Capital punishment in Esquarium
Capital punishment has occurred over much of Esquarium in the past. However, in the past century, many countries in the region have abolished the practice. The following summarises the countries and conditions in which capital punishment is legal in Esquarium.
Abolitionist: Capital punishment has been formally abolished by statute or constitution.
Abolitionist in peacetime: Capital punishment has been formally abolished except for crimes committed under exceptional circumstances (such as wartime).
Abolitionist in practice: Capital punishment is legal but the country has not executed anyone during the last 10 years and is believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions.
Retentionist: Capital punishment is legal and is used for ordinary offences.
|Country||Year implemented||Year of last execution||Year abolished||Notes|
|In effect||The death penalty is permitted by the Constitution of Ainin and remains prescribed by the Penal Code of Ainin for various delicts, namely treason, espionage, murder, rape and piracy, and by military law for desertion, cowardice and mutiny. However, the House of Deputies of Ainin voted in 1955 to pass the Verley Resolution, a non-binding declaration barring the Ministry of Justice from pursuing capital cases in peacetime. All governments since have abided by the resolution, and no civilians have been executed since. Brigadier Jean Houlx of the Aininian Army was executed in 1971 for espionage by a military tribunal during the Concordian War.|
|In effect||The death penalty was traditionally conducted by hanging until 1965 when the firing squad was adopted, which was only used for military executions until that year. Since 1965, the death penalty is only prescribed for terrorism and treason, with the only executions since 1965 being a televised execution of the surviving organizers of the 1969 Kan crisis in 1979.|
|Lecia||1946||2015||In effect||The death penalty was instated in the March 4th Constitution of the Republic of Lecistan. Since the first execution in 1947, hanging has been considered the execution of choice. Lecistan on average executes twenty-six criminals per year.|
|Montecara||Antiquity||1190||1990 (symbolically)||See also Capital punishment in Montecara. After 1190, the most severe punishments were "civil death" through banishment for citizens and imprisonment with forced labor at sea for non-citizens. The death penalty was symbolically abolished in the Charter of Basic Rights of 1990.|
|Nunalik||Antiquity||2018||In effect||The death penalty is used widely in Nunalik, with many offences such as rape, murder, corruption, treason and the ambiguously defined "counter-revolutionary activities" which has been used to suppress political opposition against the Taanga Siumut regime. Most executions in Nunalik are carried out via firing squad or hanging, with political crimes making up the bulk of convictions. Controversially, Nunalik also retains the death penalty for the crime of witchcraft. This is deemed to be a serious crime, and the punishment involves a ceremonial method in which the accused witch is taken out to sea in a kayak and thrown into the ocean. The roots of this punishment come from during the period of advanced revolutionary activity under Puupi Kakatsak, when witches were blamed for bad harvests and mechanical failures in addition to foreign agents. This led to a witch hunt, with the law remaining on the cards amidst fears that such an occurence could happen again.|
|Razaria||1957||Unknown, presumed 2017||In effect||Besides ubiquitous and extensive summary executions carried out in response to 'even slightest of suspected subversive activity', various local and national judicial organizations sentence to death upwards of 40 persons on average per year, usually for crimes such as murder, rape, treason, sedition, subversive activity, collaboration or involvement with subversive and rebellious groups, and corruption. The death penalty is present in Razarian legal codes. Executions are usually carried out by clubbing or shooting.|
|Tuthina||Antiquity||1993||Abolitionist in practice||Since laws of the Most Serene Empire do not mandate kinds of punishment for individual crimes, theoretically every crime convicted in the Empire can be charged with capital punishment by the court of law. However, all known precedents for authorised death penalty in the Home Islands cover only a handful of accusations, chief among which being treason of both high and petit variants, arson, serial killing and rape in extreme cases. However, all capital punishments are required to be authorised by the reigning Emperor of the Most Serene Empire before proceeding, who has the authority to amend or reject the punishment. Since 1993, no known case of authorisation of death penalty is given by either Emperor Kwanghwa and Sumun, and the punishment is either amended to other forms, or the whole case is delivered back to the judicial branch. However, there are common accusations of various bodies of the Empire conducting secretive execution of individuals such as political dissidents and followers of other faiths. Summary execution is also allowed within the military laws of the Armed Forces of His Most Serene Majesty, but no known cases of it conducted outside military court or active war have been documented.|
|Xiaodong||Antiquity||2016||In effect||The death penalty is still used for the crimes of murder, treason, armed robbery, drug trafficking, rape, child molestation, terrorism, espionage and unlawful assembly. Death row inmates are executed in gas chambers that use a lethal hydrogen cyanide gas.|