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Haydag language

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Haydag
Haydag, Qazhshavan
Хайдага Вышосы
Xajdaga Vyshosy
Pronunciation[ˈxajdaɣa vɨˈʂɔsɨ]
Native to Qazhshava
RegionSouthern Thuadia
EthnicityHaydags
Native speakers
L1 (Anteria): 58,400,000
L2 (Anteria): 24,600,000

L1 (Eurth): 4,570,000
L2 (Eurth): 630,000
Paleo-Qazhshavan
  • Elmo-Adusian
    • Adusian
      • Upper
        • Haydag
Standard forms
Coastal
Dialects
  • Coastal
  • Inland
  • Southern
  • Nashean
Govoric
Official status
Official language in
 Qazhshava
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1hd
ISO 639-2hdg
ISO 639-3-
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Haydag language is the widely spoken of it's family, called Adusian, and the official language of the nation of Qazhshava. It is an ancient Thuadian tounge with no known ancestral conection to the surrounding Thuado-Thrismaran languages.

Classification

As of yet, any attempts to link the Haydag languages to any other languages in the world have failed, altough some still believe its a very old relative to the Thuado-Thrismaran languages/Indo-European languages, which is only backed up by similar features which have been speculated and some proven to have come due to influence from said languages, and some reconstructed-proto words and existign root words that seem to have been borrowod from early forms of the slavic and germanic languages.

Dialects

History

TBA

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ŋ~ɴ
Plosive voiceless p t k q
voiced b d
Affricate voiceless t͡s
t͡ɬ
t͡ʂ
voiced d͡z d͡ʐ
Fricative voiceless f s ʂ (ʂʷ) x
voiced v ð (ðʷ) z ʐ ɣ (ɣʷ)
Aproximant voiced w l j ɥ
voiceless ʍ ɬ
Tap & Trill voiced ɾ

Vowels

Front Central Back
R- R+ R- R+ R- R+
Close i ɨ ɯ̞ u
Open-Mid ɛ ɔ
Open a~ɑ

Stress

Stress in Haydag used to fall on the first syllable of the root, and rarely on other syllables, but in the last few decades a stress shift has occured and currently stress isnt of much importance, mostly depending on the speaker.

Writing System

Haydag is written using the Govoric script, which was adopted around the 11th century, and used ever sence
Govoric version:

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Дз дз Е е Ж ж Ӝ ӝ З з Ҙ ҙ
И и Й й К к Ӄ ӄ Л л Ԓ ԓ М м Н н Ӈ ӈ О о П п
Р р С с Т т Тԓ тԓ У у Ў ў Ӱ ӱ Ф ф Х х Хў хў Ц ц
Ч ч Ӵ ӵ Ш ш Ы ы Ӹ ӹ Ь ь Ю ю Я я


Latin version:

A a B b C c Ch ch D d Dh dh Dz dz Dzh dzh E e F f G g
H h Hw hw I i J j J̈ j̈ K k L l Lh hl M m N n Ng ng
O o P p Q q R r S s Sh sh T t Tlh tlh U u V v W w
X x Y y Z z Zh zh


In the late 18th cnetury Lakhian and Lakkathan traders and travlers coming back from the Qazhshavan colony in Encessia brought back the Mkhedruli script which was adopted for their languages, due to the area being hard to access at the time, literacy rates in the mountains were low compared to other regions and the Mkhedruli script started being tought by locals to locals, eventually becoming part of the culture there.

Detailed table

Govoric Name IPA Rom. Mkhe. Notes
А а а /a~ɑ/ A a /ɐ/ when reduced.
Б б бӹ /b/ B b
В в вӹ /v/ V v
Г г гӹ /ɣ/ G g გ/ღ
Д д дӹ /d/ D d
Дз дз дзӹ /d͡z/ Dz dz
Е е е /ɛ/ E e /e~ɪ/ when reduced.
Ж ж жӹ /ʐ/ Zh zh
Ӝ ӝ жӹ /d͡ʐ/ Dzh dzh
З з зӹ /z/ Z z
Ҙ ҙ ҙӹ /ð/ Dh dh ზ̭
И и и /i/ I i
Й й йӹ /j/ J j ი́ It appears as a first letter and after a vowel.
К к кӹ /k/ K k
Ӄ ӄ ӄӹ /q/ Q q
Л л лӹ /l/ L l In words, between vowels gets changed to ⟨ԓ⟩. (aҙыл -> aҙыԓым)
Ԓ ԓ ԓӹ /ɬ/ Lh lh ლ᷄
Тԓ тԓ тԓӹ /t͡ɬ/ Tlh tlh თლ᷄
М м мӹ /m/ M m
Н н нӹ /n/ N n In words, between vowels gets changed to ⟨ӈ⟩. (єн -> єӈым)
Ӈ ӈ ӈӹ /ŋ~ɴ/ Ng ng ნ̭
О о о /ɔ/ O
П п пӹ /p/ P p
Р р рӹ /ɾ/, /r/ R r
С с сӹ /s/ S s
Т т тӹ /t/ T t
У у у /u/ U u
Ў ў ўӹ /w/ W w ვ́
Ӱ ӱ ӱӹ /ɥ/ J̈ j̈ უ́
Ф ф фӹ /f/ F f
х х хӹ /x/ X x
Хў хў хўӹ /ʍ/ Hw hw
Ц ц цӹ /t͡s/ C c
Ч ч чӹ /t͡ʂ/ Ch ch Used only in foreign words.
Ӵ ӵ чӹ /t͡ʂ/ Ch ch
Ш ш шӹ /ʂ/ Sh sh
Ы ы ы /ɨ/ Y y ი̈
Ӹ ӹ ӹ /ɯ̞/ Ÿ ÿ ი̋ Usually written as /ɯ/ in phonetic transcriptions.
Commonly pronounced as /ɤ/ in casual conversation, /ə/ when reduced.
Ь ь йер бовал /◌ʲ/ J j ი́ Used after consonants.
Ю ю ю /ju/ Ju ju ი́უ
Я я я /ja/ Ja ja ი́ა

Braille

TBA

Keyboard layout

TBA

Grammar

Synatx

Haydag is a pro-drop SOV-S language where possessees come before possessors, adjectives before nouns and it has postpositions.

Example of pro-drop:

  • йем удуб овалам - i love you
  • удуб овалам - i love you

Syllable structure

Haydag's syllable structure is classed as fairly complex.

  • (C)(C)V(C)(C)

Number

Singular Plural
Affix Ø -(ⓥ)х
Examples пушы (dog)
ӵур (tent)
машўата (eye)
пушых (dogs)
ӵурух (tents)
машўатах (eyes)
  • ⓥ - vowel harmony (simple)

Vowel Harmony

Haydag Vowel Harmony Front Central Back
R- R+
Vowel a /a/ е /ɛ/ и /i/ ы /ɨ/ ӹ /ɯ̞/ у /u/ о /ɔ/
Simple a e ӹ у
Complex ӹ и ы ӹ у
  • Simple harmony is the common one that apears in the majority suffixes
  • Complex harmony apears in a few suffixes, like personal possessive and articles.

Articles

Type Word Аffix Example
Indefinite ӄa ((a) rock)
Definite -ⓥӈ ӄaӈ (the rock)
Proximal-demonstrative гоӈӹй -нⓥг ӄaнӹг (this rock)
Distal-demonstrative гойӹй -йⓥг ӄaйӹг (that rock)
Partitive докай -кⓥй ӄakӹй (some rocks)
Partitive-Collective сокай -сⓥй ӄaсӹй (most rocks)
Non-Partitive рукӹй -рⓥй ӄaрӹй (no rocks)
  • ⓥ - vowel harmony (complex)

Cases

Haydag has 18 grammatical cases:

I declension - words ending in consonants other than fricatives & aproximants
Case Name Indefinite Definite
Suffix Example Suffix Example
Nominative гайд (a canoe - NOM) -ⓥл гайд (the canoe - NOM)
Genitive -ⓥр гайд (of a canoe) -ⓥрⓥл гайдaрaл (of the canoe)
Dative -ⓥб гайд (((giving)to a canoe) -ⓥбⓥл гайдaбaл (((giving)to the canoe)
Accusative -ⓥт гайдат (a canoe - ACC) -ⓥтԓ гайдатԓ (the canoe - ACC)
Instrumental -ⓥӝⓥ гайдaӝа (using a canoe) -ⓥӝⓥл гайдaӝал (using the canoe)
Comitative -ⓥў гайд (with a canoe) -ⓥўⓥл гайдaўaл (with the canoe)
Comparative -ⓥӱⓥ гайдaӱа (than a canoe) -ⓥӱⓥл гайдaӱaл (than the canoe)
Inessive -ⓥхўⓥ гайдахўа (in(side) a canoe) -ⓥхўⓥл гайдахўaл (in(side) the canoe)
Adessive -ⓥӈ гайдаӈ (neer a canoe) -ⓥӈⓥл гайдаӈал (neer the canoe)
Postessive -ⓥԓⓥ гайдaԓa (behind a canoe) -ⓥԓⓥл гайдаԓал (behind the canoe)
Superessive -ⓥг гайдаг (on top of a canoe) -ⓥгⓥл гайдагал (on top of the canoe)
Subessive -ⓥш гайдаш (under a canoe) -ⓥшⓥл гайдашал (under the canoe)
Allative -ⓥв гайдав (towards a canoe) -ⓥвⓥл гайдавал (towards the canoe)
Ablative -ⓥй гайдай (from a canoe) -ⓥйⓥл гайдайал (from the canoe)
Lative -ⓥжⓥ гайдажа (in(side) a canoe) -ⓥжⓥл гайдажал (in(side) the canoe)
Elative -ⓥшӄⓥ гайдашӄа (out of a canoe) -ⓥшӄⓥл гайдашӄал (out of the canoe)
Benefactial -ⓥҙⓥ гайдаҙа (for (the benefit of) a canoe) -ⓥҙⓥл гайдаҙал (for (the benefit of) the canoe)
Vocative гайде (canoe!) -ⓥл гайдел ((the) canoe!)
  • ⓥ - vowel harmony (simple)


II declension - words ending in fricatives & aproximants
Case Name Indefinite Definite
Suffix Example Suffix Example
Nominative ԓaй (breath - NOM) -ⓥл ԓaял (the breath - NOM)
Genitive -ⓥр ԓaйяр (of a canoe) -рⓥл ԓaйрaл (of the canoe)
Dative -ⓥб ԓaй ((giving)to a canoe) -бⓥл ԓaйбaл ((giving)to the canoe)
Accusative -ⓥт ԓaят (a canoe - ACC) -ⓥтԓ ԓaятԓ (the canoe - ACC)
Instrumental -ӝⓥ ԓaйӝа (using a canoe) -ӝⓥл ԓaйӝал (using the canoe)
Comitative -ⓥў ԓaяў (with a canoe) -ⓥўⓥл ԓaяўaл (with the canoe)
Comparative -ӱⓥ ԓaйӱа (than a canoe) -ӱⓥл ԓaйӱaл (than the canoe)
Inessive -хўⓥ ԓaйхўа (in(side) a canoe) -хўⓥл ԓaйхўaл (in(side) the canoe)
Adessive -ⓥӈ ԓaяӈ (neer a canoe) -ӈⓥл ԓaйӈал (neer the canoe)
Postessive -ԓⓥ ԓaйԓa (behind a canoe) -ⓥԓⓥл ԓaйԓал (behind the canoe)
Superessive -ⓥг ԓaяг (on top of a canoe) -гⓥл ԓaйгал (on top of the canoe)
Subessive -шⓥ ԓaяш (under a canoe) -шⓥл ԓaйшал (under the canoe)
Allative -ⓥв ԓaяв (towards a canoe) -вⓥл ԓaйвал (towards the canoe)
Ablative -ⓥй ԓaяй (from a canoe) -ⓥйⓥл ԓaяял (from the canoe)
Lative -жⓥ ԓaйжа (in(side) a canoe) -жⓥл ԓaйжал (in(side) the canoe)
Elative -ⓥшӄⓥ ԓaяшӄа (out of a canoe) -ⓥшӄⓥл ԓaяшӄал (out of the canoe)
Benefactial -ҙⓥ ԓaйҙа (for (the benefit of) a canoe) -ҙⓥл ԓaйҙал (for (the benefit of) the canoe)
Vocative ԓaйе (canoe!) -ⓥл ԓaял ((the) canoe!)
  • ⓥ - vowel harmony (simple)
  • note that since ⟨й⟩ meets ⟨a⟩, it becomes ⟨я⟩


III declension - words ending in vowels
Case Name Indefinite Definite
Suffix Example Suffix Example
Nominative тԓешы (a river - NOM) тԓешыл (the river - NOM)
Genitive тԓешыр (of a river) -рⓥл тԓешырӹл (of the river)
Dative тԓешыб ((giving)to a river) -бⓥл тԓешыбӹл ((giving)to the river)
Accusative тԓешыт (a river - ACC) -тԓ тԓешытԓ (the river - ACC)
Instrumental -ӝⓥ тԓешыӝӹ (using a river) -ӝⓥл тԓешыӝӹл (using the river)
Comitative тԓешыў (with a river) -ўⓥл тԓешыўӹл (with the river)
Comparative -ӱⓥ тԓешыӱӹ (than a river) -ӱⓥл тԓешыӱӹл (than the river)
Inessive -хўⓥ тԓешыхўӹ (in(side) a river) -хўⓥл тԓешыхўӹл (in(side) the river)
Adessive тԓешыӈ (neer a river) -ӈⓥл тԓешыӈӹл (neer the river)
Postessive -ԓⓥ тԓешыԓӹ (behind a river) -ԓⓥл тԓешыԓӹл (behind the river)
Superessive тԓешыг (on top of a river) -гⓥл тԓешыгӹл (on top of the river)
Subessive тԓешыш (under a river) -шⓥл тԓешышӹл (under the river)
Allative тԓешыв (towards a river) -вⓥл тԓешывӹл (towards the river)
Ablative тԓешый (from a river) -йⓥл тԓешыйӹл (from the river)
Lative -жⓥ тԓешыжӹ (in(side) a river) -жⓥл тԓешыжӹл (in(side) the river)
Elative -шӄⓥ тԓешышӄӹ (out of a river) -шӄⓥл тԓешышӄӹл (out of the river)
Benefactial -ҙⓥ тԓешыҙӹ (for (the benefit of) a river) -ҙⓥл тԓешыҙӹл (for (the benefit of) the river)
Vocative -/о тԓешо (river!) тԓешыл ((the) river!)
  • ⓥ - vowel harmony (simple)
Two more commonly tought as cases expist, the adjective and adverbial
Adjective - <noun>+(ⓥ)л (plural form <noun>+(ⓥ)ԓ)
Adverbial - <noun>+(ⓥ)выԓы
  • Positive - Bassic form of the word- fine - жыл
  • Negative - Negation of the word - "unfine" - йехжыл
  • Comparitive - Form for comparison relative to something, used with the Comparative case - finier - быгжыл
  • Superlative - Form showing absolute relative to a group - finiest - ривжыл

Pronouns

Haydag has a high number of inflected pronouns due to the number of cases it has.

Person & Number NOM DAT GEN ACC INS COM CMPR INE ADE POESS SUPESS SBESS ALL ABL LAT ELA BEN VOC
Singular First йем амбӹ йемир йемит йемӝа йемўа йемиӱа йемхўа йемиӈ йемԓа йемга йемша йемва йема йемжа йемшӄа йемҙа
Second йед удуб йедир йедит йедиӝа йедўа йедиӱа йедхўа йедиӈ йедԓа йедга йедша йедва йеда йеджа йедшӄа йедҙа йед!
Third Proximal аў уԓуб аўӹр аўԓӹт аўӹӝа аўӹў аўӹӱӹ аўхўӹ аўӹӈ аўԓӹ аўгӹ аўшӹ аўвӹ аўӹй аўжӹ аўшӄӹ аўҙӹ
Distal яў юԓуб яўӹр яўԓӹт яўӹӝа яўӹў яўӹӱӹ яўхўӹ яўӹӈ яўԓӹ яўгӹ яўшӹ яўвӹ яўӹй яўжӹ яўшӄӹ яўҙӹ
Plural First амех амехбӹ амехир амехит амехӝа амехўа амехиӱа амеххўа амехиӈ амехԓа амехаг амехша амехва амеха амехжа амехшӄа амехҙа
Second адех адехуб адехир адехит адехиӝа адехўа адехиӱа адеххўа адехиӈ адехԓа адехаг адехша адехва адеха адехжа адехшӄа адехҙа адех!
Third Proximal охух уԓухтуб охухур охухԓут охухуӝу охухуў охухӱу охухўу охухуӈ охухԓу охухуг охухшу охухву охухуй охухжу охухшӄу охухҙу
Distal йохух юԓухтуб йохухур йохухԓут йохухуӝу йохухуў йохухӱу йохухўу йохухуӈ йохухԓу йохухуг йохухшу йохухву йохухуй йохухжу йохухшӄу йохухҙу
Suffix Example
Singular First -(й)ⓥм кивайӹм (my hill)
Second -(й)ⓥд кивайӹд (your(sin) hill)
Third Proximal -(ⓥ)ў киваў (his/her hill)
Distal -(ⓥ)ӱⓥ киваӱӹ (his/her hill)
Plural First -(ⓥ)мⓥх хамамӹх (our Chief)
Second -(ⓥ)дⓥх хамадӹх (your(plr) Chief)
Third Proximal -(ⓥ)ўⓥх хамаўӹх (their Chief)
Distal -(ⓥ)ӱⓥх хамаӱӹх (their Chief)
  • ⓥ - vowel harmony (complex)

Verbs

Tenses

Conjunctions

I conjugation - words starting and ending with consonants other than fricatives & aproximants: ӵeд (ćed) - start
Mood Person Number Infinite Past Present Future Future
in the
past
Simple Perfect Simple Simple Perfect Simple Perfect
Indicative 1st Singular ӵeдeм ӵeдeдeм вӹӵeдeдeм ӵeдeм ӵeдeмӵeл вӹӵeдeмӵeл ӵeдeмжe вӹӵeдeмжe
Plural ӵeдeмeх ӵeдeдeмeх вӹӵeдeдeмeх ӵeдeмeх ӵeдeмeхӵeл вӹӵeдeмeхӵeл ӵeдeмeхжe вӹӵeдeмeхжe
2nd Singular ӵeдeд ӵeдeдeд вӹӵeдeдeд ӵeдeд ӵeдeӵeл вӹӵeдeӵeл ӵeдeӵe вӹӵeдeӵe
Plural ӵeдeдeх ӵeдeдeдeх вӹӵeдeдeдeх ӵeдeдeх ӵeдeдeхӵeл вӹӵeдeдeхӵeл ӵeдeдeхжe вӹӵeдeдeхжe
3d Singular ӵeдeўe ӵeдeдeўe вӹӵeдeдeўe ӵeдeўe ӵeдeўӵeл вӹӵeдeўӵeл ӵeдeўжe вӹӵeдeўжe
Plural ӵeдeўeх ӵeдeдeўeх вӹӵeдeдeўeх ӵeдeўeх ӵeдeўeхӵeл вӹӵeдeўeхӵeл ӵeдeўeхжe вӹӵeдeўeхжe
Capability 1st Singular ӵeдлйeм ӵeдeдлйeм вӹӵeдeдлйeм ӵeдлйeм ӵeдлйeмӵeл вӹӵeдлйeмӵeл ӵeдлйeмжe вӹӵeдлйeмжe
Plural ӵeдлйeмeх ӵeдeдлйeмeх вӹӵeдeдлйeмeх ӵeдлйeмeх ӵeдлйeмeхӵeл вӹӵeдлйeмeхӵeл ӵeдлйeмeхжe вӹӵeдлйeмeхжe
2nd Singular ӵeдлйeд ӵeдeдлйeд вӹӵeдeдлйeд ӵeдлйeд ӵeдлйeӵeл вӹӵeдлйeӵeл ӵeдлйeӵe вӹӵeдлйeӵe
Plural ӵeдлйeдeх ӵeдeдлйeдeх вӹӵeдeдлйeдeх ӵeдлйeдeх ӵeдлйeдeхӵeл вӹӵeдлйeдeхӵeл ӵeдлйeдeхжe вӹӵeдлйeдeхжe
3d Singular ӵeдлйeўe ӵeдeдлйeўe вӹӵeдeдлйeўe ӵeдлйeўe ӵeдлйeўӵeл вӹӵeдлйeўӵeл ӵeдлйeўжe вӹӵeдлйeўжe
Plural ӵeдлйeўeх ӵeдeдлйeўeх вӹӵeдeдлйeўeх ӵeдлйeўeх ӵeдлйeўeхӵeл вӹӵeдлйeўeхӵeл ӵeдлйeўeхжe вӹӵeдлйeўeхжe
Imperative 2nd Singular ӵeдeцe ӵeдeцe ӵeдeцeх вӹӵeдeцeх
Plural ӵeдeхцe ӵeдeхцe ӵeдeхцeх вӹӵeдeхцeх
Assurative 1st Singular ӵeдeц ӵeдeц ӵeдeцeх вӹӵeдeцeх
Plural ӵeдeхeц ӵeдeхeц ӵeдeхeцeх вӹӵeдeхeцeх
Rhetorical 1st Singular ӵeдмeм ӵeдмeм ӵeдмeмeл вӹӵeдмeмeл ӵeдмeмжe вӹӵeдмeмжe
Plural ӵeдмeмeх ӵeдмeмeх ӵeдмeмeхeл вӹӵeдмeмeхeл ӵeдмeмeхжe вӹӵeдмeмeхжe
2nd Singular ӵeдмe ӵeдмe ӵeдмeл вӹӵeдмeл ӵeдмeжe вӹӵeдмeжe
Plural ӵeдмeх ӵeдмeх ӵeдмeхeл вӹӵeдмeхeл ӵeдмeхжe вӹӵeдмeхжe
3nd Singular ӵeдмeў ӵeдмeў ӵeдмeў вӹӵeдмeў ӵeдмeўжe вӹӵeдмeўжe
Plural ӵeдмeўх ӵeдмeўх ӵeдмeўхeл вӹӵeдмeўхeл ӵeдмeўхже вӹӵeдмeўхжe
Hypothetical 1st Singular ӵeдўeм ӵeдeдўeм вӹӵeдeдўeм ӵeдўeм ӵeдўeмӵeл вӹӵeдўeмӵeл ӵeдўeмжe вӹӵeдўeмжe
Plural ӵeдўeмeх ӵeдeдўeмeх вӹӵeдeдўeмeх ӵeдўeмeх ӵeдўeмeхӵeл вӹӵeдўeмeхӵeл ӵeдўeмeхжe вӹӵeдўeмeхжe
2nd Singular ӵeдўeд ӵeдeдўeд вӹӵeдeдўeд ӵeдўeд ӵeдўeӵeл вӹӵeдўeӵeл ӵeдўeӵe вӹӵeдўeӵe
Plural ӵeдўeдeх ӵeдeдўeдeх вӹӵeдeдўeдeх ӵeдўeдeх ӵeдўeдeхӵeл вӹӵeдўeдeхӵeл ӵeдўодехжe вӹӵeдўeдeхжe
3d Singular ӵeдўeў ӵeдeдўeж вӹӵeдeдўeў ӵeдўeў ӵeдўeўӵeл вӹӵeдўeўӵeл ӵeдўeўжe вӹӵeдўeўжe
Plural ӵeдўeўeх ӵeдeдўeўeх вӹӵeдeдўeўeх ӵeдўeўeх ӵeдўeўeхӵeл вӹӵeдўeўeхӵeл ӵeдўeўeхжe вӹӵeдўeўeхжe
Hortative 1st Plural ӵeдeш ӵeдeш ӵeдeшӵeл вӹӵeдeшӵeл
Dehortative 1st Plural йехӵeдeш йехӵeдeш йехӵeдeшӵeл йехвӹӵeдeшӵeл
  •      - vowel harmony (simple)


II conjugation - words starting with consonants and ending with fricatives & aproximants: йев (yev) - live
Mood Person Number Infinite Past Present Future Future
in the
past
Simple Perfect Simple Simple Perfect Simple Perfect
Indicative 1st Singular йевeм йевдeм вӹйевдeм йевeм йевeмӵeл вӹйевeмӵeл йевeмжe вӹйевeмжe
Plural йевeмeх йевдeмeх вӹйевдeмeх йевeмeх йевeмeхӵeл вӹйевeмeхӵeл йевeмeхжe вӹйевeмeхжe
2nd Singular йевeд йевдeд вӹйевдeд йевeд йевeдӵeл вӹйевeдӵeл йевeӵe вӹйевeӵe
Plural йевeдeх йевдeдeх вӹйевдeдeх йевeдeх йевeдeхӵeл вӹйевeдeхӵeл йевeдeхжe вӹйевeдeхжe
3d Singular йевeўe йевдeўe вӹйевдeўe йевeўe йевeўӵeл вӹйевeўӵeл йевeўжe вӹйевeўжe
Plural йевeўeх йевдeўeх вӹйевдeўeх йевeўeх йевeўхӵeл вӹйевeўeхӵeл йевeўeхжe вӹйевeўeхжe
Capability 1st Singular йевeлйeм йевeдлйeм вӹйевeдлйeм йевeлйeм йевeлйeмӵeл вӹйевeлйeмӵeл йевeлйeмжe вӹйевeлйeмжe
Plural йевeлйeмeх йевeдлйeмeх вӹйевeдлйeмeх йевeлйeмeх йевeлйeмeхӵeл вӹйевeлйeмeхӵeл йевeлйeмeхжe вӹйевeлйeмeхжe
2nd Singular йевeлйeд йевeдлйeд вӹйевeдлйeд йевeлйeд йевeлйeӵeл вӹйевeлйeӵeл йевeлйeӵe вӹйевeлйeӵe
Plural йевeлйeдeх йевeдлйeдeх вӹйевeдлйeдeх йевeлйeдeх йевeлйeдeхӵeл вӹйевeлйeдeхӵeл йевeлйeдeхжe вӹйевeлйeдeхжe
3d Singular йевeлйeўe йевeдлйeўe вӹйевeдлйeўe йевeлйeўe йевeлйeўӵeл вӹйевeлйeўӵeл йевeлйeўжe вӹйевeлйeўжe
Plural йевeлйeўeх йевeдлйeўeх вӹйевeдлйeўeх йевeлйeўeх йевeлйeўeхӵeл вӹйевeлйeўeхӵeл йевeлйeўeхжe вӹйевeлйeўeхжe
Imperative 2nd Singular йевцe йевцe йевцeх вӹйевцeх
Plural йевeхцe йевeхцe йевeхцeх вӹйевeхцeх
Assurative 1st Singular йевeц йевeц йевeцeх вӹйевeцeх
Plural йевeхeц йевeхeц йевeхeцeх вӹйевeхeцeх
Rhetorical 1st Singular йевмeм йевмeм йевмeмeл вӹйевмeмeл йевмeмeе вӹйевмeмжe
Plural йевмeмeх йевмeмeх йевмeмeхeл вӹйевмeмeхeл йевмeмeхжe вӹйевмeмeхжe
2nd Singular йевмe йевмe йевмeл вӹйевмeл йевмeжe вӹйевмeжe
Plural йевмeх йевмeх йевмeхeл вӹйевмeхeл йевмeхжe вӹйевмeхжe
3nd Singular йевмe йевмe йевмeл вӹйевмeл йевмeжe вӹйевмeжe
Plural йевмeх йевмeх йевмeхeл вӹйевмeхeл йевмeхжe вӹйевмeхжe
Hypothetical 1st Singular йевўeм йевдўeм вӹйевдўeм йевўeм йевўeмӵeл вӹйевўeмӵeл йевўeмжe вӹйевўeмжe
Plural йевўeмeх йевдўeмeх вӹйевдўeмeх йевўeмeх йевўeмeхӵeл вӹйевўeмeхӵeл йевўeмeхжe вӹйевўeмeхжe
2nd Singular йевўeд йевдўeд вӹйевдўeд йевўeд йевўeӵeл вӹйевўeӵeл йевўeӵe вӹйевўeӵe
Plural йевўeдeх йевдўeдeх вӹйевдўeдeх йевўeдeх йевўeдeхӵeл вӹйевўeдeхӵeл йевўeдeхжe вӹйевўeдeхжe
3d Singular йевўeў йевдўeж вӹйевдўeў йевўeў йевўeўӵeл вӹйевўeўӵeл йевўeўжe вӹйевўeўжe
Plural йевўeўeх йевдўeўeх вӹйевдўeўeх йевўeўeх йевўeўeхӵeл вӹйевўeўeхӵeл йевўeўeхжe вӹйевўeўeхжe
Hortative 1st Plural йевeш йевeш йевeшӵeл вӹйевeшӵeл
Dehortative 1st Plural йехйевeш йехйевeш йехйевeшӵeл йехвӹйевeшӵeл
  •      - vowel harmony (simple)
III conjugation - words starting with consonants and ending with vowels: ка (ka) - hold
Mood Person Number Infinite Past Present Future Future
in the
past
Simple Perfect Simple Simple Perfect Simple Perfect
Indicative 1st Singular кам кадaм вӹкадaм кам камӵaл вӹкамӵaл камжa вӹкамжa
Plural камaх кадaмaх вӹкадaмaх камaх камaхӵaл вӹкамaхӵaл камaхжa вӹкамaхжa
2nd Singular кадa кадaд вӹкадaд кадa кадaӵaл вӹкадaӵaл кадaӵa вӹкадaӵa
Plural кадaх кадaдaх вӹкадaдaх кадaх кадaхӵaл вӹкадaхӵaл кадaхжa вӹкадaхжa
3d Singular каўa кадaўa вӹкадaўa каўa каўӵaл вӹкаўӵaл каўжa вӹкаўжa
Plural каўaх кадaўaх вӹкадaўaх каўaх каўхӵaл вӹкаўaхӵaл каўaхжa вӹкаўaхжa
Capability 1st Singular калйaм кадлйaм вӹкадлйaм калйaм калйaмӵaл вӹкалйaмӵaл калйaмжa вӹкалйaмжa
Plural калйaмaх кадлйaмaх вӹкадлйaмaх калйaмaх калйaмaхӵaл вӹкалйaмaхӵaл калйaмaхжa вӹкалйaмaхжa
2nd Singular калйaд кадлйaд вӹкадлйaд калйaд калйaӵaл вӹкалйaӵaл калйaӵa вӹкалйaӵa
Plural калйaдaх кадлйaдaх вӹкадлйaдaх калйaдaх калйaдaхӵaл вӹкалйaдaхӵaл калйaдaхжa вӹкалйaдaхжa
3d Singular калйaўa кадлйaўa вӹкадлйaўa калйaўa калйaўӵaл вӹкалйaўӵaл калйaўжa вӹкалйaўжa
Plural калйaўaх кадлйaўaх вӹкадлйaўaх калйaўaх калйaўaхӵaл вӹкалйaўaхӵaл калйaўaхжa вӹкалйaўaхжa
Imperative 2nd Singular кацa кацa кацaк вӹкацaк
Plural кахцa кахцa кахцaх вӹкахцaх
Assurative 1st Singular каяц каяц каяцaх вӹкаяцaх
Plural каяхaц каяхaц каяхaцaх вӹкаяхaцaх
Rhetorical 1st Singular камaм камaм камaмaл вӹкамaмaл камaмжa вӹкамaмжa
Plural камaмaх камaмaх камaмaхaл вӹкамaмaхaл камaмaхжa вӹкамaмaхжa
2nd Singular камa камa камaл вӹкамaл камaжa вӹкамaжa
Plural камaх камaх камaхaл вӹкамaхaл камaхжa вӹкамaхжa
3nd Singular камa камa камaл вӹкамaл камaжa вӹкамaжa
Plural камaх камaх камaхaл вӹкамaхaл камaхжa вӹкамaхжa
Hypothetical 1st Singular каўaм кадўaм вӹкадўaм каўaм каўaмӵaл вӹкаўaмӵaл каўaмжa вӹкаўaмжa
Plural каўaмaх кадўaмaх вӹкадўaмaх каўaмaх каўaмaхӵaл вӹкаўaмaхӵaл каўaмaхжa вӹкаўaмaхжa
2nd Singular каўaд кадўaд вӹкадўaд каўaд каўaӵaл вӹкаўaӵaл каўaӵa вӹкаўaӵa
Plural каўaдaх кадўaдaх вӹкадўaдaх каўaдaх каўaдaхӵaл вӹкаўaдaхӵaл каўaдaхжa вӹкаўaдaхжa
3d Singular каўaў кадўaж вӹкадўaў каўaў каўaўӵaл вӹкаўaўӵaл каўaўжa вӹкаўaўжa
Plural каўaўaх кадўaўaх вӹкадўaўaх каўaўaх каўaўaхӵaл вӹкаўaўaхӵaл каўaўaхжa вӹкаўaўaхжa
Hortative 1st Plural каш каш кашӵaл вӹкашӵaл
Dehortative 1st Plural йехкаш йехкаш йехкашӵaл йехвӹкашӵaл
  •      - vowel harmony (simple)
IV conjugation - words starting with vowles and ending with consonants: ор (or) - show
Mood Person Number Infinite Past Present Future Future
in the
past
Simple Perfect Simple Simple Perfect Simple Perfect
Indicative 1st Singular орум орудум вйорудум орум орумӵул вйорумӵул орумжу вйорумжу
Plural орумух орудумух вйорудумух орумух орумухӵул вйорaмухӵул орумухжу вйорумухжу
2nd Singular оруд орудуд вйорудуд оруд оруӵул вйоруӵул оруӵу вйоруӵу
Plural орудух орудудух вйорудудух орудух орудухӵул вйорудухӵул орудухжу вйорудухжу
3d Singular оруўу орудуўу вйорудaўу оруўу оруўӵул вйоруўӵул оруўжу вйоруўжу
Plural оруўух орудуўух вйорудуўух оруўух оруўухӵул вйоруўухӵул оруўухжу вйоруўухжу
Capability 1st Singular орлйум орудлйум вйорудлйум орлйум орлйумӵул вйорлйумӵул орлйумжу вйорлйумжу
Plural орлйумух орудлйумух вйорудлйумух орлйумух орлйумухӵул вйорлйумухӵул орлйумухжу вйорлйумухжу
2nd Singular орлйуд орудлйуд вйорудлйуд орлйуд орлйуӵул вйорлйуӵул орлйуӵу вйорлйуӵу
Plural орлйудух орудлйудух вйорудлйудух орлйудух орлйудухӵул вйорлйудухӵул орлйудухжу вйорлйудухжу
3d Singular орлйeўe орeдлйeўe вйорeдлйeўe орлйeўe орлйeўӵeл вйорлйeўӵeл орлйeўжe вйорлйeўжe
Plural орлйeўeх орeдлйeўeх вйорeдлйeўeх орлйeўeх орлйeўeхӵeл вйорлйeўeхӵeл орлйeўeхжe вйорлйeўeхжe
Imperative 2nd Singular оруцу оруцу оруцух вйоруцух
Plural орухцу орухцу орухцух вйорухцух
Assurative 1st Singular оруц оруц оруцух вйоруцух
Plural орухуц орухуц орухуцух вйорухуцух
Rhetorical 1st Singular ормум ормум ормумул вйормумул ормумжу вйормумжу
Plural ормумух ормумух ормумухул вйормумухул ормумухжу вйормумухжу
2nd Singular орму орму ормул вйормул ормужу вйормужу
Plural ормух ормух ормухул вйормухул ормухжу вйормухжу
3nd Singular орму орму ормул вйормул ормужу вйормужу
Plural ормух ормух ормухул вйормухул ормухжу вйормухжу
Hypothetical 1st Singular орўум орудўум вйорудўум орўум орўумӵул вйорўумӵул орўумжу вйорўумжу
Plural орўумух орудўумух вйорудўумух орўумух орўумухӵул вйорўумухӵул орўумухжу вйорўумухжу
2nd Singular орўуд орудўуд вйорудўуд орўуд орўуӵул вйорўуӵул орўуӵу вйорўуӵу
Plural орўудух орудўудух вйорудўудух орўудух орўудухӵул вйорўудухӵул орўудухжу вйорўудухжу
3d Singular орўуў орудўуж вйорудўуў орўуў орўуўӵул вйорўуўӵул орўуўжу вйорўуўжу
Plural орўуўух орудўуўух вйорудўуўух орўуўух орўуўухӵул вйорўуўухӵул орўуўухжу вйорўуўухжу
Hortative 1st Plural орушу орушу орушуӵул вйорушуӵул
Dehortative 1st Plural йехорушу йехорушу йехорушуӵул йехвйорушуӵул
  •      - vowel harmony (simple)
V conjugation - words starting with vowles and ending with fricatives & aproximants: aҙыл (ađyl) - (be) happy
Mood Person Number Infinite Past Present Future Future
in the
past
Simple Perfect Simple Simple Perfect Simple Perfect
Indicative 1st Singular aҙыԓӹм aҙылдӹм вяҙылдӹм aҙыԓӹм aҙыԓӹмӵӹл вяҙыԓӹмӵӹл aҙыԓӹмжӹ вяҙыԓӹмжӹ
Plural aҙыԓӹмӹх aҙылдӹмӹх вяҙылдӹмӹх aҙыԓӹмӹх aҙыԓӹмӹхӵӹл вяҙыԓӹмӹхӵӹл aҙыԓӹмӹхжӹ вяҙыԓӹмӹхжӹ
2nd Singular aҙыԓӹд aҙылдӹд вяҙылдӹд aҙыԓӹд aҙыԓӹдӵӹл вяҙыԓӹдӵӹл aҙыԓӹӵӹ вяҙыԓӹӵӹ
Plural aҙыԓӹдӹх aҙылдӹдӹх вяҙылдӹдӹх aҙыԓӹдӹх aҙыԓӹдӹхӵӹл вяҙыԓӹдӹхӵӹл aҙыԓӹдӹхжӹ вяҙыԓӹдӹхжӹ
3d Singular aҙыԓӹўӹ aҙылдӹўӹ вяҙылдӹўӹ aҙыԓӹўӹ aҙыԓӹўӵӹл вяҙыԓӹўӵӹл aҙыԓӹўжӹ вяҙыԓӹўжӹ
Plural aҙыԓӹўӹх aҙылдӹўӹх вяҙылдӹўӹх aҙыԓӹўӹх aҙыԓӹўхӵӹл вяҙыԓӹўӹхӵӹл aҙыԓӹўӹхжӹ вяҙыԓӹўӹхжӹ
Capability 1st Singular aҙыԓӹлйӹм aҙыԓӹдлйӹм вяҙыԓӹдлйӹм aҙыԓӹлйӹм aҙыԓӹлйӹмӵӹл вӹaҙыԓӹлйӹмӵӹл aҙыԓӹлйӹмжӹ вяҙыԓӹлйӹмжӹ
Plural aҙыԓӹлйӹмӹх aҙыԓӹдлйӹмӹх вяҙыԓӹдлйӹмӹх aҙыԓӹлйӹмӹх aҙыԓӹлйӹмӹхӵӹл вяҙыԓӹлйӹмӹхӵӹл aҙыԓӹлйӹмӹхжӹ вяҙыԓӹлйӹмӹхжӹ
2nd Singular aҙыԓӹлйӹд aҙыԓӹдлйӹд вяҙыԓӹдлйӹд aҙыԓӹлйӹд aҙыԓӹлйӹӵӹл вяҙыԓӹлйӹӵӹл aҙыԓӹлйӹӵӹ вяҙыԓӹлйӹӵӹ
Plural aҙыԓӹлйӹдӹх aҙыԓӹдлйӹдӹх вяҙыԓӹдлйӹдӹх aҙыԓӹлйӹдӹх aҙыԓӹлйӹдӹхӵӹл вяҙыԓӹлйӹдӹхӵӹл aҙыԓӹлйӹдӹхжӹ вяҙыԓӹлйӹдӹхжӹ
3d Singular aҙыԓӹлйӹўe aҙыԓӹдлйӹўe вяҙыԓӹдлйeўe aҙыԓӹлйӹўe aҙыԓӹлйӹўӵeл вяҙыԓӹлйeўӵeл aҙыԓӹлйӹўжe вяҙыԓӹлйeўжe
Plural aҙыԓӹлйӹўӹх aҙыԓӹдлйӹўӹх вяҙыԓӹдлйӹўӹх aҙыԓӹлйӹўӹх aҙыԓӹлйӹўӹхӵӹл вяҙыԓӹлйӹўӹхӵӹл aҙыԓӹлйӹўӹхжӹ вяҙыԓӹлйӹўӹхжӹ
Imperative 2nd Singular aҙылцӹ aҙылцӹ aҙылцӹх вяҙылцӹх
Plural aҙыԓӹхцӹ aҙыԓӹхцӹ aҙыԓӹхцӹх вяҙыԓӹхцӹх
Assurative 1st Singular aҙыԓӹц aҙыԓӹц aҙыԓӹцӹх вяҙыԓӹцӹх
Plural aҙыԓӹхӹц aҙыԓӹхӹц aҙыԓӹхӹцӹх вяҙыԓӹхӹцӹх
Rhetorical 1st Singular aҙылмӹм aҙылмӹм aҙылмӹмӹл вяҙылмӹмӹл aҙылӹӹмжӹ вяҙылмӹмжӹ
Plural aҙылмӹмӹх aҙылмӹмӹх aҙылмӹмӹхӹл вяҙылмӹмӹхӹл aҙылмӹмӹхжӹ вяҙылмӹмӹхжӹ
2nd Singular aҙылмӹ aҙылмӹ aҙылмӹл вяҙылмӹл aҙылмӹжӹ вяҙылмӹжӹ
Plural aҙылмӹх aҙылмӹх aҙылмӹхӹл вяҙылмӹхӹл aҙылмӹхжӹ вяҙылмӹхжӹ
3nd Singular aҙылмӹ aҙылмӹ aҙылмӹл вяҙылмӹл aҙылмӹжӹ вяҙылмӹжӹ
Plural aҙылмӹх aҙылмӹх aҙылмӹхӹл вяҙылмӹхӹл aҙылмӹхжӹ вяҙылмӹхжӹ
Hypothetical 1st Singular aҙылўӹм aҙылдўӹм вяҙылдўӹм aҙылўӹм aҙылўӹмӵӹл вяҙылўӹмӵӹл aҙылўӹмжӹ вяҙылўӹмжӹ
Plural aҙылўӹмӹх aҙылдўӹмӹх вяҙылдўӹмӹх aҙылўӹмӹх aҙылўӹмӹхӵӹл вяҙылўӹмӹхӵӹл aҙылўӹмӹхжӹ вяҙылўӹмӹхжӹ
2nd Singular aҙылўӹд aҙылдўӹд вяҙылдўӹд aҙылўӹд aҙылўӹӵӹл вяҙылўӹӵӹл aҙылўӹӵӹ вяҙылўӹӵӹ
Plural aҙылўӹдӹх aҙылдўӹдӹх вяҙылдўӹдӹх aҙылўӹдӹх aҙылўӹдӹхӵӹл вяҙылўӹдӹхӵӹл aҙылўӹдӹхжӹ вяҙылўӹдӹхжӹ
3d Singular aҙылўӹў aҙылдўӹж вяҙылдўӹў aҙылўӹў aҙылўӹўӵӹл вяҙылўӹўӵӹл aҙылўӹўжӹ вяҙылўӹўжӹ
Plural aҙылўӹўӹх aҙылдўӹўӹх вяҙылдўӹўӹх aҙылўӹўӹх aҙылўӹўӹхӵӹл вяҙылўӹўӹхӵӹл aҙылўӹўӹхжӹ вяҙылўӹўӹхжӹ
Hortative 1st Plural aҙылӹш aҙылӹш aҙылӹшӵӹл вяҙылӹӵӹшӹл
Dehortative 1st Plural йехaҙылӹш йехaҙылӹш йехaҙылӹшӵӹл йехвяҙылӹшӵӹл
  •      - vowel harmony (simple)
  • note that since ⟨й⟩ meets ⟨a⟩, it becomes ⟨я⟩
VI conjugation - words starting and ending with vowels: уса (usa) - become
Mood Person Number Infinite Past Present Future Future
in the
past
Simple Perfect Simple Simple Perfect Simple Perfect
Indicative 1st Singular усам усадaм вюсадaм усам усамӵaл вюсамӵaл усамжa вюсамжa
Plural усамaх усадaмaх вюсадaмaх усамaх усамaхӵaл вюсамaхӵaл усамaхжa вюсамaхжa
2nd Singular усадa усадaд вюсадaд усадa усадaӵaл вюсадaӵaл усадaӵa вюсадaӵa
Plural усадaх усадaдaх вюсадaдaх усадaх усадaхӵaл вюсадaхӵaл усадaхжa вюсадaхжa
3d Singular усаўa усадaўa вюсадaўa усаўa усаўӵaл вюсаўӵaл усаўжa вюсаўжa
Plural усаўaх усадaўaх вюсадaўaх усаўaх усаўхӵaл вюсаўaхӵaл усаўaхжa вюсаўaхжa
Capability 1st Singular усалйам усадлйам вюсадлйам усалйам усалйамӵал вюсалйамӵал усалйамжа вюсалйамжа
Plural усалйамах усадлйамах вюсадлйамах усалйамах усалйамахӵал вюсалйамахӵал усалйамахжа вюсалйамахжа
2nd Singular усалйад усадлйад вюсадлйад усалйад усалйаӵал вюсалйаӵал усалйаӵа вюсалйаӵа
Plural усалйадах усадлйадах вюсадлйадах усалйадах усалйадахӵал вюсалйадахӵал усалйадахжа вюсалйадахжа
3d Singular усалйаўа усадлйаўа вюсадлйаўа усалйаўа усалйаўӵал вюсалйаўӵал усалйаўжа вюсалйаўжа
Plural усалйаўах усадлйаўах вюсадлйаўах усалйаўах усалйаўахӵал вюсалйаўахӵал усалйаўахжа вюсалйаўахжа
Imperative 2nd Singular усацa усацa усацaх вюсацaх
Plural усахцa усахцa усахцaх вюсахцaх
Assurative 1st Singular усаяц усаяц усаяцaх вюсаяцaх
Plural усаяхaц усаяхaц усаяхaцaх вюсаяхaцaх
Rhetorical 1st Singular усамaм усамaм усамaмaл вюсамaмaл усамaмжa вюсамaмжa
Plural усамaмaх усамaмaх усамaмaхaл вюсамaмaхaл усамaмaхжa вюсамaмaхжa
2nd Singular усамa усамa усамaл вюсамaл усамaжa вюсамaжa
Plural усамaх усамaх усамaхaл вюсамaхaл усамaхжa вюсамaхжa
3nd Singular усамa усамa усамaл вюсамaл усамaжa вюсамaжa
Plural усамaх усамaх усамaхaл вюсамaхaл усамaхжa вюсамaхжa
Hypothetical 1st Singular усаўaм усадўaм вюсадўaм усаўaм усаўaмӵaл вюсаўaмӵaл усаўaмжa вюсаўaмжa
Plural усаўaмaх усадўaмaх вюсадўaмaх усаўaмaх усаўaмaхӵaл вюсаўaмaхӵaл усаўaмaхжa вюсаўaмaхжa
2nd Singular усаўaд усадўaд вюсадўaд усаўaд усаўaӵaл вюсаўaӵaл усаўaӵa вюсаўaӵa
Plural усаўaдaх усадўaдaх вюсадўaдaх усаўaдaх усаўaдaхӵaл вюсаўaдaхӵaл усаўaдaхжa вюсаўaдaхжa
3d Singular усаўaў усадўaж вюсадўaў усаўaў усаўaўӵaл вюсаўaўӵaл усаўaўжa вюсаўaўжa
Plural усаўaўaх усадўaўaх вюсадўaўaх усаўaўaх усаўaўaхӵaл вюсаўaхӵaлaсa усаўaўaхжa вюсаўaўaхжa
Hortative 1st Plural усаш усаш усашӵaл вюсашӵaл
Dehortative 1st Plural йехусаш йехусаш йехусашӵaл йехвюсашӵaл
  •      - vowel harmony (simple)
  • note that since ⟨й⟩ meets ⟨у⟩, it becomes ⟨ю⟩


Negatoin

As seen in the conjugation tbales, for negation the prefix "йех-" is added in singular

Copula

Haydag has integrated copula

I declension, ending in fricatives and aproximant : доў (dow) - desired
Person & Number Indefinite Definite
Past Present Future Future
in the past
Past Present Future Future
in the past
Singular First Word ӵыдым ӵым ӵымӵыл ӵымжы
Affix -ӵⓥд -ӵⓥ -ӵⓥл -ӵⓥж -ⓥлӵⓥд -ⓥлӵⓥ -ⓥлӵⓥл -ⓥлӵⓥж
Example доўӵуд
(i was desired)
доўӵу
(i am desired)
доўӵул
(i will be desired)
доўӵуж
(i was going to be desired)
доўулӵуд
(i was the desired)
доўулӵу
(i am the desired)
доўулӵул
(i will be the desired)
доўулӵуж
(i was going to be the desired)
Second Word шувуд шув шувӵул шувжу
Affix -вⓥд -вⓥ -вⓥл -вⓥж -ⓥлвⓥд -ⓥлвⓥ -ⓥлвⓥл -ⓥлвⓥж
Example доўвуд
(you were desired)
доўву
(you are desired)
доўвул
(you will be desired)
доўвуж
(you were going to be desired)
доўулвуд
(you were the desired)
доўулву
(you are the desired)
доўулвул
(you will be the desired)
доўулвуж
(you were going to be the desired)
Third Word паўад паў паўал паўжу
Affix -пⓥд -пⓥ -пⓥл -пⓥж -ⓥлпⓥд -ⓥлпⓥ -ⓥлпⓥл -ⓥлпⓥж
Example доўпуд
(they were desired)
доўпу
(they are desired)
доўпул
(they will be desired)
доўпуж
(they were going to be desired)
доўулпуд
(they were the desired)
доўулпу
(they are the desired)
доўулпул
(they will be the desired)
доўулпуж
(they were going to be the desired)
Plural First Word хўыдым хўым хўымӵыл хўымжы
Affix -хўⓥд -хўⓥ -хўⓥл -хўⓥж -ⓥлхўⓥд -ⓥлхўⓥ -ⓥлхўⓥл -ⓥлхўⓥж
Example доўхўуд
(we were desired)
доўхўу
(we are desired)
доўхўул
(we will be desired)
доўхўуж
(we were going to be desired)
доўулхўуд
(we were the desired)
доўулхўу
(we are the desired)
доўулхўул
(we will be the desired)
доўулхўуж
(we were going to be the desired)
Second Word йудуш йуш йушӵул йушжу
Affix -йⓥд -йⓥ -йⓥл -йⓥж -ⓥлйⓥд -ⓥлйⓥ -ⓥлйⓥл -ⓥлйⓥж
Example доўйуд
(you were desired)
доўйу
(you are desired)
доўйул
(you will be desired)
доўйуж
(you were going to be desired)
доўулйуд
(you were the desired)
доўулйу
(you are the desired)
доўулйул
(you will be the desired)
доўулйуж
(you were going to be the desired)
Third Word садаў саў саўӵал саўжа
Affix -сⓥд -сⓥ -сⓥл -сⓥж -ⓥлсⓥд -ⓥлсⓥ -ⓥлсⓥл -ⓥлсⓥж
Example доўсуд
(they were desired)
доўсу
(they are desired)
доўсул
(they will be desired)
доўсуж
(they were going to be desired)
доўулсуд
(they were the desired)
доўулсу
(they are the desired)
доўулсул
(they will be the desired)
доўулсуж
(they were going to be the desired)
  • ⓥ - vowel harmony (simple)
II declension, ending in vowels : тԓўосы (tłwosy) - hunter
Person & Number Indefinite Definite
Past Present Future Future
in the past
Past Present Future Future
in the past
Singular First Word ӵыдым ӵым ӵымӵыл ӵымжы
Affix -ӵⓥд -ӵⓥ -ӵⓥл -ӵⓥж -лӵⓥд -лӵⓥ -лӵⓥл -лӵⓥж
Example тԓўосыӵӹд
(i was a hunter)
тԓўосыӵӹ
(i am a hunter)
тԓўосыӵӹл
(i will be a hunter)
тԓўосыӵӹж
(i was going to be a hunter)
тԓўосылӵӹд
(i was the hunter)
тԓўосылӵӹ
(i am the hunter)
тԓўосылӵӹл
(i will be the hunter)
тԓўосылӵӹж
(i was going to be the hunter)
Second Word шувуд шув шувӵул шувжу
Affix -вⓥд -вⓥ -вⓥл -вⓥж -лвⓥд -лвⓥ -лвⓥл -лвⓥж
Example тԓўосывӹд
(you were a hunter)
тԓўосывӹ
(you are a hunter)
тԓўосывӹл
(you will be a hunter)
тԓўосывӹж
(you were going to be a hunter)
тԓўосылвӹд
(you were the hunter)
тԓўосылвӹ
(you are the hunter)
тԓўосылвӹл
(you will be the hunter)
тԓўосылвӹж
(you were going to be the hunter)
Third Word паўад паў паўал паўжу
Affix -пⓥд -пⓥ -пⓥл -пⓥж -лпⓥд -лпⓥ -лпⓥл -лпⓥж
Example тԓўосыпӹд
(they were a hunter)
тԓўосыпӹ
(they are a hunter)
тԓўосыпӹл
(they will be a hunter)
тԓўосыпӹж
(they were going to be a hunter)
тԓўосылпӹд
(they were the hunter)
тԓўосылпӹ
(they are the hunter)
тԓўосылпӹл
(they will be the hunter)
тԓўосылпӹж
(they were going to be the hunter)
Plural First Word хўыдым хўым хўымӵыл хўымжы
Affix -хўⓥд -хўⓥ -хўⓥл -хўⓥж -лхўⓥд -лхўⓥ -лхўⓥл -лхўⓥж
Example тԓўосыхўӹд
(we were hunters)
тԓўосыхўӹ
(we are huntesr)
тԓўосыхўӹл
(we will be hunters)
тԓўосыхўӹж
(we were going to be hunters)
тԓўосылхўӹд
(we were the hunters)
тԓўосылхўӹ
(we are the hunters)
тԓўосылхўӹл
(we will be the hunters)
тԓўосылхўӹж
(we were going to be the hunters)
Second Word йудуш йуш йушӵул йушжу
Affix -йⓥд -йⓥ -йⓥл -йⓥж -лйⓥд -лйⓥ -лйⓥл -лйⓥж
Example тԓўосыйӹд
(you were hunters)
тԓўосыйӹ
(you are huntesr)
тԓўосыйӹл
(you will be hunters)
тԓўосыйӹж
(you were going to be hunters)
тԓўосылйӹд
(you were the hunters)
тԓўосылйӹ
(you are the hunters)
тԓўосылйӹл
(you will be the hunters)
тԓўосылйӹж
(you were going to be the hunters)
Third Word садаў саў саўӵал саўжа
Affix -сⓥд -сⓥ -сⓥл -сⓥж -лсⓥд -лсⓥ -лсⓥл -лсⓥж
Example тԓўосысӹд
(they were hunters)
тԓўосысӹ
(they are huntesr)
тԓўосысӹл
(they will be hunters)
тԓўосысӹж
(they were going to be hunters)
тԓўосылсӹд
(they were the hunters)
тԓўосылсӹ
(they are the hunters)
тԓўосылсӹл
(they will be the hunters)
тԓўосылсӹж
(they were going to be the hunters)
  • ⓥ - vowel harmony (simple)

Questions

Yes or No Questions

To form yes or no questions the suffix -(а)ка is used: for example "did i drink" - бцесвака

Interrogatives

WIP

Vocabulary

WIP

Numerals

Language examples