History of Onza
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The history of Onza refers to the series of events and happenings associated with the native peoples of the Kalakoro River Valley from the inception of the Kalahari Tribe around 1400 BCE up until the present day United Democratic Emirates of Onza.
- 1 The Kalahari Tribe (~1400 BCE - 14 BCE)
- 2 The Greater Onzaian Tribe (14 BCE ~ 150 CE)
- 3 Kemenari Onza (~150 CE - 256 CE)
- 4 The First Kingdom of Onza (256 CE - 501 CE)
- 5 The Irsadic Caliphate (501 CE - 1005 CE)
- 6 The Second Kingdom of Onza (1005 CE - 1427 CE)
- 7 The Kalahari Empire (1427 CE - 1860 CE)
- 7.1 First Wave of Kalahari Expansionism (1455 CE - 1515 CE)
- 7.2 The Age of Rationalism (1515 CE - 1601 CE)
- 7.3 The Political Revolution (1615 CE - 1652 CE)
- 7.4 Decline of Irsad (1660 CE - 1751 CE)
- 7.5 The Industrial Revolution (1764 CE - 1846 CE)
- 7.6 Collapse of the Kalahari Empire (1846 CE - 1860 CE)
- 8 The Democratic People's Republic of Onza (1860 CE - 1940 CE)
- 9 The United Democratic Emirates of Onza (Present)
The Kalahari Tribe (~1400 BCE - 14 BCE)
The earliest dated medium with hieroglyphics that referred to the Kalahari Tribe is believed to have been created around 1400 BCE. Archaeologists and historians are fairly confident that humans existed in the region prior to, but little is known for certain. The Kalahari Tribe (Onzaian: كالهاري) is considered the cultural and geographical precursor to the Greater Onzaian Tribe. Historical artifacts indicate that the Kalahari were fiercely defensive of their home village nestled in the hills of the Kalahari Desert and usually attacked outsiders on sight, at least in the early stages of the Tribe's development, until the Tribe's center moved to the coast of the Kalakoro River. Modern archaeological findings suggest that the Kalahari fashioned many weapons, including spears, from rocks and wood gathered from the nearby oases. Not much is known about the Tribe's social systems, but hieroglyphics depict certain tribesmen being portrayed as having no arms - something that many historians believe indicates the Kalahari marked those they considered "deficient." Generally, these tribesmen are portrayed in grotesque situations, most notably in the famous set of hieroglyphics found in the Nefud Cave which shows several of these tribesmen being tortured and killed.
While there are no signs of organized leadership, the Kalahari seemed to respect age followed by combat prowess. Elders in the tribe are generally cast as benevolent advisers in hieroglyphics while the fiercest warriors are depicted with leopard hide on their heads. Interestingly, women are rarely depicted at all. Early forms of government in the tribe consisted of power being vested in a small number of older men based in the city of Kalahar.
The Tribe mostly interacted with other groups of desert nomads and newly-settled desert city dwellers. This changed, however, as the powerful Troparcan Empire grew large enough to border the Tribe, separated only by the Moçâmedes Canyon Pass. While initially indifferent, both civilizations grew increasingly hostile towards one another due to religious and cultural aversion. Due to the imbalance of power, the Tribe conceded to most of the demands of the Troparcans and rarely attempted to resist power grabs. The Tribe did, however, actively support the Fiorentine Empire as it began to conquer Troparcan lands, which laid the foundation for later cooperation between the two civilizations in the brief period where they held Hipasia.
Khufu I is among the small handful of prominent Kalahari tribesmen known to historians. According to discovered accounts, Khufu I witnessed an act of murder around 13 BCE (some drawings depict it as a mass killing, likely a religious sacrifice) and killed many of the Tribe's warriors in the night and the elders the next morning. The remaining warriors pledged allegiance to Khufu, who then led them to subjugate at least three other tribes along the Kalakoro River and further west into the Kalahari Desert.
The Greater Onzaian Tribe (14 BCE ~ 150 CE)
Khufu I decreed that a set of laws and protections be etched into a large stone in 14 BCE. The first part of the etching formally unified the Kalahari remnants and the subjugated tribes into the Greater Onzaian Tribe (Saraibian: أكبر، بسبب، أونزا). The prohibitions portion included the following:
- Prohibition of murder
- Prohibition of theft
- Prohibition of hurting unarmed individuals
- Prohibition of deception
In addition, the Code contained many smaller, superstitious prohibitions, such as the prohibition of growing different crops in the same row and the prohibition of a man being present while a child is delivered.
Perhaps most notable due to its forwardness for the time, the Code also established several scenarios where individuals were to be protected by the law. They include:
- An individual reporting a crime would be protected until the accused was apprehended
- An individual critical of the supreme leader would be protected from harm
- An individual accused of a crime would have a chance to prove their innocence prior to being harmed
In spite of this, following Khufu's death, several of these protections were not consistently upheld, particularly the one relating to criticisms of the leader. In some cases, however, the tribe apparently experienced turmoil and divide in controversial cases where a protection was invoked and upheld.
Life in the Greater Onzaian Tribe was considerably less violent than life in the Kalahari and in other neighboring tribes. The Onzaians were predominantly focused on agriculture and as a result, the tribe grew fiercely isolationist and only contacted other tribes when they desired to conquer them. On many occasions, the Greater Onzaian Tribe launched invasions of other tribes up and down the Kalakoro River that failed and resulted in a severe loss of life. One of these tribes, the Kemenari Tribe, retaliated with an invasion of their own after a botched attack and began to rapidly conquer many of villages and cities of the Greater Onzaian Tribe. A period of stagnation began in 140 CE when the Kemenari ceased their offensive while the Greater Onzaian Tribe existed in its remaining settlements. By this point, the central structure of the Tribe had been highly decentralized, and the result was very little preparation for the return of the Kemenari. A decade later, around 150 CE, the Kemenari returned to the last remaining Onzaian settlements and captured the tribe completely.
Kemenari Onza (~150 CE - 256 CE)
Upon the Kemenari's seizure of the last Onzaian settlement, one of the more powerful Supreme Leader's (then fashioned, Pharaoh) that claimed power, Hor-Aha, insisted that he and Semerkhet - the notoriously violent but superstitious chieftain of the Kemenari Tribe - be allowed to meet. The invaders agreed, which led to the cessation of violence against the subjugated Onzaians in Hor-Aha's region until he reached Semerkhet several months later. Onzaian legend holds that Hor-Aha took advantage of Semerkhet's fear of snakes by wearing a docile one around his shoulders during negotiations. Semerkhet supposedly believed the snake to be a divine warning and agreed to allow the Greater Onzaian Tribe to assimilate peacefully into the Kemenari. Historians generally agree that portrayals of Semerkhet as bloodthirsty were more exaggerated and diplomacy prevailed.
Following this, however, the majority of the Kemenari invaders simply acted as community constables for the Greater Onzaian Tribe, with only a few etchings suggesting that there was ever any conflict. In fact, many Kemenari even began adopting Onzaian customs and in some cases even began worshiping the pantheon of gods they followed at the time. Most historians agree that the Kemenari assimilated into Onza more so than the intended inverse.
Semerkhet's death around 180 CE left a power vacuum that resulted in a deadly scramble for influence. This culminated in a number of different Pharaoh's claiming power - including Hor-Aha in one region. Shepes-kaf of the Kemenari ultimately obtained the strongest grip on the region thanks to the raising of a larger military than his competitors around 210 CE. Shepes-kaf began passing laws favoring those of Kemenari families and persecuting those of Onzaian backgrounds - policies that were continued up until the end of Kemenari control in Onza.
Documents dated around 250 CE mention a young Onzaian, Neferkasokar, who captured a large amount of public attention with his lectures and speeches on a return to the Onzaian identity rather than the Kemenari one. Neferkasokar was particularly outspoken against the policies left over from Shepes-kaf's reign that targeted and persecuted Onzaians. His public meetings galvanized many, and although Kemenari leadership appeared to acknowledge his growing influence, no action was taken to stop the spread of his ideology. By 252 CE, Neferkasokar's following had grown tremendously, and many began to take arms in support of the notion that Neferkasokar should be declared the new Pharaoh. Later that year, Neferkasokar's Rebellion began as the group of militants began invading neighboring cities.
The Kemenari initially viewed the rebellion as a minor threat to regional stability and therefore continued to prioritize ongoing wars with tribes to the west over responding to the conflict. Even as cities fell from the Kemenari's control, they continued to prioritize these wars. By the time they decided to formally address the issue, Neferkasokar's Rebellion had grown into a new incarnation of the Greater Onzaian Tribe with a sizable military.
The First Kingdom of Onza (256 CE - 501 CE)
After numerous defeats in battle, the remaining Kemenari occupants of Onzaian territory surrendered or fled and Neferkasokar declared the Absolvitor of Kemenari Rule to be law in 256 CE. Aside from being one of the first written instances of Saraibian, it formed the structure that would ultimately become the First Kingdom of Onza and laid the foundation for a monarchical government under a Pharaoh.
The Onzaian Renaissance (256 CE - 480 CE)
Thanks to the Absolvitor of Kemenari Rule including a provision to ensure the peaceful transition of power, the First Kingdom of Onza enjoyed stability and rapid scientific development for roughly 230 years. As the Absolvitor was written in early Onzaian, it served as a sort of Rosetta Stone for the growing tribe to stamp out hieroglyphics completely in favor of a formal language. A large portion of these advancements came thanks to a benevolent trade relationship the Kingdom enjoyed with the Fiorentine Empire to the east following its conquest of the formerly Troparcan lands.
The development of advanced language paved the way for the rapid development of scientific knowledge. Advancements were made in exploration and warfare during this time period, and early attempts at cartography proved relatively accurate. Systems of communication were developed and animal domestication led to camels becoming a source of rapid transit, greatly improving travel time from city to city. Architecture also saw many advancements and many villages were developed into cities. One specific example is Kalahar (Onzaian: الإسكندرية) which served as the de facto capital during this time period.
Agriculture yields improved drastically as a result of advancements in farming, including the onset of crop rotation towards the end of this period. As a result, population saw a boom and the Kingdom of Onza became a significant force to contend with in the region. Border expansion was met with little more resistance than a few underdeveloped tribes.
Perhaps most significantly of all, however, culture boomed during this time period. Onzaian arts exploded with many prominent writings and paintings garnering widespread popularity during this time. Philosophically, the writings of Takelot and Nekauba were among the first to advocate for isolationism - a stance that continues to define modern Onzaian politics and international relations.
In 480 CE, Pharaoh Khafra was declared unfit to rule following a series of liberally issued formal titles and giveaways of vast amounts of the Kingdom's treasury. When Khafra's authority was no longer respected, an informal council wrote and signed the Kalahari Proclamation. The document created a council of advisers underneath the Pharaoh known as the majlis almalik, or The King's Council. Wealthy nobles were selected by Khafra to sit on the council, and historians believe that the descendants of these original members were called upon to fill the council's vacancies. One of the first acts of this council was to appoint a new Pharaoh to replace Khafra.
Among other updates to the Absolvitor of Kemenari Rule, the Kalahari Proclamation declared that the Kingdom would at no point expand west into the Kalahari Desert. This prohibition was rooted in Khafra's superstitious belief that the desert was cursed - likely due to scout reports of barbaric rituals conducted by tribes west of the desert as well as the incredibly violent weather patterns in the region.
The stagnation of border growth following this proclamation is widely accepted as having marked the end of the Onzaian Renaissance.
The Irsadic Caliphate (501 CE - 1005 CE)
By this point in history, the majority of Onzaians worshiped a pantheon of gods based around various aspects of nature, such as the God of the Sun, the God of the River, and the God of the Oases. Although Irsad had spread across Arabekh since its inception in 92 BCE, Onza's geographical borders prevented any significant spread into the nation.
In 501 CE, however, this changed when armies of the Irsadic Caliphate that formed in central western Arabekh crossed into Onza through its southern border and began rapidly capturing cities. The Caliphate had advanced beyond the Onzaian Kingdom, and thus conquest was relatively easy for the Irsadic invaders. By 621 CE, the entire Kingdom was conquered by the Caliphate and was formally subjugated.
Initially, the Caliphate maintained that non-Araks could not convert, and thus allowed people of non-Irsadic faiths to retain their religion and practices peacefully. However, they were expected to contribute more in taxes and were sometimes the subjects of discrimination. This changed in 676 CE when the Yaqub Dynasty came to power in the Caliphate. Unlike the previous ruling families of the Amir Dynasty, the Yaqubs incentivized conversion to Irsad with tax credits, greater social standing, and direct monetary gifts from local governors. What resulted was a large scale conversion to Irsad in the southernmost regions of the Kingdom where regional governors had the most power. Still, many towards the coast refused to convert, and were allowed in most cases by the Caliphate to retain their original faiths (or paganism).
The Caliphate reached the height of its power in 839 CE when its borders stretched farther than any other empire to ever exist in Arabekh, spanning from the southernmost tip of Arabekh all the way up to southern Aquidneck. The region became a hub for economic activity with traders from all across Arabekh and Asura traveling through. Perhaps more significantly, the region saw great advancements in medicine, science, and philosophy - in some cases, even more so than what was seen during the Onzaian Renaissance. The fruits of these developments were enjoyed all across the Caliphate, and even as dynasties transitioned in and out of power, domestically the Caliphate was fairly stable and peaceful.
In 978 CE, however, a number of circumstances initiated the deterioration of the Caliphate's centrality. Deadly plagues spread across the empire, and the far-reaching ramifications led many in some regions to abandon their Irsadic faith or convert to another entirely. This weakened the theological structure of the Caliphate's governing abilities. Divided on how to treat the converts in the aftermath, several prominent families made conflicting claims to power, and the Caliphate decentralized rapidly.
Most of the Onzaian Kingdom was left under the responsibility of the Muhsin Dynasty, which adhered to a considerably more moderate, metaphorical interpretation of the Noble Nashwad (the Holy Scripture of Irsad). This was popular among Onzaians, and many who had abandoned their faiths before began to convert back. The Kingdom was left relatively unaffected when __________ invaded the region and began conquer the decentralized remnants of the Caliphate one by one.
By 1005 CE, however, the remainder of the Irsadic Caliphate in Onza had fully assimilated into the Kingdom of Onza, which was now a considerably more advanced nation. Irsad continued to grow in popularity, even though so-called "desert paganism" still dominated theological ideology in the northern regions of the Kingdom.
The Second Kingdom of Onza (1005 CE - 1427 CE)
The decentralization of the Caliphate did not mark the end of Irsadic Caliphates in Arabekh, although they rarely impacted Onza beyond this point. Many remaining ones, in fact, continued to exist and flourish, even as Asuran invaders waged a series of Crusades against the Irsadic kingdoms for the next couple centuries. Since the First Kingdom of Onza existed under the umbrella of the Irsadic Caliphate and retained most of its original structure throughout the period of subjugation, the dissolution of the Irsadic Caliphate had little impact on the day-to-day governing of Onza, though historians have coined this as the Second Kingdom of Onza due to it being fully independent again.
The 11 Year War (1145 CE - 1156 CE)
In 1145 CE, an emissary of the Onibasi Caliphate - one of the remaining Caliphates in the wake of the _____________ Crusades - delivered a formal declaration of war to Pharaoh Menkheperre. The declaration stated that the Onibasi desired the nutrient-rich soil of the lands along the Kalakoro, though historians have contended that growing pressure from the __________ invaders created a sense of urgency that compelled the Onibasi eastward. In anticipation for the arrival of Onibasi armies, Menkheperre suggested that a preemptive strike - specifically, an ambush - be prepared in the Moçâmedes Canyon Pass, the only viable path into the Kingdom that the Onibasi could take. In what is regarded by many modern military experts as one of the greatest mistakes in military history, however, the majlis almalik instead recommended that Menkheperre bolster city garrisons. This recommendation came primarily from the fact that many on the majlis almalik were owners of vast farms just outside the Moçâmedes Canyon Pass and did not want armies of Onzaian troops to pass through their lands, and many doubted the ability of the Onibasi armies to successfully endure the brutal conditions of the Moçâmedes Desert.
Menkheperre capitulated to the majlis almalik's recommendations in part due to a poor track record with military leadership in the smaller, tribal wars that were waged under his kingship. The Onibasi passed through the canyon pass without incident, although a few armies did die due to attrition in the Moçâmedes Desert. In 1146 CE, the first major battle occurred as the Onibasi attempted to siege the city of Akifa. Thanks to the bolstering of local garrisons, the city was able to ward off the invading army, which was unable to move its siege equipment through the desert surrounding the city. Recognizing this, the Onibasi charted a different path through the calmer, flatter deserts along the southern border and successfully sieged Adzakiali in spite of attrition later that year.
By 1149 CE, the Onibasi had sieged six major Onzaian cities and several smaller farms, villas, and estates. However, the military continued to suffer from attrition due to the Onibasi being accustomed to the conditions of the milder eastern deserts in modern day Agathusa. At this point, the Onibasi had also failed to successfully siege a city along the Kalakoro, which resulted in the Onibasi government questioning the viability of the Onzaian Campaign.
Aquidneck entered the Arabekhi sphere of influence during this time when an existing trade agreement between both Kingdoms that was retained in the demise of the Irsadic Caliphate which controlled them both flourished into military support as Onza grappled with the successor caliphates, particularly the Onibasi. Historians consider this a historical precursor to the affinity between both nations in modern times.
In 1151 CE, some of the largest armies ever raised in Onzaian history completed their training and moved into the southeastern theater where they crushed the Onibasi forces and liberated cities without difficulty. In 1156 CE, the remaining Onibasi forces retreated back east in an effort to bolster defenses against the _________ Crusades. Forces remaining in the country surrendered and were imprisoned, though some simply blended themselves into Onzaian life and came to be recognized as citizens.
The end of the war led to a period of economic growth and development that lasted for half a century. The majlis almalik voted to allow the refugees from the Crusades to enter into the Kingdom of Onza and become fully-fledged citizens.
The Age of Exploration (1201 CE - 1515 CE)
In 1201 CE, Pharaoh Qa'a approved the first foreign expedition, which kicked off the Onzaian Age of Exploration. During this time period, developments and research in navigation, scouting, and cartography made exploration much more valuable and affordable. Although many of these expeditions were undertaken for the purpose of establishing trade routes for merchants, several were commissioned by the various Pharaohs in this period to gather intelligence on surrounding empires and nations around the world. In fact, many of these expeditionary crews were strictly forbidden from making contact with the subjects they were observing, and were instead instructed to use their trip solely to gather data. In spite of this, many explorers reached their destinations in critical conditions and were forced to approach inhabitants of other nations in an appeal for assistance. Some crews were killed by these foreigners, while others were welcomed and eventually returned to the Kingdom.
This period also saw a rise of the Aquidish language in Onza, due primarily to trade routes from the Irsadic Caliphate surviving the empire's decentralization. Although the language has since lost its use, several historical documents in this time period were translated from Aquidish.
The Al-Khatin War (1366 CE - 1371 CE)
In 1366 CE, the majlis almalik decided to invade the Al-Khatin Empire to the north and add the remaining coastal territories of the North Opal Ocean to the Onzaian borders. The decision was met with tremendous controversy, particularly due to a lack of desire among the populous for war, and many soldiers refused to report for duty whenever the war was announced. A relatively peaceful nation, the Al-Khatin Empire had spent very little time developing a fully-fledged military due to a lack of powerful navies in the area and a general attitude of apathy towards the Kingdom of Onza. As a result, the entirety of the Al-Khatin's territory on the mainland was annexed by Onzaians by 1368 CE. Some historians consider this the end of the Al-Khatin War. In 1371 CE, scouts along the northern coastline discovered the previous-uncharted Al-Khatin Island, which was also the last remaining settlement of the Al-Khatin Empire.
In a Pyrrhic victory, the Onzaian military defeated the Al-Khatin armies and annexed Al-Khatin Island. Myths and legends surrounded mainstream discussion of the island at the time, however, with many believing it to be cursed. This, accompanied with the mass loss of life that occurred as the Onzaians attempted to cross the river to the island, led to the Kingdom abandoning it completely in 1373 CE. This military failure strengthened early calls at the time that demanded a form of government other than absolutism.
The Kalahari Empire (1427 CE - 1860 CE)
In 1427 CE, as debate continued to grow over how the Kingdom should handle diplomacy with the newly-discovered nations (many of whom had cultural practices considered taboo by Onzaians at the time), Pharaoh Senedj dissolved the majlis almalik and established the precursor to the National Assembly - the Council of Governors - in its place. This was primarily the result of pressure from lower class citizens attempting to gain a say in government. Nonetheless, only wealthy, influential males from five distinct districts of the Kingdom were convened in a moot to elect 25 oligarchs to the Council of Governors, and the oligarchs themselves were all wealthy and educated. These oligarchs were charged with representing differing opinions from their respective districts while simultaneously serving as a a so-called مرشح المتعلمين (Newreyan: educated filter) for ideas considered taboo, though they usually acted more as trustees rather than representative delegates. It's important to note that while this move quelled anti-monarchical sentiments that had grown among the general population due to the Al-Khatin War for a time, it did not appease every critic, as many maintained that the Council alone was not enough given that the Pharaoh still retained supreme authority.
One of the later actions of the Council was to order the immediate annexation of a group of territories east of the Moçâmedes - present-day Agathusa - and several other client states that the Kingdom had accepted that were aiming to escape the Crusades. This is considered to be the point of establishment of the Kalahari Empire. The most notable of differences from the Second Onzaian Kingdom was the severely decentralized focus on the Pharaoh and the greater emphasis on the Council of Governors instead.
This move was noticed by Newrey at the time, and the nation mobilized a small fleet of settlers with the intention of making diplomatic contact with Onza. Recognizing the tendency of the Newreyans towards imperialism, the Council voted to charter a port settlement on the coast - Oshaxas - to be governed indirectly by Newrey. This became a hub of development for Onza, with some of the most important scientific advances in the nation's history coming from research exchanged with the Newreyans in the port settlement.
In 1515 CE, an Onzaian expedition successfully circumnavigated the world and corroborated the findings of other nations that the planet was indeed round. This is considered the end of the Age of Exploration, as most of the modern world had been charted by this point. This voyage was made possible by the information exchange with Newrey during this time period.
Oshaxas gained its independence in 1599 CE, although Newreyan influence remained very powerful in the region.
Among the aspects of culture that the two nation's exchanged was warfare. The Council admired the Newreyan's ability to rapidly conquer neighboring civilizations and integrate them into its empire so easily. This is the point where the Kalahari Empire took a much more militaristic approach than its predecessors and began attempting to grow Onzaian borders.
First Wave of Kalahari Expansionism (1455 CE - 1515 CE)
The so-called "First Wave" of Kalahari conquests began in 1455 CE when modern-day Agathusa was annexed and several smaller states that were left broken by the continuing Crusades were easy targets for the Empire's large military. In general, it was the policy of the Empire to emulate Newreyan stratagem when it came to conquest. Notably, the Kalahari appointed regional governors to oversee the day-to-day operations of newly-conquered territories. Forced assimilation was also very uncommon, in part due to the cultural similarities many of the conquered already had with Onza, but also as part of the Empire's greater strategy for quickly stabilizing newly-annexed territories.
The conquests were generally unopposed, although expansion beyond the Kalahari Desert proved particularly tumultuous for the Empire and greatly delayed conquest of the lands that make up modern day Saraibia.
By 1515 CE, the Kalahari had become the largest empire in northwestern Arabekh.
The Age of Rationalism (1515 CE - 1601 CE)
The successful circumnavigation of the world opened rifts between scientists who began to postulate many other things about geography and Irsadic fundamentalists who rejected scientific study due to its contradictions with longstanding theological beliefs. This time period, although short, marks the duration of this debate. The advancements in understanding of geography, physics, biology, chemistry, astronomy, and other fields of science during this time period are still among the most significant of modern discoveries today. In addition, tensions continued to boil as debate grew more common as to the role of the monarch in Onzaian politics. This came especially in 1567 CE, when Pharaoh Huni ignored an overwhelming consensus in the Council of Governor's to officially certify the findings of the circumnavigational voyage. Critics argued that vesting supreme authority in any single individual ultimately undermined the purpose of the Council of Governors, which had gradually shifted towards representation rather than oligarchy. Pharaoh Amal Nizar Alfarsi -- the first Pharaoh to reject the tradition of adopting an ancient name after assuming the throne -- heavily favored the side of the sciences in the debate about nature and was pro-representation in the debate about the monarchy, and became Pharaoh thanks in part to a conspiracy by the Council to prevent Huni's descendants from inheriting the throne.
Alfarsi expanded the Council from 25 to 100 Assemblymen, and citizenship was extended to all men and women over 17.
The Political Revolution (1615 CE - 1652 CE)
Political apathy reached an all time low in 1615 CE due to the renewed public interest in government and remained consistently low for the following four decades. During this time period, the Council of Governors enjoyed intense debates concerning the value of a powerful monarch - an issue that continued to be of interest to Onzaian citizens in spite of the Council flexing its authority in its plot to put Alfarsi in the throne. During this time period, several political blocs formed and lobbied the Council to consider revoking the Pharaoh's state powers. These blocs were fairly informal and loosely organized, but the modern political parties can trace their roots to these organizations.
Some of the first protests in Onzaian history were planned during this time period. One particular protest derived from the Kalahar-Andromeda Dispute -- a series of debates in the Council concerning the etymology of the name of the capital city, Kalahar. Irsadic fundamentalists valued the etymology of the name as having derived from holy scripture, while pagan progressives supported changing the name to Andromeda to commemorate the scientific accomplishments that had come from the Age of Rationalism. In 1630 CE, the Council officially renamed the capital city to Andromeda. Notably, the Pharaoh at the time had no say in the matter.
In 1652 CE, the Council decided that amending the powers of the Pharaoh was not on their agenda, nor would it be for some time. This is considered to have ended the political revolution, as most political blocs winded down in momentum as a result.
Decline of Irsad (1660 CE - 1751 CE)
The growth of Irsad came to a near-complete halt during the Age of Rationalism, but continued to enjoy a healthy population up until 1660 CE, when Pharaoh Khaa came to power. Khaa was a particularly stout pagan who Irsad as an obstacle to scientific progress. Khaa made a rare power move by introducing laws intended to persecute Irsadists - laws that did a variety of things from limit the number of mosques that could appear within a certain radius, a so-called "worship tax," and banning the public promotion of Irsad.
The sizable Irsadist population was initially outraged, but Khaa used the Kalahari's military might to enforce martial law in some areas. The following decades saw pillaging of the homes of Irsadist families, and crime against followers of Irsad began to be ignored outright by Kalahari constables.
This tactic was somewhat less effective in the territories at the extreme west of the Kalahari Empire, and thus many used the opportunity to declare independence. This marked the last time in history that Onza would control any territory west of the Kalahari Desert.
Following this, many Irsadists in the central Kalahari Empire attempted to organize and demand a change. In many cases, however, they were severely beaten and even murdered on a few occasions.
By 1751 CE, Irsad had become a minority religion. Pharaoh Atu reversed many of the policies from Khaa and his descendants, but the damage to the Irsadist population was permanently done.
The Industrial Revolution (1764 CE - 1846 CE)
The Kalahari Empire underwent a period of rapid industrialization between 1764 CE and 1846 CE. Improvements in metallurgy, paper making, and glass making marked the beginning of the era as vast industries began to develop in cities that previously relied solely on trade, mining, commerce, and agriculture to sustain their economies. Transportation expanded as the first canals in the nation were created and a vast network of railroads were built all over the country. Roads were also improved with the establishment of turnpikes that collected tolls for road maintenance.
Construction was changed fundamentally with the development of cement. Developments in mining increased the Kalahari's ability to harvest vast quantities of resources faster, and as a result, construction and growth flourished around the country. Chemistry also saw many developments such as the production of sulfuric acid and alkali. The synthesis of dyes was also simplified, and as a result, the textile industry saw rapid growth and a tremendous amount of success during this time period.
Several machines - particularly those intended to cut metal - were also invented, and are considered an early ancestor to the advent of interchangeable parts.
Gas lighting also became the staple during this period, which allowed cities to have nightlife for the first time. This also allowed commercial retailers to remain open longer due to the enhanced lighting that gas lighting provides over traditional candles. Agricultural yields also improved due to the introduction of steam power and machines that simplified the harvesting of crops.
Socially, more and more Onzaians transitioned from honing trades and skills at home to working in factories and plants. Workplace safety was addressed early on, with the Council of Governors passing a bill establishing a minimum wage and setting other requirements for employers to follow in 1838 CE. However, as major cities continued to grow due to the products provided to them by factories based in the surrounding deserts, smaller villages struggled more and more to compete in the increasingly complex economy. Many villages that were based entirely on particular industries such as agriculture had to convert themselves into mining and factory towns just to stay afloat within the economy.
Child labor was formally banned in 1840 CE after the Council heard a case covering the injuries and deaths of children being put to work in developing factories. Although the move is highly regarded as a source of pride by modern Onzaian citizens, experts agree that the growth of the Onzaian economy during industrialization was in some ways stunted due to the lack of child labor compared to other nations on the same course.
Collapse of the Kalahari Empire (1846 CE - 1860 CE)
In just 14 years, the Kalahari Empire decentralized completely due to a variety of factors. The advent of industrialization led to an economy too complex for a small oligarchy to manage, and the vast majority of the Kalahari's decentralization consisted of non-Onzaian regions simply becoming autonomous and ceasing tribute payments to the Empire. Issues had also arisen with the appointed governors in this time period - many of whom were chosen with little attention from Pharaohs and the Council. Governors saw the opportunity to claim regional wealth as their own.
Several underground Irsadist extremism groups that are considered the precursors to the Army of Conquest conducted coordinated, guerrilla attacks across the Empire that proved to be too much for the Council to manage. Thus, bureaucratic overload is oftentimes cited as a major contributing factor to the sudden independence of the Empire's furthest-reaching territories.
By 1860 CE, all that was left of the Kalahari Empire was very similar to what existed before it began - the lands of the Onzaian people based around the Kalakoro.
The Democratic People's Republic of Onza (1860 CE - 1940 CE)
By this point, the Council of Governors had been reduced to just 12 members - primarily due to the councilmen moving into newly-independent remnants of the Kalahari Empire in an effort to secure power. In recognizance of the drastic political change, then-Pharaoh Kames enacted an ambitious set of reforms. He convened a moot of roughly 50 Onzaians to determine a new direction for Onza. The moot was composed of many educated, but lower class Onzaians. The moot looked to democratic societies around the world as well as works of philosophy on the idea of a government by the people. They decided this was the best system for Onza, and the Democratic People's Republic of Onza was formed with the passage of the People's Compact of Onza in 1860 CE. The Compact created a Congress with two bodies - a National Assembly and a Senate - as well as a judicial branch to review laws and interpret the Compact. Kames did not encroach upon the powers of the executive, however, and the Pharaoh remained more powerful than the newly-formed branches of government.
The Midnight Riots (1901 CE - 1920 CE)
As industrialization and technological advancements continued, tensions between the Liberal Bloc and the newly-formed Conservative Party (Onza) began to boil over. When Liberal Senator Zaaid al-Afzal was assassinated while giving a speech calling for the abolition of the Pharaoh in favor of a President, Liberals began conducting regular, nighttime riots and raiding the homes and offices of Conservative Congressmen. Initially, these riots and raids were considered little more than a nuisance, with light damage being done to Conservative property and minor injuries sustained by protesters. However, after the home of prominent Assemblyman Faadi al-Nasrallah was burned to the ground in 1908 CE, police began to take the riots and raids seriously, and mass arrests were ordered on suspected organizers.
In retaliation, Conservative activists would oftentimes set up nearby in an effort to counter-protest. In some instances, the proximity of the two groups led to outbreaks of violence and hostilities, resulting in a national police effort to keep both groups entirely separate. In an act of appeasement to growing calls for his resignation, Pharaoh Khem - the penultimate King and the last to adopt a traditional name - declared that his office would not make any additional decrees and would leave all decisions of national importance to Congress. This was met with even more criticism from the Liberals, however, who noted that the Compact required the Pharaoh's endorsement on many actions in order for them to be considered law.
As the passion of rioters continued to grow uncontrollably, the Liberal Bloc suffered a split: one group remained and changed their name to the Liberal Party while thousands of others broke away and formed the Democratic Socialist Party (Onza). The latter became a third group added to the mix of protesters, although they earned enough sympathy from loyal Liberals that violence between the two groups rarely occurred. The Liberal Party revised its position to call for a maintenance of the system of capitalism and a free economy that had insofar been prominent in Onza while decentralizing power in the government and spreading it among the various branches. The Dem Socs also supported the decentralization of power, but advocated for a system of Social Democracy - a pragmatic, mixed economy with a strong, regulated private sector alongside a powerful and accessible public sector.
In response to the growing pressure, King Khem resigned his office in 1918 CE and appointed Faraj El-Ghazzawy in his place. El-Ghazzawy was immediately denounced by the Liberals and the Dem Socs following the announcement that he would resume issuing royal decrees. After El-Ghazzawy refused to sign a bill passed up by the National Assembly that would convene a moot to revise the role of the executive in Onzaian governance, several members of the National Assembly announced that they would no longer recognize his administration.
In 1921 CE, as rumors circulated that El-Ghazzawy was considering declaring dissenting Assemblymen as traitors, Assemblyman Adewale Mudima organized an impromptu militia out of several sympathetic soldiers and men in his district and stormed the Royal Palace in Andromeda. Notably, the soldiers defending the palace did not resist and surrendered immediately - a move some historians attribute to sympathy to the cause. This was considered the final Midnight Riot.
The Onzaian Civil War (1932 CE - 1940 CE)
Mudima declared himself interim president - an office with unspecified powers - and nominated himself on behalf of the Dem Socs in an election two weeks later. No other candidate was nominated as the Conservative Party was in ruin following the deposition of El-Ghazzawy and the Liberal Party did not oppose the new candidate. Asha Tariro was nominated by the party to serve as his Vice President. After a decade of violent skirmishes with small pockets of resistance forces, Ade Kato formed a formal rebel group called the People's Liberation Army (PLA) on the basis that Mudima had committed a gravely illegal act by deposing El-Ghazzawy and declared war on the DPRO.
Initially, the PLA and DPRO sparred only in the desert - away from civilizations and towns. However, by 1936 CE, the PLA had resorted to terrorism and guerrilla warfare - a transition that historians agree solidified popular support behind the DPRO, and one they agree was a result of Kato's declining mental health. In spite of popular support favoring the DPRO, the PLA used force to maintain its foothold over the western half of Onza, and the rise of a massive opiate market kept most of those under occupation from retaliating or fleeing to the east.
The war ended with the Second Battle of Khoba in 1939 CE, where Ade Kato died alongside the entirety of the armies of the PLA. Those who surrendered were immediately set free. The battle began in favor of the PLA due to an ambush set in an abandoned camp. Midway through the battle, however, a Newreyan infantry platoon arrived and turned the tide of the battle in favor of the DPRO. In honor of this, 7 July was declared Newreyan Day in Onza.
The Civil War inspired many myths and legends that remain popular today. The most common, however, is the Parable of the Looking Glass - a work of realistic fiction first published in 1949 CE that injects elements of Onzaian legend into the war.
The United Democratic Emirates of Onza (Present)
President Mudima worked alongside Congress to draft the Constitution of Onza, which established three branches of government - legislative, executive, and judicial - and balanced the distribution of power, effectively ending the centuries-old debate over the efficacy and role of a monarch. The nation was renamed to the United Democratic Emirates of Onza to reflect the creation of the Emirates and the establishment of democracy in the country.
Reconstruction (1940 CE - 1964 CE)
The Reconstruction era began immediately following the end of the civil war. Although the damage to the eastern half of the country was minimal, the western half was by this point in shambles. In fact, the level of damage in the region was so high that Mudima's administration actually considered granting territories west of the Kalakoro their own independence.
Instead, however, the new government began a series of sweeping reforms, ranging from the prohibition of illicit drugs (in response to the opiate market that flourished under the few years of PLA occupation) to the instating of a number of laws aimed at preserving civil rights - at some points being ahead of other democracies around the world in doing so.
In 1944 CE, the Ivory Tower was constructed on Al-Khatin Island to serve as the home and office of the President. In the following years, a small city developed around the tower and is today considered an executive administrative district.
In an effort to solidify its commitment to reconstructing the nation, the famous Mudima Doctrine was formed in 1945 CE. The Doctrine refers to a speech given by President Mudima that encouraged the nation to be isolationist in its policies. The Mudima Doctrine defined the Onzaian approach to international affairs in all but a few cases, up until 2017.
In 1949 CE, Nazir Karrnison ran successfully for President on behalf of the Soc Dems. Karrnison continued the Mudima Doctrine and focused heavily on rebuilding infrastructure that had been damaged in the war.
Reconciling citizens who endured brutality under the PLA was among the most difficult of issues the new government had to address. It was ultimately decided by Congress in 1959 CE that those who had been victimized by the PLA were entitled to a settlement from the government - a move that legal experts have said likely saved the government millions in personal lawsuits that could have followed.
By 1964 CE, the majority of economic and property damage done by the Civil War had been undone, but the western half of the nation still lagged behind in some ways.
The Tourist Invasion (1965 CE - 1981 CE)
As the Emirates continued to grow, develop, and advance technologically, its cities became hubs of activity and a key flashpoint for foreign nations interested in the oils of Arabekh. Many Onzaian entrepreneurs identified this niche market opportunity and opened hotels around the country. This, accompanied with President Noora el-Moussa's "Jewel of Arabekh" tourism campaign led to a massive influx of tourism into the nation.
el-Moussa's government capitalized heavily on the influx of travelers by investing in major infrastructure investments and creating tourist attractions. Branding itself as the only opportunity for adventurous types to safely see Arabekh, Onza grew very rapidly as a result of the interest in the nation, even in spite of the Mudima Doctrine still prevailing.
el-Moussa herself became something of a celebrity by frequently traveling the country promoting tourist attractions and boasting about the numerous outlets of fun in the nation.
Bands and music groups held sold-out concerts in the expo centers built under el-Moussa, world-class art exhibitions were held in the numerous galleries, and amusement parks became a staple in any major city in the nation.
Even though tourism continues to be a strong provider of commerce for the Emirates today, the Tourist Invasion is considered to have ended in 1981 CE.
Radical Left Riots (1982 CE - 1983 CE)
One negative consequence of the Tourist Invasion was that it left the proprietors of tourist traps in possession of a vast amount of the nation's wealth, while the blue-collar workers who staffed these facilities and organizations were growing increasingly poorer.
The shrinking middle class led to a number of explosive riots between 1982 CE and 1983 CE. The President at the time - Abubakar Ganizani - initially thought the riots could feasibly be ignored, but when deaths began to be reported as a result of the clashes between protesters and police, Ganizani turned to taxes.
The Radical Left Riots ended in 1983 CE when President Ganizani signed a tax bill into law that greatly increased the taxes on the wealthiest Onzaians. While the long-term impact was a relative redistribution of wealth at the cost of a weaker economy, the short-term surge in revenue (which continues today thanks to modern tax rates still following Ganizani's example) led to a massive increase in government spending on things like education, welfare, healthcare, and defense.
Counter-Terrorism Efforts (1985 CE - Present)
In 1985 CE, a group of Saraibian terrorists working on behalf of the Army of Conquest hijacked a passenger jet and attempted to crash it into the Ivory Tower. The terrorists lost control of the plane when passengers rushed the cabin and broke in, overpowering the terrorists, who were armed with knives.
The passenger narrowly managed to land the plane with guidance from air traffic controllers. Nobody was killed during the incident, but nonetheless fear erupted around the nation as to the motives of these terrorists.
Since the 1985 CE attempt, several terrorist attacks from Saraibian-based terror cells have resulted in death. In response at the time, however, President Ganizani bolstered defense spending and created several agencies devoted to counter-terrorism. When diplomacy failed, in 1986 CE, the Onzaian-Saraibian Demilitarized Zone was created along the Kalahari Desert.
In a move that continues to be controversial and leaves the role of Onza in the world uncertain, in 2017 President Xolani Kojo launched the Kojo Doctrine and began establishing diplomatic relations with the nations of the world. This has led to the UDE joining the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations and a few other international organizations.
With a slowing economy, Onza is considering many possible ways to galvanize economic activity. The sale of oil has helped the nation considerably in this regard, and many point to heightening regional instability as being to blame, but nonetheless the nation's government continues to research the issue in hopes of making improvements.
Terrorism continues to be an issue that the nation faces, with the most recent 19 August 2017 attacks resulting in the death of President-Elect Akbar Saab and several others.
However, the nation prides itself on being a beacon to human rights and one of the only developed countries in all of Arabekh.