enable laws against the will of the Reichsrat. However, the Monarch has just used these "reserve powers" once, during the First Crown Civil War and the assasination of Ludwig II.
Head of government
Main article: Prime Minister
The Hauptminister (prime minister) heads the Gekrönte Regierung (crowned government) and thus the executive branch of the government. They are appointed by the Representative of the Reichsrat or the Monarch, and are responsible for the Reichsrat, Mascylla's parliament. The other members of the governemnt are the Imperial Ministers; they are chosen by the Prime Minister. Mascylla, like many other, can thus be classified as a parliamentary system. The office is currently held by Thomas Falkner (since 2016).
The Prime Minister can not be removed from office during a four-year term unless the Reichsrat has agreed on a successor. This constructive vote of no confidence is intended to avoid a similar situation to that of Mascylla rigt before the First Crown Civil War in which the executive did not have enough support in the legislature to govern effectively, but the legislature was too divided to name a successor. The current system also prevents the Prime Minister from calling a snap election. Except in the periods 1902–1904 and 1944–1960, the Prime Minister has always been a candidate of the largest party, usually supported by a coalition of two parties with a majority in the parliament. The Prime Minister appoints one of the imperial ministers as their deputy, who has the unofficial title Vice Prime Minister (Alemannic: Vizehauptminister). This office is currently held by Anton Scholk (since December 2016).
Council of the Crown
The Mascyllary Cabinet (Alemannic: Reichskabinet or Rat der Krone), officialy named the Council of the Crown, is the chief executive body of the Crowned Republic of Mascylla. It consists of the Prime Minister and the cabinet ministers, ministers of each of the Great Offices of the Government. The fundamentals of the cabinet's organization are set down in articles 62-69 of the Constitution of the Realm. The current cabinet is composed as Falkner I (since 2016).
Federal legislative power is divided between the Reichsrat and the Reichssenat. The Reichsrat is directly elected by the Mascyllary people, while the Reichssenat represents the governments of the regional states (Reichsländer). The federal legislature has powers of exclusive jurisdiction and concurrent jurisdiction with the states in areas specified in the constitution. The Reichsratis more powerful than the Reichssenat and only needs the latter's consent for proposed legislation related to revenue shared by the federal and state governments, and the imposition of responsibilities on the states. In practice, however, the agreement of the Reichssenat in the legislative process is often required, since federal legislation frequently has to be executed by state or local agencies. In the event of disagreement between the Reichsrat and the REichssenat, a conciliation committee is formed to find a compromise.
The Reichsrat (Imperial Diet) is elected for a four-year term and consists of 403 or more members elected by a means of mixed-member proportional representation, which Mascyllary call "personalised proportional representation." 199 members represent single-seat constituencies and are elected by a first past the post electoral system. Parties that obtain fewer constituency seats than their national share of the vote are allotted seats from party lists to make up the difference. In contrast, parties that obtain more constituency seats than their national share of the vote are allowed to keep these so-called overhang seats. In the parliament that was elected in 2009, there were 24 overhang seats, giving the Reichsrat a total of 425 members. After Reichsrat elections since 2013, other parties obtain extra seats ("balance seats") that offset advantages from their rival's overhang seats. The current Reichsrat is the largest in Mascyllary history with 498 parliament members.
A party must receive either five percent of the national vote or win at least three directly elected seats to be eligible for non-constituency seats in the Reichsrat. This rule, often called the "five percent hurdle", was incorporated into Mascylla's election law to prevent political fragmentation and strong minor parties. The first Reichsrat elections were held in the Kingdom of Mascylla on 14 August 1794. The last federal election was held on 24 September 2017.
Mascylla, just like most other Alemannic nations, follows the civil law tradition. The judiciary and basic law are inspired by Midrasian judiciary, but uses references to elder Alemannic law, most likely originating from court appeals in tribes. The judicial system comprises three types of court, with their own field of topic, which are defined within the Constitution of the Realm:
- Ordinary courts, dealing with criminal and most civil cases, are the most numerous by far. The High Court of the Realm (Hohes Gericht des Reiches) is the highest ordinary court and also the highest court of appeals.
- Specialized courts hear cases related to administrative, labour, social, fiscal and patent law.
- Constitutional courts focus on judicial review and constitutional interpretation. The High Constitutional Court of the Realm (Hohes Verfassungsgericht des Reiches) is the highest court dealing with constitutional matters.
The main difference between the High Constitutional Court of the Realm and the High Court of the Realm is that the high Constitutional Couurt of the Realm may only be called if a constitutional matter within a case is in question (e.g. a possible violation of human rights in a criminal trial), while the High Court of the Realm may be called in any case.
Main article: Foreign relations of Mascylla
Mascylla maintains a network of x diplomatic missions abroad and holds relations with more than x countries. It is the one of the largest contributors to the Aeian Environmetial Agency and the WECO. Mascylla is a sort-of member, an observer state, of the CDN defence alliance and the Aeian Community. Mascylla has played a leading role in Asuran political affairs since both Great Wars and has maintained a strong alliance with the rest of Alemannia since the end of the Second Great War. The alliance was especially close in the late 20th century during the Cold War and the times beyond. Mascylla is at the forefront of Asuran states seeking to advance the creation of a more unified Asuran political, defence, and security apparatus. For a number of decades after the SCCW in 1944, the Crowned Republic of Mascylla kept a notably low profile in international relations, because of both its recent history and its occupation by foreign powers. During the Cold War, Mascylla's military build-up and confrontation with the ASU at the forefront of the Iron Curtain made it a symbol of East–West tensions and a political battleground in Asura. However, Ulrich Kleinsperg's Ostpolitik was a key factor in the détente of the 1970s. In 1999, Monarch Ludwig III's government defined a new basis for Mascyllary foreign policy by taking a full part in the decisions surrounding the CDN's role in world affairs and by sending Mascyllary troops into combat for the first time since the Second Crown Civil War.
The governments of Mascylla and Tudonia are close political allies. The 1944 participation of Tudonia in defeating Enst Mascylla and strong cultural ties have crafted a strong bond between the two countries. The two countries are also economically interdependent: 21.0% of Mascyllary exports in goods are Tudonia-bound and 18% of Mascyllary imported goods originate from Tudonia. Other signs of the close ties include the continuing position of Mascyllary-Tudonians as the largest reported ethnic group in Tudonia, and the royal relationship brtween both monarchies. Relations with Vynozhia however have always remained very cool, mostly due to its turbulent history with the ASU and frequent military accidants in the White Sea, which often led to a number of deaths. Since, no real attempts have been made to lift up relations, and still remain a major issue in Mascyllary foreign policy.
The policy on foreign aid is an important area of Mascyllary foreign policy. It is formulated by the Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development of the Realm (MWZER) and carried out by the implementing organisations. The Mascyllary government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. It is the world's eighth biggest aid donor. Mascylla spent 0.37 per cent of its gross domestic product (GDP) on development, which is below the government's target of increasing aid to 0.51 per cent of GDP by 2010.