Unified Kingdoms of Newrey
Coat of Arms
Motto: "Nei Secoli Fedele"
Faithful throughout the centuries
Anthem: Song of the Faithful
and largest city
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
• Prime Minister
|Raymond Holt (LB)|
|House of the Elected|
• Unification (As Newrey)
• Newreyan-Cuirpthe Commonwealth
• Second Newreyan Kingdom
|1700s - Present|
|[convert: invalid number]|
• 2015 census
|[convert: invalid number]|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2015)|| 35.4|
|HDI (2015)|| 0.72|
|Time zone||UTC-1 (West Asuran Standard Time)|
|Date format||dd ˘ mm ˘ yyyy|
Newrey (Newreyan: Newreraxx), officially the Unified Kingdoms of Newrey, is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy in Asura. It consists of 12 counties, and several island off the coast of Engortia. Cyningburgh is both the capital and the seat of governance. The country is situated in the Northern Asura and is bordered by Midrasia to the south, the Cuirpthe to the west, Aleia to the east, and the Lhedwin Channel to the North. Newrey is a coastal and mountainous nation, with mountains geographically separates the country from its southern and eastern neighbours. The Newreyan population of approximately 61.4 million people and largely concentrated in the cities on flatter ground and on the coast, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are two global cities and economic centers - the capital, Cyningburgh, and Wayt..
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
In the third and late fourth millennia BCE, the whole of Newrey shows relatively little evidence of human habitation. Although it is felt that there was a continuing human presence, the types of evidence available make judgement about the details very difficult, with many believing Newrey acted only as a means to travel to to island of Lhedwin by people groups fleeing. The Gynarmi culture spread into the Newreyan sector of the Avadin mountains, and is associated with megalithic sites there (for example Worsis), but managed to spread over all of Newrey.
The population of Newrey started to increase permanently with the late Bronze age from around 850 BCE. In this time, the Gynarmi begin to drop out of historical records and the presence of the Ejicii is noted, with their actions in Newrey being largely to use it as a passage to Lhedwin, however many Ejicii instead chose to stay behind in Newrey slowly evolved into the Veijnis, who inhabited the large heartlands of Newrey. It is believed
that this soon after the settlement by the Veijnis of Newrey is when the precursors of modern Newreyans arrived, doing so in a series of waves from Lhedwin. First the Norlynn culture arrived (for example, tumuli are found at Ravels and Nefti in the Orbyoll area). Then, coming into the Iron Age, the Insburg Wave, named after their believed initial landing site, and the La Tène culture, arrivals from modern day northern Midrasia. All three of these are associated with Asuro-Almmanic languages, with specifically Asuran languages being especially associated with La Tène material culture. This is because historical Fiorentine records from areas where this culture settled show Asuro placenames and personal names. The arrival of the proto-Newreyans spelled the beginning relative doom of the Veijnis, who were beginning to face violent evictions from the lands they had long inhabited by the newcomers, many of whom would often take the Veijnis as slaves and looted many of their prized possessions
However it is possible in Newrey that especially in the northern areas the Insburg and La Tène cultures were brought by new elites, and that the main language of the population was not Asuro. From 500 BC Almannic tribes settled in the region and traded with the Lhedwin and Asuran world. From c. 150 BC, the first coins came into use, under the influence of trade with the rest of Asura.
The people living in modern day Newrey began to trade, communicate, and intermarry between the tribes more openly, creating the basis of a Newrey identity, over the next centuries. Only a few major civilisation areas still survive, most notably Norlynn which was founded by the Norlynn culture, and Fairhurst. As the rudimentary Newreyan kingdoms formed the Veijnis, who had become known as the Veyenes, reacted by forming their own realm in Kiezhland, which is now occupied by modern-day Cyningburgh, which created considerable contention between the Newreyans and the Veyenes, both of whom considered the land theirs.
Following the formation and rise of the Fiorentine Empire in southern Asura, spreading to encompass most of modern day Asura, Arabekh, and Majula, Newrey was seen as a difficult area to conquer. It's mountains forced attackers to come in from certain areas that were easily defended, as well as the people living in Newrey being considered, according to Fiorentine historians 'Incredibly hard-headed, warlike, and unwilling to compromise their freedom'. As such, many emperors attempted to take control of Newrey through force or political means, however each time were defeated.
Years of attacks by the Empire began to force the people living in Newrey to adopt a common identity and launched an attack into the Fiorentine Empire, commonly considered a leading factor that led to the collapse of the
Empire, coming close to the capital before retreating and burning much land they seized. To prevent such a thing occurring again, a series of walls and fortifications were built along the border of Newrey and a policy of non-intervention and non-aggression was adopted. The attack continues to play an important role in the modern Newreyan identity as it provides the basis of the country as a whole, with many of the modern day borders being drawn where the border walls once stood. It is also noted that Kiezhland frequently allied with the Fiorentine Empire whenever their was a rise in tensions, giving rise and meaning to the stigma against the Veyenes with many modern Newreyans seeing them and their contemporary counterparts as capricious and untrustworthy, beholden only to their own and their traditions despite the damage that might come to those around them, showing one of the unintended consequences of the Fiorentine Empire.
The Medieval Ages
Following the collapse of the Empire, the unifying factor of the Newreyan people also collapsed with it, with a number of tribes breaking off and forming their own territories. This period of time is referred to as The Anarchy and lasted for nearly two hundred years. The tribes began to form proto-Kingdoms, with numerous leaders of the small territories continually attempting to reconquer all of Newrey into a state, along with Navack invading in 902 CE and seizing control of the ((Redd Peninsula)) and southern portions of the modern region of South Aerling, however all Newreyan attemps were unsuccessful, however King Gildas was able to take control of a quarter of Newrey after a decade of fighting in 1011, forming the Kingdom of Marchia and was the domineering force in Newrey, bringing the remaining Kingdoms into a sort of unofficial union with Marchia.
Conflicts continually brewed between the rival Kingdoms following the death of Gildas in 1017, however Marchia maintained its dominant position. Believing not much would be gained attacking themselves, the southern Dukedom of Elsof began to launch raids into the neighbouring Padania, burning and looting Alydian churches and stealing much of the gold within the Kingdom. Such raids prompted a retaliatory invasion by the Midrasian Kingdoms, of whom many had soldiers recently back from a crusade in Arabekh, launching the Newreyan Crusade.
The Crusade was enourmously successful and resulted in almost 80% of the populace of the entire Newrey region being forcibly converted. It's thought that the population of Newrey dropped by nearly a million people due to the amount of people killed if they refused to convert or in the battles alone.
To ensure the populace stayed Alydian, the Patriarch of the North was established with a personal military that would ensure the fealty of the populace to the religion and Church. A series of reformations were also undertaken, with the entire region of Newrey becoming officially united in 1026, however it was heavily decentralised. The Patriarch split the kingdoms into 7 regions that were overseen by either a duke or bishop, with the intention being the individual regions would develop an individual identity. The system is commonly called the Bishop's System, despite only a few regions being controlled by Bishops, however it is thought that these designations were the foundation of feudalism within Newrey, as well as first planting the idea of a united Newrey. The Bishop's System continued to operate for the next two centuries, with the head Patriarch being used as a means to avoid conflict with other Alydian nations and so the two centuries were commonly consisted of a relative peace over the Newreyan lands, occasionally disrupted by Lhedwinic raids against the coast, however they were quickly deterred when the Patriarch ordered a more stern approach to captured ones by brutal execution. The Patriarch would eventually be ousted from power following the Newreyan Revolt
The ousting of the Patriarch led to many other Alydian nations to see Newrey as a threat to the stability of the Alydian faith in Asura, however when Harlen began ordering the construction of several Alydian Churches to commemorate the victory, these fears subsided, with faith in Newrey bolstered as Halden agreed to loan soldiers to a potential crusade in tir Lhaeraidd. However, trouble began to arise as the farmlands of Newrey weren't providing a high enough yield to support the population, however the Plattlands in neighbouring Wallais offered plenty of crop yields. As such, Newrey began an invasion into the Duchy, and quickly seized control. The war, while quick and victorious, was hugely unpopular with many of the kingdoms of Newrey, with some barons attempting an unsuccessful coup. To avoid such unpopular things being done in furture, Harlen created the Witenagemot, a system that laid out the foundations for the modern parliamentary body of Newrey, where the Kingdoms would send representatives to discuss plans on how to better unify Newrey, thus beginning a series of centralisation efforts undertaken by various Newreyan kings.
The continuous fighting that had taken place in Newrey led to a severe manpower shortage as many had either been killed, wounded, or were still involved within the military. This shortage led many fields untilled and, upon a series of wet summers that prevented the growing of many crops, resulted in a famine that resulted in the deaths of 15% of the Newreyan population. However, these problems were rectified quickly following the ascension of King William I to the Kingdom of Cuirpthe, resulting in a quick population growth as Cuirtheans moved into Newrey to find work.
Act of Union of 1484
The Ascension of King William I
to the throne of Cuirpthe proved a relative turning point for the fortunes of Newrey, which had at that point been seen as a relative backwater and violent realm. The Union resulted from a royal marriage between King Isaiah I(Then Prince Isaiah) of Newrey and Princess Caitlyn of Narraghmore in 1419. When Isaiah I died in 1478, he left two heirs. William I would have control over the lands of Newrey, while his brother Stanley I would inherit Cuirpthe. This lasted for six years before Stanley I died without any heir. To keep power within the family, the throne was inherited by William, uniting the two nations as the Commonwealth. The flat and fertile lands of Cuirpthe proved a boon to Newrey as it didn't require to continuous fighting as had been the case of Padania. However, before full control could be exercised, a number of rebellious barons and vassals had to be subdued, resulting in the 3 decade long Calming of the Commonwealth, where armies of Newrey would consistently defeat the vassals in battle to bring them under the control of the Newreyan king.
For a brief period after the Calming, the Commonwealth enjoyed a period of relative peace as trade with the Midrasian kingdoms, the Lhedwinic kings, and beyond proved profitable to the nation as it exploited the fertile lands of Cuirpthe. However, following a devastating fire in the Cuirpthean city of Portlaoise due to a mistranslation over cargo limits, King Michael gave into the public pressure of Newrey and decreed that Newreyan would be the language used in all official business across the Commonwealth and its territories. While the decree initially only required it to be used in official capacity and political dealings, many dukes and barons understood it as the order to suppress any usage of Cuirpthean throughout the Commonwealth, with it being banned in schools and from being taught. This perceived attempt of eliminating Cuirpthean culture as a whole resulted in a number of rebellious nobles to beg the King of Midrasia to intervene. While the intervention was defeated, it kickstarted the beginning of the Mydro-Commonwealth Wars that would eventually lead to the decline and collapse of the Commonwealth.
During the period following the successful Calming and war against Midrasia, the Commonwealth began to finance a number of colonisation projects in the newly discovered continents of Vestrim and Rennekka, most notably in the founding of Williamstown, named after the then prince, in 1542. It was from these colonies that the Commonwealth began to expand in size and power. This rise in prominence, however, led to significant problems arising from the ethnic differences between the two main ethnicities that inhabited the region, notably over the actions undertaken by the Newreyans during the Calming. Despite this, it was during the 16th and 17th centuries, however, that the Commonwealth would reach its Golden Age, reaching economic strength that rivalled their immediate north Asuran competitors, such as [Liiduria|Sadamic League]], while also forcing its less tangible competitors into lesser positions of prestige. It also highlighted its military might by consistently defeating the armies of Midrasia and Aleia during the Mydrro-Commonwealth Wars, while its Navy was large enough to ensure the security of the Commonwealth's overseas empire.
The Commonwealth's power, however, began to wane during the latter years of the 17th centruy, seeing its economic might taken from them following the unification of Lhedwin to from the United Kingdom of Lhedwin, while their constant wars with Midrasia began to put a strain on the number of able-bodied men that could be spared. This all culminated in the Fifth Mydro-Commonwealth War, which proved disastrous for the Commonwealth and lead to its partition, and installation of friendly regimes.
stunting much of Newrey's economic potential. Additionally, Midrasia, then one of the first Republic's in the world, deposed the Newreyan king and created the Newreyan Republic, installing Eanred Acton as a pro-Midrasian leader. The short-lived Republic proved to be a beneficial period for the country. Due to the its the friendly relations it established with Mdirasia and the other nations that had partitioned the Commonwealth, it was able to ensure that Newrey regain its position as a significant trading hub in Northern Asura, while key discussions with Midrasian rulers allowed the nation to maintain many of its colonial possessions, despite some of them declaring themselves independent in support of the deposed King. Additionally, radical land reform bills presented in the Republic went on to ensure a relatively equal society for Newrey at that period of history, while also preventing what many presumed would be a horrendous famine. Despite how vital a role the Republic played in maintaining Newreyan sovereignty and its position on the international stage, it remained wildly unpopular throughout the pro-monarchy nation, leading to a series of riots throughout the nation. The advent of the Midrasian Revolution, and the instability in Midrasia it caused, allowed the Newreyan Republic to be overthrown during the Newreyan Revolt of 1782, which saw the reestablishment of the Newreyan Monarchy.
The popular revolution saw them place Harald Massel, a distant relative of the old Newreyan royal family, on the throne. However, Harald proved to be an ineffective king, many blaming the fact he had lived much of his life in Lhedwin as the cause of ineptitude. His unpopularity led to his abdication in favour of his son, Aart Massel-Cau, being crowned king at age 23. Aart proved to be the opposite of his father, creating a stronger Newreyan kingdom than what had existed previously. Interestingly, however, he readopted the Republican system of government that had existed during the Newreyan Republic, however a successful propaganda campaign soon turned the apprehensive population in favour of the government, however significant political powers were guaranteed to the sitting monarch and his heirs. Following this, Newrey began to expand its colonial efforts, such the acquisition of the island of Ghiss in 1766 allowed the then Republic to pick and choose what ships could enter the gulf to which they controlled the entrance to. This economic domination of the region reached the point where Ustekia specifically requested that Newrey allow it to trade openly. This was agreed to, however it led to Ustekia becoming both economically and militarily dependant on Newrey, while also becoming host to a significant hub for the slave trade, as Newrey moved many of the Nantojin natives that inhabited its recently acquired territory of Burmondsey.
The expansion of the Newreyan Empire, ironically, saw Newrey began to look towards itself internationally, due to its harbouring distrust of the other Asuran nations following the destruction of the Commonwealth. Particularly, its resentment to the Midrasian conquest of Aeself, renamed to Elsouf, saw a successful national campaign that demanded the Newreyan language remove any Fiorentine influences, resulting in the modern Noble Newreyan being created in its stead. While adopted as the language of the people, many of the elites still spoke Standard Newreyan due to the intermingling of Midrasian and Newreyan nobility. As the 19th century turned, Newrey retained its distrust of the other Asuran states, sterring clear of the rapidly developing power blocs which pitted Midrasin-aligned and Veleazan-aligned nations against one another. This came to a head during the Perpignan War in 1867, with the Veleazan victory politically tearing Newrey apart as the arguments were made to either support the Veleazan bloc or the Midrasian bloc. So fierce was the debate that many schools and workplaces outright banned discussion of it on their grounds, to prevent disunity among workers and stalling production.
The outbreak of the Great War
further caused arguments as to which side Newrey should support, with both blocs courting the nation to get them to support them. However, an accidentally attack on Newreyan fishing vessels by a Lhedwinic naval group would lead to Newrey openly declaring its support of Midrasia in 1986, a year after the outbreak of the war. The swelling of national pride and support saw unprecedented numbers of volunteers throughout the Empire, however due to Newrey's reliance on trade with its empire for its survival, aswell as both exits of the Lhedwinic channel being, if not partially, controlled by Lhedwin led to a quick institution of the rations program, while Newreyan military offensives would often be few and far between on the Newreyan front, due to the small area of land the front consisted of. However, this did not stop Newreyan war effors. In an effort to destabilise its main enemy Newrey actively supported anti-Lhedwinic resistance groups, such as the Glanish Resistance, for which it actively trained Glanish refugees into soldiers, while shipping arms and weaponry to Crylantian resistance groups. Likewise, Newrey began recruiting its colonial subjects to fight in the war, often allocated to fronts that wouldn't see them come into great contact with native Newreyans, while also using them to bolster the logistics chain and the Newreyan Navy. In 1899, following the Lhedwinic defeat at the Battle of Vrnallia Sound, the Newreyan government spearheaded the Invasion of Lhedwin, landing at sites reaching from Lilleholm in Navack to Graylund in Glanodel, actively using ethnic troops from Lhedwin where they could to make it appear as though it wasn't attempted Newreyan imperialism. Following Lhedwin's surrender, Newrey increased the number of troops it had in Lhedwin to act as a temporary occupation fores.
Post War Period
Following the end of the Great War, distrust and tensions began to rise between Newrey and its allied nations over the fate over the defeated nations, especially in regards to Lhedwin. While many nations supported an united Lhedwin, Newrey advocated for Lhedwin to be divided to prevent a threat being posed by them again. While intially unpopular, Newrey began sowing disunity and support for ethnic tensions in Lhedwin, forcing the peace negotiators to agree to Newrey's terms and divide Lhedwin, while giving Newrey numerous territorial guarantees that would prevent Lhedwin uniting in future.
However, post-war actions taken by Newrey would see a widening gulf between it and its allies, such as the Burning of Lentini following Aversi, formerly a territory of Newrey, joining the Principality of Crylante, as well as its complete refusal to recognise the new state. This distrust led to a decline in both trade and its position among its Asuran peers. This economic depression, commonly referred to as The Dip, lead to the wide instability throughout the Empire, sparking a low-intensity conflcit, the Newreyan Colonial War, that lasted for much of the 20th century. However, the widening gulf in Asura was put to rest, as well as the temporary halting of the Colonial War, following the outbreak of the Second Great War. Newreyan forces actively fought in multiple global fronts throughout the duration of the war, the stalemate ending of the war convincing many Newreyans that the communist threat was far from dead and initiating the Red Scare in Newrey. This anti-communist sentiment was put to the test in 1935, with the outbreak of the Great Northern Asuran War,
which pitted many of the North Asuran states against one another. While outnumbered, the presence of the communists in the ruling government of Aleia at the start of the war allowed Newrey to gain international support as they argued the war was being fought as a means to prevent further communist gains in Asura. This argument was solidified following the handing over of Lilleholm back to Navack, on the condition the Navack not continue the war against Newrey, however Newreyan troops remained stationed in the territory until the end of the war. Newrey's victory in the war saw it retain a dominant position in North Asura, having established both its military might and its anti-communist agenda. However, the cost of fighting three major wars in a short period led to the eventual break up of the Newreyan Empire through the next 50 years, which was followed by an increasing opening up of Newreyan trade to its Asuran neighbours and its recognition of the successor Lhedwinic states. The 1950s saw Newrey grow diplomatically closer to southern Asuran states as a means to solidify an anti-ASU power bloc, which it had started to groundwork for in 1923 following the signing of the Cyningburgh Pact between Newrey and Aquidneck. While intially created as a means to curb Midrasian influence on the continent, the post-Second Great War world saw numerous states join the Pact as a means to secure its safety against the ASU. The legitmacy was secured following both the cooperation agreement with Midrasia and the Lotrič Declaration, which provided a nuclear deterrent, much to the annoyance of Newreyan politicians who wished to remain out of Midrasain influence.
It was this opposition to Midrasain influences that Newrey began to covertly supply many of the Pact's, then renamed to the Drago Entente's, potential enemies, notably the selling of sarin gas, a banned weapon, to Aramas. These actions, however would later prove to be the downfall of modern Newrey. During the later half of the 20th century, Newrey underwent significant political changes as many voters began to shift from the Party of United Newreyans, to the Conservative Party. A series of successive gains led to the election of Raymond Holt in 1998, the first time a party other than the United Newreyans had won an election in nearly 40 years. Under the Conservative Party, Newrey has pushed for Asuran intergration, however with the exclusion of Newrey, while also developing its ties to the nations of the Alemmanic Gulf, notably the nation of Brenzhem. This push lead to Newrey becoming a
formerly key player in both Asuran politics and international politics, however its continued veto of any non-Asuran states into the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations led to significant investigations into Newrey's motives. This lead to the leaking of the Wingham Papers that implicated much of the sitting Witenagemot, many members of which had been sitting members for nearly a decade following the accession of Raymond Holt as leader of the Conservative Party, for numerous crimes, such as the selling of sarin gas to Aramas. These developments lead to a vote within the CDN that saw Newrey quickly suspended from the organisation. In response, King William II order the dissolution of the government and the arrest of those named in the Wingham Papers. However, instead of the successful capture of Holt, much of Cyningburgh, by the 12th of January, became unreachable by people who weren't already residing within the city and, with the assistance of the Cyningburghe Selfstandende Weardemiht (CSW), the city was forcibly seized by the Witenagemot. Following the securing of the city, Holt gathered members of the Cyningburgh press and government, declaring both the independence of Cyningburgh, as well declaring the Republic of Folksland in its stead, driving out many of the monarchist factions within the city. Numerous regions of Newrey allied themselves with the new Republic, plunging Newrey itno the Newreyan Crisis, an ongoing civil war between republican Folksland factions and the monarchist Newreyan Kingdom.
Geology and Hydrography
Law and justice
Energy and infrastructure
Science and tourism
For centuries, the culture of Newrey has been hard to pinpoint where it belongs on the map. While it shares similarities with neighbours, it also shares a significant amount of similarity to its Almannic brethren in Rennekka, a fact that continually stumped cultural anthropologists for centuries until the theory of Almannic Migration first came tom prominence. However, centuries of exposure to colonies, as well as the stint of holding hundreds of nationalities during the Great War, has led to an identity that is unique in the world, with some things that others would consider outdated being considered instrumental to the average Newreyan.
Literatur and Philosophy
Historically, there was little interest in writings from Newrey due to the view of it being a relatively backwards nation, as well as the tradition of not writing down stories and instead passing them on in the oral tradition, with Fiorentine authors like Bodicus and Marcus Auerlia being important as they travelled to Newrey and transcribed many of the stories they heard, which they later passed off as their own in the literature markets of the Fiorentine Empire. It wasn't until after the Northern Crusade that writings from Newreyan authors first appear, though many are lacking names due to the belief that they would be cursed for doing so, which forces historians to refer to them as the author of their book, Authors of Tale of Cannerson being an example. A common practice in Newrey was for villages to create a story as a community and their local lord would have a scribe write it down, with their being annual competitions in areas over which village came up with the best tale, a tradition that continues to this day in some places.
Early modern contributions to literature are considered to be some of the most important and vital to the craft, with many works being published in several languages. Even in Newrey itself, there is a considerable influence of writings made by Veyes, as opposed to ethnic Newreyans. However, it was until 1790, near the end of the Commonwealth, that Newreyan authors began to gain a readership globally. The publishing of Coming of an Age by John Kyd, which set the tone of what would become known as Newreyan Fiction, proved to be the cause of one of the first international frenzies as hundreds of thousands rushed to get a copy of the revolutionary book. Its style of writing, considered difficult to master, is considered the reason for this, due to it concerning itself with both satire and honesty, arguing for social change while also recognising the importance for some things to remain the same. The seemingly odd nature of contradictions present in Newreyan fiction books is what makes them difficult to write but also vital vehicles for awareness. Notable authors of Newreyan fiction include; William Bicksby, Jonathon Kelly, Lord Pennington, Gerald Krellik, August Vallandro, and Amelia Heavington, Heavington being notable for being the catalyst of Newreyan involvement in the Great War, a move that would cost the nation almost a million men and her social disgrace. Other than authors of Newreyan fiction, Newrey has produced a number of other important and enormously influential authors in almost every genre, such as; George Camden, Stephen Ladywell, Charles Lee, Ahron Folkson, Elisabeth Idel, Matthew Honest, Kevin Svegson, Byron Hill, George Sannerby, and Alexander Annestad.
Newreyan philosophy has always concerned itself with politics, as opposed to lifestyle or the search for a deeper meaning, as politics has always played a major part of Newreyan life. Notable periods of Newreyan philosophy often run counter to that of its Asuran neighbours, with many of its philosophers arguing for more right-wing politics, while also being subject to a number of criticisms for its apparent racial and extremist tones. Notable Newreyan philosophers would be Terrance Folkson, relative to Ahron Folkson, would would later become known as the 'Father of Race Theory' as a number of his philosophical books made reference to alleged differences between the races of Asura and event the wider world. While his work has come under fire for its racist overtones, it was taken seriously for much of its published history, even being included on the recommended reading list of many Newreyan universities. Other philosophers would include Alexander Grantham, whos work on voting and suffrage resulted in Newrey granting the vote to all men over the age of 21, as well as Abraham Dale, who worked closely with many philosophical schools of thought and eventually forming the precursory works that would become N[ihilism]]