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Mahayala

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Kingdom of Mahayala

མ་ཧ་ཡ་ལ་ཀྲོའུ (Namka)
Gurung Gyal Khap
古隆王國 (Shangean)
Gǔ Lóng Wángguó
Flag of Mahayala
Flag
Emblem of Mahayala
Emblem
Anthem: བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལུང་གི་གླུ་དབྱངས།
Tra Shi Lung Gi Lu Yang
Anthem of the Propitious Dragon

MediaPlayer.png
Mahayala (dark green) in Kylaris
Mahayala (dark green) in Kylaris
Capital
and largest city
Dharma
Official languagesNamka, Tromka, Shangean
Recognised regional languagesSha, Jia, Pala, Yangzom, Sangpo, Lhakpa, Gyal
Demonym(s)Mahayalan
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
• King
Jamyang Trengwa
• Ugyen
Rabyang Aukatsang
LegislatureNational Council
National Assembly
House of Representatives
History of Mahayala
1 March 1935
• Civil War
1963–1975
8 October 1975
20 September 1982
Area
• Total
704,547.94 km2 (272,027.48 sq mi)
• Water (%)
0.455
Population
• 2016 census
20,342,000
• Density
28.87/km2 (74.8/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$478.19 billion
• Per capita
$8,099
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$199.7 billion
• Per capita
$2,023
Gini (2015)32.5
medium
HDI (2022)0.697
medium
CurrencyMahayalan bhuti (MBH)
Time zoneUTC-1
Date formatYYYY-MM-DD
Driving sideleft
Calling code+32
Internet TLD.my

Mahayala (མ་ཧ་ཡ་ལ་; Gurung) officially Kingdom of Mahayala (མ་ཧ་ཡ་ལ་ཀྲོའུ; Gurung Gyal Khap) is a landlocked country in Coius bordering Shangea to the south, Nirala to the northwest and Ansan to the west. Situated in the Western Shaleghos, Mahayala is notable for its biodiversity, including alpine and subtropical climates. Dharma is the nation's capital and the largest city. Mahayala is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-cultural state, with Nampa, Tromka and Shangean as the official languages. [1]

Ancient Mahayala, first ruled by Lobsang Tsering from 587 to 599, saw the emergence of its culture and written language. Under Togoti and Shangean rule, the region experienced significant political shifts, with Zeyar Ko Zeyar's empire being the final dominant force before colonization. The period from 1667 to 1935 saw Mahayala under Toki and Imperial Shangean rule, marked by discrimination against ethnic Mahayalans. [2] The nation declared independence in 1933 amid the Great War and endured a civil war from 1962 to 1975. [1] Recent years have been marked by reforms aimed at modernization, with a shift towards liberalization in the 1990s.

Mahayala has a diverse geography, including flat farmland, forest-covered hills, and some of the highest mountains on the planet. The biggest city and capital is Dharma. Mahayala is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-cultural nation. Mahayala is a member of the Community of Nations, International Council for Democracy, Association for Economic Development and Cooperation, Council for Mutual Development, International Trade Organization and Sangang Mutual Security Organization. [1]

Etymology

The name Mahayala is believed to be a combination of the Lhakpa words mah "between" and yalan "mountain" or "peak". The official name of Mahayala in is Gurung in Nampa and Gǔlóng in Shangean.

History

Ancient Mahayala

Emperor (Kechok, ཁེ་ཆིའུ་ཁེ།) Lobsang Tsering is considered the first ruler of the Mahayala, ruling from 587 to 599. He ruled the Kingdom of Jagat, situated in the southern part of the nation. He reigned with the help of Shangean monarchs. The northern and eastern regions of present-day Mahayala were known as a focal point for small kingdoms. In those small kingdoms, the modern Mahayalan culture was evolving. It was during this time that the Mahayalan written language emerged, and Mahayalan art experienced a flourishing period.

Under Togoti and Shangean Rule

Depiction of Zeyar Ko Zeyar as a Chanwan Nat

The Togoti Khaganate had annexed or puppeted most of the small kingdoms by 1510, but the culture of the region remained vibrant and spread among the Togotis as well. The Khaganate fell after their invasion of Shangea in the early 1600s, and, as a southern buffer of the Khaganate, most of Mahayala was taken by the Jiao dynasty. Some small kingdoms still remained. In 1652, Zeyar Ko Zeyar ascended to power in one of these small nations. His empire, the final pan-Satrian dominion preceding Euclean colonization, wielded substantial cultural and religious influence and functioned as a dominant political force. It meddled in the internal affairs of numerous Satrian states.

Following the collapse of Jiao and the establishment of the Toki Dynasty, the region swiftly transitioned into an integral part of the empire, significantly reliant on the central government in Outomari. Toki rule lasted from 1667 to 1864. In 1864, the Toki Dynasty was overthrown and the Heavenly Shangean Empire was founded. The new dynasty occupied Mahayala (at that time referred to as the Province of Gulong) from 1864 to 1935. The Mahayalans were discriminated against by the Shangean government, who regarded them as inferior citizens.

In 1903, a meeting of Zohist monks, government officials and heads of prominent families unanimously elected Jamyang Tashi as the king. The meeting was done in hiding. In 1914, a severe famine swept across the empire, with Mahayala suffering the greatest devastation. On 19 January 1915, an Imperial Regiment stationed in Dharma murdered rioting civilians in an accident known today as Bloody Tuesday. Following this, on January 29, 1915, the Imperial Governor of Mahayala, Shao Lingxin, was assassinated by a Mahayalan socialist nationalist named Kinzang Dorji. This triggered a chain of violence instigated by Imperial Regiments influenced by the Church of Emperor Worship, a radical Shangean religious movement. This, along with the famine resulted in the loss of approximately 60,000 lives. Under Zhao Hongjun, and especially Ren Xilian, the violence persisted.

Unification and independence

Great War

Soliders of the Mahayalan Army in June 1934.

In February 1927, the Great War began with the Shangean landings in Senria. A general mobilization was put into effect in Mahayala. As the war progressed, the tide turned decisively against the Shangean forces. By June 1932, the initiation of the Sakata Offensive, followed by Senrian landings in May 1933, presented a strategic opportunity for the Mahayalan Resistance.

On May 2, 1933, the rebellion began with the seizure of imperial property in the major cities. Although the Grand Alliance gave their support to the rebels, almost no aid was sent. Shangea had a minimal response to the rebellion, as they were more focused on their primary front against Senria. The rebels managed to get most of the major cities under their control. This is how it remained for the next 2 years, excluding some small victories for the rebels in the north. On February 24, 1935, Senrians liberated Dharma. Next day, the 'Independent State of Gurung' was proclaimed by Jamyang Tashi in Dharma. The Shangean troops in Yungdrung and Geymutsang surrendered in early March, leaving Mahayala under complete control of the Senrian Army.

The Treaty of Keisi was signed in March 1935, ending the war. It recognized the independence of Mahayala. The delineation of territorial boundaries was entrusted to a Senrian commission, which notably disregarded ethnic borders in southern and northwestern Mahayala. The southern region inhabited by Shangean ethnic groups was incorporated into the newly formed country primarily due to its geographical features. The area is relatively flat and suitable for agriculture, contrasting with the rest of the nation. This inclusion was considered a potential remedy for the nation's significant food scarcity issues.

1930s - 1960s

First years of the newly formed nation were tough. Refugees from Satria started flooding the country from 1944 to 1946 during the Solarian War.

Civil War

Anti-aircraft troops of the NCF in 1967.

By 1962, racial tensions had erupted to widespread violence. The king did little to address the issue, despite holding ultimate power in the government. The breaking point came in late 1963 when rebellion erupted in the Shangean regions of the south. With Shangean support, the National Coexistence Front began a guerrilla war against the central government forces. The insurgents quickly gained control of large parts of the rural south. They periodically besieged the capital, causing severe food shortages. The main supporters of the insurgents were primarily impoverished farmers.

During the conflict, it was widely believed that there was no military solution. The government's significantly stronger forces would likely have defeated the rebels in open combat, but the guerrillas managed to avoid such confrontations and stuck to guerrilla tactics that the security forces could never effectively counter. The group's actions pushed the entire state into isolationism. The guerrilla war had initially been fought against the central government's security forces, but in 1971, the country's army became involved. The army received support from Senria, which provided them with assault rifles and trained officers.

In February of the following year, a peacekeeping operation was initiated by the CN. Both the ICD and CN human rights commissioners unsuccessfully appealed to the central government to agree to ceasefires. The civil war reached it's full conclusion in 1975 when, amidst the Coastal Crisis, the government initiated peace talks. A ceasefire was established, leading to the signing of the Tosei Peace Accords in October 1975. CN's peacekeeping operation in Mahayala concluded in January 1976.

A new, autonomous government was set up in the southeastern parts of the country. Shangean was designated as one of the official languages. Most of the new autonomous government was made up of former rebel leaders. The first years were hard. A smaller movement, called the Sha Liberation Front, split up from the National Coexistence Front and started doing minor terrorist attacks around the country. On 12 December 1991, -. This resulted in the CN designating them as a terrorist organization. Despite having slowed down in activity over the past decade, the movement remains active.

Contemporary history

Coastal Crisis

Mahayala joined the Sangang Mutual Security Organization in 1982, as the third nation to do so.

In the mid-1980s, the new king, Jamyang Chenga, initiated significant reforms. He overhauled the military, border policies, and the economy. He also transferred a substantial portion of the king's powers to the prime minister, although he retained some authority. Modernizing the economy has been a success, and it has led to a period of economic growth and development. Jamyang Chenga passed away on 28 February 2008 and was followed by his son, Jamyang Trengwa. Since the beginning of the 1990s, Mahayala's economic policy has aimed at liberalization. In particular, efforts have been made to reduce the role of the public sector in exports. State-owned enterprises have been privatized or discontinued.

Geography

Biodiversity

Clockwise from top left: A Red panda, the national animal of Mahayala; Qiks are important to the Mahayalan lifestyle; A Shalegho Monal; The famous Shalegho Sergeant in Chorag Tselo National Park

Mahayala has among the highest diversity of mammals in Coius. [3] The mammals of Mahayala include the qik, snow leopard, musk deer, Shalegho tahr, red panda, Shalegho serow, Shalegho goral, muntjac, common langur, Coian black bear, clouded leopard, marbled cat, leopard cat, dhole, Mahayalan wolf, hog badger, binturong, and Shalegho jungle cat. [4]

Climate

Tselha (left) is the highest mountain in Mahayala. Advancing monsoon clouds and showers (right) in Geymutsang.

Mahayala has five seasons: winter, summer, spring, autumn, and monsoon season. Mahayala's climate varies with elevation, from subtropical in the west to temperate in central Mahayala and polar-type climate with year-round snow in the northeast. The majority of Mahayala's populated areas enjoy a temperate climate, with summer temperatures rarely surpassing 28°C. The typical yearly temperature hovers around 18°C.

The varied topography results in microclimates, where conditions can differ significantly over short distances. The northern and southern regions are heavily influenced by monsoons, which bring significant rainfall from June to September, impacting transportation and triggering landslides. Tourism activities such as trekking and mountaineering are restricted to periods before or after the monsoon season. The eastern side of Mahayala, referred to as the Mahayalan Highlands, experiences a dry, cold, and windswept climate with sparse and stunted vegetation. Winters are cold, with most precipitation occurring as snow during late winter and spring. The Shaleghos in Mahayala alter Satria's climate by blocking cold winds and redirecting monsoon patterns.

Climate change

Climate change has already had profound effects. Rising temperatures have led to accelerated glacial melt, threatening water resources upon which millions depend for drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower. The retreat of glaciers has increased the risk of glacial lake outburst floods, posing significant hazards to communities downstream. Changes in precipitation patterns have altered the timing and intensity of monsoon rains, affecting agricultural productivity and exacerbating water scarcity issues.

Mahayala has experienced an increase in extreme weather events, including floods, landslides, and droughts, further disrupting livelihoods and infrastructure. Shifts in ecosystems and habitats have threatened the unique biodiversity of the area. Changes in vegetation cover have implications for carbon storage and local microclimates, influencing regional climate feedback loops. The loss of permafrost has destabilized slopes and increased the risk of landslides.

Traditional livelihoods, such as pastoralism and subsistence farming, face increasing challenges due to changing environmental conditions. A 2021 investigation conducted by the University of Morwall revealed that immediate adaptation and mitigation measures are imperative to tackle the intricate and interlinked challenges presented by climate change in Mahayala and the broader Shaleghos. [5]

Government and politics

Politics

Government

MahayalaKing.png Lotay Tshering - 2023 (cropped).jpg
Jamyang Trengwa
4th Rgyal po
Rabyang Aukatsang
11th Ugyen

Administrative divisions

Foreign relations

Military

Special Forces of the The Royal Armed Forces in the Independence Day Parade of 2012

Economy

Agriculture

Tourism

Infrastructure

Energy

Transportation

Communication

Demographics

Ethnic groups

Largest cities

Religion

Languages

Health

Education

Historically, education in Mahayala was limited to monastic school education, home-schooling or gurukulas. However, the country underwent a significant transformation in the 1980s when it began to modernize its education system. The rugged terrain has presented challenges to the provision of comprehensive educational services. According to the IFDS, Mahayala is meeting 94.9% of its expected fulfillment for the right to education, based on its income level. [6] Most Mahayalan students being educated abroad received technical training in Senria, Shangea, Gaullica, Estmere and Werania. Estmerish-speaking countries attracted the majority of Mahayalan students. The vast majority returned to their homeland. [1]

Culture

Architecture

Art

Public holidays

Literature and the performing arts

A traditional dance at a festival celebrating Tshewang

Media

Government-operated television broadcasting commenced in 1959 and experienced gradual expansion over a span of 30 years. The television companies have been government-controlled since the beginning, although this has changed in recent years.

The Mahayalan media is subject to limitations and censorship, with Mahayala having some of the most strongest lèse-majesté laws in Coius. [7] Criticizing the monarch or any royal family member could result in imprisonment ranging from one to three years. While there were efforts to repeal these laws in the 1980s, they remain in effect to this day.

Cuisine

The diverse topography and climate conditions have led to the cultivation and availability of a wide variety of ingredients. Additionally, the region's cultural diversity, with various ethnic groups and their distinct traditions, has shaped the cuisine over centuries.

Meat and dried vegetable soups and stews, seasoned with chilies and cheese, are common. Rice is a staple in many Mahayalan dishes, particularly in the lower-lying southern part of the country. Different types of millet, barley, and wheat are also commonly used. The cuisine also prominently features meat, with lamb, qik and goat being popular choices. In some regions, meat is preserved through methods like drying or smoking to ensure its availability in harsh climates. Dairy products such as milk, yogurt, and cheese, including the famous qik cheese, are widely used in various recipes. Different types of lentils and legumes are used to prepare soups, stews, and side dishes.

Notable dishes include dema (dumplings), tso zang (lentil soup with rice), lhendup (fermented leafy greens), sanggyai (roasted barley flour), pem lhaden (chili and cheese stew), garab (bread stuffed with meat and cabbage) and chuki nidup (kidney beans with rice).

Dress

The traditional dress of Mahayala is known as dakpa for men and kha for women. The Dakpa is a knee-length robe tied at the waist with a fabric belt, and the Kha is an ankle-length dress accompanied by a blouse and a jacket. Common attire also includes the "subba," a long, loose robe with a wide sash, and distinctive boots. Colors and accessories often signify social and religious status. Common elements include colorful fabrics and intricate embroidery. Modern clothing, influenced by global fashion, is also prevalent, especially in urban areas.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Country Profile: Mahayala". www.cn.org/en/profiles/mahayala. Community of Nations. Retrieved 22 February 2024.
  2. "Shangean atrocities against Mahayalans, 1920s-1930s". www.darkhistory.com/coius/81f8aa. darkhistory.com. Retrieved 22 February 2024.
  3. Henry Schrander, (2009) Mammals of the World: A Comprehensive Guidebook. Vol. 2. Stubff
  4. Sherab, Tenzin (1983). The Fauna of Mahayala. Lhundrup Publishing. pp. 291–302.
  5. "Climate Change in the Shaleghos". www.morwall.ac.es/web/guest/climate-change-in-the-shaleghos. University of Morwall. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  6. "Exploring Educational Evolution: Comprehensive IFDS Study on Mahayala's Educational Landscape from 1960 to the 2020s". www.ifds.org/en/pub/the_evolution_of_education_in_Mahayala. International Forum for Developing States. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  7. "Regime defends lese majeste arrest after public outcry". www.dharmapost.com/national/2021/1/29/FyEW811. The Dharma Post. Retrieved 25 February 2024.