Louzen language

Louzen language
Louzenish, Nordulevan
Lúzinŝina
LouzeniFlag.png
Flag of the Duchy of Louzeni
Pronunciation/luːzinɕʧina/ Speaker Icon.svg
Native to
RegionSlavic Belt in Thuadia
EthnicityLouzeni Slavs
Native speakers
L1: 5,812,000
L2: 2,317,000
FL: 520,000
Standard forms
Louzen language great wordbook
Dialects
  • Qash mixed dialects
  • Louzeni[1]
  • Mountainous Haldenian
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1LI
ISO 639-2LOI
ISO 639-3LOI
LouzenLangMap.png
Distribution of the language
     Absolute majority
     >30% of native speakers
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Louzeni language is a Slavic language out of Kento-Polyash language group, which is a official language of the autonomous Duchy of Louzeni in Gadorien and is a recognized minority language in Zhousheng, Gadorien and Qazhshava

Introduction

The language has a slavic root and grammar, but has developed along with strong germanic influences, which shaped the grammar of the language. Unlike most of other slavic languages, Louzen maintained use of Dual as a grammatical number.

Alphabet

Although until the 18th century, Louzeni used Protopolyash script, the strong influence of Gadori germanic tribes using latin pushed it towards Latin script, which eventually became the most used script and eventually gained a linguistic monopoly in the middle of 19th century.

Until the rebirth movement in the end of 19th century, Louzen used only Graphemes to denote multiple sounds, which did not have a standard 26-alphabet letter given to them, but later, a system of diacritic marks was devised, creating a version, where any important phoneme is denoted by a single letter. Louzen, although not officially using it, sometimes used lenghtened marks for vowels and syllabic consonants. Those symbols were used in some historical transcripts, but were eventually faded in eary 1900's.

A a
/a/
Á á
/aː/
Ä ä
/ɛ ~ ɛː/
 â
/ʲa ~ ja/
B b
/b/
C c
/ʦ/
Ċ ċ
/ʨ ~ ʧ/
D d
/ɖ ~ d/
Ḋ ḋ
/ɟ/
E e
/e/
É é
/eː/
Ê ê
/ʲe ~ je/
F f
/f/
G g
/g/
H h
/ɦ ~ h/
Ḣ ḣ
/x/
I i
/i/
Í í
/iː/
J j
/j/
K k
/k/
L l
/l/
Ŀ ŀ
/lʲ/
M m
/m/
N n
/n/
Ṅ ṅ
/ɲ/
O o
/o ~ ɔ/
Ó ó
/oː ~ ɔː/
Ö ö
/œ ~ œː/
P p
/p/
Q q
/q ~ kv/
R r
/ʀ/
S s
/s/
Ṡ ṡ
/ɕ ~ ʃ/
Ŝ ŝ
/ɕʧ/
T t
/ʈ ~ t/
Ṫ ṫ
/c/
U u
/u/
Ú ú
/uː/
Ü ü
/ɨ ~ y/
Û û
/ʲu ~ ju/
V v
/v/
Ƿ ƿ
/w ~ ʋ/
X x
/ks/
Y y
/ɪ/
Ý ý
/ɪː/
Z z
/z/
Ż ż
/ʑ ~ ʒ/

Detailed table

Official diacritic version Digraph version Fraktur version Govoric version IPA Symbol Example of a common word with the sound
1 A a A a 𝔄 𝔞 A a About this sound/a/ After
2 Á á Aa aa 𝔄𝔞 𝔞𝔞 А́ а́ About this sound/aː/
3 Ä ä Æ æ 𝔄̈ 𝔞̈ About this sound/ɛ/ Bed (General American accent)
Ä ä Ǽ ǽ Ꞛ́ ꞛ́ Ꙗ́ ꙗ́ About this sound/ɛː/
4 Â â Ja ja 𝔄❜ 𝔞❜ Я я /ʲa/~/j͡a/ Not in common. Example: "Яблоко/Âbloko" in Tiskai language
5 B b B b 𝔅 𝔟 Б б About this sound/b/ Label
6 C c C c 𝔠 Ц ц About this sound/ʦ/ Its
7 Ċ ċ Cz cz ℭ𝔷 𝔠𝔷 Ч ч About this sound/ʧ/ Check
8 D d D d 𝔇 𝔡 Д д About this sound/ɖ/ Done
9 D' d' 𝔇❜ 𝔡❜ Ԃ ԃ About this sound/ɟ/ Voiced palatal plosive (not in common)
10 E e E e 𝔈 𝔢 Е е About this sound/e/ Bed (Australian accent)
11 É é Ee ee 𝔈𝔢 𝔢𝔢 Е́ е́ About this sound/eː/
12 Ê ê Je je 𝔈❜ 𝔢❜ Є є /ʲe/~/j͡e/ Belarus
13 F f F f 𝔉 𝔣 Ф ф About this sound/f/ Fine
14 G g G g 𝔊 𝔤 Ґ ґ About this sound/g/ Game
15 H h H h 𝔥 Г г About this sound/ɦ/
About this sound/h/
Hello
16 Ch ch 𝔊𝔥 𝔤𝔥 Х х About this sound/x/ Loch Ness
17 I i I i 𝔦 І і About this sound/i/ Free
18 Í í Ie ie ℑ𝔢 𝔦𝔢 Í í About this sound/iː/
19 J j J j 𝔍 𝔧 Ј ј Й й About this sound/j/ You
20 K k K k 𝔎 𝔨 К к About this sound/k/ Key
21 L l L l 𝔏 𝔩 Л л About this sound/l/ Later
22 Ŀ ŀ L' l' 𝔏❜ 𝔩❜ Љ љ About this sound/lʲ/ Million
23 M m M m 𝔐 𝔪 М м About this sound/m/ Mother
24 N n N n 𝔑 𝔫 Н н About this sound/n/ Month
25 N' n' 𝔑❜ 𝔫❜ Њ њ About this sound/ɲ/ New
26 O o O o 𝔒 𝔬 О о About this sound/o/
About this sound/ɔ/
Yawn / Not
27 Ó ó Oo oo 𝔒𝔬 𝔬𝔬 О́ о́ About this sound/oː/
About this sound/ɔː/
28 Ö ö Œ œ 𝔒̈ 𝔬̈ Ҩ ҩ About this sound/œ/ Bird
Ö ö Ő ő Œ́ œ́ Ꞝ́ ꞝ́ Ҩ́ ҩ́ About this sound/œː/
29 P p P p 𝔓 𝔭 П п About this sound/p/ Play
30 Q q Q q 𝔔 𝔮 Қ қ About this sound/q/ ~ /k͡v/ Caught
31 R r R r 𝔯 Р р About this sound/ʀ/ Red
32 S s S s 𝔖 𝔰 С с About this sound/s/ Surprise
33 Sz sz 𝔖𝔷 𝔰𝔷 Ш ш About this sound/ɕ/ Show
34 Ŝ ŝ Sx sx 𝔖𝔵 𝔰𝔵 Щ щ /ɕ͡ʧ/ Not in common. Example: "Щенок/Ŝenok" in Tiskai language
35 T t T t 𝔗 𝔱 Т т About this sound/ʈ/ Time
36 T' t' 𝔗❜ 𝔱❜ Ћ ћ About this sound/c/ Voiceless palatal plosive (not in common)
37 U u U u 𝔘 𝔲 У у About this sound/u/ Boot
38 Ú ú Uu uu 𝔘𝔲 𝔲𝔲 У́ у́ About this sound/uː/
39 Ü ü UEcapital.png 𝔘̈ 𝔲̈ Ы ы About this sound/ɨ/ Lip (London accent)
Ü ü Ű ű UEcapital.pnǵ ᵫ́ Ꞟ́ ꞟ́ Ы́ ы́ About this sound/ɨː/
40 Û û Ju ju 𝔘❜ 𝔲❜ Ю ю /ʲu/~/j͡u/ Not in common. Example: "Любить/Lûbitʹ" in Tiskai language
41 V v V v 𝔙 𝔳 В в About this sound/v/ Valve
42 Ƿ ƿ W w Ƿ ƿ W w 𝔚 𝔴 Ў ў About this sound/w/
About this sound/ʋ/
Weep
43 X x X x 𝔛 𝔵 Ѯ ѯ /k͡s/ A bigram of /k/ and /s/, for example in Maximal
44 Y y Y y 𝔜 𝔶 И и About this sound/ɪ/ Bit (General American)
45 Ý ý Ye ye 𝔜𝔢 𝔶𝔢 И́ и́ About this sound/ɪː/
46 Z z Z z 𝔷 З з About this sound/z/ Zoo
47 Ż ż Z' z' ℨ❜ 𝔷❜ Ж ж About this sound/ʑ/ Vision

Phonology

Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Bilabial Labiodental Linguolabial Dental Alveolar Postal-veolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k g q
Sibilant affricate ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ ʈʂ ɖʐ ʨ ʥ
Non-sibilant affricate
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative f v ʝ x ɣ χ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ j w
Tap/Flap
Trill r ʀ̥ ʀ
Latelar affricate
Latelar fricative
Latelar approximant l
Latelar tap/flap
Tongue position Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y ɨ u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ œ ɔ
Near-open ɐ
Open a ɑ ɒ
Diphthong a͡u
Long vowels ~ ɛː ~ ~ ~ ɪː ~ ~ ɔː ~ œː ~ ~ ɨː

Bold are the common sounds, while regular sounds may happen in dialects and/or in a world for easier pronunciation

Softening

Sounds for letters D, L, N, T preceding letters Â, Ê, I, Í, Û are softened/palatalized.

Softening Regular
Written Read Wrong Written Read
di /ɟi/ ḋi dy /ɖɪ/
li /lʲi/ ŀi ly /lɪ/
ni /ɲi/ ṅi ny /nɪ/
ti /ci/ ṫi ty /ʈɪ/

Important note is, that in case of softening with Â, Ê, Û, the /j/ sound is not pronounced:

Softening Regular
Written Read Wrong Written Read
/ɟa/ ḋa dja /ɖja/
/lʲa/ ŀa lja /lja/
/ɲa/ ṅa nja /nja/
/ca/ ṫa tja /ʈja/

Nouns

Grammatical gender

Zhoushi languages distinguishes a total of 3 grammatical genders, one being latter subdivided into animate and inanimate forms,[2] although that doesn't change the rules on the usage, only works for listing the inflection patterns:

  • Masculine (symbol ♂, letter M)
  • Feminine (symbol ♀, letter F)
  • Neuter (symbol ⚲, letter N)

Grammatical cases

Louzen langauge works with 3 grammatical numbers (singular, dual and plural) and 5 separate grammatical cases:

  • Nominative (Imêník): Subject or a Predicate noun or adjectiv (Shorcut Nom., № 1)
  • Genitive (Pridrżník): Possessive or partial direct object, without Subject (Shorcut Gen., № 2)
  • Dative (Geŝník): Giving to Subject, phrases linked to certain verbs (Shorcut Dat., № 3)
  • Accusative (Jednateŀník): Interract with Subject (see, hear, harass...) (Shorcut Acc., № 4)
  • Ablative (Drużník): Part of Subject, compared to Subject, the way (Shorcut Abl., № 5)

There are 12 Inflection patterns (5 for Masculine, 4 for Feminine and 3 for Neuter)

Grammatical inflection

Translation to Common Code Singular Dual Plural
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl.
Masculine
Brother B Brat Brata Bratu Brata Bratom Brata Brat Bratám Brata Bratḣi Brati Bratú Bratúm Braty Bratmi
-a -u -a -om -a -ám -a -ḣi -i -úm -y -mi
House D Döm Dömy Dömu Döm Dömom Dömy Dömu Dömoma Dömê Dömyma Dömové Dömú Dömúm Dömy Dömami
-y -u -om -y -u -oma -yma -ové -úm -y -ami
Man M Muž Muže Muži Muže Mužum Muža Muž Mužoma Mužém Mužmi Muži Mužú Mužúm Muže Mužma
-e -i -e -um -a -oma -ém -mi -i -úm -e -ma
Country K Kraj Kraja Kraji Kraja Krajom Kraja Kraju Krajoma Krajê Krajoma Kraje Krajú Krajom Kraje Krajmi
-a -i -a -om -a -u -oma -oma -e -om -e -mi
Stone A Kámen Kámene Kámeni Kámen Kámenem Kámena Kámenu Kámenama Kámena Kámeni Kámeny Kámenêv Kámenúm Kámeny Kámeny
-e -i -em -a -u -ama -a -i -y -êv -úm -y -y
Feminine
Woman Z Żena Żeny Żenê Żenu Żenû Żenê Żenu Żenama Żenê Żenimê Żeny Żen Żenám Żeny Żenami
-a -y -u -u -ama -imê -y -ám -y -ami
Hope N Nadêlâ[3] Nadêlê Nadêli Nadêlû Nadêŀü Nadêlê Nadêlû Nadêlâ Nadêlê Nadêlimê Nadêlê Nadêlê Nadêlâm Nadêlê Nadêŀjáḣ
-i -u -a -imê -am -jáḣ
Bone K Kosṫ Kosti Kosti Kosṫ Kosṫó Kosti Kostû Kosṫma Kosti Kosṫma Kosti Kostí Kostím Kosti Kostêmi
-i -i -i -ma -i -ma -i -ím -i -êmi
Mother (archaic) T Máti Máti Máti Máti Máṫ Mátê Mátû Máṫma Máti Máṫma Mátije Mátijí Mátijím Mátê Máṫmi
-i -i -i -i -ma -i -ma -ije -ijí -ijím -mi
Neutrum
Word S Slovo Slova Slovu Slovo Slovme Slovji Slovû Slovêma Slovji Slovêma Slova Slov Slovám Slova Slovy
-o -a -u -o -me -ji -êma -ji -êma -a -ám -a -y
Sea R Morê Morê Mori Morê Mori Mora Mor Morím Mora Mormi Morê Morí Morím Morê Morami
-i -i -a -ím -a -mi -ím -ami
Name I Imê Imênê Imû Imê Imi Imê Imú Imom Imê Imem Imê Imí Imêm Imêje Imêma
-ênê -i -om -em -êm -êje -êma
  1. Often referred as "Literary form", as Louzeni accent is the one Louzeni language grammar rules are based on.
  2. See Wikipedia articles about Grammatical gender and Animacy
  3. Term Nadêlâ has a root "Nadêŀ", not "Nadêl", which makes the inflection more difficult as ŀa must be written as lâ etc...