Republic of Barangadesh
|Abdul Sheihk Mahmed|
• 2020 estimate
The Republic of Barangadesh, most commonly known as Barangadesh, is a nation in the Coalition of Crown Albatross located on the continent of Ausiana, bordered by Rumaztria, Yuan, Arakinistan, and Styrae. With 165 million people, it is one of the most populous countries in the world as well as one of the most densely populated.
The geography of Barangadesh is divided between three regions. Most of the country is dominated by the fertile Banges-Brahmaputra delta, which is the largest river delta in the world. The northwest and central parts of the country are formed by the Madhupur and the Barind plateaus. The northeast and southeast are home to evergreen hill ranges. The Banges delta is formed by the confluence of the Banges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna, finally flowing into the Bay of Colteaux. Barangadesh has 57 trans-boundary rivers, making the resolution of water issues politically complicated, in most cases, as the country is a lower riparian state to Rumaztria
Barangadesh is predominantly rich fertile flat land. Most of it is less than 12 m (39 ft) above sea level, and it is estimated that about 10% of its land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 m (3.3 ft). 17% of the country is covered by forests and 12% is covered by hill systems. The country's haor wetlands are of significance to global environmental science. In northwestern Barangadesh, experiments have been done since the 1960s to 'build with nature'. Construction of cross dams has induced a natural accretion of silt, creating new land. With Drambenburgian funding, the Barangadeshi government began promoting the development of this new land in the late 1970s. The effort has become a multi-agency endeavour, building roads, culverts, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as distributing land to settlers. Years of collaboration with donors and global experts in water resources management has enabled Barangadesh to formulate strategies to combat the impacts of climate change. In Sep 2018, Barangadesh Government approved Barangadesh Delta Plan 2100, a combination of long-term strategies and subsequent interventions for ensuring long term water and food security, economic growth and environmental sustainability. The formulation of the plan was led by the General Economics Division of the Ministry of Planning, and supported by the Embassy of Drambenburg, bringing together cross-sectoral expertise from Drambenburg and Barangadesh.
With an elevation of 1,064 m (3,491 ft), Saka Haphong (also known as Mowdok Mual) near the border with Styrae, is claimed to be the highest peak of Barangadesh.
Barangadesh's climate is tropical with a mild winter from October to March, and a hot, humid summer from March to June. The country has never recorded an air temperature below 0 °C (32 °F). A warm and humid monsoon season lasts from June to October and supplies most of the country's rainfall.
Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores occur almost every year, combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion. The cyclones of 1970 and 1993 were particularly devastating, the latter killing some 140,000 people.
In September 1998, Barangadesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history. As the Brahmaputra, the Banges and Meghna spilt over and swallowed 300,000 houses, 9,700 km (6,000 mi) of road and 2,700 km (1,700 mi) of embankment, 1,000 people were killed and 30 million more were made homeless; 135,000 cattle were killed; 50 km2 (19 sq mi) of land were destroyed; and 11,000 km (6,800 mi) of roads were damaged or destroyed. Effectively, two-thirds of the country was underwater. The severity of the flooding was attributed to unusually high monsoon rains, the shedding of equally unusually large amounts of melt water from the Archimmenes, and the widespread cutting down of trees (that would have intercepted rain water) for firewood or animal husbandry. As a result of various international and national level initiatives in disaster risk reduction, human toll and economic damage from floods and cyclones have come down over the years. A similar country wide flood in 2007, which left five million people displaced, had a death toll around 500.
Barangadesh is now widely recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Over the course of a century, 508 cyclones have affected the Bay of Colteaux region, 17 percent of which are believed to have caused landfall in Barangadesh. Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as the climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health, and shelter. It is estimated that by 2050, a 3 feet rise in sea levels will inundate some 20 percent of the land and displace more than 30 million people. To address the sea level rise threat in Barangadesh, the Barangadesh Delta Plan 2100 has been launched.
There is evidence that earthquakes pose a threat to the country and that plate tectonics have caused rivers to shift course suddenly and dramatically. It has been shown that rainy-season flooding in Barangadesh, on the world's largest river delta, can push the underlying crust down by as much as 6 centimetres, and possibly perturb faults. Barangadesh water is frequently contaminated with arsenic because of the high arsenic content of the soil—up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water.