President of Gylias

President of Gylias
GyliasSeal.png
RavyEgiði.jpg
Incumbent
Ravy Egiði

since 1 February 2019
ResidenceNone
SeatMişeyáke, Mişeyáke
NominatorPolitical parties or self-nomination
AppointerGylian voters
Through presidential elections
Term lengthFour years
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Gylias
Formation1 June 1961
First holderEiín Dairyn
GyliasSeal.png
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Gylias


The President of Gylias (French: Président gylienne) is the federal representative of the republic of Gylias. They are a ceremonial figurehead with no executive power, acting on the advice of the Cabinet and Prime Minister. The office has evolved into an important stabilising element in Gylian politics.

Following the Liberation War, Gylias had no formal head of state. The presidency was created by the Constitution of Gylias, which came into effect in 1961, and defined with nomenclature that avoided reference to the state.

History

A strong anarchist influence was imprinted on Gylian politics by the Free Territories and their victory in the Liberation War. The Free Territories' anarchist self-organisation precluded the emergence of a role with conventional political powers. The closest equivalents were the presiding officers elected to oversee the functioning of local and federal assemblies.

The institutions of the Free Territories continued and were gradually adapted to Gylian independence. The Executive Committee led by Darnan Cyras aimed to achieve a gradual transition towards anarcho-communism. Consequently, Gylias functioned without an effective head of state between 1958 and 1961. With the Executive Committee focusing on routine governance and the Golden Revolution, the neglect of ceremonial and representative duties affected Gylias' standing within Tyran.

During the popular drafting process that produced the Constitution, the Executive Committee was opposed to the creation of customary republican posts, fearing these would stymie the anarchist momentum.

In the end, the presidency was one of the issues on which the anarchists compromised. The post of President was established, but with largely ceremonial powers and no reference to a "head of state". The role was instead defined as mainly supervisory, analogous to a Liúşai League lawspeaker or an assembly's presiding officer.

The first presidential election held shortly was won by Eiín Dairyn. The Cacertian-educated Eiín became widely respected and exercised her office in a benign and placid manner. She gave the office prestige, and a cultural role similar to the Cacertian monarchy.

Role

The Constitution defines the President as "the main counselor and arbiter of the people". In practice, the office is equivalent to a head of state, but this terminology is avoided as Article 1 of the Constitution establishes the provisional character of state institutions.

Executive

The President is tasked with overseeing the functioning of government and popular democracy. They remain in close cooperation with federal, regional, and municipal governments.

Following a federal election, the President nominates an individual as Prime Minister and invites them to form a government. They appoint the cabinet members based on the Prime Minister's advice, and after they are approved by the Gylian Parliament, has them affirm the oath of office. They are also responsible for dismissing the Prime Minister and cabinet ministers.

The President meets with the federal cabinet regularly. The cabinet is obligated to inform the President of important public matters and proposed resolutions and decisions. The President may also hold talks with federal cabinet members and other senior officials at their own discretion.

While not constitutionally required, the President also visits each of Gylias' regions every year, conferring with locals and taking part in communal assemblies.

The President convenes, adjourns, and dissolves the Parliament, and opens its regular sessions. Regional and municipal legislatures are also dissolved by the President, but are not convened by them in person. They formally call elections.

The President appoints and dismisses judges, federal civil servants, appointed Senate members, the Gylian Self-Defense Forces' Chiefs of Staff, and the members of the Court of Cassation and Constitutional Court. This is done on the advice of the cabinet and professional organisations. They can issue pardons and commutations at their own discretion.

Legislative

The President promulgates laws and signs instruments of ratification. The President may refuse to promulgate a bill into law, and must return it to Parliament with a written justification for the refusal. Conventionally, the justification is a belief that the bill is unconstitutional. If Parliament does not withdraw the bill and passes it again without modifications, the President must promulgate it into law.

The President may propose amendments to the Constitution. These must be approved by Parliament and voters in a referendum.

The President may propose that the Parliament declare a state of emergency, or order mobilisation and demobilisation in the event of war.

Ceremonial

The President serves as a symbol of the federation of Gylians, representing the independence of the people. They must resign membership of a political party before taking office, and are expected to not intervene in actual politics. Presidents have used the prestige of the office to champion philanthropic causes, and to influence political and social debates — the nonpartisan nature of the post means that an issue addressed by the President is of great importance. They thus wield significant moral authority.

The President can address a message to Gylians directly, with the agreement of the Parliament. These addresses are held in public and broadcast live through the media. Presidents Eiín Dairyn and Anina Bergmann have exercised this right most frequently.

The President convenes the Public Advisory Council, composed of experts, artists, and intellectuals drawn from across areas of expertise and the political spectrum. The President directs the PAC to answer questions posed or make statements on topics of public importance. All PAC meetings are broadcast live, and all opinions are released publicly.

The President undertakes a variety of ceremonial and representative duties. Their visits within Gylias and invitations to their residence serve to uphold the anarchist heritage of the country. As the establishment of an honours system is banned by the Constitution, the President may publicly meet with individuals to recognise their personal achievements or service to Gylias, as well as appoint them to the Senate.

The President is formally the commander-in-chief of the GSDF, and is expected to safeguard the GSDF's revolutionary character.

The President is also the patron of various charities, volunteer organisations, and the honourary head of the Revolutionary Youth Union and Scouting Confederation of Gylias.

The President is the highest representative of Gylias in international affairs. They sign international treaties approved by the government and people, appoint and recall Gylias' diplomatic representatives, and receive the diplomatic accreditation of foreign ambassadors to Gylias. They also undertake foreign visits, with the advice and approval of the cabinet, and host state visits to Gylias.

Election

The President is directly elected by voters, using instant-runoff voting. Voting requirements are the same as regular elections. The term lasts four years, and has no term limits.

A convention exists that presidential elections are held separately from other elections, to keep the presidency separate from regular politics. Both presidential and federal elections were held in 1976 and 1995, in separate months, and the presidential elections of 1972 and 1986 were held in the same year as municipal and regional elections. Since the 1990s, the practice is to schedule regular elections in even-numbered years, and presidential elections in odd-numbered years.

When the post was first established, it had a term length of seven years, the same as the Gylian Parliament. However, Eiín Dairyn called two elections before the normal end of their term, and thus no President has served the full seven-year term. The term length was reduced to five years in 1975, and then to four years in 1999, in line with Parliament.

Gylias having no official age of candidacy, the only qualifications set out in electoral law are that the President must have reached the age of majority, be resident in Gylias, and meet Elections Gylias' requirements to register as a candidate.

In the event that one candidate receives over 50% of the first preference vote, they are declared elected with no further rounds. Elections Gylias still produces a complete redistribution of votes until the final round for academic purposes.

Appointment mechanism

The President assumes the office by affirming the oath of office at the guidance of the President of the Constitutional Court:

I promise to protect and preserve the Constitution and laws, and always serve the general interest and welfare of Gylians.

Succession

In the event of a President's incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office, the office's responsibilities are devolved to a commission — composed of the speakers of the Chamber of Deputies and Senate and the presidents of the Court of Cassation and Constitutional Court — until a new president is elected.

Impeachment and removal

The President can be impeached by Parliament for violating the Constitution, abuse of office, or serious dereliction of duty. An impeachment vote must secure two-thirds support in both chambers of Parliament, after which it is referred to the Constitutional Court. If the Constitutional Court confirms the charges, the President is removed from office and the standard succession procedure applies.

List of Presidents

Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Party Election Prime Ministers
1 EiínDairyn.jpg Eiín Dairyn
(1930-)
1 June 1961 1 October 1976 Independent
NI
1961 Darnan Cyras
Aén Ďanez
1967
1972
The first President of Gylias, credited with imbuing the presidency with prestige and dignity. Known for her vigorous support of Gylian culture, arts, and science. Stepped down from the post in 1976 and called a snap election.
2 Gheorghe Apostol.jpg Seşas Ríseu
(1913-2000)
1 October 1976 1 February 1981 WLF
RR
1976 Aén Ďanez
Despite being nominated by the Revolutionary Rally, had a rocky relationship with Aén Ďanez. Promoted sports as President, officially attending the 1976 Summer Tyran Olympics.
3 LenResis.jpg Len Resis
(1926-1997)
1 February 1981 1 February 1986 PRRA
LU
1981 Aén Ďanez
Declined to run for reelection after the impasse caused by the 1985 federal election. Promoted enterprise as President, to some controversy.
4 SáeNyran.jpg Sáe Nyran
(1949-)
1 February 1986 1 February 1991 CNP
NB
1986 Aén Ďanez
Filomena Pinheiro
Mathilde Vieira
Closely involved herself in attempts to form a government after the 1985 election, and worked to repair Gylias' foreign relations. Created the Public Advisory Council. Promoted national reconciliation and volunteerism as President.
5 AninaBergmann.jpg Anina Bergmann
(1946-)
1 February 1991 1 February 2007 SP
PA
1991 Mathilde Vieira
1995
1999
2003
Promoted environmentalism and volunteerism as President. Known for her extensive domestic and foreign visits.
6 LauraVarnaþ.jpg Laura Varnaþ
(1964-)
1 February 2007 1 February 2019 DL
PA
2007 Mathilde Vieira
Kaori Kawashima
Toni Vallas
2011
2015
A descendant of the Nerveiík Kingdom's former ruling family. Promoted environmentalism and social engagement as President.
7 RavyEgiði.jpg Ravy Egiði
(1969-)
1 February 2019 Incumbent PDU
NB
2019 Toni Vallas
Lena Haidynraix
Promoted science as President.